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1.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(40): e17126, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31577702

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to investigate the role of n-acetyl cysteine (NAC) in the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-mediated induction of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-1ß (IL-1ß) synthesis by human periodontal ligament fibroblast cells (hPDLFs). In addition, we aimed to determine the involvement of the nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) pathway in any changes in IL-1ß and TNF-α expression observed in response to LPS and NAC. METHODS: HPDLFs were obtained by primary culture. The culture medium used in this experiment was Dulbecco's Modified Eagle Medium (DMEM low-glucose). Cells were stimulated with various concentrations of NAC or LPS. Cell proliferation was measured at various time-points with the cell Counting Kit 8 (CCK-8) assay. mRNA levels of IL-1ß and TNF-α were determined by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) analysis. Protein levels of IL-1ß and TNF-α were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Protein and mRNA expression levels of NF-κB were measured by western blot and RT-qPCR. RESULTS: The results showed that LPS treatment in hPDLFs induced mRNA and protein expression of IL-1ß, TNF-α, and NF-κB. However, these effects were eliminated by pretreatment with NAC. Pretreatment with both NAC (1 mmol/L) and BAY11-7082 (10 µmol/L) significantly inhibited the NF-κB activity induced by LPS. CONCLUSION: NAC inhibits the LPS-mediated synthesis of tumor TNF-α and IL-1ß in hPDLFs, through the NF-κB pathway.


Assuntos
Acetilcisteína/farmacologia , Fibroblastos/efeitos dos fármacos , Interleucina-1beta/efeitos dos fármacos , NF-kappa B/efeitos dos fármacos , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Cultivadas , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Humanos , Interleucina-1beta/biossíntese , Lipopolissacarídeos/farmacologia , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Ligamento Periodontal , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo
2.
Zhongguo Yi Xue Ke Xue Yuan Xue Bao ; 41(4): 529-535, 2019 Aug 30.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31484617

RESUMO

To investigate the effect of N-acetylcysteine(NAC)on cognitive function and nuclear factor erythroid 2 related factor 2/ heme oxygenase-1(Nrf2/HO-1)pathway in mouse models of postoperative cognitive dysfunction. Methods Fifty-four male C57BL/6J mice(3-4 months old)were randomly divided into control group,surgery group,and surgery+NAC group by block randomization.The intramedullary fixation for left tibial fracture surgery was performed to establish postoperative cognitive dysfunction models.NAC(150 mg/kg)was administered intraperitoneally in group surgery+NAC 30 minutes before and 3 hours,6 hours after surgery,while saline was given in control group and surgery group.Six mice in each group were selected randomly underwent Morris water maze test on the third day after surgery.Animals were sacrificed at the first and third postoperative days,and the hippocampus was harvested.Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to quantify the levels of interleukin-6(IL-6)and malondialdehyde(MDA)in hippocampus.Western blot and real-time polymerase chain reaction were used to measure the expressions of Nrf2 and HO-1 in hippocampus. Results There was no significant difference in swimming speed among three groups(F=2.135,P=0.114).Compared with control group and surgery+NAC group,the surgery group had prolonged escape latency(P<0.01),reduced platform crossing times(P<0.01),and shortened time spent in the target quadrant(P<0.01).Compared with the control group,the surgery group and the surgery+NAC group had significantly increased levels of IL-6 and MDA in hippocampus at the first postoperative day(all P=0.000).On the third postoperative day,there was no significant difference in the levels of IL-6(P=0.251)and MDA(P=0.103)between control group and surgery+NAC group.The protein expressions of Nrf2 and HO-1 in hippocampus were significantly higher in surgery group and surgery+NAC group than in control group and significantly higher in surgery+NAC group than in surgery group(all P=0.000).The mRNA expressions of Nrf2 and HO-1 in hippocampus were significantly higher in surgery group and surgery+NAC group than in control group and significantly higher in surgery+NAC group than in surgery group (all P=0.000). Conclusions NAC pretreatment may reduce oxidative stress and inflammatory response in hippocampus and improve cognitive function.Such effect may be relate to the activation of Nrf2/HO-1 pathway.


Assuntos
Acetilcisteína/farmacologia , Cognição/efeitos dos fármacos , Disfunção Cognitiva/tratamento farmacológico , Heme Oxigenase-1/metabolismo , Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/metabolismo , Animais , Disfunção Cognitiva/etiologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Complicações Pós-Operatórias , Distribuição Aleatória
3.
Toxicol Lett ; 315: 87-95, 2019 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31425726

RESUMO

Prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) is often associated with congenital heart defects, most commonly septal, valvular, and great vessel defects. However, there have been no known studies on whether PAE affects the resulting fibroblast population after development, and whether this has any consequences in the postnatal period. Our previous study focused on the effects of PAE on the postnatal fibroblast population, which translated into changes in cardiac extracellular matrix (ECM) composition and cardiac function in the neonatal heart. Moreover, our lab has previously demonstrated that alcohol-induced fibrosis is mediated by oxidative stress mechanisms in adult rat hearts following chronic alcohol exposure. Thus, we hypothesize that PAE alters cardiac ECM composition that persists into the postnatal period, leading to cardiac dysfunction, and these effects are prevented by antioxidant treatment. To investigate these effects, pregnant mice were intraperitoneally injected with 2.9 g EtOH/kg body weight on gestation days 6.75 and 7.25. Controls were injected with vehicle saline. Randomly selected dams in both groups were then treated with 100 mg/kg body weight of the antioxidant N-acetylcysteine (NAC) immediately after EtOH or vehicle administration. Left ventricular (LV) chamber dimension and function were assessed in sedated animals on neonatal day 5 using echocardiography. Ejection fraction decreased in the PAE group. NAC treatment prevented this depression of systolic function in PAE neonates. Hearts were analyzed for expression of fibroblast activation markers. Alpha smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) increased in PAE neonatal hearts, and this increase was prevented by NAC treatment. In PAE pups, collagen I decreased, but collagen III expression increased compared to saline animals; the overall collagen I/III ratio significantly decreased. When PAE mice were treated with NAC, collagen I/III ratio did not change. Overall, our data demonstrate that prenatal alcohol exposure produces changes in collagen subtype in neonatal cardiac ECM and a decline in systolic function, and these adverse effects were prevented by NAC treatment.


Assuntos
Acetilcisteína/farmacologia , Alcoolismo/fisiopatologia , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Colágeno Tipo I/metabolismo , Vasos Coronários/química , Etanol/toxicidade , Fibroblastos/efeitos dos fármacos , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/induzido quimicamente , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Camundongos , Gravidez
4.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 14: 4991-5015, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31371943

RESUMO

Purpose: This study evaluates the cytotoxicity of AuNPs coated with polyallylamine (AuNPs-PAA) and conjugated or not to the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-targeting antibody Cetuximab (AuNPs-PAA-Ctxb) in normal human kidney (HK-2), liver (THLE-2) and microvascular endothelial (TIME) cells, and compares it with two cancer cell lines that are EGFR-overexpressing (A431) or EGFR-negative (MDA-MB-453). Results: Conjugation of Cetuximab to AuNPs-PAA increased the AuNPs-PAA-Ctxb interactions with cells, but reduced their cytotoxicity. TIME cells exhibited the strongest reduction in viability after exposure to AuNPs-PAA(±Ctxb), followed by THLE-2, MDA-MB-453, HK-2 and A431 cells. This cell type-dependent sensitivity was strongly correlated to the inhibition of thioredoxin reductase (TrxR) and glutathione reductase (GR), and to the depolarization of the mitochondrial membrane potential. Both are suggested to initiate apoptosis, which was indeed detected in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. The role of oxidative stress in AuNPs-PAA(±Ctxb)-induced cytotoxicity was demonstrated by co-incubation of the cells with N-acetyl L-cysteine (NAC), which significantly decreased apoptosis and mitochondrial membrane depolarization. Conclusion: This study helps to identify the cells and tissues that could be sensitive to AuNPs and deepens the understanding of the risks associated with the use of AuNPs in vivo.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Ouro/química , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Acetilcisteína/farmacologia , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Caspase 3/metabolismo , Caspase 7/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Cetuximab/farmacologia , Endocitose/efeitos dos fármacos , Glutationa Redutase/metabolismo , Humanos , Potencial da Membrana Mitocondrial/efeitos dos fármacos , Nanopartículas Metálicas/ultraestrutura , Mitocôndrias/efeitos dos fármacos , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Tamanho da Partícula , Poliaminas/química , Substâncias Protetoras/farmacologia , Eletricidade Estática , Tiorredoxina Dissulfeto Redutase/metabolismo
5.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 14: 6103-6115, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31447555

RESUMO

Purpose: Myocardial delivery of magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (MNPs) might produce iron overload-induced myocardial injury, and the oxidative stress was regarded as the main mechanism. Therefore, we speculated antioxidant modification might be a reasonable strategy to mitigate the toxicity of MNPs. Methods and results: Antioxidant N-acetylcysteine (NAC) was loaded into magnetic mesoporous silica coated Fe3O4 nanoparticles. Neonatal rat hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R) cardiomyocytes were incubated with nanoparticles for 24 hrs. NAC can effectively mitigate iron-induced oxidative injury of cardiomyocytes, evidenced by reduced production of MDA, 8-iso-PGF2α, and 8-OHDG and maintained concentrations of SOD, CAT, GSH-Px, and GSH in ELISA and biochemical tests; downregulated expression of CHOP, GRP78, p62, and LC3-II proteins in Western Blot, and less cardiomyocytes apoptosis in flow cytometric analysis. Conclusions: NAC modifying could suppress the toxic effects of Fe3O4 nanoparticles in H/R cardiomyocytes model in vitro, indicating a promising strategy to improve the safety of iron oxide nanoparticles.


Assuntos
Acetilcisteína/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Compostos Férricos/toxicidade , Nanopartículas de Magnetita/toxicidade , Miócitos Cardíacos/patologia , Oxigênio/farmacologia , Animais , Autofagia/efeitos dos fármacos , Hipóxia Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse do Retículo Endoplasmático/efeitos dos fármacos , Nanopartículas de Magnetita/ultraestrutura , Potencial da Membrana Mitocondrial/efeitos dos fármacos , Miócitos Cardíacos/efeitos dos fármacos , Oxirredução , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Porosidade , Ratos , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Dióxido de Silício/toxicidade
6.
Toxicol Lett ; 314: 142-152, 2019 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31319114

RESUMO

Cadmium (Cd), an established carcinogen, is a risk factor for oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). Macroautophagy/autophagy is proposed to play a pivotal role in Cd-mediated carcinogenic activity. However, the mechanisms underlying Cd-induced autophagy are poorly understood. In the present study, a CAL27 OSCC cell line exposed to 10-6 M Cd for 8 weeks was used as a model system. Repeated Cd exposure induced significant migration and invasion of CAL27 cells. Furthermore, we showed that Cd increased the autophagic flux in CAL27 cells, as evidenced by the upregulation of LC3-II and the downregulation of P62/SQSTM1. The genetic blocking of autophagy inhibited Cd-induced migration and invasion, indicating a carcinogenic role of autophagy in Cd-treated CAL27 cells. Cd-induced NUPR1 expression, which contributes to lysosomal biogenesis and expression of autophagy-related gene, was found to mechanistically initiate autophagy in CAL27 cells. Of note, NUPR1 shRNA abolished Cd-induced autophagy both in vitro and in vivo. We also found that Cd triggered the generation of MDA in a xenograft tumour model and that N-acetyl-l-cysteine, a reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenger, abrogated the effects of Cd on NUPR1-dependent autophagy in vivo. Taken together, these results demonstrate that ROS-dependent NUPR1-mediated autophagy plays an important role in repeated Cd exposure -induced cell growth, migration and invasion in OSCC cells.


Assuntos
Acetilcisteína/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Autofagia/efeitos dos fármacos , Fatores de Transcrição Hélice-Alça-Hélice Básicos/metabolismo , Cloreto de Cádmio/toxicidade , Movimento Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias Bucais/tratamento farmacológico , Proteínas de Neoplasias/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas de Cabeça e Pescoço/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Proteína 5 Relacionada à Autofagia/genética , Proteína 5 Relacionada à Autofagia/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição Hélice-Alça-Hélice Básicos/genética , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos Nus , Proteínas Associadas aos Microtúbulos/metabolismo , Neoplasias Bucais/genética , Neoplasias Bucais/metabolismo , Neoplasias Bucais/patologia , Invasividade Neoplásica , Proteínas de Neoplasias/genética , Proteína Sequestossoma-1/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas de Cabeça e Pescoço/genética , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas de Cabeça e Pescoço/metabolismo , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas de Cabeça e Pescoço/patologia , Carga Tumoral/efeitos dos fármacos , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
7.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 182: 109380, 2019 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31279279

RESUMO

Ultraviolet (UV) is an omnipresent environmental carcinogen transmitted by sunlight. Excessive UV irradiation has been correlated to an increased risk of skin cancers. UVB, the most mutagenic component among the three UV constituents, causes damage mainly through inducing DNA damage and oxidative stress. Therefore, strategies or nutrients that strengthen an individual's resistance to UV-inflicted harmful effects shall be beneficial. Folate is a water-soluble B vitamin essential for nucleotides biosynthesis, and also a strong biological antioxidant, hence a micronutrient with potential of modulating individual's vulnerability to UV exposure. In this study, we investigated the impact of folate status on UV sensitivity and the protective activity of folate supplementation using a zebrafish model. Elevated reactive oxygen species (ROS) level and morphological injury were observed in the larvae exposed to UVB, which were readily rescued by supplementing with folic acid, 5-formyltetrahydrofolate (5-CHO-THF) and N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC). The UVB-inflicted abnormalities and mortality were worsened in Tg(hsp:EGFP-γGH) larvae displaying folate deficiency. Intriguingly, only supplementation with 5-CHO-THF, as opposed to folic acid, offered significant and consistent protection against UVB-inflicted oxidative damage in the folate-deficient larvae. We concluded that the intrinsic folate status correlates with the vulnerability to UVB-induced damage in zebrafish larvae. In addition, 5-CHO-THF surpassed both folic acid and NAC in preventing UVB-inflicted oxidative stress and injury in our current experimental zebrafish model.


Assuntos
Deficiência de Ácido Fólico/prevenção & controle , Leucovorina/farmacologia , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Raios Ultravioleta/efeitos adversos , Complexo Vitamínico B/farmacologia , Peixe-Zebra/metabolismo , Acetilcisteína/farmacologia , Animais , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Suplementos Nutricionais , Deficiência de Ácido Fólico/metabolismo , Larva/efeitos dos fármacos , Larva/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos da radiação , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo
8.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 14: 4573-4587, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31296987

RESUMO

Introduction: Engineered nanoparticles (ENPs) are one of the most widely used types of nanomaterials. Recently, ENPs have been shown to cause cellular damage by inducing ROS (reactive oxygen species) both directly and indirectly, leading to the changes in DNA methylation levels, which is an important epigenetic mechanism. In this study, we investigated the effect of ENP-induced ROS on DNA methylation. Materials and methods: Human embryonic kidney and human keratinocyte (HaCaT) cells were exposed to three different types of ENPs: gold nanoparticles, silicon nanoparticles (SiNPs), and chitosan nanoparticles (CSNPs). We then evaluated the cytotoxicity of the ENPs by measuring cell viability, morphology, cell apoptosis, cell proliferation, cell cycle distribution and ROS levels. Global DNA methylation levels was measured using 5-methylcytosine immunocytochemical staining and HPLC analysis. DNA methylation levels of the transposable elements, long interspersed element-1 (LINE-1) and Alu, were also measured using combined bisulfite restriction analysis technique. DNA methylation levels of the TEs LINE-1 and Alu were also measured using combined bisulfite restriction analysis technique. Results: We found that HaCaT cells that were exposed to SiNPs exhibited increased ROS levels, whereas HaCaT cells that were exposed to SiNPs and CSNPs experienced global and Alu hypomethylation, with no change in LINE-1 being observed in either cell line. The demethylation of Alu in HaCaT cells following exposure to SiNPs and CSNPs was prevented when the cells were pretreated with an antioxidant. Conclusion: The global DNA methylation that is observed in cells exposed to ENPs is associated with methylation of the Alu elements. However, the change in DNA methylation levels following ENP exposure is specific to particular ENP and cell types and independent of ROS, being induced indirectly through disruption of the oxidative defense process.


Assuntos
Acetilcisteína/farmacologia , Metilação de DNA/efeitos dos fármacos , Nanopartículas/química , Nanopartículas/toxicidade , Elementos Alu/efeitos dos fármacos , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Quitosana/metabolismo , Epigênese Genética , Ouro/metabolismo , Humanos , Queratinócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Elementos Nucleotídeos Longos e Dispersos/efeitos dos fármacos , Coroa de Proteína , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Silício/química
9.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 44(13): 2841-2848, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31359699

RESUMO

Curcumin( Cur) is a natural active substance extracted from the roots or tubers of traditional Chinese medicinal materials. It has anti-inflammatory and anti-tumor activities on brain diseases. Due to the poor stability,low solubility,poor absorption and low bioavailability of curcumin,N-acetyl-L-cysteine( NAC) was used as an absorption enhancer and mixed with curcumin to improve the absorption of curcumin in the body. In this paper,curcumin was smashed by airflow pulverization,and Cur-NAC mixtures were prepared by being grinded with liquid. Then,the raw material and the product were analyzed by differential scanning calorimetry( DSC),X-ray diffraction( XRD) for structural characterization. The dissolution was determined by high performance liquid chromatography( HPLC) analysis. The characteristic peaks of the samples prepared by grinding method were similar to those of the raw materials,while the melting temperature and the accumulated dissolution degree were not significantly changed. The crystal forms of the products were not changed,and no new crystal form was formed after grinding. After the administration of intranasal powder,blood samples were collected from the orbit,while the whole brain tissues were removed from the skull and dissected into 10 anatomical regions. The concentrations of curcumin in these samples were determined by UPLC-MS/MS. The concentrations of curcumin in plasma and brain were compared at different time points. After intranasal administration of two drugs,it was found that the concentration of curcumin after sniffing up the mixtures in plasma was high,and the concentration of the drug in the olfactory bulb,hippocampus,and pons was increased significantly. Within 0. 083-0. 5 h,the olfactory bulb,piriform lobe and hippocampus remained high concentrations,the endodermis,striatum,hypothalamus and midbrain reached high concentrations within 1-3 h; and the cerebellum,pons and brain extension maintained relatively high concentrations within 3-7 h. The experiment showed that nasal administration of Cur-NAC mixtures can significantly improve the bioavailability of curcumin,and lead to significant differences in brain tissue distribution.


Assuntos
Acetilcisteína/farmacologia , Química Encefálica , Curcumina/farmacocinética , Administração Intranasal , Animais , Disponibilidade Biológica , Encéfalo , Cromatografia Líquida , Ratos , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Distribuição Tecidual
10.
Life Sci ; 232: 116662, 2019 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31323271

RESUMO

AIMS: Vascular endothelial cells act as a selective barrier between circulating blood and vessel wall and play an important role in the occurrence and development of cardiovascular diseases. Astragaloside IV (As-IV) has a protective effect on vascular endothelial cells, but its underlying mechanism remains unclear. This study is aimed at investigating the effect of As-IV on endothelial dysfunction (ED). METHODS: Male Sprague-Dawley (SD) were injected intraperitoneally with 65 mg/kg streptozotocin (STZ) to induce diabetes and then administered orally with As-IV (40, 80 mg/kg) for 8 weeks. Vascular function was evaluated by vascular reactivity in vivo and in vitro. The expression of calpain-1 and eNOS in the aorta of diabetic rats was examined by western blot. NO production was measured using nitrate reductase method. Oxidative stress was determined by measuring SOD, GSH-px and ROS. RESULTS: Our results showed that As-IV administration significantly improved diabetes associated ED in vivo, and both NAC (an antioxidant) and MDL-28170 (calpain-1 inhibitor) significantly attenuated hyperglycemia-induced ED in vitro. Meanwhile, pretreatment with the inhibitor l-NAME nearly abolished vasodilation to ACh in all groups of rats. Furthermore, As-IV increased NO production and the expression of eNOS in the thoracic aorta of diabetic rats. In addition, the levels of ROS were significantly increased, and the activity of SOD and GSH-px were decreased in diabetic rats, while As-IV administration reversed this change in a concentration-dependent manner. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that As-IV improves endothelial dysfunction in thoracic aortas from diabetic rats by reducing oxidative stress and calpain-1.


Assuntos
Calpaína/metabolismo , Endotélio Vascular/efeitos dos fármacos , Hiperglicemia/patologia , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Saponinas/farmacologia , Triterpenos/farmacologia , Acetilcisteína/farmacologia , Animais , Aorta Torácica/efeitos dos fármacos , Aorta Torácica/metabolismo , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Inibidores de Cisteína Proteinase/farmacologia , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/metabolismo , Dipeptídeos/farmacologia , Endotélio Vascular/metabolismo , Endotélio Vascular/patologia , Células Endoteliais da Veia Umbilical Humana , Humanos , Hiperglicemia/metabolismo , Masculino , Óxido Nítrico/metabolismo , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo III/metabolismo , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Estreptozocina , Vasodilatação/efeitos dos fármacos
11.
Chemosphere ; 235: 447-456, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31272005

RESUMO

Arsenic exposure disturbs brain development in humans. Although developmental neurotoxicity (DNT) of arsenic has been studied in vivo and in vitro, its mode-of-action (MoA) is not completely understood. Here, we characterize the adverse neurodevelopmental effects of sodium arsenite on developing human and rat neural progenitor cells (hNPC, rNPC). Moreover, we analyze the involvement of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the role of the glutathione (GSH)-dependent antioxidative defense for arsenite-induced DNT in a species-specific manner. We determined IC50 values for sodium arsenite-dependent (0.1-10 µM) inhibition of hNPC and rNPC migration (6.0 µM; >10 µM), neuronal (2.7 µM; 4.4 µM) and oligodendrocyte (1.1 µM; 2.0 µM) differentiation. ROS involvement was studied by quantifying the expression of ROS-regulated genes, measuring glutathione (GSH) levels, inhibiting GSH synthesis and co-exposing cells to the antioxidant N-acetylcysteine. Arsenite reduces NPC migration, neurogenesis and oligodendrogenesis of differentiating hNPC and rNPC at sub-cytotoxic concentrations. Species-specific arsenite cytotoxicity and induction of antioxidative gene expression is inversely related to GSH levels with rNPC possessing >3-fold the amount of GSH than hNPC. Inhibition of GSH synthesis increased the sensitivity towards arsenite in rNPC > hNPC. N-acetylcysteine antagonized arsenite-mediated induction of HMOX1 expression as well as reduction of neuronal and oligodendrocyte differentiation in hNPC suggesting involvement of oxidative stress in arsenite DNT. hNPC are more sensitive towards arsenite-induced neurodevelopmental toxicity than rNPC, probably due to their lower antioxidative defense capacities. This species-specific MoA data might be useful for adverse outcome pathway generation and future integrated risk assessment strategies concerning DNT.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Arsenitos/toxicidade , Substâncias Perigosas/toxicidade , Neurônios/efeitos dos fármacos , Acetilcisteína/farmacologia , Animais , Arsênico/toxicidade , Glutationa/metabolismo , Heme Oxigenase-1/metabolismo , Humanos , Neurogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Neurônios/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Ratos , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Compostos de Sódio , Especificidade da Espécie , Células-Tronco/efeitos dos fármacos , Testes de Toxicidade
12.
Food Chem Toxicol ; 131: 110555, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31173818

RESUMO

As a part of the aging process, N-retinylidene-N-retinylethanolamine (A2E) accumulates in the retina to activate autophagy in retinal pigmented epithelial cells. However, the effect of A2E photoactivation on autophagy, which is more clinically relevant, still remains unclear. Here, we investigated the effect of blue light (BL)-activated A2E on autophagy in human retinal pigmented epithelial cells, ARPE-19. A significant increase in LC3-II protein was observed when BL was irradiated on ARPE-19 cells containing A2E. The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway was examined to verify whether autophagy was activated, but no change in AKT, mTOR, and 4EBP phosphorylation was observed. Transcription factor EB (TFEB) target gene expression, which is another pathway involved in autophagy, was also not altered by A2E and BL. However, intracellular p62 protein levels were significantly increased, which represented the inhibition of autophagic flux. To investigate the mechanism of the suppressed autophagic flux, the lysosomal state was observed. After BL irradiation, lysosomal damage was induced in A2E-treated ARPE-19 cells, and this phenomenon was prevented by treatment with the antioxidant, N-acetylcysteine. Our results suggest that A2E photoactivation compromises autophagy in ARPE-19 cells and that reactive oxygen species (ROS) play an important role in this process.


Assuntos
Autofagia/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Epiteliais/efeitos dos fármacos , Epitélio Pigmentado da Retina/efeitos dos fármacos , Retinoides/toxicidade , Acetilcisteína/farmacologia , Linhagem Celular , Humanos , Luz , Lisossomos/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas Associadas aos Microtúbulos/metabolismo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Retinoides/efeitos da radiação
13.
Parasit Vectors ; 12(1): 309, 2019 Jun 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31221193

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Treatment of schistosomiasis has relied on the anthelmintic drug praziquantel (PZQ) for more than a generation. Despite its celebrated performance for treatment and control of schistosomiasis and other platyhelminth infections, praziquantel has some shortcomings and the inability of this drug to counteract disease sequelae prompts the need for novel therapeutic strategies. METHODS: Using a host-parasite model involving Biomphalaria glabrata and Schistosoma mansoni we established mechanical transformation of S. mansoni cercariae into newly transformed schistosomula (NTS) and characterized optimal culture conditions. Thereafter, we investigated the antischistosomal activity and ability of the antioxidants N-acetylcysteine (NAC) and resveratrol (RESV) to augment the performance of praziquantel and/or artesunate (AS) against larval stages of the parasite. Drug effects were evaluated by using an automated microscopical system to study live and fixed parasites and by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). RESULTS: Transformation rates of cercariae to schistosomula reached ~ 70% when the manipulation process was optimized. Several culture media were tested, with M199 supplemented with HEPES found to be suitable for S. mansoni NTS. Among the antioxidants studied, RESV alone or combined with anthelminthic drugs achieved better results rather N-acetylcysteine (NAC). TEM observations demonstrated that the combination of AS + RESV induced severe, extensive alterations to the tegument and subtegument of NTS when compared to the constituent compounds alone. Two anthelmintic-antioxidant combinations, praziquantel-resveratrol [combination index (CI) = 0.74] and artesunate-resveratrol (CI = 0.34) displayed moderate and strong synergy, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The use of viability markers including staining with propidium iodide increased the accuracy of drug screening assays against S. mansoni NTS. The synergies observed might be the consequence of increased action by RESV on targets of AS and PZQ and/or they may act through concomitantly on discrete targets to enhance overall antischistosomal action. Combinations of active agents, preferably with discrete modes of action including activity against developmental stages and/or the potential to ameliorate infection-associated pathology, might be pursued in order to identify novel therapeutic interventions.


Assuntos
Acetilcisteína/farmacologia , Antiprotozoários/farmacologia , Artesunato/farmacologia , Praziquantel/farmacologia , Resveratrol/farmacologia , Schistosoma mansoni/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Biomphalaria/efeitos dos fármacos , Sinergismo Farmacológico , Feminino , Larva/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Esquistossomose/tratamento farmacológico
14.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 14: 3911-3928, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31213808

RESUMO

Background: Several in vitro studies have revealed that zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO-NPs) were able to target cancerous cells selectively with minimal damage to healthy cells. Purpose: In the current study, we aimed to evaluate the antitumor activity of ZnO-NPs in Ehrlich solid carcinoma (ESC) bearing mice by measuring their effect on the expression levels of P53, Bax and Bcl2 genes as indicators of apoptotic induction in tumor tissues. Also, we assessed the potential ameliorative or potentiation effect of 100 mg/kg N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) in combination with ZnO-NPs. Materials and methods: ESC bearing mice were gavaged with three different doses of ZnO-NPs (50, 300 and 500 mg/kg body weight) alone or in combination with NAC for seven consecutive days. In addition to measuring the tumor size, pathological changes, zinc content, oxidative stress biomarkers and DNA damage in ESC, normal muscle, liver and kidney tissues were assessed. Results: Data revealed a significant reduction in tumor size with a significant increase in p53 and Bax and decrease in Bcl2 expression levels in the tissues of ZnO-NPs treated ESC bearing mice. Moreover, a significant elevation of MDA accompanied with a significant reduction of CAT and GST. Also, a marked increase in all comet assay parameters was detected in ZnO-NPs treated groups. On the other hand, the combined treatment with ZnO-NPs and NAC significantly reduced reactive oxygen species production and DNA damage in liver and kidney tissues in all ZnO-NPs treated groups. Conclusion: ZnO-NPs exhibited a promising anticancer efficacy in ESC, this could serve as a foundation for developing new cancer therapeutics. Meanwhile, the combined treatment with ZnO-NPs and NAC could act as a protective method for the healthy normal tissue against ZnO-NPs toxicity, without affecting its antitumor activity.


Assuntos
Acetilcisteína/farmacologia , Apoptose , Nanopartículas/toxicidade , Neoplasias/patologia , Estresse Oxidativo , Óxido de Zinco/toxicidade , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Apoptose/genética , Caspase 3/metabolismo , Dano ao DNA/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Nanopartículas/ultraestrutura , Especificidade de Órgãos/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Distribuição Tecidual/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/metabolismo
15.
Food Chem Toxicol ; 131: 110527, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31173817

RESUMO

Zearalenone (ZEA) can widely contaminate crops and agricultural products. The ingestion of ZEA-contaminated food or feed affects the integrity and functions of the intestines. In this study, we aimed to find the potential protective mechanism against ZEA ingestion. We found that ZEA induced cell death in IPEC-J2 cells. Meanwhile, the cytoprotective autophagy was activated in ZEA-treated cells. Further studies demonstrated that a p38/MAPK inhibitor down-regulated autophagy and increased cell death compared to those of the controls. Furthermore, ZEA could induce the accumulation of ROS, and eliminating ROS with NAC resulted in a decline in cell death, p38/MAPK phosphorylation, and the expression of LC3-II compared to those of ZEA-group. In addition, cytochrome P450 reductase (CYPOR) was significantly increased in ZEA-treated cells compared to that in the controls, and an inhibitor of CYPOR decreased ROS levels and mitigated cell death compared to those of the ZEA-group. More importantly, we found that blocking both p38/MAPK signalling and autophagy could enhance CYPOR expression and elevate ROS levels. Overall, our study indicated that the p38/MAPK pathway could activate protective autophagy in response to the CYPOR-dependent oxidative stress that was induced by ZEA in IPEC-J2 cells.


Assuntos
Autofagia/efeitos dos fármacos , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases/efeitos dos fármacos , NADPH-Ferri-Hemoproteína Redutase/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Zearalenona/toxicidade , Acetilcisteína/farmacologia , Animais , Células Epiteliais/efeitos dos fármacos , MAP Quinases Reguladas por Sinal Extracelular/metabolismo , Intestinos/efeitos dos fármacos , MAP Quinase Quinase 4/metabolismo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Suínos , Proteínas Quinases p38 Ativadas por Mitógeno/metabolismo
16.
J Dairy Sci ; 102(8): 6920-6922, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31178194

RESUMO

The present study investigated the effects of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) on ß-lactam antibacterial activity against 20 methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) isolates from bovine mastitis. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) were determined by the E-test method. The presence of 10 mM NAC reduced the MIC of penicillin, ampicillin, oxacillin, cefoxitin, ceftazidime, and cefotaxime to MRSA. Importantly, the MIC of cefoxitin in MRSA in the presence of NAC was lower than the susceptible breakpoint of cefoxitin. The results provide a new way to use current ß-lactam antibiotics combined with NAC against MRSA.


Assuntos
Acetilcisteína/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Mastite Bovina/microbiologia , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/efeitos dos fármacos , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/isolamento & purificação , beta-Lactamas/farmacologia , Acetilcisteína/administração & dosagem , Ampicilina/farmacologia , Animais , Bovinos , Cefoxitina/farmacologia , Feminino , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Oxacilina/farmacologia , Penicilina G/farmacologia
17.
Gastroenterology ; 157(4): 1138-1152.e14, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31228442

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Little is known about the factors that affect outcomes of patients with biliary atresia and there are no medical therapies that increase biliary drainage. METHODS: Liver biopsies and clinical data were obtained from infants with cholestasis and from children without liver disease (controls); messenger RNA (mRNA) was isolated, randomly assigned to discovery (n = 121) and validation sets (n = 50), and analyzed by RNA sequencing. Using the Superpc R package followed by Cox regression analysis, we sought to identify gene expression profiles that correlated with survival without liver transplantation at 24 months of age. We also searched for combinations of gene expression patterns, clinical factors, and laboratory results obtained at diagnosis and at 1 and 3 months after surgery that associated with transplant-free survival for 24 months of age. We induced biliary atresia in BALB/c mice by intraperitoneal administration of Rhesus rotavirus type A. Mice were given injections of the antioxidants N-acetyl-cysteine (NAC) or manganese (III) tetrakis-(4-benzoic acid)porphyrin. Blood and liver tissues were collected and analyzed by histology and immunohistochemistry. RESULTS: We identified a gene expression pattern of 14 mRNAs associated with shorter vs longer survival times in the discovery and validation sets (P < .001). This gene expression signature, combined with level of bilirubin 3 months after hepatoportoenterostomy, identified children who survived for 24 months with an area under the curve value of 0.948 in the discovery set and 0.813 in the validation set (P < .001). Computer models correlated a cirrhosis-associated transcriptome with decreased times of transplant-free survival; this transcriptome included activation of genes that regulate the extracellular matrix and numbers of activated stellate cells and portal fibroblasts. Many mRNAs expressed at high levels in liver tissues from patients with 2-year transplant-free survival had enriched scores for glutathione metabolism. Among mice with biliary atresia given injections of antioxidants, only NAC reduced histologic features of liver damage and serum levels of aminotransferase, gamma-glutamyl transferase, and bilirubin. NAC also reduced bile duct obstruction and liver fibrosis and increased survival times. CONCLUSIONS: In studies of liver tissues from infants with cholestasis, we identified a 14-gene expression pattern that associated with transplant-free survival for 2 years. mRNAs encoding proteins that regulate fibrosis genes were increased in liver tissues from infants who did not survive for 2 years, whereas mRNAs that encoded proteins that regulate glutathione metabolism were increased in infants who survived for 2 years. NAC reduced liver injury and fibrosis in mice with biliary atresia, and increased survival times. Agents such as NAC that promote glutathione metabolism might be developed for treatment of biliary atresia.


Assuntos
Atresia Biliar/genética , Atresia Biliar/terapia , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , RNA Mensageiro/genética , Transcriptoma , Acetilcisteína/farmacologia , Fatores Etários , Animais , Atresia Biliar/diagnóstico , Atresia Biliar/mortalidade , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Pré-Escolar , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Redes Reguladoras de Genes , Marcadores Genéticos , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Lactente , Transplante de Fígado , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Fenótipo , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Intervalo Livre de Progressão , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
18.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 181: 49-59, 2019 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31170649

RESUMO

N-acetylcysteine (N-Acetyl L-cysteine, NAC) is a thiol compound derived from the addition of the acetyl group to cysteine amino acid. NAC has been used as an antioxidant, free radical scavenger, and chelating agent for reducing the deleterious effects on plants of biotic and abiotic environmental stresses. It can also relieve heavy metal (HM) toxicity, although its alleviating mechanism remains unknown. In this study, we compared HM-stressed (Cu, Hg, Cd and Pb, 100 µM each) wheat seedlings without NAC treatment and in combination with NAC (1 mM). In comparison to HMs alone, NAC treatment in combination with HMs (Cu, Cd, Hg and Pb, respectively) stimulated root growth (1.1-, 1.5-, 10.5- and 1.9-fold), and significantly increased fresh (1.3-, 1.5-, 4.3- and 1.4-fold) and dry (1.2-, 1.5-, 2.5- and 1.2-fold) mass. Combination treatment also led to significant reductions in HM concentrations (1.3-, 1.4-, 4- and 1.1-fold, respectively). GSH (1.1 - 1.8-fold), TBARS (1.4 - 2.7-fold) and H2O2 (1.6 - 1.8-fold) contents in treatment with HMs alone were significantly mitigated by the NAC combination. Some of the antioxidant enzyme activities increased or reduced by some HM treatments alone were stimulated by a combination of NAC with HMs, or remained unchanged or changed only insignificantly, supported by the phenolic pool of the plant. Ferulic, p-comaric and syringic acids were the major phenolic acids (PAs) in the roots in free, ester, glycoside and ester-bound forms, and their concentrations were increased by HM treatments alone, in comparison to the control seedlings, while PAs concentrations were relatively reduced by NAC in combination with HMs. These results indicate that NAC can alleviate HM toxicity and improve the growth of HM-stressed wheat seedlings by coordinated induction of the phenolic pool and the antioxidant defence system.


Assuntos
Acetilcisteína/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Metais Pesados/toxicidade , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Poluentes do Solo/toxicidade , Triticum/efeitos dos fármacos , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/metabolismo , Hidroxibenzoatos/metabolismo , Plântula/efeitos dos fármacos , Plântula/enzimologia , Plântula/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Substâncias Reativas com Ácido Tiobarbitúrico/metabolismo , Triticum/enzimologia , Triticum/crescimento & desenvolvimento
19.
Bratisl Lek Listy ; 120(6): 423-428, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31223022

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Recent studies reported that oxidative stress is an important mechanism that contributes to cisplatin induced cardiotoxicity. In the present study, the effects of N-acetylcysteine (NAC), which is an antioxidant, on cisplatin induced cardiotoxicity were investigated in a rat model. METHODS: Thirty two rats were separated into 4 equal groups: Control, NAC-250, CP (cisplatin), CP+NAC. Rats in the experimental groups were treated with a single dose of cisplatin intraperitoneally (ip) (10 mg/kg) and NAC (ip, 250 mg/kg) for 3 consecutive days. At the end of the experiment, cardiotoxicity was determined from plasma CK-MB, LDH, cTnI and cardiac myosin light chain-1 (CMLC-1) levels. In the tissue samples, total oxidant capacity (TOC), total antioxidant capacity (TAC), lipid hydroperoxide (ROOH) and thiol levels were measured. The hearts were also analyzed histopathologically. RESULTS: It was determined that cisplatin increased the tissue TOC, ROOH levels and decreased TAC and thiol levels. NAC administration after cisplatin treatment was observed to have ameliorated histological and functional changes in heart. CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, the results of this experimental study suggested that oxidative stress had a serious effect on cisplatin cardiotoxicity, and NAC could be used as a therapeutic agent in addition to standard cisplatin treatment protocols (Tab. 3, Fig. 1, Ref. 35).


Assuntos
Acetilcisteína , Antineoplásicos , Antioxidantes , Cisplatino , Acetilcisteína/farmacologia , Animais , Antineoplásicos/toxicidade , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Cardiotoxicidade , Cisplatino/toxicidade , Estresse Oxidativo , Ratos
20.
Environ Pollut ; 252(Pt A): 317-329, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31158660

RESUMO

Fine dust (FD) is a form of air pollution and is responsible for a wide range of diseases. Specially, FD is associated with several cardiovascular diseases (CVDs); long-term exposure to FD was shown to decrease endothelial function, but the underlying mechanism remains unclear. We investigated whether exposure to FD causes premature senescence-associated endothelial dysfunction in endothelial cells (ECs) isolated from porcine coronary arteries. The cells were treated with different concentrations of FD and senescence associated-beta galactosidase (SA-ß-gal) activity, cell cycle progression, expression of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), oxidative stress level, and vascular function were evaluated. We found that FD increased SA-ß-gal activity, caused cell cycle arrest, and increased oxidative stress, suggesting the premature induction of senescence; on the other hand, eNOS expression was downregulated and platelet aggregation was enhanced. FD exposure impaired vasorelaxation in response to bradykinin and activated the local angiotensin system (LAS), which was inhibited by treatment with the antioxidant N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) and angiotensin II receptor type 1 (AT1) antagonist losartan (LOS). NAC and LOS also suppressed FD-induced SA-ß-gal activity, increased EC proliferation and eNOS expression, and improved endothelial function. These results demonstrate that FD induces premature senescence of ECs and is associated with increased oxidative stress and activation of LAS. This study can serve as a pharmacological target for prevention and/or treatment of air pollution-associated CVD.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Angiotensinas/metabolismo , Senescência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Endoteliais da Veia Umbilical Humana/fisiologia , Material Particulado/farmacologia , Receptor Tipo 1 de Angiotensina/metabolismo , Acetilcisteína/farmacologia , Bloqueadores do Receptor Tipo 1 de Angiotensina II/farmacologia , Animais , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Plaquetas/citologia , Pontos de Checagem do Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Divisão Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Cultivadas , Vasos Coronários/citologia , Endotélio Vascular/citologia , Células Endoteliais da Veia Umbilical Humana/metabolismo , Humanos , Losartan/farmacologia , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo III/biossíntese , Oxirredução , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Suínos , beta-Galactosidase/antagonistas & inibidores , beta-Galactosidase/metabolismo
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