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1.
Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther ; 53(11): 980-6, 2015 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26396135

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Acetyl-L-carnitine (ALC) has demonstrated neuroprotective effects in several experiments and is widely prescribed to reduce cognitive impairment in Alzheimer's disease patients or manage neuropathic symptoms in diabetic patients. OBJECTIVES: This study was designed to assess the pharmacokinetic (PK) bioequivalence between a new generic (test) formulation of ALC hydrochloride 590 mg and a branded (reference) formulation of ALC hydrochloride 590 mg in healthy Korean male volunteers. METHODS: This was a randomizedsequence, single-dose, two-way crossover study. All subjects randomly received one formulation of the test or reference tablet and the other formulation with a 7-day washout period. Blood samples (7 mL) were collected immediately before dosing, and at 0.5, 1, 1.5, 2, 2.5, 3, 3.5, 4, 6, 8, and 12 hours postdose. The plasma concentrations of ALC were analyzed using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Tolerability was assessed throughout the study. RESULTS: The PK profiles of both formulations showed similar rends. The mean (±SD) baseline (predose) concentration of ALC was 1.23±0.31 µg/mL and 1.09±0.30 µg/mL for the test and the reference formulations, respectively. The mean Cmax for the test and reference formulations were 1.74±0.43 µg/mL and 1.68±0.48 µg/mL, respectively. The mean AUClast of ALC was 12.96±1.89 µg×h/mL and 12.49±2.44 µg×h/mL for the test and reference formulations, respectively. The geometric mean ratios of test/reference (90% CI) were 1.050 (0.960-1.149) for Cmax and 1.048 (1.000-1.099) for AUClast. Both formulations were well tolerated in all treatment groups. CONCLUSION: The test and the reference formulations of ALC were bioequivalent with regard to the PK parameters.


Assuntos
Acetilcarnitina/farmacocinética , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático , Medicamentos Genéricos/farmacocinética , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/farmacocinética , Acetilcarnitina/administração & dosagem , Acetilcarnitina/efeitos adversos , Acetilcarnitina/sangue , Acetilcarnitina/química , Administração Oral , Adulto , Área Sob a Curva , Química Farmacêutica , Cromatografia Líquida , Estudos Cross-Over , Medicamentos Genéricos/administração & dosagem , Medicamentos Genéricos/efeitos adversos , Medicamentos Genéricos/química , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Masculino , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/administração & dosagem , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/efeitos adversos , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/sangue , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/química , República da Coreia , Comprimidos , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Equivalência Terapêutica , Adulto Jovem
2.
Eur J Nutr ; 53(6): 1313-25, 2014 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24337254

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Pharmacokinetics and effects on skeletal muscle and physical performance of oral acetylcarnitine and propionylcarnitine are not well characterized. We therefore investigated the influence of oral acetylcarnitine, propionylcarnitine, and carnitine on body carnitine homeostasis, energy metabolism, and physical performance in mice and compared the findings to non-supplemented control animals. METHODS: Mice were supplemented orally with 2 mmol/kg/day carnitine, acetylcarnitine, or propionylcarnitine for 4 weeks and studied either at rest or after exhaustive exercise. RESULTS: In the supplemented groups, total plasma and urine carnitine concentrations were significantly higher than in the control group receiving no carnitine, whereas the skeletal muscle carnitine content remained unchanged. The supplemented acylcarnitines were hydrolyzed in intestine and liver and reached the systemic circulation as carnitine. Bioavailability of carnitine and acylcarnitines, determined as the urinary excretion of total carnitine, was in the range of 19 %. Skeletal muscle morphology, including fiber-type composition, was not affected, and oxygen consumption by soleus or gastrocnemius fibers was not different between the groups. Supplementation with carnitine or acylcarnitines had no significant impact on the running capacity, but was associated with lower plasma lactate levels and a higher glycogen content in white skeletal muscle after exhaustive exercise. CONCLUSIONS: Oral supplementation of carnitine, acetylcarnitine, or propionylcarnitine in mice is associated with increased plasma and urine total carnitine concentrations, but does not affect the skeletal muscle carnitine content. Despite better preservation of skeletal muscle glycogen and lower plasma lactate levels, physical performance was not improved by carnitine or acylcarnitine supplementation.


Assuntos
Acetilcarnitina/administração & dosagem , Carnitina/análogos & derivados , Suplementos Nutricionais , Músculo Esquelético/efeitos dos fármacos , Condicionamento Físico Animal , Acetilcarnitina/sangue , Acetilcarnitina/farmacocinética , Acetilcarnitina/urina , Administração Oral , Animais , Disponibilidade Biológica , Biomarcadores/sangue , Biomarcadores/urina , Carnitina/administração & dosagem , Carnitina/sangue , Carnitina/farmacocinética , Carnitina/urina , Metabolismo Energético , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Consumo de Oxigênio
3.
Neurotoxicol Teratol ; 39: 69-76, 2013.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23896048

RESUMO

Ketamine, a non-competitive antagonist of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) type glutamate receptors is commonly used as a pediatric anesthetic. Multiple studies have shown ketamine to be neurotoxic, particularly when administered during the brain growth spurt. Previously, we have shown that ketamine is detrimental to motor neuron development in the zebrafish embryos. Here, using both wild type (WT) and transgenic (hb9:GFP) zebrafish embryos, we demonstrate that ketamine is neurotoxic to both motor and sensory neurons. Drug absorption studies showed that in the WT embryos, ketamine accumulation was approximately 0.4% of the original dose added to the exposure medium. The transgenic embryos express green fluorescent protein (GFP) localized in the motor neurons making them ideal for evaluating motor neuron development and toxicities in vivo. The hb9:GFP zebrafish embryos (28 h post fertilization) treated with 2 mM ketamine for 20 h demonstrated significant reductions in spinal motor neuron numbers, while co-treatment with acetyl L-carnitine proved to be neuroprotective. In whole mount immunohistochemical studies using WT embryos, a similar effect was observed for the primary sensory neurons. In the ketamine-treated WT embryos, the number of primary sensory Rohon-Beard (RB) neurons was significantly reduced compared to that in controls. However, acetyl L-carnitine co-treatment prevented ketamine-induced adverse effects on the RB neurons. These results suggest that acetyl L-carnitine protects both motor and sensory neurons from ketamine-induced neurotoxicity.


Assuntos
Acetilcarnitina/farmacologia , Ketamina/antagonistas & inibidores , Ketamina/toxicidade , Neurônios Motores/efeitos dos fármacos , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/farmacologia , Células Receptoras Sensoriais/efeitos dos fármacos , Peixe-Zebra/embriologia , Acetilcarnitina/farmacocinética , Anestésicos Dissociativos/antagonistas & inibidores , Anestésicos Dissociativos/toxicidade , Animais , Animais Geneticamente Modificados , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Embrião não Mamífero , Neurogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/farmacocinética
4.
Braz. j. pharm. sci ; 49(1): 185-191, Jan.-Mar. 2013. graf, tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-671414

RESUMO

The urine excretion of L-carnitine (LC), acetyl-L-carnitine (ALC) and propionyl-Lcarnitine (PLC) and their relations with the antioxidant activities are presently unknown. Liquid L-carnitine (2.0 g) was administered orally as a single dose in 12 healthy subjects. Urine concentrations of LC, ALC and PLC were detected by HPLC. Superoxide dismutase (SOD), total antioxidative capacity (T-AOC), malondialdehyde (MDA) and nitrogen monoxidum (NO) activities were measured by spectrophotometric methods. The 0~2 h, 2~4 h, 4~8 h, 8~12 h, 12~24 h excretion of LC was 53.13±31.36 µmol, 166.93±76.87 µmol, 219.92±76.30 µmol, 100.48±23.89 µmol, 72.07±25.77 µmol, respectively. The excretion of ALC was 29.70±14.43 µmol, 80.59±32.70 µmol, 109.85±49.21 µmol, 58.65±18.55 µmol, and 80.43±35.44 µmol, respectively. The urine concentration of PLC was 6.63±4.50 µmol, 15.33±12.59 µmol, 15.46±6.26 µmol, 13.41±11.66 µmol and 9.67±7.92 µmol, respectively. The accumulated excretion rate of LC was 6.1% within 24h after its administration. There was also an increase in urine concentrations of SOD and T-AOC, and a decrease in NO and MDA. A positive correlation was found between urine concentrations of LC and SOD (r = 0.8277) or T-AOC (r = 0.9547), and a negative correlation was found between urine LC excretions and NO (r = -0.8575) or MDA (r = 0.7085). In conclusion, a single oral LC administration let to a gradual increase in urine L-carnitine excretion which was associated with an increase in urine antioxidant enzymes and the total antioxidant capacities. These data may be useful in designing therapeutic regimens of LC or its analogues in the future.


A excreção urinária de L-carnitina (LC), acetil-L-carnitina (ALC) e propionil-L-carnitine (PLC) e as suas relações com as atividades antioxidantes são presentemente desconhecidos. Líquido de L-carnitina (2,0 g) foi administrada por via oral como uma dose única em 12 indivíduos saudáveis. As concentrações urinárias de LC, PLC e ALC foram detectados por HPLC. Atividades superóxido dismutase (SOD), a capacidade antioxidante total (T-AOC), malondialdeído (MDA) e óxido nítrico (NO) foram medidas por métodos espectrofotométricos. O 0~2 h, 2~4 h, 4~8 h, 8~12 h, 12~24 h excreção de LC foi 53,13±31.36 µmol, 166,93±76.87 µmol, 219,92±76.30 µmol, 100,48±23.89 µmol, 72,07±25.77 µmol, respectivamente. A excreηão de ALC foi 29,70±14.43 µmol, 80,59±32.70 µmol, 109,85±49.21 µmol, 58,65±18.55 µmol, e 80,43±35.44 µmol, respectivamente. A concentraηão de urina de PLC foi 6,63±4.50 µmol, 15,33±12.59 µmol, 15,46±6.26 µmol, 13,41±11.66 µmol e 9,67±7.92 µmol, respectivamente. A taxa de excreηão acumulada de LC foi de 6,1% 24 horas após sua administração. Houve também um aumento nas concentrações de urina de SOD e T-COA e diminuição de NO e de MDA. Correlação positiva foi encontrada entre as concentrações de urina de LC e SOD (r = 0,8277) ou T-AOC (r = 0,9547) e correlação negativa entre a excreção de LC e NO (r = -0,8575) ou MDA (r = 0,7085). Em conclusão, a administração oral única de LC leva ao aumento gradual na excreção urinária de L-carnitina, que foi associada com o aumento das enzimas antioxidantes na urina e as capacidades antioxidantes totais. Estes dados podem ser úteis no futuro para o planejamento de esquemas terapêuticos de LC ou os seus análogos, no futuro.


Assuntos
Humanos , Acetilcarnitina/farmacocinética , Carnitina/farmacocinética , Antioxidantes/farmacocinética , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos
5.
Hear Res ; 298: 93-103, 2013 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23296212

RESUMO

In animals, hearing loss resulting from cochlear mechanosensory cell damage can be mitigated by antioxidants such as d-methionine (d-met) and acetyl-l-carnitine (ALCAR). The systemic routes of administration of these compounds, that must of necessity transit trough the cochlear fluids, may affect the antioxidant levels in the cochlea and the resulting oto-protective effect. In this study, we analyzed the pharmacokinetics of [(14)C]d-met in the cochlea and four other tissues after intratracheal (IT), intranasal (IN), and oral by gavage (OG) administration and compared it to intravenous administration (IV). We then analyzed the effect of these four routes on the antioxidant content of the cochlear fluids after d-met or ALCAR administration, by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry. Our results showed that the concentration of methionine and ALCAR in cochlear fluids significantly increased after their respective systemic administration. Interestingly, d-met administration also contributed to an increase of ALCAR. Our results also showed that the delivery routes differently affected the bioavailability of administered [(14)C]d-met as well as the concentrations of methionine, ALCAR and the ratio of oxidized to reduced glutathione. Overall, pulmonary delivery via IT administration achieved high concentrations of methionine, ALCAR, and oxidative-related metabolites in cochlear fluids, in some cases surpassing IV administration, while IN route appeared to be the least efficacious. To our knowledge, this is the first report of the direct measurements of antioxidant levels in cochlear fluids after their systemic administration. This report also demonstrates the validity of the pulmonary administration of antioxidants and highlights the different contributions of d-met and ALCAR allowing to further investigate their impact on oxidative stress in the cochlear microenvironment.


Assuntos
Acetilcarnitina/administração & dosagem , Acetilcarnitina/farmacocinética , Antioxidantes/administração & dosagem , Antioxidantes/farmacocinética , Glutationa/metabolismo , Líquidos Labirínticos/metabolismo , Metionina/administração & dosagem , Metionina/farmacocinética , Administração por Inalação , Administração Intranasal , Administração Oral , Animais , Disponibilidade Biológica , Biotransformação , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Endolinfa/metabolismo , Injeções Intravenosas , Masculino , Espectrometria de Massas , Oxirredução , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Perilinfa/metabolismo , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
6.
J. physiol. biochem ; 68(1): 77-90, mar. 2012.
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-122380

RESUMO

No disponible


The current study was undertaken to investigate the protective role of melatonin (MEL) and acetyl-L-carnitine (ALC) against dexamethasone (DM)-induced neurotoxicity. Adult female rats (60) were divided into: (1) control group, (2) DM-treated group, (3) MEL-treated group, (4) ALC-treated group, (5) MEL- and DM-treated, and (6) ALC- and DM-treated group. Serum acetylcholinesterase (AchE) activity, malondialdehyde (MDA), nitric oxide (NO) level, catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) activities were estimated. Gene expression of the prooxidants (NO synthases NOS-1, NOS-2 and heme oxygenases HO-1, HO-2) and antioxidant enzyme (GST-P1) as well as deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) fragmentation (..)(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Ratos , Dexametasona/farmacocinética , Melatonina/farmacocinética , Acetilcarnitina/farmacocinética , Elementos de Resposta Antioxidante , Estresse Oxidativo , Síndromes Neurotóxicas/tratamento farmacológico , Substâncias Protetoras/farmacocinética , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Cérebro
7.
J. physiol. biochem ; 67(4): 519-530, dic. 2011.
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-122389

RESUMO

No disponible


Acetyl-L-carnitine (ALCAR) has been shown to prevent experimental selenite cataractogenesis, a manifestation of oxidative stress, but little is known about its potential in other settings of oxidative stress. The present study was based on the hypothesis that ALCAR prevents carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced oxidative stress in vital tissues. Male albino Wistar rats were divided into three groups, each of six rats. Group I (control) rats received only vehicle (1 ml/kg b.w.) for 4 days; Group II (CCl4-exposed, untreated) rats received CCl4 (2 ml/kg b.w.) on the second and third days and vehicle on the first and fourth days; Group III (CCl4-exposed, ALCAR-treated) rats received ALCAR (200 mg/kg b.w.) for 4 days and CCl4 on the second and third days. All administrations were made intraperitoneally. After the experimental period, significantly (P < 0.05) elevated mean serum levels of aspartate transaminase, alanine transaminase, alkaline phosphatase, and lactate dehydrogenase were observed in Group II rats when compared to Group I and Group III rats. The mean levels of vitamin C, vitamin E, and reduced glutathione and the mean activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase were significantly (P < 0.05) lower in samples of hemolysate and of liver, kidney, and brain tissues of Group II rats than those in Group I and Group III rats. The mean level of lipid peroxidation was significantly (P < 0.05) higher in Group II rats than that in Group I and Group III rats. Moreover, the CCl4-induced upregulation of inducible nitric oxide synthase expression was prevented by ALCAR in the liver and brain tissues. These results suggest that ALCAR is able to prevent the CCl4-induced oxidative stress (AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Ratos , Estresse Oxidativo , Acetilcarnitina/farmacocinética , Substâncias Protetoras/farmacocinética , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Tetracloreto de Carbono/farmacocinética , Estudos de Casos e Controles
8.
Adv Ther ; 27(8): 547-54, 2010 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20661677

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Acetyl-L-carnitine (Nicetile fiale; Biofutura Pharma S.p.A., Sigma Tau group, Milano, Italy) is a compound widely used for the treatment of many diseases, such as neuropathies, diabetic polyneuropathy, and Parkinson's disease. It is frequently administered via the intramuscular route with other drugs, such as steroidal anti.inflammatories, muscle relaxants, and vitamins. METHODS: In the present study the behavior of acetyl-L-carnitine injections (Nicetile fiale) with different drugs used for combined therapy was studied. Physicochemical properties including color, clarity, pH, and drug content were observed before and after mixing at room temperature. RESULTS: The content of all the active drugs after mixing remained optimal within 10% of their nominal values. CONCLUSIONS: The measurements demonstrate the physicochemical compatibility between Nicetile fiale and the other tested products, meaning that there is no evidence of interactions and degradation.


Assuntos
Acetilcarnitina , Combinação de Medicamentos , Composição de Medicamentos , Acetilcarnitina/química , Acetilcarnitina/farmacocinética , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/química , Barreira Hematoencefálica/efeitos dos fármacos , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/normas , Composição de Medicamentos/normas , Incompatibilidade de Medicamentos , Estabilidade de Medicamentos , Glucocorticoides/química , Humanos , Técnicas In Vitro , Fármacos Neuromusculares/química , Nootrópicos/química , Nootrópicos/farmacocinética , Vitaminas/química
9.
Adv Drug Deliv Rev ; 61(14): 1332-1342, 2009 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19720100

RESUMO

Endogenous acetylcarnitine is an indicator of acetyl-CoA synthesized by multiple metabolic pathways involving carbohydrates, amino acids, fatty acids, sterols, and ketone bodies, and utilized mainly by the tricarboxylic acid cycle. Acetylcarnitine supplementation has beneficial effects in elderly animals and humans, including restoration of mitochondrial content and function. These effects appear to be dose-dependent and occur even after short-term therapy. In order to set the stage for understanding the mechanism of action of acetylcarnitine, we review the metabolism and role of this compound. We suggest that acetylation of mitochondrial proteins leads to a specific increase in mitochondrial gene expression and mitochondrial protein synthesis. In the aged rat heart, this effect is translated to increased cytochrome b content, restoration of complex III activity, and oxidative phosphorylation, resulting in amelioration of the age-related mitochondrial defect.


Assuntos
Acetilcarnitina/administração & dosagem , Acetilcarnitina/metabolismo , Mitocôndrias/efeitos dos fármacos , Acetilcarnitina/farmacocinética , Idoso , Animais , Antioxidantes/administração & dosagem , Antioxidantes/farmacocinética , Suplementos Nutricionais , Humanos , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Modelos Biológicos , Rejuvenescimento
10.
Clin Invest Med ; 32(1): E13-9, 2009 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19178874

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To investigate the pharmacokinetics of L-carnitine (LC) and its analogues, acetyl-L-carnitine (ALC) and propionyl-L-carnitine (PLC) in healthy volunteers after single L-carnitine administration. METHODS: Liquid L-carnitine (2.0 g) was administered orally as a single dose in 12 healthy subjects. Plasma and urine concentrations of L-carnitine, ALC and PLC were detected by HPLC. RESULTS: The maximum plasma concentration (Cmax) and area under the curve (AUC 0-infinity) of L-carnitine was 84.7+/-25.2 micromol x L(-1) x h and 2676.4+/-708.3 micromol x L(-1) x h, respectively. The elimination half-life of L-carnitine and the time required to reach the Cmax (Tmax) was 60.3+/-15.0 and 3.4+/-0.46 h, respectively. The Cmax of ALC (12.9+/-5.5 micromol x L(-1)) and PLC (5.08+/-3.08 micromol x L(-1)) was lower than L-carnitine (P < 0.01), so as the AUC 0-infinity (166.2+/-77.4 and 155.6+/-264.2 micromol x L(-1) x h, respectively, P < 0.01). The half-life of ALC (35.9+/-28.9h) and PLC (25.7+/-30.3 h) was also shorter than L-carnitine (P < 0.01). The 24h accumulated urinary excretion of L-carnitine, ALC and PLC were 613.5+/-161.7, 368.3+/-134.8 and 61.3+/-37.8 micromol, respectively. CONCLUSION: L-carnitine has a greater maximum plasma concentration than ALC and PLC. L-carnitine also has a longer half-life than ALC and PLC. These data may have important implications in the designing of dosing regimens for L-carnitine or its analogues, such as ALC or PLC.


Assuntos
Acetilcarnitina/farmacocinética , Carnitina/análogos & derivados , Carnitina/farmacocinética , Acetilcarnitina/sangue , Administração Oral , Adulto , Área Sob a Curva , Carnitina/administração & dosagem , Carnitina/sangue , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Feminino , Meia-Vida , Humanos , Masculino , Valores de Referência
11.
Reproduction ; 134(5): 651-8, 2007 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17965255

RESUMO

Carnitine and acetylcarnitine are important for the acquisition of motility and maturation of spermatozoa in the epididymis. In this study, we examined the involvement of carnitine/organic cation transporter (OCTN) in carnitine and acetylcarnitine transport in epididymal spermatozoa of mice. Uptake of both compounds by epididymal spermatozoa was time-dependent and partially Na(+)-dependent. Kinetic analyses revealed the presence of a high-affinity transport system in the spermatozoa, with K(m) values of 23.6 and 6.57 muM for carnitine and acetylcarnitine respectively in the presence of Na(+). Expression of OCTN2 and OCTN3 in epididymal spermatozoa was confirmed by immunofluorescence analysis. The involvement of these two transporters in carnitine and acetylcarnitine transport was supported by a selective inhibition study. We conclude that both Na(+)-dependent and -independent carnitine transporters, OCTN2 and OCTN3, mediate the supply of carnitine and acetylcarnitine to epididymal spermatozoa in mice.


Assuntos
Acetilcarnitina/farmacocinética , Carnitina/farmacocinética , Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Proteínas de Transporte de Cátions Orgânicos/metabolismo , Espermatozoides/metabolismo , Animais , Betaína/análogos & derivados , Betaína/farmacologia , Transporte Biológico Ativo , Carnitina/farmacologia , Epididimo , Imunofluorescência , Masculino , Proteínas de Membrana/análise , Proteínas de Membrana/antagonistas & inibidores , Camundongos , Proteínas de Transporte de Cátions Orgânicos/análise , Proteínas de Transporte de Cátions Orgânicos/antagonistas & inibidores , Pirilamina/farmacologia , Membro 5 da Família 22 de Carreadores de Soluto , Maturação do Esperma/fisiologia , Motilidade Espermática/fisiologia
12.
Ann N Y Acad Sci ; 1033: 30-41, 2004 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15591001

RESUMO

In mammals, the carnitine pool consists of nonesterified L-carnitine and many acylcarnitine esters. Of these esters, acetyl-L-carnitine is quantitatively and functionally the most significant. Carnitine homeostasis is maintained by absorption from diet, a modest rate of synthesis, and efficient renal reabsorption. Dietary L-carnitine is absorbed by active and passive transfer across enterocyte membranes. Bioavailability of dietary L-carnitine is 54-87% and is dependent on the amount of L-carnitine in the meal. Absorption of L-carnitine dietary supplements (0.5-6 g) is primarily passive; bioavailability is 14-18% of dose. Unabsorbed L-carnitine is mostly degraded by microorganisms in the large intestine. Circulating L-carnitine is distributed to two kinetically defined compartments: one large and slow-turnover (presumably muscle), and another relatively small and rapid-turnover (presumably liver, kidney, and other tissues). At normal dietary L-carnitine intake, whole-body turnover time in humans is 38-119 h. In vitro experiments suggest that acetyl-L-carnitine is partially hydrolyzed in enterocytes during absorption. In vivo, circulating acetyl-L-carnitine concentration was increased 43% after oral acetyl-L-carnitine supplements of 2 g/day, indicating that acetyl-L-carnitine is absorbed at least partially without hydrolysis. After single-dose intravenous administration (0.5 g), acetyl-L-carnitine is rapidly, but not completely hydrolyzed, and acetyl-L-carnitine and L-carnitine concentrations return to baseline within 12 h. At normal circulating l-carnitine concentrations, renal l-carnitine reabsorption is highly efficient (90-99% of filtered load; clearance, 1-3 mL/min), but displays saturation kinetics. Thus, as circulating L-carnitine concentration increases (as after high-dose intravenous or oral administration of L-carnitine), efficiency of reabsorption decreases and clearance increases, resulting in rapid decline of circulating L-carnitine concentration to baseline. Elimination kinetics for acetyl-L-carnitine are similar to those for L-carnitine. There is evidence for renal tubular secretion of both L-carnitine and acetyl-L-carnitine. Future research should address the correlation of supplement dosage, changes and maintenance of tissue L-carnitine and acetyl-L-carnitine concentrations, and metabolic and functional changes and outcomes.


Assuntos
Acetilcarnitina/metabolismo , Carnitina/metabolismo , Acetilcarnitina/administração & dosagem , Acetilcarnitina/farmacocinética , Disponibilidade Biológica , Carnitina/administração & dosagem , Carnitina/farmacocinética , Dieta , Suplementos Nutricionais , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Humanos , Cinética , Taxa de Depuração Metabólica , Fatores de Tempo , Distribuição Tecidual
13.
Arch Pharm Res ; 27(6): 676-81, 2004 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15283472

RESUMO

Acetyl-L-carnitine (ALC), a naturally occurring endogenous compound, has been shown to improve the cognitive performance of patients with senile dementia Alzheimer's type, and to be involved in cholinergic neurotransmission. Because ALC is an endogenous compound, validation of the analytical methods of ALC in the biological fluids is very important and difficult. This study was presented validation and correction for plasma ALC concentrations and pharmacokinetics after oral administration of ALC to human volunteers. ALC concentrations in human plasma were corrected by subtracting the concentration of blank plasma from each sample. Precision and accuracy (bias %) for uncorrected ALC concentrations were below 2.6 and 6.5% for intra-days, and 4.0 and 9.4% for inter-days, respectively. Precision and accuracy (bias %) for corrected ALC concentrations were below 10.9 and 6.0% for intra-days, and 10.5 and 16.9% for inter-days, respectively. Quantitation limit was 0.1 microg/mL. After oral administration of a 500 mg ALC tablet to 8 healthy volunteers, the principle pharmacokinetic parameters were 4.2 h of the half-life (t(1/2,beta)), the area under the curve (AUC(0-8)) of 9.88 microg.h/mL, and 3.1 h of the time (Tmax) to reach Cmax. This study first describes the pharmacokinetic study after oral administration of a single dose of ALC in human volunteers.


Assuntos
Acetilcarnitina/farmacocinética , Acetilcarnitina/administração & dosagem , Acetilcarnitina/sangue , Administração Oral , Área Sob a Curva , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Meia-Vida , Humanos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Comprimidos , Fatores de Tempo
14.
Biopharm Drug Dispos ; 24(8): 357-65, 2003 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-14595704

RESUMO

OCTN2 (SLC22A5), an organic cation/carnitine transporter, is widely distributed throughout the body, including the brain. In the present study, the involvement of OCTN2 in acetyl-L-carnitine (ALCAR) permeation across the blood-brain barrier (BBB) was examined using a microdialysis method in mouse. OCTN2 function was examined by comparison of wild-type mice with jvs mice, which express defective OCTN2 and are considered a model for primary systemic carnitine deficiency. Zero-net-flux method analysis indicated higher in vivo recovery of ALCAR and lower physiological ALCAR concentration in thalamus extracellular fluid (ECF) in jvs mice compared with wild-type mice. Externally added ALCAR showed significantly slower initial uptake across the BBB in jvs mouse. These results indicated that OCTN2 is functionally involved in ALCAR transfer across the BBB. Total radioactivity in ECF after i.v. administration of radiolabelled ALCAR remained constant for the rest of the experimental period. Accordingly, our results indicate that ALCAR is transported from blood to brain ECF by OCTN2 at least in part, and its concentration in brain ECF is regulated by other events such as protein binding and anabolic reactions in the brain, as well as by transport across the BBB.


Assuntos
Acetilcarnitina/farmacocinética , Barreira Hematoencefálica/metabolismo , Proteínas de Transporte/metabolismo , Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Proteínas de Transporte de Cátions Orgânicos , Acetilcarnitina/sangue , Animais , Proteínas de Transporte/genética , Injeções Intravenosas , Masculino , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C3H , Camundongos Knockout , Microdiálise , Membro 5 da Família 22 de Carreadores de Soluto , Fatores de Tempo , Distribuição Tecidual
15.
J Neurochem ; 79(5): 959-69, 2001 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-11739607

RESUMO

Transport of L-[3H]carnitine and acetyl-L-[3H]carnitine at the blood-brain barrier (BBB) was examined by using in vivo and in vitro models. In vivo brain uptake of acetyl-L-[3H]carnitine, determined by a rat brain perfusion technique, was decreased in the presence of unlabeled acetyl-L-carnitine and in the absence of sodium ions. Similar transport properties for L-[3H]carnitine and/or acetyl-L-[3H]carnitine were observed in primary cultured brain capillary endothelial cells (BCECs) of rat, mouse, human, porcine and bovine, and immortalized rat BCECs, RBEC1. Uptakes of L-[3H]carnitine and acetyl-L-[3H]carnitine by RBEC1 were sodium ion-dependent, saturable with K(m) values of 33.1 +/- 11.4 microM and 31.3 +/- 11.6 microM, respectively, and inhibited by carnitine analogs. These transport properties are consistent with those of carnitine transport by OCTN2. OCTN2 was confirmed to be expressed in rat and human BCECs by an RT-PCR method. Furthermore, the uptake of acetyl-L-[3H]carnitine by the BCECs of juvenile visceral steatosis (jvs) mouse, in which OCTN2 is functionally defective owing to a genetical missense mutation of one amino acid residue, was reduced. The brain distributions of L-[3H]carnitine and acetyl-L-[3H]carnitine in jvs mice were slightly lower than those of wild-type mice at 4 h after intravenous administration. These results suggest that OCTN2 is involved in transport of L-carnitine and acetyl-L-carnitine from the circulating blood to the brain across the BBB.


Assuntos
Acetilcarnitina/farmacocinética , Barreira Hematoencefálica/fisiologia , Química Encefálica/fisiologia , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Carnitina/farmacocinética , Proteínas de Transporte/metabolismo , Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Proteínas de Transporte de Cátions Orgânicos , Animais , Capilares/efeitos dos fármacos , Capilares/metabolismo , Células Cultivadas , Circulação Cerebrovascular/efeitos dos fármacos , Endotélio Vascular/efeitos dos fármacos , Endotélio Vascular/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C3H , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa , Membro 5 da Família 22 de Carreadores de Soluto , Distribuição Tecidual
17.
J Biol Chem ; 275(3): 1699-707, 2000 Jan 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-10636865

RESUMO

Therapeutic use of cephaloridine, a beta-lactam antibiotic, in humans is associated with carnitine deficiency. A potential mechanism for the development of carnitine deficiency is competition between cephaloridine and carnitine for the renal reabsorptive process. OCTN2 is an organic cation/carnitine transporter that is responsible for Na(+)-coupled transport of carnitine in the kidney and other tissues. We investigated the interaction of several beta-lactam antibiotics with OCTN2 using human cell lines that express the transporter constitutively as well as using cloned human and rat OCTN2s expressed heterologously in human cell lines. The beta-lactam antibiotics cephaloridine, cefoselis, cefepime, and cefluprenam were found to inhibit OCTN2-mediated carnitine transport. These antibiotics possess a quaternary nitrogen as does carnitine. Several other beta-lactam antibiotics that do not possess this structural feature did not interact with OCTN2. The interaction of cephaloridine with OCTN2 is competitive with respect to carnitine. Interestingly, many of the beta-lactam antibiotics that were not recognized by OCTN2 were good substrates for the H(+)-coupled peptide transporters PEPT1 and PEPT2. In contrast, cephaloridine, cefoselis, cefepime, and cefluprenam, which were recognized by OCTN2, did not interact with PEPT1 and PEPT2. The interaction of cephaloridine with OCTN2 was Na(+)-dependent, whereas the interaction of cefoselis and cefepime with OCTN2 was largely Na(+)-independent. Furthermore, the Na(+)-dependent, OCTN2-mediated cellular uptake of cephaloridine could be demonstrated by direct uptake measurements. These studies show that OCTN2 plays a crucial role in the pharmacokinetics and therapeutic efficacy of certain beta-lactam antibiotics such as cephaloridine and that cephaloridine-induced carnitine deficiency is likely to be due to inhibition of carnitine reabsorption in the kidney.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/metabolismo , Carnitina/farmacocinética , Proteínas de Transporte/metabolismo , Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Proteínas de Transporte de Cátions Orgânicos , Acetilcarnitina/farmacocinética , Animais , Carnitina/análogos & derivados , Carnitina/antagonistas & inibidores , Cefadroxila/farmacologia , Cefepima , Cefaloridina/farmacocinética , Cefalosporinas/química , Cefalosporinas/farmacocinética , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Células HeLa , Humanos , Cinética , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Ratos , Sódio/metabolismo , Membro 5 da Família 22 de Carreadores de Soluto , Células Tumorais Cultivadas
18.
Altern Med Rev ; 4(6): 438-41, 1999 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-10608918

RESUMO

Acetyl-L-carnitine (ALC) is an ester of the trimethylated amino acid, L-carnitine, and is synthesized in the human brain, liver, and kidney by the enzyme ALC-transferase. Acetyl-L-carnitine facilitates the uptake of acetyl CoA into the mitochondria during fatty acid oxidation, enhances acetylcholine production, and stimulates protein and membrane phospholipid synthesis. ALC, similar in structure to acetylcholine, also exerts a cholinomimetic effect. Studies have shown that ALC may be of benefit in treating Alzheimer's dementia, depression in the elderly, HIV infection, diabetic neuropathies, ischemia and reperfusion of the brain, and cognitive impairment of alcoholism.


Assuntos
Acetilcarnitina , Nootrópicos , Acetilcarnitina/biossíntese , Acetilcarnitina/farmacocinética , Acetilcarnitina/fisiologia , Acetilcarnitina/uso terapêutico , Doença de Alzheimer/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Transtorno Depressivo/tratamento farmacológico , Neuropatias Diabéticas/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos
19.
J Pharmacol Exp Ther ; 290(3): 1482-92, 1999 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-10454528

RESUMO

We have demonstrated in the present study that novel organic cation transporter (OCTN) 2 is a transporter for organic cations as well as carnitine. OCTN2 transports organic cations without involving Na(+), but it transports carnitine only in the presence of Na(+). The ability to transport organic cations and carnitine is demonstrable with human, rat, and mouse OCTN2s. Na(+) does not influence the affinity of OCTN2 for organic cations, but it increases the affinity severalfold for carnitine. The short-chain acyl esters of carnitine are also transported by OCTN2. Two mutations, M352R and P478L, in human OCTN2 are associated with loss of transport function, but the protein expression of these mutants is comparable to that of the wild-type human OCTN2. In situ hybridization in the rat shows that OCTN2 is expressed in the proximal and distal tubules and in the glomeruli in the kidney, in the myocardium, valves, and arterioles in the heart, in the labyrinthine layer of the placenta, and in the cortex, hippocampus, and cerebellum in the brain. This is the first report that OCTN2 is a Na(+)-independent organic cation transporter as well as a Na(+)-dependent carnitine transporter and that OCTN2 is expressed not only in the heart, kidney, and placenta but also in the brain.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Transporte/fisiologia , Proteínas de Membrana/fisiologia , Proteínas de Transporte de Cátions Orgânicos , Acetilcarnitina/farmacocinética , Animais , Transporte Biológico Ativo , Carnitina/análogos & derivados , Carnitina/farmacocinética , Proteínas de Transporte/biossíntese , Proteínas de Transporte/metabolismo , Humanos , Hibridização In Situ , Rim/metabolismo , Proteínas de Membrana/biossíntese , Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Camundongos , Miocárdio/metabolismo , Especificidade de Órgãos , Placenta/metabolismo , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Ratos , Membro 5 da Família 22 de Carreadores de Soluto , Tetraetilamônio/farmacocinética
20.
Nucl Med Biol ; 24(5): 471-8, 1997 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-9290085

RESUMO

The syntheses of L-carnitine, O-acetyl CoA, and O-acetyl-L-carnitine labelled with 11C at the 1- or 2-position of the acetyl group or the N-methyl position of carnitine, using the enzymes acetyl CoA synthetase and carnitine acetyltransferase, are described. With a total synthesis time of 45 min, O-[1-11C]acetyl CoA and O-[2[11C]acetyl CoA was obtained in 60-70% decay-corrected radiochemical yield, and O-[1-11C]acetyl-L-carnitine and O-[2-11C] acetyl-L-carnitine in 70-80% yield, based on [1-11C]acetate or [2-11C]acetate, respectively. By an N-methylation reaction with [11C]methyl iodide, L-[methyl-11C]carnitine was obtained within 30 min, and O-acetyl-L-[methyl-11C]carnitine within 40 min, giving a decay-corrected radiochemical yield of 60% and 40-50%, respectively, based on [11C]methyl iodide. Initial data of the kinetics of the different 11C-labelled L-carnitine and acetyl-L-carnitines in renal cortex of anaesthetized monkey (Macaca mulatta) are presented.


Assuntos
Acetilcoenzima A/farmacocinética , Acetilcarnitina/farmacocinética , Radioisótopos de Carbono , Carnitina/farmacocinética , Marcação por Isótopo , Acetilcoenzima A/síntese química , Acetilcarnitina/síntese química , Animais , Carnitina/síntese química , Córtex Renal/metabolismo , Macaca mulatta , Tomografia Computadorizada de Emissão
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