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1.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 119(32): e2114758119, 2022 Aug 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35921439

RESUMO

Histone acetylation is a key component in the consolidation of long-term fear memories. Histone acetylation is fueled by acetyl-coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA), and recently, nuclear-localized metabolic enzymes that produce this metabolite have emerged as direct and local regulators of chromatin. In particular, acetyl-CoA synthetase 2 (ACSS2) mediates histone acetylation in the mouse hippocampus. However, whether ACSS2 regulates long-term fear memory remains to be determined. Here, we show that Acss2 knockout is well tolerated in mice, yet the Acss2-null mouse exhibits reduced acquisition of long-term fear memory. Loss of Acss2 leads to reductions in both histone acetylation and expression of critical learning and memory-related genes in the dorsal hippocampus, specifically following fear conditioning. Furthermore, systemic administration of blood-brain barrier-permeable Acss2 inhibitors during the consolidation window reduces fear-memory formation in mice and rats and reduces anxiety in a predator-scent stress paradigm. Our findings suggest that nuclear acetyl-CoA metabolism via ACSS2 plays a critical, previously unappreciated, role in the formation of fear memories.


Assuntos
Acetato-CoA Ligase , Histonas , Acetato-CoA Ligase/genética , Acetilcoenzima A/metabolismo , Acetilação , Animais , Medo , Histonas/metabolismo , Camundongos , Ratos
2.
Nature ; 608(7921): 192-198, 2022 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35896750

RESUMO

In response to hormones and growth factors, the class I phosphoinositide-3-kinase (PI3K) signalling network functions as a major regulator of metabolism and growth, governing cellular nutrient uptake, energy generation, reducing cofactor production and macromolecule biosynthesis1. Many of the driver mutations in cancer with the highest recurrence, including in receptor tyrosine kinases, Ras, PTEN and PI3K, pathologically activate PI3K signalling2,3. However, our understanding of the core metabolic program controlled by PI3K is almost certainly incomplete. Here, using mass-spectrometry-based metabolomics and isotope tracing, we show that PI3K signalling stimulates the de novo synthesis of one of the most pivotal metabolic cofactors: coenzyme A (CoA). CoA is the major carrier of activated acyl groups in cells4,5 and is synthesized from cysteine, ATP and the essential nutrient vitamin B5 (also known as pantothenate)6,7. We identify pantothenate kinase 2 (PANK2) and PANK4 as substrates of the PI3K effector kinase AKT8. Although PANK2 is known to catalyse the rate-determining first step of CoA synthesis, we find that the minimally characterized but highly conserved PANK49 is a rate-limiting suppressor of CoA synthesis through its metabolite phosphatase activity. Phosphorylation of PANK4 by AKT relieves this suppression. Ultimately, the PI3K-PANK4 axis regulates the abundance of acetyl-CoA and other acyl-CoAs, CoA-dependent processes such as lipid metabolism and proliferation. We propose that these regulatory mechanisms coordinate cellular CoA supplies with the demands of hormone/growth-factor-driven or oncogene-driven metabolism and growth.


Assuntos
Coenzima A , Ácido Pantotênico , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinase , Acetilcoenzima A/metabolismo , Trifosfato de Adenosina/metabolismo , Proliferação de Células , Coenzima A/biossíntese , Coenzima A/química , Cisteína/metabolismo , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Espectrometria de Massas , Metabolômica , Ácido Pantotênico/química , Ácido Pantotênico/metabolismo , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinase/metabolismo , Fosforilação , Fosfotransferases (Aceptor do Grupo Álcool)/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais
3.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(14)2022 Jul 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35887101

RESUMO

Hypogonadic subjects with insulin resistance (IR) showed different metabonomic profiles compared to normo-insulinemic subjects (IS). Testosterone replacement therapy (TRT) may have a different impact on the metabolisms of those with the presence or absence of insulin resistance. We evaluated the changes in the metabolism of IR hypogonadic patients before and after 60 days of TRT. The metabonomic plasma profiles from 20 IR hypogonadal patients were recorded using ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) and high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS). Plasma metabolites, before and after 60 days of TRT, were compared. In hypogonadic patients, carnosine, which is important for improving performance during exercise, increased. Conversely, proline and lysine-amino acids involved in the synthesis of collagen-reduced. Triglycerides decreased and fatty acids (FFAs) increased in the blood as a consequence of reduced FFA ß-oxidation. Glycolysis slightly improved, while the Krebs cycle was not activated. Gluconeogenesis (which is the main energy source for hypogonadal IR before TRT) stopped after treatment. As a consequence, lactate and acetyl CoA increased significantly. Both lactate and acetyl CoA were metabolized into ketone bodies which increased greatly, also due to leucine/isoleucine degradation. Ketone bodies were derived predominantly from acetyl CoA because the reaction of acetyl CoA into ketone bodies is catalyzed by mtHMGCoA synthase. This enzyme is inhibited by insulin, which is absent in IR patients but overexpressed following testosterone administration. Ketosis is an alternative route for energy supply and provides the same metabolic effects as insulin but at the metabolic or primitive control level, which bypasses the complex signaling pathway of insulin. After treatment, the hypogonadic patients showed clinical symptoms related to ketonuria. They presented similarly to those following a ketogenic diet, the so-called 'keto flu'. This must be taken into account before the administration of TRT to hypogonadic patients.


Assuntos
Hipogonadismo , Resistência à Insulina , Cetose , Acetilcoenzima A/metabolismo , Humanos , Hipogonadismo/diagnóstico , Hipogonadismo/tratamento farmacológico , Insulina , Insulina Regular Humana/uso terapêutico , Corpos Cetônicos/uso terapêutico , Lactatos/uso terapêutico , Testosterona/farmacologia
4.
JCI Insight ; 7(13)2022 07 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35801587

RESUMO

Polyamine dysregulation plays key roles in a broad range of human diseases from cancer to neurodegeneration. Snyder-Robinson syndrome (SRS) is the first known genetic disorder of the polyamine pathway, caused by X-linked recessive loss-of-function mutations in spermine synthase. In the Drosophila SRS model, altered spermidine/spermine balance has been associated with increased generation of ROS and aldehydes, consistent with elevated spermidine catabolism. These toxic byproducts cause mitochondrial and lysosomal dysfunction, which are also observed in cells from SRS patients. No efficient therapy is available. We explored the biochemical mechanism and discovered acetyl-CoA reduction and altered protein acetylation as potentially novel pathomechanisms of SRS. We repurposed the FDA-approved drug phenylbutyrate (PBA) to treat SRS using an in vivo Drosophila model and patient fibroblast cell models. PBA treatment significantly restored the function of mitochondria and autolysosomes and extended life span in vivo in the Drosophila SRS model. Treating fibroblasts of patients with SRS with PBA ameliorated autolysosome dysfunction. We further explored the mechanism of drug action and found that PBA downregulates the first and rate-limiting spermidine catabolic enzyme spermidine/spermine N1-acetyltransferase 1 (SAT1), reduces the production of toxic metabolites, and inhibits the reduction of the substrate acetyl-CoA. Taken together, we revealed PBA as a potential modulator of SAT1 and acetyl-CoA levels and propose PBA as a therapy for SRS and potentially other polyamine dysregulation-related diseases.


Assuntos
Poliaminas , Espermidina , Acetilcoenzima A/metabolismo , Acetilesterase , Acetiltransferases/genética , Acetiltransferases/metabolismo , Animais , Drosophila/metabolismo , Retardo Mental Ligado ao Cromossomo X , Fenilbutiratos/farmacologia , Poliaminas/metabolismo , Espermidina/metabolismo , Espermina/metabolismo
5.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 3998, 2022 Jul 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35810180

RESUMO

Basic processes of the fatty acid metabolism have an important impact on the function of intestinal epithelial cells (IEC). However, while the role of cellular fatty acid oxidation is well appreciated, it is not clear how de novo fatty acid synthesis (FAS) influences the biology of IECs. We report here that interfering with de novo FAS by deletion of the enzyme Acetyl-CoA-Carboxylase (ACC)1 in IECs results in the loss of epithelial crypt structures and a specific decline in Lgr5+ intestinal epithelial stem cells (ISC). Mechanistically, ACC1-mediated de novo FAS supports the formation of intestinal organoids and the differentiation of complex crypt structures by sustaining the nuclear accumulation of PPARδ/ß-catenin in ISCs. The dependency of ISCs on cellular de novo FAS is tuned by the availability of environmental lipids, as an excess delivery of external fatty acids is sufficient to rescue the defect in crypt formation. Finally, inhibition of ACC1 reduces the formation of tumors in colitis-associated colon cancer, together highlighting the importance of cellular lipogenesis for sustaining ISC function and providing a potential perspective to colon cancer therapy.


Assuntos
Acetil-CoA Carboxilase , Lipogênese , Acetilcoenzima A/metabolismo , Acetil-CoA Carboxilase/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Lipogênese/fisiologia , Células-Tronco/metabolismo
6.
Curr Protoc ; 2(7): e497, 2022 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35849593

RESUMO

Histone acetyltransferases (HATs, also known as lysine acetyltransferases, KATs) catalyze acetylation of their cognate protein substrates using acetyl-CoA (Ac-CoA) as a cofactor and are involved in various physiological and pathological processes. Advances in mass spectrometry-based proteomics have allowed the discovery of thousands of acetylated proteins and the specific acetylated lysine sites. However, due to the rapid dynamics and functional redundancy of HAT activities, and the limitation of using antibodies to capture acetylated lysines, it is challenging to systematically and precisely define both the substrates and sites directly acetylated by a given HAT. Here, we describe a chemoproteomic approach to identify and profile protein substrates of individual HAT enzymes on the proteomic scale. The approach involves protein engineering to enlarge the Ac-CoA binding pocket of the HAT of interest, such that a mutant form is generated that can use functionalized acyl-CoAs as a cofactor surrogate to bioorthogonally label its protein substrates. The acylated protein substrates can then be chemoselectively conjugated either with a fluorescent probe (for imaging detection) or with a biotin handle (for streptavidin pulldown and chemoproteomic identification). This modular chemical biology approach has been successfully implemented to identify protein substrates of p300, GCN5, and HAT1, and it is expected that this method can be applied to profile and identify the sub-acetylomes of many other HAT enzymes. © 2022 Wiley Periodicals LLC. Basic Protocol 1: Labeling HAT protein substrates with azide/alkyne-biotin Alternate Protocol: Labeling protein substrates of HATs with azide/alkyne-TAMRA for in-gel visualization Support Protocol 1: Expression and purification of HAT mutants Support Protocol 2: Synthesis of Ac-CoA surrogates Basic Protocol 2: Streptavidin enrichment of biotinylated HAT substrates Basic Protocol 3: Chemoproteomic identification of HAT substrates Basic Protocol 4: Validation of specific HAT substrates with western blotting.


Assuntos
Azidas , Histona Acetiltransferases , Acetilcoenzima A/metabolismo , Alcinos , Biotina , Histona Acetiltransferases/metabolismo , Lisina/metabolismo , Proteômica , Estreptavidina
7.
Cell Rep ; 39(9): 110870, 2022 May 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35649368

RESUMO

Overcoming resistance to chemotherapies remains a major unmet need for cancers, such as triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC). Therefore, mechanistic studies to provide insight for drug development are urgently needed to overcome TNBC therapy resistance. Recently, an important role of fatty acid ß-oxidation (FAO) in chemoresistance has been shown. But how FAO might mitigate tumor cell apoptosis by chemotherapy is unclear. Here, we show that elevated FAO activates STAT3 by acetylation via elevated acetyl-coenzyme A (CoA). Acetylated STAT3 upregulates expression of long-chain acyl-CoA synthetase 4 (ACSL4), resulting in increased phospholipid synthesis. Elevating phospholipids in mitochondrial membranes leads to heightened mitochondrial integrity, which in turn overcomes chemotherapy-induced tumor cell apoptosis. Conversely, in both cultured tumor cells and xenograft tumors, enhanced cancer cell apoptosis by inhibiting ASCL4 or specifically targeting acetylated-STAT3 is associated with a reduction in phospholipids within mitochondrial membranes. This study demonstrates a critical mechanism underlying tumor cell chemoresistance.


Assuntos
Membranas Mitocondriais , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas , Acetilcoenzima A/metabolismo , Apoptose , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Humanos , Lipídeos de Membrana/metabolismo , Membranas Mitocondriais/metabolismo , Oxirredução , Fosfolipídeos/metabolismo , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/metabolismo
8.
JCI Insight ; 7(15)2022 Aug 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35771638

RESUMO

Developmental cardiac tissue is regenerative while operating under low oxygen. After birth, ambient oxygen is associated with cardiomyocyte cell cycle exit and regeneration. Likewise, cardiac metabolism undergoes a shift with cardiac maturation. Whether there are common regulators of cardiomyocyte cell cycle linking metabolism to oxygen tension remains unknown. The objective of the study is to determine whether mitochondrial UCP2 is a metabolic oxygen sensor regulating cardiomyocyte cell cycle. Neonatal rat ventricular myocytes (NRVMs) under moderate hypoxia showed increased cell cycle activity and UCP2 expression. NRVMs exhibited a metabolic shift toward glycolysis, reducing citrate synthase, mtDNA, mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm), and DNA damage/oxidative stress, while loss of UCP2 reversed this phenotype. Next, WT and mice from a global UCP2-KO mouse line (UCP2KO) kept under hypoxia for 4 weeks showed significant decline in cardiac function that was more pronounced in UCP2KO animals. Cardiomyocyte cell cycle activity was reduced, while fibrosis and DNA damage was significantly increased in UCP2KO animals compared with WT under hypoxia. Mechanistically, UCP2 increased acetyl-CoA levels and histone acetylation, and it altered chromatin modifiers linking metabolism to cardiomyocyte cell cycle under hypoxia. Here, we show a potentially novel role for mitochondrial UCP2 as an oxygen sensor regulating cardiomyocyte cell cycle activity, acetyl-CoA levels, and histone acetylation in response to moderate hypoxia.


Assuntos
Proteínas Mitocondriais , Miócitos Cardíacos , Acetilcoenzima A/metabolismo , Acetilação , Animais , Ciclo Celular , Histonas/metabolismo , Hipóxia/metabolismo , Canais Iônicos/genética , Canais Iônicos/metabolismo , Camundongos , Proteínas Mitocondriais/metabolismo , Miócitos Cardíacos/metabolismo , Oxigênio/metabolismo , Ratos , Proteína Desacopladora 2/genética , Proteína Desacopladora 2/metabolismo
9.
Genome Med ; 14(1): 67, 2022 Jun 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35739588

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The incidence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD)-associated hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is increasing worldwide, but the steps in precancerous hepatocytes which lead to HCC driver mutations are not well understood. Here we provide evidence that metabolically driven histone hyperacetylation in steatotic hepatocytes can increase DNA damage to initiate carcinogenesis. METHODS: Global epigenetic state was assessed in liver samples from high-fat diet or high-fructose diet rodent models, as well as in cultured immortalized human hepatocytes (IHH cells). The mechanisms linking steatosis, histone acetylation and DNA damage were investigated by computational metabolic modelling as well as through manipulation of IHH cells with metabolic and epigenetic inhibitors. Chromatin immunoprecipitation and next-generation sequencing (ChIP-seq) and transcriptome (RNA-seq) analyses were performed on IHH cells. Mutation locations and patterns were compared between the IHH cell model and genome sequence data from preneoplastic fatty liver samples from patients with alcohol-related liver disease and NAFLD. RESULTS: Genome-wide histone acetylation was increased in steatotic livers of rodents fed high-fructose or high-fat diet. In vitro, steatosis relaxed chromatin and increased DNA damage marker γH2AX, which was reversed by inhibiting acetyl-CoA production. Steatosis-associated acetylation and γH2AX were enriched at gene clusters in telomere-proximal regions which contained HCC tumour suppressors in hepatocytes and human fatty livers. Regions of metabolically driven epigenetic change also had increased levels of DNA mutation in non-cancerous tissue from NAFLD and alcohol-related liver disease patients. Finally, genome-scale network modelling indicated that redox balance could be a key contributor to this mechanism. CONCLUSIONS: Abnormal histone hyperacetylation facilitates DNA damage in steatotic hepatocytes and is a potential initiating event in hepatocellular carcinogenesis.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Hepatocelular , Neoplasias Hepáticas , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica , Acetilcoenzima A/metabolismo , Animais , Carcinogênese/patologia , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/genética , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/metabolismo , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Epigenoma , Frutose/efeitos adversos , Frutose/metabolismo , Histonas/metabolismo , Humanos , Fígado/metabolismo , Neoplasias Hepáticas/genética , Neoplasias Hepáticas/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/complicações , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/genética
10.
Commun Biol ; 5(1): 586, 2022 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35705689

RESUMO

Placental function and dysfunction differ by sex but the mechanisms are unknown. Here we show that sex differences in polyamine metabolism are associated with escape from X chromosome inactivation of the gene encoding spermine synthase (SMS). Female placental trophoblasts demonstrate biallelic SMS expression, associated with increased SMS mRNA and enzyme activity. Polyamine depletion in primary trophoblasts reduced glycolysis and oxidative phosphorylation resulting in decreased acetyl-coA availability and global histone hypoacetylation in a sex-dependent manner. Chromatin-immunoprecipitation sequencing and RNA-sequencing identifies progesterone biosynthesis as a target of polyamine regulated gene expression, and polyamine depletion reduced progesterone release in male trophoblasts. The effects of polyamine depletion can be attributed to spermine as SMS-silencing recapitulated the effects on energy metabolism, histone acetylation, and progesterone release. In summary, spermine metabolism alters trophoblast gene expression through acetyl-coA biosynthesis and histone acetylation, and SMS escape from X inactivation explains some features of human placental sex differences.


Assuntos
Histonas , Trofoblastos , Acetilcoenzima A/metabolismo , Acetilação , Feminino , Expressão Gênica , Histonas/genética , Histonas/metabolismo , Humanos , Masculino , Placenta/metabolismo , Poliaminas/metabolismo , Gravidez , Progesterona/metabolismo , Espermina , Trofoblastos/metabolismo
11.
Cancer Res ; 82(14): 2640-2655, 2022 Jul 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35648389

RESUMO

Effector CD8+ T cells rely primarily on glucose metabolism to meet their biosynthetic and functional needs. However, nutritional limitations in the tumor microenvironment can cause T-cell hyporesponsiveness. Therefore, T cells must acquire metabolic traits enabling sustained effector function at the tumor site to elicit a robust antitumor immune response. Here, we report that IL12-stimulated CD8+ T cells have elevated intracellular acetyl CoA levels and can maintain IFNγ levels in nutrient-deprived, tumor-conditioned media (TCM). Pharmacological and metabolic analyses demonstrated an active glucose-citrate-acetyl CoA circuit in IL12-stimulated CD8+ T cells supporting an intracellular pool of acetyl CoA in an ATP-citrate lyase (ACLY)-dependent manner. Intracellular acetyl CoA levels enhanced histone acetylation, lipid synthesis, and IFNγ production, improving the metabolic and functional fitness of CD8+ T cells in tumors. Pharmacological inhibition or genetic knockdown of ACLY severely impaired IFNγ production and viability of CD8+ T cells in nutrient-restricted conditions. Furthermore, CD8+ T cells cultured in high pyruvate-containing media in vitro acquired critical metabolic features of IL12-stimulated CD8+ T cells and displayed improved antitumor potential upon adoptive transfer in murine lymphoma and melanoma models. Overall, this study delineates the metabolic configuration of CD8+ T cells required for stable effector function in tumors and presents an affordable approach to promote the efficacy of CD8+ T cells for adoptive T-cell therapy. SIGNIFICANCE: IL12-mediated metabolic reprogramming increases intracellular acetyl CoA to promote the effector function of CD8+ T cells in nutrient-depleted tumor microenvironments, revealing strategies to potentiate the antitumor efficacy of T cells.


Assuntos
ATP Citrato (pro-S)-Liase , Neoplasias , ATP Citrato (pro-S)-Liase/metabolismo , Acetilcoenzima A/metabolismo , Animais , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/metabolismo , Humanos , Interleucina-12 , Camundongos , Microambiente Tumoral
12.
J Cell Sci ; 135(15)2022 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35621049

RESUMO

Acetyl-CoA participates in post-translational modification of proteins and in central carbon and lipid metabolism in several cell compartments. In mammals, acetyl-CoA transporter 1 (AT1, also known as SLC33A1) facilitates the flux of cytosolic acetyl-CoA into the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), enabling the acetylation of proteins of the secretory pathway, in concert with the activity of dedicated acetyltransferases such as NAT8. However, the involvement of the ER acetyl-CoA pool in acetylation of ER-transiting proteins in Apicomplexa is unknown. Here, we identified homologs of AT1 and NAT8 in Toxoplasma gondii and Plasmodium berghei parasites. Proteome-wide analyses revealed widespread N-terminal acetylation of secreted proteins in both species. Such extensive acetylation of N-terminally processed proteins has not been observed previously in any other organism. Deletion of AT1 homologs in both T. gondii and P. berghei resulted in considerable reductions in parasite fitness. In P. berghei, AT1 was found to be important for growth of asexual blood stages, production of female gametocytes and male gametocytogenesis, implying its requirement for parasite transmission. In the absence of AT1, lysine acetylation and N-terminal acetylation in T. gondii remained globally unaltered, suggesting an uncoupling between the role of AT1 in development and active acetylation occurring along the secretory pathway.


Assuntos
Parasitos , Toxoplasma , Acetilcoenzima A/metabolismo , Acetilação , Animais , Retículo Endoplasmático/metabolismo , Feminino , Masculino , Mamíferos/metabolismo , Parasitos/metabolismo , Processamento de Proteína Pós-Traducional , Proteoma/metabolismo , Toxoplasma/genética , Toxoplasma/metabolismo
13.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 2412, 2022 05 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35504872

RESUMO

Human neurodegenerative disorders often exhibit similar pathologies, suggesting a shared aetiology. Key pathological features of Parkinson's disease (PD) are also observed in other neurodegenerative diseases. Pantothenate Kinase-Associated Neurodegeneration (PKAN) is caused by mutations in the human PANK2 gene, which catalyzes the initial step of de novo CoA synthesis. Here, we show that fumble (fbl), the human PANK2 homolog in Drosophila, interacts with PINK1 genetically. fbl and PINK1 mutants display similar mitochondrial abnormalities, and overexpression of mitochondrial Fbl rescues PINK1 loss-of-function (LOF) defects. Dietary vitamin B5 derivatives effectively rescue CoA/acetyl-CoA levels and mitochondrial function, reversing the PINK1 deficiency phenotype. Mechanistically, Fbl regulates Ref(2)P (p62/SQSTM1 homolog) by acetylation to promote mitophagy, whereas PINK1 regulates fbl translation by anchoring mRNA molecules to the outer mitochondrial membrane. In conclusion, Fbl (or PANK2) acts downstream of PINK1, regulating CoA/acetyl-CoA metabolism to promote mitophagy, uncovering a potential therapeutic intervention strategy in PD treatment.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Drosophila , Doenças Neurodegenerativas , Doença de Parkinson , Acetilcoenzima A/metabolismo , Animais , Drosophila/genética , Proteínas de Drosophila/genética , Proteínas de Drosophila/metabolismo , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/metabolismo , Doença de Parkinson/metabolismo , Fosfotransferases (Aceptor do Grupo Álcool)/genética , Fosfotransferases (Aceptor do Grupo Álcool)/metabolismo , Proteínas Quinases/genética , Proteínas Quinases/metabolismo , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases
14.
mBio ; 13(3): e0122422, 2022 06 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35604121

RESUMO

Nε-lysine acetylation is a common posttranslational modification observed in diverse species of bacteria. Aside from a few central metabolic enzymes and transcription factors, little is known about how this posttranslational modification regulates protein activity. In this work, we investigated how lysine acetylation affects translation in Escherichia coli. In multiple species of bacteria, ribosomal proteins are highly acetylated at conserved lysine residues, suggesting that this modification may regulate translation. In support of this hypothesis, we found that the addition of either of the acetyl donors acetyl phosphate and acetyl-coenzyme A inhibits translation but not transcription using an E. coli cell-free system. Further investigations using in vivo assays revealed that acetylation does not appear to alter the rate of translation elongation but, rather, increases the proportions of dissociated 30S and 50S ribosomes, based on polysome profiles of mutants or growth conditions known to promote lysine acetylation. Furthermore, ribosomal proteins are more acetylated in the disassociated 30S and 50S ribosomal subunits than in the fully assembled 70S complex. The effect of acetylation is also growth rate dependent, with disassociation of the subunits being most pronounced during late-exponential and early-stationary-phase growth-the same growth phase where protein acetylation is greatest. Collectively, our data demonstrate that lysine acetylation inhibits translation, most likely by interfering with subunit association. These results have also uncovered a new mechanism for coupling translation to the metabolic state of the cell. IMPORTANCE Numerous cellular processes are regulated in response to the metabolic state of the cell. One such regulatory mechanism involves lysine acetylation, a covalent modification involving the transfer of an acetyl group from central metabolite acetyl-coenzyme A or acetyl phosphate to a lysine residue in a protein. This posttranslational modification is known to regulate some central metabolic enzymes and transcription factors in bacteria, though a comprehensive understanding of its effect on cellular physiology is still lacking. In the present study, lysine acetylation was also found to inhibit translation in Escherichia coli by impeding ribosome association, most likely by disrupting salt bridges along the binding interface of the 30S and 50S ribosomal subunits. These results further our understanding of lysine acetylation by uncovering protein synthesis as a new target of regulation and aid in the design of bacteria for biotechnology applications where the growth conditions are known to promote lysine acetylation.


Assuntos
Escherichia coli , Lisina , Acetilcoenzima A/metabolismo , Acetilação , Lisina/metabolismo , Processamento de Proteína Pós-Traducional , Proteínas Ribossômicas/genética , Proteínas Ribossômicas/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo
15.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 7700, 2022 05 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35546163

RESUMO

Ethanol is a widely available carbon compound that can be increasingly produced with a net negative carbon balance. Carbon-negative ethanol might therefore provide a feedstock for building a wider range of sustainable chemicals. Here we show how ethanol can be converted with a cell free system into acetyl-CoA, a central precursor for myriad biochemicals, and how we can use the energy stored in ethanol to generate ATP, another key molecule important for powering biochemical pathways. The ATP generator produces acetone as a value-added side product. Our ATP generator reached titers of 27 ± 6 mM ATP and 59 ± 15 mM acetone with maximum ATP synthesis rate of 2.8 ± 0.6 mM/h and acetone of 7.8 ± 0.8 mM/h. We illustrated how the ATP generating module can power cell-free biochemical pathways by converting mevalonate into isoprenol at a titer of 12.5 ± 0.8 mM and a maximum productivity of 1.0 ± 0.05 mM/h. These proof-of-principle demonstrations may ultimately find their way to the manufacture of diverse chemicals from ethanol and other simple carbon compounds.


Assuntos
Etanol , Engenharia Metabólica , Acetona , Acetilcoenzima A/metabolismo , Trifosfato de Adenosina , Carbono/metabolismo , Etanol/metabolismo
16.
J Lipid Res ; 63(6): 100224, 2022 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35568254

RESUMO

Anabolic metabolism of carbon in mammals is mediated via the one- and two-carbon carriers S-adenosyl methionine and acetyl-coenzyme A. In contrast, anabolic metabolism of three-carbon units via propionate has not been shown to extensively occur. Mammals are primarily thought to oxidize the three-carbon short chain fatty acid propionate by shunting propionyl-CoA to succinyl-CoA for entry into the TCA cycle. Here, we found that this may not be absolute as, in mammals, one nonoxidative fate of propionyl-CoA is to condense to two three-carbon units into a six-carbon trans-2-methyl-2-pentenoyl-CoA (2M2PE-CoA). We confirmed this reaction pathway using purified protein extracts provided limited substrates and verified the product via LC-MS using a synthetic standard. In whole-body in vivo stable isotope tracing following infusion of 13C-labeled valine at steady state, 2M2PE-CoA was found to form via propionyl-CoA in multiple murine tissues, including heart, kidney, and to a lesser degree, in brown adipose tissue, liver, and tibialis anterior muscle. Using ex vivo isotope tracing, we found that 2M2PE-CoA also formed in human myocardial tissue incubated with propionate to a limited extent. While the complete enzymology of this pathway remains to be elucidated, these results confirm the in vivo existence of at least one anabolic three- to six-carbon reaction conserved in humans and mice that utilizes propionate.


Assuntos
Carbono , Propionatos , Acetilcoenzima A/metabolismo , Acil Coenzima A/metabolismo , Animais , Carbono/metabolismo , Fígado/metabolismo , Camundongos , Oxirredução
17.
Immunology ; 166(4): 492-506, 2022 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35569103

RESUMO

Our previous studies have demonstrated that tetrandrine can induce the generation of regulatory T (Treg) cells in vitro and in vivo. But, the underlying mechanism of tetrandrine remains obscure. Naïve CD4+ T cells are isolated from the mesenteric lymph nodes of mice for the differentiation of Treg cells. Flow cytometry is used to detect the frequencies of Treg cells. Non-targeted metabolomics analysis based on UHPLC-QTOF/MS is performed to assess the intracellular metabolic profiles. ChIP-PCR analysis is conducted to detect the level of H3K27ac at Foxp3 promoter and CNS regions. Tetrandrine treatment alters the metabolic profile of Treg cells, and pathway enrichment of differential metabolites mainly involves fatty acid oxidation (FAO). Tetrandrine promotes the mRNA expression of carnitine palmitoyl transferase-1, and increases the level of acetyl coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA) and the intracellular oxygen consumption rate. Either CPT1 inhibitor (etomoxir) or siRNA markedly diminishes the promotion of tetrandrine on Treg cell differentiation. Furthermore, tetrandrine enhances the acetylation of H3K27 in the promoter and CNS1 regions of Foxp3 through the acetyl-CoA derived from FAO. In the mice with collagen-induced arthritis, tetrandrine also induces Treg cell generation through FAO pathway. In addition, tetrandrine enhances the immunosuppressive function of Treg cells both in vitro and in vivo. The findings indicate that tetrandrine promotes Treg cell differentiation by enhancing FAO-mediated Foxp3 acetylation, and the CPT1-mediated FAO can serve as the target for the discovery of novel inducers of Treg cell generation.


Assuntos
Alcaloides , Antineoplásicos , Acetilcoenzima A/metabolismo , Alcaloides/metabolismo , Animais , Benzilisoquinolinas , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição Forkhead/genética , Fatores de Transcrição Forkhead/metabolismo , Imunossupressores/farmacologia , Camundongos , Linfócitos T Reguladores/metabolismo
18.
Cell Commun Signal ; 20(1): 48, 2022 04 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35392915

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) is an enhancer of Treg responses, but the mechanisms remain elusive. This study aimed to solve this problem in view of cellular metabolism. METHODS: Three recognized PPARγ agonists (synthetic agonist: rosiglitazone; endogenous ligand: 15d-PGJ2; natural product: morin) were used as the tools to activate PPARγ. The fatty acid oxidation (FAO) was evaluated through the detection of fatty acid uptake, oxygen consumption rate, mitochondrial mass, mitochondrial membrane potential and acetyl-CoA level. The involvement of UDP-GlcNAc/N-linked glycosylation axis and the exact role of PPARγ in the action of PPARγ agonists were determined by flow cytometry, Q-PCR, western blotting, a commercial kit for enzyme activity and CRISPR/Cas9-mediated knockout. RESULTS: Rosiglitazone, 15d-PGJ2 and morin all increased the frequency of CD4+Foxp3+ Treg cells generated from naïve CD4+ T cells, boosted the transcription of Foxp3, IL-10, CTLA4 and TIGIT, and facilitated the function of Treg cells. They significantly promoted FAO in differentiating Treg cells by up-regulating the levels of CD36 and CPT1 but not other enzymes involved in FAO such as ACADL, ACADM, HADHA or HADHB, and siCD36 or siCPT1 dampened PPARγ agonists-promoted Treg responses. Moreover, PPARγ agonists enhanced UDP-GlcNAc biosynthesis and subsequent N-linked glycosylation, but did not affect the expressions of N-glycan branching enzymes Mgat1, 2, 4 and 5. Notably, the enzyme activity of phosphofructokinase (PFK) was inhibited by PPARγ agonists and the effect was limited by siCD36 or siCPT1, implying PFK to be a link between PPARγ agonists-promoted FAO and UDP-GlcNAc biosynthesis aside from acetyl-CoA. Furthermore, PPARγ agonists facilitated the cell surface abundance of TßRII and IL-2Rα via N-linked glycosylation, thereby activating TGF-ß/Smads and IL-2/STAT5 signaling, and the connection between N-linked glycosylation and Treg responses was revealed by tunicamycin. However, the increased surface abundance of CD36 was demonstrated to be mainly owing to PPARγ agonists-up-regulated overall expression. Finally, PPARγ antagonist GW9662 or CRISPR/Cas9-mediated knockout of PPARγ constrained the effects of rosiglitazone, 15d-PGJ2 and morin, confirming the exact role of PPARγ. CONCLUSIONS: The activation of PPARγ enhances Treg responses through up-regulating CD36/CPT1-mediated fatty acid oxidation and subsequent N-glycan branching of TßRII/IL-2Rα, which is beneficial for inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. Video Abstract.


Assuntos
PPAR gama , Linfócitos T Reguladores , Acetilcoenzima A/metabolismo , Antígenos CD36 , Fatores de Transcrição Forkhead/metabolismo , Subunidade alfa de Receptor de Interleucina-2/metabolismo , Polissacarídeos , Rosiglitazona/farmacologia , Difosfato de Uridina
19.
J Bacteriol ; 204(5): e0007022, 2022 05 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35377165

RESUMO

During glucose fermentation, Escherichia coli and many other microorganisms employ the glycyl radical enzyme (GRE) pyruvate formate-lyase (PflB) to catalyze the coenzyme A-dependent cleavage of pyruvate to formate and acetyl-coenzyme A (CoA). Due to its extreme reactivity, the radical in PflB must be controlled carefully and, once generated, is particularly susceptible to dioxygen. Exposure to oxygen of the radical on glycine residue 734 of PflB results in cleavage of the polypeptide chain and consequent inactivation of the enzyme. Two decades ago, a small 14-kDa protein called YfiD (now called autonomous glycyl radical cofactor [GrcA]) was shown to be capable of restoring activity to O2-inactivated PflB in vitro; however, GrcA has never been shown to have this function in vivo. By constructing a strain with a chromosomally encoded PflB enzyme variant with a G734A residue exchange, we could show that cells retained near-wild type fermentative growth, as well as formate and H2 production; H2 is derived by enzymatic disproportionation of formate. Introducing a grcA deletion mutation into this strain completely prevented formate and H2 generation and reduced anaerobic growth. We could show that the conserved glycine at position 102 on GrcA was necessary for GrcA to restore PflB activity and that this recovered activity depended on the essential cysteine residues 418 and 419 in the active site of PflB. Together, our findings demonstrate that GrcA is capable of restoring in vivo activity to inactive full-length PflB and support a model whereby GrcA displaces the C-terminal glycyl radical domain to rescue the catalytic function of PflB. IMPORTANCE Many facultative anaerobic microorganisms use glycyl radical enzymes (GREs) to catalyze chemically challenging reactions under anaerobic conditions. Pyruvate formate-lyase (PflB) is a GRE that catalyzes cleavage of the carbon-carbon bond of pyruvate during glucose fermentation. The problem is that glycyl radicals are destroyed readily, especially by oxygen. To protect and restore activity to inactivated PflB, bacteria like Escherichia coli have a small autonomous glycyl radical cofactor protein called GrcA, which functions to rescue inactivated PflB. To date, this proposed function of GrcA has only been demonstrated in vitro. Our data reveal that GrcA rescues and restores enzyme activity to an inactive full-length form of PflB in vivo. These results have important implications for the evolution of radical-based enzyme mechanisms.


Assuntos
Acetiltransferases , Proteínas de Escherichia coli , Acetilcoenzima A/metabolismo , Acetiltransferases/metabolismo , Carbono/metabolismo , Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Proteínas de Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Formiatos/metabolismo , Glucose/metabolismo , Glicina/metabolismo , Oxigênio/metabolismo , Piruvatos/metabolismo
20.
Microbiol Res ; 260: 127021, 2022 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35447487

RESUMO

Alcohol acetyltransferases (AATs) are a group of enzymes that catalyze the formation of esters from different alcohols and acetyl-CoA. However, these enzymes are not well characterized with regard to synthesis of antifungal compounds. The present study aims to investigate the AAT enzyme from Geotrichum candidum PF005, an endophytic yeast-like fungus that emits fruity scented antifungal volatiles, primarily comprising of acetate esters. After PCR-based cloning of the GcAAT gene, the encoded enzyme was characterized structurally through in silico methods and functionally via heterologous expression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In native host, the single copy GcAAT gene exhibited induced expression upon supplementation with metabolic precursors, like L-leucine (Leu) or α-ketoisocaproate (α-KIC). Docking studies using the modelled structure of GcAAT revealed differential but favourable binding interactions for three alcohol substrates (i.e., isoamyl alcohol, isobutyl alcohol and 2-phenylethanol) and the co-substrate acetyl-CoA. Binding sites for both substrate and co-substrate are found to be located inside a tunnel identified in the structure, wherein the H208 of the acetyltransferase conserved motif HXXXD was found at a hydrogen bond distance from the substrate. Functional complementation of GcAAT in S. cerevisiae AAT knockout strain caused 32% decrease in dry biomass weight of the test phytopathogenic fungus, Rhizoctonia solani as compared to the control (AAT knockout strain with empty plasmid) after 72 h of incubation due to the emitted volatiles. When the transformed yeast cells were fed with Leu and α-KIC, the relative abundance of the isoamyl acetate ester increased by 21% and 48%, respectively as compared to the control (without precursor). Further analysis documented that volatiles from α-KIC fed GcAAT transformant exhibited 58% higher antifungal activity against the test fungus R. solani than the control, engendered by increased oxidative stress that led to distorted mycelial morphology and increased hyphal branching. Together, the augmented antifungal effect displayed by the GcAAT expressing S. cerevisiae AAT knockout strain is clearly attributable to the acetate esters, especially isoamyl acetate, which are inherently produced in endophytic G. candidum PF005 as antifungal volatiles.


Assuntos
Acetiltransferases , Ésteres , Geotrichum , Acetatos/metabolismo , Acetilcoenzima A/metabolismo , Acetiltransferases/genética , Álcoois/metabolismo , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Ésteres/metabolismo , Geotrichum/enzimologia , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genética , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo
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