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1.
Implement Sci ; 14(1): 76, 2019 08 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31382994

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Translating research into practice is an important issue for implementing health interventions effectively for Indigenous communities. He Pikinga Waiora (HPW) is a recent implementation framework that provides a strong foundation for designing and implementing health interventions in Indigenous communities for non-communicable diseases around community engagement, culture-centred approach, systems thinking and integrated knowledge translation. This study addresses the following research question: How are the elements of the HPW Implementation Framework reflected in studies involving the implementation of a non-communicable disease health intervention in an Indigenous community? METHODS: A systematic review was conducted using multiple databases. Studies were included if they involved the implementation or evaluation of a health intervention targeting non-communicable diseases for Indigenous communities in Australia, Canada, New Zealand or the United States of America. Published quantitative and qualitative literature from 2008 to 2018 were included. Methodological appraisal of the included articles was completed using the Joanna Briggs Institute System for the Unified Management, Assessment and Review of Information. Data on the population, topic, methods, and outcomes were detailed for each individual study. Key data extracted included the HPW elements along with study characteristics, who delivered the intervention and health outcomes. Data analysis involved a qualitative synthesis of findings as guided by a coding scheme of the HPW elements. RESULTS: Twenty-one studies were included. Health topics included diabetes, nutrition, weight loss, cancer and general health. The key themes were as follows: (a) two thirds of studies demonstrated high levels of community engagement; (b) from the culture-centred approach, two-thirds of studies reflected moderate to high levels of community voice/agency although only a third of the studies included structural changes and researcher reflexivity; (c) about a quarter of studies included multi-level outcomes and activities consistent with systems thinking, 40% had individual-level outcomes with some systems thinking, and 33% included individual-level outcomes and limited systems thinking; and (d) almost 40% of studies included high levels of end user (e.g., policy makers and tribal leaders) engagement reflective of integrated knowledge translation, but nearly half had limited end-user engagement. CONCLUSIONS: The HPW Implementation Framework is a comprehensive model for potentially understanding implementation effectiveness in Indigenous communities. The review suggests that the studies are reflective of high levels of community engagement and culture-centredness. The long-term sustainability and translation of evidence to practice may be inhibited because of lower levels of systems thinking and integrated knowledge translation. REGISTRATION: Not registered.


Assuntos
Doença Crônica/terapia , Assistência à Saúde/organização & administração , Serviços de Saúde do Indígena/organização & administração , Doença Crônica/etnologia , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Humanos
2.
West Afr J Med ; 36(2): 103-111, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês, Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31385594

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Out of pocket payment for health services in the midst of financial hardship is a major contributor to poor access to healthcare in Nigeria with the resultant poor health indices. Towards the goal of Universal Health Coverage, Community Based Health Insurance (CBHI) was introduced in addition to the National Health Insurance Scheme but with minimal impact and utilization. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to assess health insurance-related knowledge and attitudes and to examine the uptake of CBHI. METHODS: This was a descriptive cross-sectional study. A multi-stage sampling method was used to select 419 respondents from the Ajeromi-Ifelodun community. A semi-structured interviewer-administered questionnaire was used to collect data for the study. Data analysis was done using Microsoft Excel and Epi-Info 7.1. RESULTS: Most of the respondents (80.2%) had not heard of Community-Based Health Insurance and only about 9% of respondents had good knowledge about it. However, most (62.5%) of the respondents had a positive attitude towards health insurance generally. Only 4.5% of the respondents were enrolled in the CBHI scheme and had paid their premium up to date. There was a significant association between the respondents' knowledge and their uptake of the scheme (<0.001), and also between their attitudes and uptake (p = 0.002). CONCLUSION: This study suggests that for CBHI to be successful, certain strategies must be implemented towards increasing awareness and knowledge about CBHI. This will in turn increase the uptake of the scheme, a necessary requirement for achieving the goal of Universal Health Coverage.


Assuntos
Assistência à Saúde/organização & administração , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/economia , Seguro Saúde , Programas Nacionais de Saúde , Participação da Comunidade , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Nigéria
3.
Braz Oral Res ; 33: e018, 2019 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31432923

RESUMO

The aim of the present study was to evaluate the association between access to oral health care in the Primary Health Care (PHC) and Oral Health-Related Quality of Life (OHRQoL). The present study was a cross-sectional study, and the sample was composed of 412 users living in the areas covered by the public PHC services who visited a health unit for an oral exam or treatment in the last 24 months. Participants in the study responded to a home-based interview with questions that addressed socioeconomic status, behavioral, general health, dental prostheses, access to dental services in the PHC and their OHRQoL as measured by the Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP-14) instrument. After the interview, a dental examination was performed to count the number of teeth. Chi-square tests, Student's t tests and multivariate analyses were performed using a hierarchical model and a Poisson regression with robust variance to evaluate the association between independent variables and OHRQoL. Access to oral health services in the PHC was statistically associated with OHRQoL, and the estimated prevalence rate was PR = 1.17 (CI 95% 1.00-1.37). In this study, the definition of access was based on the availability of dental consultations on demand. The study identified that lack of access to oral health services offered by the PHC was associated with a higher prevalence of impact on the quality of life of individuals.


Assuntos
Serviços de Saúde Bucal/estatística & dados numéricos , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Saúde Bucal/estatística & dados numéricos , Atenção Primária à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Qualidade de Vida , Adulto , Idoso , Brasil/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Distribuição por Sexo , Perfil de Impacto da Doença , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Inquéritos e Questionários
4.
Lancet ; 394(10196): 432-442, 2019 Aug 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31379334

RESUMO

New Zealand was one of the first countries to establish a universal, tax-funded national health service. Unique features include innovative Maori services, the no-fault accident compensation scheme, and the Pharmaceutical Management Agency, which negotiates with pharmaceutical companies to get the best value for medicines purchased by public money. The so-called universal orientation of the health system, along with a strong commitment to social service provision, have contributed to New Zealand's favourable health statistics. However, despite a long-standing commitment to reducing health inequities, problems with access to care persist and the system is not delivering the promise of equitable health outcomes for all population groups. Primary health services and hospital-based services have developed largely independently, and major restructuring during the 1990s did not produce the expected efficiency gains. A focus on individual-level secondary services and performance targets has been prioritised over tackling issues such as suicide, obesity, and poverty-related diseases through community-based health promotion, preventive activities, and primary care. Future changes need to focus on strengthening the culture and capacity of the system to improve equity of outcomes, including expanding Maori health service provision, integrating existing services and structures with new ones, aligning resources with need to achieve pro-equity outcomes, and strengthening population-based approaches to tackling contemporary drivers of health status.


Assuntos
Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Cobertura Universal do Seguro de Saúde/economia , Financiamento Governamental , Programas Governamentais , Humanos , Programas Nacionais de Saúde , Nova Zelândia , Cobertura Universal do Seguro de Saúde/organização & administração
6.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(33): e16818, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31415398

RESUMO

There is an increasing demand for medical provision systems that are friendly for working mothers with sick children in Japan. The aim of this cross-sectional, observational study was to analyze the demographic characteristics of pediatric patients presenting to a convenient care clinic, which was located in a large railway station and offered primary care with after-hours accessibility in a metropolitan area of Tokyo.We analyzed anonymous data for patients who had visited the pediatric department at a clinic between August 2013 and June 2016. Data regarding patients' sex, age, time of visit, waiting time, presence or absence of an appointment, diagnosis, and addresses were collected from electronic health and billing records.Overall, 8091 patients visited the department 45,388 times. The numbers of visits by patients who resided within 2, 5, and 10 miles of the clinic were 37,160 (84.6%), 42,336 (96.4%), and 43,399 (98.8%), respectively. No seasonal variation in the number of visits was observed. Male patients visited the clinic 23,742 times (52.3%) and the patients' median age was 3 years (interquartile range, 1-6). Most visits occurred on Mondays, and 5643 (15.2%) and 4790 (12.9%) patients visited the clinic when consultations began at 10 AM and 3 PM, respectively. Approximately 20% of weekday visits occurred after 6 PM, when other pediatricians' offices were typically closed. Children older than 7 years of age visited the clinic more frequently after 6 PM. The overall median waiting time was 650 seconds (interquartile range, 429-1020). The 3 most common diagnoses were upper respiratory tract infection (27,173), asthmatic bronchitis (23,744), and allergic rhinitis (10,556). The number of individuals who were referred to other medical institutions was 284 (0.6%).The majority of patients were children aged 1 to 4 years living near the clinic and 80% of visits were during the daytime. However, children older than 7 years of age visited the clinic more frequently after 6 PM. The convenience of the clinic contributed to the fulfillment of the medical needs of children with mild illnesses whose mothers were in full-time employment.


Assuntos
Plantão Médico/estatística & dados numéricos , Instituições de Assistência Ambulatorial/estatística & dados numéricos , Assistência Ambulatorial/estatística & dados numéricos , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Atenção Primária à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Plantão Médico/métodos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Demografia , Feminino , Geografia , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Atenção Primária à Saúde/métodos , Fatores de Tempo , Tóquio
7.
J Glob Health ; 9(1): 010423, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31263546

RESUMO

Background: Tuberculosis (TB) is a major global health burden, which has been inadequately addressed. This study aims to analyze different patterns and gaps of care along the care cascade across countries and to develop a model to examine the relationship between performance of tuberculosis programmes in high and low burden countries along the tuberculosis care cascade and tuberculosis disease burden. Methods: We used the World Health Organization's Global TB Database for the year 2016 to construct tuberculosis care cascade consisting of four steps: incidence, diagnosed, treatment started and treatment completed. Based on the constructed care cascades, we analyzed the relationship between health system performance indicators and tuberculosis cascades performance: diagnosed rate, treatment started rate, and treatment completed rate. Results: There are wide differences in access to diagnosis and treatment between high-burden countries and non-high-burden countries. The largest gap was found between incidence and diagnosed rate, with 65% of diagnosed rate for high burden countries and 80% of diagnosed rate for non-high burden countries. We found variations in care performance among high-burden countries. We found a negative relationship between the population health indicators related to the mortality rate and TB care cascade performance. There was a positive relationship between immunization coverage rate and antenatal care indicators and TB care cascade performance. Conclusions: Well-functioning tuberculosis care cascades and effective health systems are important for the successful management of tuberculosis. While improving screening performance is essential for tuberculosis control especially for high-burden countries, resource should be allocated to improve health system performance, which is weak in high-burden countries. Performance of TB programmes across care cascade could be used as a useful tracer to measure performance of health systems.


Assuntos
Assistência à Saúde/organização & administração , Saúde Global/estatística & dados numéricos , Tuberculose/prevenção & controle , Bases de Dados como Assunto , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Incidência , Modelos Organizacionais , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Tuberculose/epidemiologia , Organização Mundial da Saúde
8.
J Glob Health ; 9(1): 010801, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31263547

RESUMO

Background: In 2013, the World Health Organization (WHO) launched the Rapid Access Expansion (RAcE) programme in the Democratic Republic of Congo, Malawi, Mozambique, Niger, and Nigeria to increase coverage of diagnostic, treatment, and referral services for malaria, pneumonia, and diarrhea among children ages 2-59 months. In 2017, a final evaluation of the six RAcE sites was conducted to determine whether the programme goal was reached. A key evaluation objective was to estimate the reduction in childhood mortality and the number of under-five lives saved over the project period in the RAcE project areas. Methods: The Lives Saved Tool (LiST) was used to estimate reductions in all-cause child mortality due to changes in coverage of treatment for the integrated community case management (iCCM) illnesses - malaria, pneumonia, and diarrhea - while accounting for other changes in maternal and child health interventions in each RAcE project area. Data from RAcE baseline and endline household surveys, Demographic and Health Surveys, and routine health service data were used in each LiST model. The models yielded estimated change in under-five mortality rates, and estimated number of lives saved per year by malaria, pneumonia and diarrhea treatment. We adjusted the results to estimate the number of lives saved by community health worker (CHW)-provided treatment. Results: The LiST model accounts for coverage changes in iCCM intervention coverage and other health trends in each project area to estimate mortality reduction and child lives saved. Under five mortality declined in all six RAcE sites, with an average decline of 10 percent. An estimated 6200 under-five lives were saved by malaria, pneumonia, and diarrhea treatment in the DRC, Malawi, Niger, and Nigeria, of which approximately 4940 (75 percent) were saved by treatment provided by CHWs. This total excludes Mozambique, where there were no estimated under-five lives saved likely due to widespread stockouts of key medications. In all other project areas, lives saved by CHW-provided treatment contributed substantially to the estimated decline in under-five mortality. Conclusions: Our results suggest that iCCM is a strategy that can save lives and measurably decrease child mortality in settings where access to health facility services is low and adequate resources for iCCM implementation are provided for CHW services.


Assuntos
Administração de Caso/organização & administração , Mortalidade da Criança/tendências , Serviços de Saúde Comunitária/organização & administração , Prestação Integrada de Cuidados de Saúde , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/organização & administração , Mortalidade Infantil/tendências , Pré-Escolar , República Democrática do Congo/epidemiologia , Diarreia/mortalidade , Diarreia/terapia , Humanos , Lactente , Malária/mortalidade , Malária/terapia , Malaui/epidemiologia , Moçambique/epidemiologia , Níger/epidemiologia , Nigéria/epidemiologia , Pneumonia/mortalidade , Pneumonia/terapia , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Organização Mundial da Saúde
9.
J Glob Health ; 9(1): 010805, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31263550

RESUMO

Background: Ensuring the quality of health service data is critical for data-driven decision-making. Data quality assessments (DQAs) are used to determine if data are of sufficient quality to support their intended use. However, guidance on how to conduct DQAs specifically for community-based interventions, such as integrated community case management (iCCM) programs, is limited. As part of the World Health Organization's (WHO) Rapid Access Expansion (RAcE) Programme, ICF conducted DQAs in a unique effort to characterize the quality of community health worker-generated data and to use DQA findings to strengthen reporting systems and decision-making. Methods: We present our experience implementing assessments using standardized DQA tools in the six RAcE project sites in the Democratic Republic of Congo, Malawi, Mozambique, Niger, and Nigeria. We describe the process used to create the RAcE DQA tools, adapt the tools to country contexts, and develop the iCCM DQA Toolkit, which enables countries to carry out regular and rapid DQAs. We provide examples of how we used results to generate recommendations. Results: The DQA tools were customized for each RAcE project to assess the iCCM data reporting system, trace iCCM indicators through this system, and to ensure that DQAs were efficient and generated useful recommendations. This experience led to creation of an iCCM DQA Toolkit comprised of simplified versions of RAcE DQA tools and a guidance document. It includes system assessment questions that elicit actionable responses and a simplified data tracing tool focused on one treatment indicator for each iCCM focus illness: diarrhea, malaria, and pneumonia. The toolkit is intended for use at the national or sub-national level for periodic data quality checks. Conclusions: The iCCM DQA Toolkit was designed to be easily tailored to different data reporting system structures because iCCM data reporting tools and data flow vary substantially. The toolkit enables countries to identify points in the reporting system where data quality is compromised and areas of the reporting system that require strengthening, so that countries can make informed adjustments that improve data quality, strengthen reporting systems, and inform decision-making.


Assuntos
Administração de Caso/organização & administração , Serviços de Saúde Comunitária/organização & administração , Confiabilidade dos Dados , Prestação Integrada de Cuidados de Saúde , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/organização & administração , Pré-Escolar , República Democrática do Congo/epidemiologia , Diarreia/mortalidade , Diarreia/terapia , Humanos , Lactente , Malária/mortalidade , Malária/terapia , Malaui/epidemiologia , Moçambique/epidemiologia , Níger/epidemiologia , Nigéria/epidemiologia , Pneumonia/mortalidade , Pneumonia/terapia
10.
J Glob Health ; 9(1): 010809, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31275569

RESUMO

Background: Mozambique has one of the highest under-5 mortality rates in the world. Community health workers (CHWs) are deployed to increase access to care; in Mozambique they are known as agentes polivalentes elementares (APEs). This study aimed to investigate child deaths in an area served by APEs by analysing the causes, care seeking patterns, and the influence of social capital. Methods: Caregivers of children under-5 who died in 2015 in Inhambane province, Mozambique, were interviewed using Verbal Autopsy/Social Autopsy (VA/SA) tools with a social capital module. VA data were analysed using the WHO InterVA analytical tool to determine cause of death. SA was analysed using the INDEPTH SA framework for illnesses lasting no more than three weeks. Social capital scores were calculated. Results: 117 child deaths were reported; VA/SA was conducted for 115. Eighty-five had died from an acute illness lasting no more than three weeks, which in most cases could have been treated at community level; 50.6% died from malaria, 11.8% from HIV/AIDS, and 9.4% for each of diarrhoea and acute respiratory infections. In 35.3% the caregiver only noticed that the child was sick when symptoms of very severe illness developed. One in four children were never taken outside the home before dying. Sixteen children were first taken to an APE; of these 7 had signs of very severe illness. Caregivers who waited to seek care until the illness was very severe had a lower social capital score. The mean travel time to go to the APE was 2hrs 50min, which was not different from any other provider. Most received treatment from the APE, 3 were referred. The majority went to another provider after the APE; most to a health centre. Conclusions: The leading causes of death in children under-5 can be detected, treated or referred by APEs. Major care seeking delays took place in the home, largely due to lack of early disease recognition and late decision-making. Low social capital, distance to APEs and to referral facilities likely contribute to these delays. Increasing caregiver illness awareness is urgently needed, as well as stronger referral linkages. A review of the geographical coverage and scope of work of APEs should be conducted.


Assuntos
Causas de Morte/tendências , Mortalidade da Criança/tendências , Serviços de Saúde Comunitária/organização & administração , Agentes Comunitários de Saúde , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Mortalidade Infantil/tendências , Pré-Escolar , Pesquisa sobre Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Lactente , Moçambique/epidemiologia , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Capital Social , Tempo para o Tratamento/estatística & dados numéricos
13.
Rev Assoc Med Bras (1992) ; 65(6): 796-800, 2019 Jul 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31340307

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To estimate the human resources and services needed to meet the demand of the Brazilian population who would benefit from palliative care, based on the population growth projection for 2040. METHODS: Population and mortality estimates and projections were obtained from the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics. Service needs were estimated based on literature data. RESULTS: The expected increase in the Brazilian population for 2000-2040 is 31.5%. The minimum estimate of patients with palliative care needs was 662,065 in 2000 and 1,166,279 in 2040. The staff required for each hundred thousand inhabitants would increase from 1,734 to 2,282, the number of doctors needed would increase from 4,470 to 6,274, and the number of nurses from 8,586 to 11,294, for the same period. CONCLUSION: The definition of a national strategy predicting the increasing palliative care needs of the population is necessary. The expansion of the support network for chronic and non-transmissible diseases is necessary, but the training of existing human resources at all levels of attention to perform palliative actions can be a feasible alternative to minimize the suffering of the population.


Assuntos
Necessidades e Demandas de Serviços de Saúde/tendências , Mão de Obra em Saúde/tendências , Cuidados Paliativos/tendências , Brasil , Feminino , Previsões , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/tendências , Necessidades e Demandas de Serviços de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Mão de Obra em Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Cuidados Paliativos/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores de Tempo
14.
Stud Health Technol Inform ; 262: 392-395, 2019 Jul 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31349250

RESUMO

Individuals within the Arab world rarely access mental health services. One of the major reasons for this relates to the stigma associated with mental disorders. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), untreated and undiagnosed individuals living with moderate to severe mental health disorders are more likely to die 10-20 years earlier than the estimated life expectancy of the general population. Mental disorders also cause a large amount of costs to economies. Access to mental health services is out of reach for many individuals within in the Arab world due to insufficient planning, inadequate community resources, and military conflicts. Online mental health information and services are growing within the region; however, they are embedded and often sidelined within a wealth of other general health information. The purpose of this paper is to present the conceptual framework of the Mental Health Assistant (MeHA) digital platform being developed for the Arab world. The aim of this platform is to provide mental health information and educational resources through the use of a conversational agent, multi-media information, and to digitally connect patients with mental health service providers. The conceptual framework for the platform is based on mental health and information technology expert feedback, review of both academic and gray literature on mental health, and an examination of leading mental health digital platforms. As a result of this process, we developed a conceptual framework that will guide the development of the MeHA platform.


Assuntos
Internet , Transtornos Mentais , Serviços de Saúde Mental , Estigma Social , Mundo Árabe , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Saúde Mental
15.
Lancet ; 394(10195): 345-356, 2019 07 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31303318

RESUMO

In 1988, the Brazilian Constitution defined health as a universal right and a state responsibility. Progress towards universal health coverage in Brazil has been achieved through a unified health system (Sistema Único de Saúde [SUS]), created in 1990. With successes and setbacks in the implementation of health programmes and the organisation of its health system, Brazil has achieved nearly universal access to health-care services for the population. The trajectory of the development and expansion of the SUS offers valuable lessons on how to scale universal health coverage in a highly unequal country with relatively low resources allocated to health-care services by the government compared with that in middle-income and high-income countries. Analysis of the past 30 years since the inception of the SUS shows that innovations extend beyond the development of new models of care and highlights the importance of establishing political, legal, organisational, and management-related structures, with clearly defined roles for both the federal and local governments in the governance, planning, financing, and provision of health-care services. The expansion of the SUS has allowed Brazil to rapidly address the changing health needs of the population, with dramatic upscaling of health service coverage in just three decades. However, despite its successes, analysis of future scenarios suggests the urgent need to address lingering geographical inequalities, insufficient funding, and suboptimal private sector-public sector collaboration. Fiscal policies implemented in 2016 ushered in austerity measures that, alongside the new environmental, educational, and health policies of the Brazilian government, could reverse the hard-earned achievements of the SUS and threaten its sustainability and ability to fulfil its constitutional mandate of providing health care for all.


Assuntos
Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/organização & administração , Programas Nacionais de Saúde/organização & administração , Cobertura Universal do Seguro de Saúde/legislação & jurisprudência , Brasil , Programas Governamentais/legislação & jurisprudência , Programas Governamentais/organização & administração , Política de Saúde , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/legislação & jurisprudência , Humanos , Programas Nacionais de Saúde/legislação & jurisprudência , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Cobertura Universal do Seguro de Saúde/economia
19.
J Glob Health ; 9(1): 010803, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31263548

RESUMO

Background: Access to prompt and appropriate treatment is key to survival for children with malaria, pneumonia and diarrhoea. Community-based services are vital to extending care to remote populations. Malaria Consortium supported Niger state Ministry of Health, Nigeria, to introduce and implement an integrated community case management (iCCM) programme for four years in six local government areas (LGAs). The objective was to increase coverage of effective treatment for malaria, pneumonia and diarrhoea among children aged 2-59 months. Methods: The programme involved training, equipping, ongoing support and supervision of 1320 community volunteers (CORPs) to provide iCCM services to their communities in all six LGAs. Demand creation activities were also conducted; these included community dialogues, household mobilization, sensitization and mass media campaigns targeted at programme communities. To assess the level of changes in care seeking and treatment, baseline and endline household surveys were conducted in 2014 and 2017 respectively. For both surveys, a 30×30 multi-stage cluster sampling method was used, the sampling frame being RAcE programme communities. Results: Care-seeking from an appropriate provider increased overall and for each iCCM illness from 78% to 94% for children presenting with fever (P < 0.01), from 72% to 91% for diarrhoea cases (P < 0.01), and from 76% to 89% for cases of cough with difficult or fast breathing (P < 0.05). For diagnosis and treatment, the coverage of fevers tested for malaria increased from 34% to 77% (P < 0.001) and ACT treatments from 57% to 73% (<0.005); 56% of cases of cough or fast breathing who sought care from a CORP, had their respiratory rate counted and 61% with cough or fast breathing received amoxicillin. At endline caregivers sought care from CORPs in their communities for most cases of childhood illnesses (84%) compared to other providers at hospitals (1%) or health centres (9%).This aligns with caregivers' belief that CORPs are trusted providers (94%) who provide quality services (96%). Conclusion: Implementation of iCCM with focused demand creation activities can improve access to quality lifesaving interventions from frontline community providers in Nigeria. This can contribute towards achieving SDGs if iCCM is scaled up to hard-to-reach areas of all states in the country.


Assuntos
Administração de Caso/organização & administração , Serviços de Saúde Comunitária/organização & administração , Prestação Integrada de Cuidados de Saúde , Diarreia/terapia , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Malária/terapia , Pneumonia/terapia , Pré-Escolar , Diarreia/mortalidade , Humanos , Lactente , Malária/mortalidade , Nigéria/epidemiologia , Pneumonia/mortalidade , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde
20.
J Glob Health ; 9(1): 010804, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31263549

RESUMO

Background: Despite strong evidence of integrated community case management (iCCM) of childhood illnesses being a proven intervention for reducing childhood morbidity and mortality, sustainability remains a challenge in most settings. Community ownership and contribution are important factors in sustainability. The purpose of this study was to document the process and scale achieved for community engagement and mobilisation to foster ownership, service uptake and sustainability of iCCM activities. Methods: A review of data collected by the RAcE project was conducted to describe the scale and achievement of leveraging community resources to support the community-oriented resource persons (CORPs). The Rapid Access Expansion (RAcE)-supported iCCM programme in Niger state (2014-2017), aimed at improving coverage of case management services for malaria, pneumonia, and diarrhoea, among children aged 2-59 months. Resources donated were documented and costed based on the market value of goods and services at the time of donation. These monetary valuations were validated at community dialogue meetings. Descriptive statistics were used to summarise quantitative variables. The mean of the number of CORPs in active service and the percentages of the mobilised resources received by CORPs were calculated. Results: The community engagement activities included 143 engagement and advocacy visits, and meetings, 300 community dialogues, reactivation of 60 ward development committees, and 3000 radio messages in support of iCCM. 79.5% of 1659 trained CORPs were still in active iCCM service at the end of the project. We estimated the costs of all support provided by the community to CORPs in cash and kind as US$ 123 062. Types of support included cash; building materials; farming support; fuel for motorcycles, and transport fares. Conclusions: The achievements of community engagement, mobilisation, and the resources leveraged, demonstrated acceptability of the project to the beneficiaries and their willingness to contribute to uninterrupted service provision by CORPs.


Assuntos
Administração de Caso/organização & administração , Serviços de Saúde Comunitária/organização & administração , Prestação Integrada de Cuidados de Saúde/organização & administração , Alocação de Recursos para a Atenção à Saúde , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/organização & administração , Pré-Escolar , Diarreia/mortalidade , Diarreia/terapia , Humanos , Lactente , Malária/mortalidade , Malária/terapia , Nigéria/epidemiologia , Pneumonia/mortalidade , Pneumonia/terapia , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde
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