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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e248842, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339343

RESUMO

Abstract Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity levels can be used as an indicator for AChE inhibition due to pesticide poisoning in bird species. We assessed the comparative brain cholinesterase (AChE) activity level of five bird species inhabiting pesticide exposed croplands and Protected Area i.e. Deva Vatala National Park (DVNP), Bhimber by using a spectrophotometric method. AChE activity levels ranged from 56.3 to 85.9 µmol/min/g of brain tissue of birds representing DVNP. However, AChE activity levels ranged from 27.6 to 79.9 µmol/min/g of brain tissue of birds representing croplands. AChE activity levels observed in Jungle babbler, Common babbler, and Red-vented bulbul showed significant differences (P < 0.05) at two sites. However, White wagtail and Black drongo demonstrated non-significant differences (P > 0.05). Maximum inhibition was recorded in Jungle babbler (53%) followed by Common babbler (35%), Red-vented bulbul (18%), White wagtail (15%), and Black drongo (7%). The brain cholinesterase inhibition levels under-protected ecosystems (DVNP, Bhimber) and agricultural landscape suggest insecticidal contamination and its impact on avifauna diversity. The study also emphasizes on the importance of pesticide-free zones to protect the biodiversity of birds.


Resumo Os níveis de atividade da acetilcolinesterase (AChE) podem ser usados ​​como um indicador para a inibição da AChE devido ao envenenamento por pesticidas em espécies de aves. Avaliamos o nível de atividade comparativa da colinesterase cerebral (AChE) de cinco espécies de aves que habitam áreas cultivadas expostas a pesticidas e Área Protegida, ou seja, Deva Vatala National Park (DVNP), Bhimber, usando um método espectrofotométrico. Os níveis de atividade da AChE variaram de 56,3 a 85,9 µmol / min / g de tecido cerebral de aves representando DVNP. No entanto, os níveis de atividade da AChE variaram de 27,6 a 79,9 µmol / min / g de tecido cerebral de aves representando áreas de cultivo. Os níveis de atividade de AChE observados no tagarela da selva, tagarela comum e bulbul vermelho exalado mostraram diferenças significativas (P < 0,05) em dois locais. No entanto, alvéola branca e drongo preto demonstraram diferenças não significativas (P > 0,05). A inibição máxima foi registrada no tagarela da selva (53%), seguido pelo tagarela comum (35%), bulbul vermelho (18%), alvéola branca (15%) e drongo preto (7%). Os níveis de inibição da colinesterase cerebral nos ecossistemas subprotegidos (DVNP, Bhimber) e na paisagem agrícola sugerem contaminação por inseticida e seu impacto na diversidade da avifauna. O estudo também enfatiza a importância das zonas livres de pesticidas para proteger a biodiversidade das aves.


Assuntos
Animais , Praguicidas/toxicidade , Paquistão , Acetilcolinesterase , Aves , Inibidores da Colinesterase/toxicidade , Ecossistema , Produtos Agrícolas
2.
Amino Acids ; 54(2): 181-192, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34738177

RESUMO

The use of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitors, antioxidants or multitarget compounds are among the main strategies against Alzheimer's disease (AD). Between AChE inhibitors, those targeting the peripheral anionic site (PAS) are of special interest. Here, we describe the rational design and synthesis of peptide analogs of a natural PAS-targeting sequence that we recently discovered, aiming at increasing its activity against AChE. We also tested their radical scavenging and metal chelating properties. Our design strategy was based on the position-specific, computer-aided insertion of aromatic residues. The analog named as W3 showed a 30-fold higher inhibitory activity than the original sequence and an improved antioxidant activity. W3 is the most potent modified natural peptide against Electrophorus electricus AChE ever reported with an IC50 of 10.42 µM (± 1.02). In addition, it showed a radical scavenging activity of 47.00% ± 3.11 at 50 µM and 93.47% ± 1.53 at 400 µM. Since peptides are receiving increasing interest as drugs, we propose the W3 analog as an attractive sequence for the development of new peptide-based multitarget drugs for AD. Besides, this work sheds light on the importance of the aromatic residues in the modulation of AChE activity and their effect on the radical scavenging activity of a peptide.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer , Inibidores da Colinesterase , Acetilcolinesterase/metabolismo , Doença de Alzheimer/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Anuros/metabolismo , Inibidores da Colinesterase/química , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Peptídeos/farmacologia , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
3.
Nutrients ; 14(17)2022 Aug 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36079792

RESUMO

Date palm fruit seed (Phoenix dactylifera L.) extract (DSE), an under-utilized resource, is a rich source of polyphenols with high potency for disease prevention and antioxidative activities. For the first time, the present study demonstrated that DSE inhibits labile iron activity and DNA and BSA damage and inhibits acetylcholinesterase and tyrosinase activities. Moreover, DSE reduces the proliferation of hepatic, colorectal, and breast cancer cells dose-dependently through apoptotic mechanisms. Furthermore, DSE significantly suppressed the expression of both BCl-2 and P21 genes and increased the P53 expression level when compared with the untreated cells and the 5-FU treated cells. These findings suggest a strong potential for DSE in protecting against the iron-catalyzed ferroptosis that results in programmed cell death. The results also confirm the efficacy of DSE against cancer cells. Therefore, DSE constitutes a valuable candidate for developing functional foods and for natural compound-based chemotherapy for the pharmaceutical and nutraceutical industries.


Assuntos
Dano ao DNA/efeitos dos fármacos , Ferro/metabolismo , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Phoeniceae , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Sementes/química , Acetilcolinesterase/metabolismo , DNA/metabolismo , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacologia , Frutas/química , Neoplasias/metabolismo , Neoplasias/patologia , Neoplasias/prevenção & controle , Extratos Vegetais/metabolismo , Polifenóis/metabolismo , Polifenóis/farmacologia
4.
Molecules ; 27(17)2022 Aug 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36080247

RESUMO

Combretaceae, an immense family involving species (500) or genera (20), originates in tropical and subtropical regions. This family has evinced medicinal values such as anti-leishmanial, cytotoxic, antibacterial, antidiabetic, antiprotozoal, and antifungal properties. Conocarpus lancifolius (C. lancifolius) methanol extract (CLM) was prepared, then compound isolation performed by open column chromatography, and compound structure was determined by spectroscopic techniques (13C NMR, IR spectroscopy, 1H-NMR, mass spectrometry UV-visible, and 2D correlation techniques). Molecular docking studies of ligand were performed on transcriptional regulators 4EY7 and 2GV9 to observe possible interactions. Phytochemical screening revealed the presence of secondary metabolites including steroids, cardiac glycosides, saponins, anthraquinones, and flavonoids. The isolated compound was distinguished as lancifolamide (LFD). It showed cytotoxic activity against human breast cancer, murine lymphocytic leukemia, and normal cells, human embryonic kidney cells, and rat glioma cells with IC50 values of 0.72 µg/mL, 2.01 µg/mL, 1.55 µg/mL, and 2.40 µg/mL, respectively. Although no cytotoxic activity was noticed against human colon cancer and human lung cancer, LFD showed 24.04% inhibition against BChE and 60.30% inhibition against AChE and is therefore beneficial for Alzheimer's disease (AD). AChE and LFD interact mechanistically in a way that is optimum for neurodegenerative disorders, according to molecular docking studies. Methanol and dichloromethane extract of C. lancifolius and LFD shows antibacterial and antifungal activity against antibiotic resistance Bacillus subtilis, Streptococcus mutans, Brevibacillus laterosporus, Salmonella Typhi, Candida albicans, and Cryptococcus neoformans, respectively. LFD shows antiviral activity against HSV-1 with 26% inhibition IP. The outcomes of this study support the use of LFD for cognitive disorders and highlight its underlying mechanism, targeting AChE, DNA-POL, NF-KB, and TNF-α, etc., for the first time.


Assuntos
Inibidores da Colinesterase , Combretaceae , Herpes Simples , Herpesvirus Humano 1 , Acetilcolinesterase/metabolismo , Animais , Inibidores da Colinesterase/química , Combretaceae/química , Herpesvirus Humano 1/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Metanol , Camundongos , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Extratos Vegetais/química , Ratos
5.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 26(17): 6344-6350, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36111936

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurological ailment that causes memory loss and impairments and is linked to a drop-in acetylcholine level. Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitors are used for the management of AD. In our ongoing research to search for natural AChE inhibitors from medicinal plants, we found that the Acorus calamus possesses memory-enhancing properties. α-Asarone is the major compound isolated from the Acorus calamus and it has neuroprotective action in animal models, nonetheless, its anticholinesterase activity in different brain regions was not fully understood. The purpose of this research was to determine the anti-amnesic and anti-cholinesterase activities of α-asarone against scopolamine-induced memory impairments in rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The anti-cholinesterase activity of α-asarone was determined using Ellman's method in different brain areas, such as the cortex, hippocampus, and striatum. In addition, the anti-amnesic effect of α-asarone was also investigated using elevated plus-maze, passive avoidance, and active avoidance tests. RESULTS: The effect of α-asarone on memory impairment against scopolamine-induced (1 mg/kg body weight) amnesia was evaluated. Administration of α-asarone (15 and 30 mg/kg body weight) for 14 days to rats significantly ameliorated the scopolamine-induced memory impairment as measured in the elevated plus-maze, passive avoidance, and avoidance active tests compared to the scopolamine-treated group. In this study, we also show that α-asarone treatment significantly (p<0.05) reduced brain acetylcholinesterase activity in the cortex, hippocampus, and striatum brain regions of amnesic rats. CONCLUSIONS: These results confirmed that α-asarone has anti-amnesic and anti-cholinesterase potential which may be useful for the management of AD.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer , Escopolamina , Acetilcolina/efeitos adversos , Acetilcolinesterase/efeitos adversos , Derivados de Alilbenzenos , Doença de Alzheimer/induzido quimicamente , Doença de Alzheimer/tratamento farmacológico , Amnésia/induzido quimicamente , Amnésia/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Anisóis , Aprendizagem da Esquiva , Peso Corporal , Inibidores da Colinesterase/farmacologia , Aprendizagem em Labirinto , Transtornos da Memória/induzido quimicamente , Transtornos da Memória/tratamento farmacológico , Ratos , Escopolamina/efeitos adversos
6.
J Enzyme Inhib Med Chem ; 37(1): 2348-2356, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36050834

RESUMO

Multitarget drugs are a promising therapeutic approach against Alzheimer's disease. In this work, a new family of 5-substituted indazole derivatives with a multitarget profile including cholinesterase and BACE1 inhibition is described. Thus, the synthesis and evaluation of a new class of 5-substituted indazoles has been performed. Pharmacological evaluation includes in vitro inhibitory assays on AChE/BuChE and BACE1 enzymes. Also, the corresponding competition studies on BuChE were carried out. Additionally, antioxidant properties have been calculated from ORAC assays. Furthermore, studies of anti-inflammatory properties on Raw 264.7 cells and neuroprotective effects in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells have been performed. The results of pharmacological tests have shown that some of these 5-substituted indazole derivatives 1-4 and 6 behave as AChE/BuChE and BACE1 inhibitors, simultaneously. In addition, some indazole derivatives showed anti-inflammatory (3, 6) and neuroprotective (1-4 and 6) effects against Aß-induced cell death in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells with antioxidant properties.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer , Neuroblastoma , Fármacos Neuroprotetores , Acetilcolinesterase/metabolismo , Doença de Alzheimer/tratamento farmacológico , Doença de Alzheimer/metabolismo , Secretases da Proteína Precursora do Amiloide/metabolismo , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/uso terapêutico , Ácido Aspártico Endopeptidases/metabolismo , Inibidores da Colinesterase , Humanos , Indazóis/farmacologia , Neuroblastoma/tratamento farmacológico , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
7.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 15376, 2022 Sep 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36100636

RESUMO

Substances from the Cannabis sativa species, especially cannabidiol (CBD) and Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC), have attracted medical attention in recent years. The actions of these two main cannabinoids modulate the cholinergic nervous system (CholNS) involving development, synaptic plasticity, and response to endogenous and environmental damage, as a characteristic of many neurodegenerative diseases. The dynamics of these diseases are mediated by specific neurotransmitters, such as the GABAergic nervous system (GNS) and the CholNS. The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans is an important experimental model, which has different neurotransmitter systems that coordinate its behavior and has a transgene strain that encodes the human ß-amyloid 1-42 peptide in body wall muscle, one of the main proteins involved in Alzheimer´s disease. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate the protective potential of terpenoids found in C. sativa in the GNS and CholNS of C. elegans. The effect of two C. sativa oils with variations in CBD and THC concentrations on acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity, lipid peroxidation, and behavior of C. elegans was evaluated. C. sativa oils were efficient in increasing pharyngeal pumping rate and reducing defecation cycle, AChE activity, and ROS levels in N2 strains. In the muscle:Abeta1-42 strain, mainly when using CBD oil, worm movement, body bends, and pharyngeal pumping were increased, with a reduced AChE activity. Consequently, greater investments in scientific research are needed, in addition to breaking the taboo on the use of the C. sativa plant as an alternative for medicinal use, especially in neurodegenerative diseases, which have already shown positive initial results.


Assuntos
Canabidiol , Cannabis , Acetilcolinesterase , Animais , Caenorhabditis elegans , Canabidiol/farmacologia , Cannabis/química , Dronabinol/farmacologia , Humanos , Óleos Vegetais
8.
J Enzyme Inhib Med Chem ; 37(1): 2395-2402, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36065944

RESUMO

The synthesis of four heterodimers in which the copper(I)-catalysed azide-alkyne cycloaddition was employed to connect a 1-deoxynojirimycin moiety with a benzotriazole scaffold is reported. The heterodimers were investigated as inhibitors against acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE). The heterodimers displayed preferential inhibition (> 9) of BuChE over AChE in the micromolar concentration range (IC50 = 7-50 µM). For the most potent inhibitor of BuChE, Cornish-Bowden plots were used, which demonstrated that it behaves as a mixed inhibitor. Modelling studies of the same inhibitor demonstrated that the benzotriazole and 1-deoxynojirimycin moiety is accommodated in the peripheral anionic site and catalytic anionic site, respectively, of AChE. The binding mode to BuChE was different as the benzotriazole moiety is accommodated in the catalytic anionic site.


Assuntos
Acetilcolinesterase , Butirilcolinesterase , 1-Desoxinojirimicina , Acetilcolinesterase/metabolismo , Butirilcolinesterase/metabolismo , Inibidores da Colinesterase/farmacologia , Triazóis
9.
Cent Nerv Syst Agents Med Chem ; 22(2): 139-150, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36104859

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Alzheimer's disease is a progressive neurodegenerative process with multifactorial characteristics. This disease follows the natural aging process, affecting mainly people over 65 years. Pharmacotherapeutic treatment currently combats symptoms related to cognitive function. Several targets have begun to attract the interest of the scientific community to develop new drug candidates which have better pharmacokinetic and lower toxicity parameters. OBJECTIVE: The present study aims to design new candidates for acetylcholinesterase/ß-secretase (AChE/BACE1) multitarget inhibitor drugs. METHODS: 17 natural products were selected from the literature with anticholinesterase activity and 1 synthetic molecule with inhibitory activity for BACE1. Subsequently, the molecular docking study was performed, followed by the derivation of the pharmacophoric pattern and prediction of pharmacokinetic and toxicological properties. Finally, the hybrid prototype was designed. RESULTS: All selected molecules showed interactions with their respective target enzymes. Derivation of the pharmacophoric pattern from molecules that interacted with the AChE enzyme resulted in 3 pharmacophoric regions: an aromatic ring, an electron-acceptor region and a hydrophobic region. The molecules showed good pharmacokinetic and toxicological results, showing no warnings of mutagenicity and/or carcinogenicity. After the hybridization process, three hybrid molecules were obtained, which showed inhibitory activity for both targets. CONCLUSION: It is concluded that research in the field of medicinal chemistry is advancing towards the discovery of new drug candidates that bring a better quality of life to patients with AD.


Assuntos
Acetilcolinesterase , Secretases da Proteína Precursora do Amiloide , Secretases da Proteína Precursora do Amiloide/química , Ácido Aspártico Endopeptidases/química , Humanos , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Qualidade de Vida
10.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(17)2022 Aug 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36077199

RESUMO

Ultraviolet-C (UV-C) radiation significantly impacts living organisms. UV-C radiation can also be used as a pest management tool. Therefore, this study was designed to investigate the effect of UV-C radiation on the physiology and gene expression level of Plutella xylostella, a destructive vegetable pest. Results showed that, after exposure to UV-C radiation for 3, 6, 12, and 24 h, the activity of SOD (superoxide dismutase) and CAT (catalase) of P. xylostella increased, while the activity of PPO (polyphenol oxidase), POD (peroxidase), AChE (acetylcholinesterase), CarE (carboxylesterase), and ACP (acid phosphatase) decreased with increased exposure time. Correlation coefficient analyses indicated that the activity of CAT correlated positively, while PPO and CarE correlated negatively, with exposure time. Gene regulation analysis via qRT-PCR confirmed a significant increase in regulation in CAT, CarE, and PPO-related genes. We also investigated the effect of UV-C exposure on the virulence of Cordyceps fumosorosea against P. xylostella. Here, results indicated that when the fungal treatment was applied to larvae before UV-C radiation, the virulence of C. fumosorosea was significantly reduced. However, this decline in virulence of C. fumosorosea due to UV-C exposure remained only for one generation, and no effect was observed on secondary infection. On the other hand, when larvae were exposed to UV-C radiation before fungal application, the mortality rate significantly increased as the exposure time to UV-C radiation increased. From the current study, it could be concluded that UV-C exposure suppressed the immunity to P. xylostella, which later enhanced the virulence of entomopathogenic fungi. Moreover, the study also suggested that UV irradiation is an effective pest management tool that could be incorporated into pest management strategies, which could help reduce pesticide application, be economically beneficial for the farmer, and be environmentally safe.


Assuntos
Cordyceps , Mariposas , Acetilcolinesterase , Animais , Larva/microbiologia , Mariposas/microbiologia
11.
J Pharmacol Sci ; 150(2): 123-133, 2022 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36055750

RESUMO

Donepezil, an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor, is associated with gastrointestinal symptoms, such as nausea, vomiting, and anorexia, which may affect adherence to continuous therapy. Since Rikkunshi-To, a Japanese herbal medicine, activates the ghrelin signaling pathway and promotes gastrointestinal function, it is administered to prevent gastrointestinal symptoms. We herein investigated whether donepezil-induced gastrointestinal side effects in mice are ameliorated by Rikkunshi-To and if its therapeutic efficacy is mediated by ghrelin. Since pica behavior, the ingestion of kaolin, correlates with nausea and vomiting in humans, donepezil was intraperitoneally administered with or without Rikkunshi-To daily to mice, and food and kaolin intakes were monitored. The effects of donepezil on intestinal motility and a ghrelin receptor antagonist on donepezil-induced pica behavior, anorexia, and changes in intestinal motility were examined in mice treated with Rikkunshi-To. Pica behavior and anorexia were significantly induced by donepezil and significantly inhibited by Rikkunshi-To. Intestinal motility was significantly suppressed by donepezil and promoted by Rikkunshi-To. Furthermore, the therapeutic effects of Rikkunshi-To were antagonized by the ghrelin receptor antagonist. The present results support the therapeutic efficacy of Rikkunshi-To against donepezil-induced gastrointestinal side effects.


Assuntos
Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas , Medicina Kampo , Acetilcolinesterase , Animais , Anorexia/induzido quimicamente , Anorexia/tratamento farmacológico , Donepezila , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/uso terapêutico , Grelina , Humanos , Caulim/efeitos adversos , Camundongos , Náusea/induzido quimicamente , Pica/induzido quimicamente , Receptores de Grelina , Vômito/induzido quimicamente
12.
Molecules ; 27(17)2022 Aug 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36080227

RESUMO

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disease associated with memory impairment and other central nervous system (CNS) symptoms. Two myrtenal-adamantane conjugates (MACs) showed excellent CNS potential against Alzheimer's models. Adamantane is a common pharmacophore for drug design, and myrtenal (M) demonstrated neuroprotective effects in our previous studies. The aim of this study is to evaluate the MACs' neuroprotective properties in dementia. METHODS: Scopolamine (Scop) was applied intraperitoneally in Wistar rats for 11 days, simultaneously with MACs or M as a referent, respectively. Brain acetylcholine esterase (AChE) activity, noradrenaline and serotonin levels, and oxidative brain status determination followed behavioral tests on memory abilities. Molecular descriptors and docking analyses for AChE activity center affinity were performed. RESULTS: M derivatives have favorable physicochemical parameters to enter the CNS. Both MACs restored memory damaged by Scop, showing significant AChE-inhibitory activity in the cortex, in contrast to M, supported by the modeling analysis. Moderate antioxidant properties were manifested by glutathione elevation and catalase activity modulation. MACs also altered noradrenaline and serotonin content in the hippocampus. CONCLUSION: For the first time, neuroprotective properties of two MACs in a rat dementia model were observed. They were stronger than the natural M effects, which makes the substances promising candidates for AD treatment.


Assuntos
Adamantano , Doença de Alzheimer , Doenças Neurodegenerativas , Fármacos Neuroprotetores , Acetilcolinesterase/metabolismo , Adamantano/farmacologia , Doença de Alzheimer/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/uso terapêutico , Monoterpenos Bicíclicos , Aprendizagem em Labirinto , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/tratamento farmacológico , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/farmacologia , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/uso terapêutico , Norepinefrina , Estresse Oxidativo , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Escopolamina/farmacologia , Serotonina/metabolismo
13.
Molecules ; 27(17)2022 Aug 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36080269

RESUMO

Acylated flavonoids are widely distributed natural metabolites in medicinal plants and foods with several health attributes. A large diversity of chemical structures of acylated flavonoids with interesting biological effects was reported from several plant species. Of these, 123 compounds with potential antimicrobial, antiparasitic, anti-inflammatory, anti-nociceptive, analgesic, and anti-complementary effects were selected from several databases including SCI-Finder, Scopus, Google Scholar, Science Direct, PubMed, and others. Some selected reported biologically active flavonoids were docked in the active binding sites of some natural enzymes, namely acetylcholinesterase, butyrylcholinesterase, α-amylase, α-glucosidase, aldose reductase, and HIV integrase, in an attempt to underline the key interactions that might be responsible for their biological activities.


Assuntos
Butirilcolinesterase , Flavonoides , Acetilcolinesterase , Flavonoides/química , Flavonoides/farmacologia , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Extratos Vegetais/química , alfa-Glucosidases/metabolismo
14.
Molecules ; 27(17)2022 Aug 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36080298

RESUMO

Compounds containing carbamate moieties and their derivatives can generate serious public health threats and environmental problems due their high potential toxicity. In this study, a quantitative structure-toxicity relationship (QSTR) model has been developed by using one hundred seventy-eight carbamate derivatives whose toxicities in rats (oral administration) have been evaluated. The QSRT model was rigorously validated by using either tested or untested compounds falling within the applicability domain of the model. A structure-based evaluation by docking from a series of carbamates with acetylcholinesterase (AChE) was carried out. The toxicity of carbamates was predicted using physicochemical, structural, and quantum molecular descriptors employing a DFT approach. A statistical treatment was developed; the QSRT model showed a determination coefficient (R2) and a leave-one-out coefficient (Q2LOO) of 0.6584 and 0.6289, respectively.


Assuntos
Acetilcolinesterase , Carbamatos , Acetilcolinesterase/metabolismo , Animais , Carbamatos/química , Carbamatos/toxicidade , Relação Quantitativa Estrutura-Atividade , Ratos
15.
Molecules ; 27(17)2022 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36080428

RESUMO

In this article, the upgrading process of the structure-based virtual screening (SBVS) protocol targeting acetylcholinesterase (AChE) previously published in 2017 is presented. The upgraded version of PyPLIF called PyPLIF HIPPOS and the receptor ensemble docking (RED) method using AutoDock Vina were employed to calculate the ensemble protein-ligand interaction fingerprints (ensPLIF) in a retrospective SBVS campaign targeting AChE. A machine learning technique called recursive partitioning and regression trees (RPART) was then used to optimize the prediction accuracy of the protocol by using the ensPLIF values as the descriptors. The best protocol resulting from this research outperformed the previously published SBVS protocol targeting AChE.


Assuntos
Acetilcolinesterase , Aprendizado de Máquina , Ligantes , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Estudos Retrospectivos
16.
Pestic Biochem Physiol ; 187: 105186, 2022 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36127048

RESUMO

The house fly (Musca domestica L.) (Diptera: Muscidae) is a global vector that can transmit >250 human and animal diseases. The control of house flies has heavily relied on the application of various chemical insecticides. The carbamate insecticide propoxur has been widely used for the control of house flies, and resistance to propoxur has been documented in many house fly populations worldwide. Previous studies have identified several propoxur resistance-conferring mutations in the target protein acetylcholinesterase; however, the molecular basis for metabolic resistance to propoxur remains unknown. In this study, we investigated the involvement of CYP6G4, a cytochrome P450 overexpressed in many insecticide resistant populations of Musca domestica, in propoxur metabolism and resistance by using combined approaches of recombinant protein-based insecticide metabolism and the Drosophila GAL4/UAS transgenic system. The recombinant CYP6G4 and its redox partners (NADPH-dependent cytochrome P450 reductase and cytochrome b5) were functionally expressed in Escherichia coli. Metabolism experiments showed that CYP6G4 was able to transform propoxur with a turnover rate of around 0.79 min-1. Six metabolites were putatively identified, suggesting that CYP6G4 could metabolize propoxur via hydroxylation, O-depropylation and N-demethylation. Moreover, bioassay results showed that ectopic overexpression of CYP6G4 in fruit flies significantly increased their tolerance to propoxur. Our in vivo and in vitro data convincingly demonstrate that CYP6G4 contributes to propoxur metabolism and resistance.


Assuntos
Moscas Domésticas , Inseticidas , Muscidae , Acetilcolinesterase/genética , Animais , Sistema Enzimático do Citocromo P-450/genética , Sistema Enzimático do Citocromo P-450/metabolismo , Citocromos b5 , Escherichia coli , Moscas Domésticas/genética , Humanos , Resistência a Inseticidas/genética , Inseticidas/farmacologia , NADP , NADPH-Ferri-Hemoproteína Redutase , Propoxur/farmacologia , Proteínas Recombinantes
17.
J Enzyme Inhib Med Chem ; 37(1): 2605-2620, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36131624

RESUMO

Twenty-four novel compounds bearing tetrahydroacridine and N-propargyl moieties have been designed, synthesised, and evaluated in vitro for their anti-cholinesterase and anti-monoamine oxidase activities. Propargyltacrine 23 (IC50 = 21 nM) was the most potent acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitor, compound 20 (IC50 = 78 nM) showed the best inhibitory human butyrylcholinesterase (hBChE) profile, and ligand 21 afforded equipotent and significant values on both ChEs (human AChE [hAChE]: IC50 = 0.095 ± 0.001 µM; hBChE: IC50 = 0.093 ± 0.003 µM). Regarding MAO inhibition, compounds 7, 15, and 25 demonstrated the highest inhibitory potential towards hMAO-B (IC50 = 163, 40, and 170 nM, respectively). In all, compounds 7, 15, 20, 21, 23, and 25 exhibiting the most balanced pharmacological profile, were submitted to permeability and cell viability tests. As a result, 7-phenoxy-N-(prop-2-yn-1-yl)-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroacridin-9-amine hydrochloride (15) has been identified as a permeable agent that shows a balanced pharmacological profile [IC50 (hAChE) = 1.472 ± 0.024 µM; IC50 (hBChE) = 0.659 ± 0.077 µM; IC50 (hMAO-B) = 40.39 ± 5.98 nM], and consequently, as a new hit-ligand that deserves further investigation, in particular in vivo analyses, as the preliminary cell viability test results reported here suggest that this is a relatively safe therapeutic agent.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer , Butirilcolinesterase , Acetilcolinesterase/metabolismo , Doença de Alzheimer/tratamento farmacológico , Aminas , Butirilcolinesterase/metabolismo , Inibidores da Colinesterase/farmacologia , Inibidores da Colinesterase/uso terapêutico , Desenho de Fármacos , Humanos , Ligantes , Monoaminoxidase , Inibidores da Monoaminoxidase/farmacologia , Oxirredutases , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Tacrina/uso terapêutico
18.
ACS Chem Neurosci ; 13(18): 2681-2698, 2022 Sep 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36074422

RESUMO

As a contribution to the development of new dual/multifunctional drugs, a novel therapeutical scaffold merging key structural features from memantine and M30D was designed, synthesized, and explored for its AChE/BuChE inhibitory activity and neuroprotective effects. All synthetized hybrids were not able to inhibit AChE, but most of them exhibit inhibition with high selectivity toward butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE). Notably, among the tested compounds, amantadine/M30D hybrids with six, seven, nine, and twelve methylene groups in the spacer (5d, 5e, 5f, and 5g) not only highlighted having the best potency and selective butyrylcholinesterase inhibition greater than 83% but also, particularly 5e and 5d, elicited considerable neuroprotection when evaluated in pretreatment conditions, by reducing injury effects caused by glutamate with maximum protection reached about 47.82 ± 0.81% (5e) and 42 ± 2.20% (5d) in comparison with memantine (37.27 ± 2.69%). Likewise, we chose 5e as the hit compound, which in a glutamate excitotoxity coculture model prevented astroglia reactivity and neuronal death, as well as a 91% restoration of calcium levels and an increasing ATP level in both pre-/post-treatments of 61.48 ± 4.60 and 45.16 ± 10.55%, respectively. Regarding docking studies, a blockade of the NMDA channel pore by 5e would explain its neuroprotective response. Finally, the hit compound 5e exhibited in vitro blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability and human plasma stability, as well as an optimal in silico neuropharmacokinetic profile. From a therapeutic perspective, merging key pharmacophoric features from memantine and M30D provides a new medicinal scaffold with dual-/multifunctional properties and human plasma stability for the future development of potential drugs for treating AD.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer , Fármacos Neuroprotetores , Acetilcolinesterase/metabolismo , Trifosfato de Adenosina , Doença de Alzheimer/tratamento farmacológico , Butirilcolinesterase , Cálcio , Inibidores da Colinesterase/uso terapêutico , Glutamatos , Humanos , Memantina/farmacologia , Memantina/uso terapêutico , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , N-Metilaspartato , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/química , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
19.
J Med Chem ; 65(18): 12292-12318, 2022 Sep 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36084304

RESUMO

Drug development efforts that focused on single targets failed to provide effective treatment for Alzheimer's disease (AD). Therefore, we designed cholinesterase inhibition (ChEI)-based multi-target-directed ligands (MTDLs) to simultaneously target AD-related receptors. We built a library of 70 compounds, sequentially screened for ChEI, and determined σ1R, σ2R, NMDAR-GluN2B binding affinities, and P2X7R antagonistic activities. Nine fulfilled in silico drug-likeness criteria and did not display toxicity in three cell lines. Seven displayed cytoprotective activity in two stress-induced cellular models. Compared to donepezil, six showed equal/better synaptic protection in a zebrafish model of acute amyloidosis-induced synaptic degeneration. Two P2X7R antagonists alleviated the activation state of microglia in vivo. Permeability studies were performed, and four did not inhibit CYP450 3A4, 2D6, and 2C9. Therefore, four ChEI-based lead MTDLs are promising drug candidates for synaptic integrity protection and could serve as disease-modifying AD treatment. Our study also proposes zebrafish as a useful preclinical tool for drug discovery and development.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer , Acetilcolinesterase/metabolismo , Doença de Alzheimer/tratamento farmacológico , Doença de Alzheimer/metabolismo , Animais , Inibidores da Colinesterase/química , Inibidores da Colinesterase/farmacologia , Inibidores da Colinesterase/uso terapêutico , Colinesterases , Donepezila/uso terapêutico , Chumbo/uso terapêutico , Ligantes , Peixe-Zebra/metabolismo
20.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 14(37): 42454-42467, 2022 Sep 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36089739

RESUMO

Organophosphorus compounds (OPs) pose great military and civilian hazards. However, therapeutic and prophylactic antidotes against OP poisoning remain challenging. In this study, we first developed a novel nanoscavenger (rOPH/ZIF-8@E-Lipo) against methyl paraoxon (MP) poisoning using enzyme immobilization and erythrocyte-liposome hybrid membrane camouflage techniques. Then, we evaluated the physicochemical characterization, stability, and biocompatibility of the nanoscavengers. Afterward, we examined acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity, cell viability, and intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) to indicate the protective effects of the nanoscavengers in vitro. Following the pharmacokinetic and biodistribution studies, we further evaluated the therapeutic and prophylactic detoxification efficacy of the nanoscavengers against MP in various poisoning settings. Finally, we explored the penetration capacity of the nanoscavengers across the blood-brain barrier (BBB). The present study validated the successful construction of a novel nanoscavenger with excellent stability and biocompatibility. In vitro, the resulting nanoscavenger exhibited a significant protection against MP-induced AChE inactivation, oxidative stress, and cytotoxicity. In vivo, apart from the positive therapeutic effects, the nanoscavengers also exerted significant prophylactic detoxification efficacy against single lethal MP exposure, repeated lethal MP challenges, and sublethal MP poisoning. These excellent detoxification effects of the nanoscavengers against OPs may originate from a dual-mode mechanism of inner recombinant organophosphorus hydrolase (rOPH) and outer erythrocyte membrane-anchored AChE. Finally, in vitro and in vivo studies jointly demonstrated that monosialoganglioside (GM1)-modified rOPH/ZIF-8@E-Lipo could penetrate the BBB with high efficiency. In conclusion, a stable and safe dual-modal nanoscavenger was developed with BBB penetration capability, providing a promising strategy for the treatment and prevention of OP poisoning.


Assuntos
Acetilcolinesterase , Compostos Organofosforados , Acetilcolinesterase/metabolismo , Antídotos/química , Antídotos/farmacologia , Antídotos/uso terapêutico , Arildialquilfosfatase , Inibidores da Colinesterase/farmacologia , Gangliosídeo G(M1) , Lipossomos , Paraoxon/análogos & derivados , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio , Distribuição Tecidual
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