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1.
Med Gas Res ; 13(1): 7-9, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35946216

RESUMO

Ischemic stroke happens when the blood supply to the brain is obstructed and it is associated with numerous complex mechanisms, such as activated apoptosis genes, oxidative stress and reaction of inflammation, which finally result in neurological deficits. Several gases have been proved to have neuroprotective roles, even the classic gases that are thought to be toxic such as hydrogen sulfide (H2S). H2S is the third identified endogenous gas signaling molecule following carbon monoxide and nitric oxide. H2S plays a significant role in stroke. Inhalation of H2S can attenuate cerebral infarct volume and promote neurological function in a rat model of middle cerebral artery occlusion to reduce ischemic stroke-induced injury in vivo and in vitro as a result. Therefore, H2S can be clinically used to reduce ischemic stroke-induced injury. This review introduces the toxic mechanisms and effects of H2S on cerebral ischemic stroke.


Assuntos
Sulfeto de Hidrogênio , AVC Isquêmico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Animais , Encéfalo , Sulfeto de Hidrogênio/farmacologia , Sulfeto de Hidrogênio/uso terapêutico , Infarto da Artéria Cerebral Média/tratamento farmacológico , Ratos , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/tratamento farmacológico
2.
Eur J Neurol ; 29(3): 905-909, 2022 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34808013

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: A sensitive and frequent clinical sign of a vestibular tone imbalance is the tilt of the perceived subjective visual vertical (SVV). There are no data yet focusing on lesion location at the cortical level as a factor for predicting compensation from the tilt of the SVV. METHODS: With modern voxelwise lesion behavior mapping analysis, the present study determines whether lesion location in 23 right-hemispheric cortical stroke patients with an otolith dysfunction could predict the compensation of a vestibular tone imbalance in the chronic stage. RESULTS: Our statistical anatomical lesion analysis revealed that lesions of the posterior insular cortex are involved in vestibular otolith compensation. CONCLUSION: The insular cortex appears to be a critical anatomical region for predicting a tilt of the SVV as a chronic disorder in stroke patients.


Assuntos
Membrana dos Otólitos , Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Córtex Cerebral/patologia , Humanos , Membrana dos Otólitos/patologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/complicações , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/diagnóstico por imagem , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/patologia
3.
J Korean Med Sci ; 37(7): e54, 2022 Feb 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35191231

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The code stroke system is designed to identify stroke patients who may benefit from reperfusion therapy. It is essential for emergency physicians to rapidly distinguish true strokes from stroke mimics to activate code stroke. This study aimed to investigate the clinical and neurological characteristics that can be used to differentiate between stroke and stroke mimics in the emergency department (ED). METHODS: We conducted a retrospective observational study of code stroke patients in the ED from January to December 2019. The baseline characteristics and the clinical and neurological features of stroke mimics were compared with those of strokes. RESULTS: A total of 409 code stroke patients presented to the ED, and 125 (31%) were diagnosed with stroke mimics. The common stroke mimics were seizures (21.7%), drug toxicity (12.0%), metabolic disorders (11.2%), brain tumors (8.8%), and peripheral vertigo (7.2%). The independent predictors of stroke mimics were psychiatric disorders, dizziness, altered mental status, and seizure-like movements, while current smoking, elevated systolic blood pressure, atrial fibrillation on the initial electrocardiogram, hemiparesis as a symptom, and facial palsy as a sign suggested a stroke. In addition, the likelihood of a stroke in code stroke patients tended to increase as the number of accompanying deficits increased from the following set of seven focal neurological deficits: hemiparesis (or upper limb monoparesis), unilateral limb sensory change, facial palsy, dysarthria, aphasia (or neglect), visual field defect, and oculomotor disorder (P < 0.001). CONCLUSION: Some clinical and neurological characteristics have been identified to help differentiate stroke mimics from true stroke. In particular, the likelihood of stroke tended to increase as the number of accompanying focal neurological deficits increased.


Assuntos
Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Terapia Trombolítica , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Tontura/complicações , Tontura/etiologia , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/complicações , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/diagnóstico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/tratamento farmacológico
4.
BMC Med ; 20(1): 326, 2022 09 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36056426

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Clinical complexity is increasingly prevalent among patients with atrial fibrillation (AF). The 'Atrial fibrillation Better Care' (ABC) pathway approach has been proposed to streamline a more holistic and integrated approach to AF care; however, there are limited data on its usefulness among clinically complex patients. We aim to determine the impact of ABC pathway in a contemporary cohort of clinically complex AF patients. METHODS: From the ESC-EHRA EORP-AF General Long-Term Registry, we analysed clinically complex AF patients, defined as the presence of frailty, multimorbidity and/or polypharmacy. A K-medoids cluster analysis was performed to identify different groups of clinical complexity. The impact of an ABC-adherent approach on major outcomes was analysed through Cox-regression analyses and delay of event (DoE) analyses. RESULTS: Among 9966 AF patients included, 8289 (83.1%) were clinically complex. Adherence to the ABC pathway in the clinically complex group reduced the risk of all-cause death (adjusted HR [aHR]: 0.72, 95%CI 0.58-0.91), major adverse cardiovascular events (MACEs; aHR: 0.68, 95%CI 0.52-0.87) and composite outcome (aHR: 0.70, 95%CI: 0.58-0.85). Adherence to the ABC pathway was associated with a significant reduction in the risk of death (aHR: 0.74, 95%CI 0.56-0.98) and composite outcome (aHR: 0.76, 95%CI 0.60-0.96) also in the high-complexity cluster; similar trends were observed for MACEs. In DoE analyses, an ABC-adherent approach resulted in significant gains in event-free survival for all the outcomes investigated in clinically complex patients. Based on absolute risk reduction at 1 year of follow-up, the number needed to treat for ABC pathway adherence was 24 for all-cause death, 31 for MACEs and 20 for the composite outcome. CONCLUSIONS: An ABC-adherent approach reduces the risk of major outcomes in clinically complex AF patients. Ensuring adherence to the ABC pathway is essential to improve clinical outcomes among clinically complex AF patients.


Assuntos
Fibrilação Atrial , Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Anticoagulantes/uso terapêutico , Fibrilação Atrial/tratamento farmacológico , Fibrilação Atrial/epidemiologia , Humanos , Sistema de Registros , Fatores de Risco , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/complicações
5.
BMC Neurol ; 22(1): 332, 2022 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36057555

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study aimed to investigate the risk predictors for early neurological deterioration (END) in isolated acute pontine infarction without any causative artery stenosis. METHODS: In this retrospective study, patients with isolated acute pontine infarction within 72 h of symptom onset were enrolled between October 2017 and December 2021. END was defined as an increase in the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score ≥ 2 points within the first week postadmission. Patients were divided into the END and the non-END groups. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate independent predictors of END in patients with isolated acute pontine infarction. RESULTS: A total of 153 patients were included in the final study (62 females; mean age, 67.27 ± 11.35 years), of whom 28.7% (47 of 153) experienced END. Multiple logistic regression analyses showed that infarct volume (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 1.003; 95% CI, 1.001-1.005; P = 0.002) and basilar artery branch disease  (aOR, 3.388; 95% CI, 1.102-10.417; P = 0.033) were associated with END. The combined ROC analysis of the infarct volume and basilar artery branch disease for predicting END showed that the sensitivity and specificity were 80.9% and 72.6%, respectively. CONCLUSION: Basilar artery branch disease and infarct volume were associated with END in acute isolated pontine infarction and may be useful prognostic factors for neurological progression.


Assuntos
Infartos do Tronco Encefálico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Idoso , Artérias , Infartos do Tronco Encefálico/complicações , Infartos do Tronco Encefálico/diagnóstico , Constrição Patológica , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco
6.
Ann Med ; 54(1): 2411-2419, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36062815

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Literature suggests that different risks of mortality could influence physicians in prescribing or not anticoagulants in older patients with atrial fibrillation (AF). The Multidimensional Prognostic Index (MPI) can be considered a tool for the detection of multidimensional frailty. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to evaluate whether prescription patterns of oral anticoagulants exist, based on MPI values. METHODS: Older hospitalised patients (age ≥ 65 years) with non-valvular AF were included across 24 European centres. MPI was calculated using validated and standardised tools derived from a comprehensive geriatric assessment. Other functional and clinical information were collected to calculate indexes specific for haemorrhagic and thromboembolic risk in AF. RESULTS: Altogether, 2,012 participants affected by AF (mean age was 83.2 ± 7.5, range: 65-104 years), with a higher presence of women (57.0%), were included. Overall, 440 took vitamin K antagonists VKAs (22.0%), 667 (33.4%) direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs), whilst 44.6% did not take any anticoagulant treatment. Prescription of anticoagulants was associated with MPI values, with people taking anticoagulants having lower mean MPI values. Anticoagulant therapy was not used in 53.1% of the group with the highest risk of mortality, compared with 32.3% of those in the group with the lowest mortality risk. People with higher scores in MPI were less frequently treated with anticoagulant therapy, after adjusting for several potential confounders. CONCLUSIONS: The EURopean study of Older Subjects with Atrial Fibrillation (EUROSAF) suggested that almost half of the older persons with AF do not receive anticoagulants and that MPI is an important determinant in prescribing or not anticoagulants. Trial Registration: https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT02973984KEY POINTSAtrial fibrillation is a common condition in older people. The data regarding the use of anticoagulants is mainly derived from randomised controlled trials that do not include a sufficient number of older frail people.Our study suggests that a consistent part of older people affected by atrial fibrillation was not treated with anticoagulants, in particular, older frail patients; however, it is unclear if this choice is supported or not by evidence.The prognostic evaluation through the multidimensional prognostic index could be useful information for the choice in the prescription of anticoagulants in older people affected by atrial fibrillation.


Assuntos
Fibrilação Atrial , Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Administração Oral , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Anticoagulantes/uso terapêutico , Fibrilação Atrial/complicações , Fibrilação Atrial/diagnóstico , Fibrilação Atrial/tratamento farmacológico , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Prescrições , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/etiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/prevenção & controle
7.
BMC Neurol ; 22(1): 335, 2022 Sep 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36068544

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Stroke is the second leading cause of death above the age of 60 years, and the fifth leading cause in people aged 15 to 59 years old as reported by the World Health Organization global burden of diseases. Stroke in the young is particularly tragic because of the potential to create long-term disability, burden on the victims, their families, and the community at large. Despite this, there is limited data on stroke in young adults, and its risk factors in Uganda. Therefore, we determined the frequency and risk factors for stroke among young adults at Mulago hospital. METHODS: A case control study was conducted among patients presenting consecutively to the general medical wards with stroke during the study period September 2015 to March 2016. A brain Computerized Tomography scan was performed to confirm stroke and classify the stroke subtype. Controls were patients that presented to the surgical outpatient clinic with minor surgical conditions, matched for age and sex. Social demographic, clinical and laboratory characteristics were assessed for both cases and controls. Descriptive statistics including frequencies, percentages, means, and standard deviation were used to describe the social demographics of case and controls as well as the stroke types for cases. To determine risk factors for stroke, a conditional logistic regression, which accounts for matching (e.g., age and sex), was applied. Odds ratio (with 95% confidence interval) was used as a measure for associations. RESULTS: Among 51 patients with stroke, 39(76.5%) had ischemic stroke and 12(23.5%) had hemorrhagic stroke. The mean age was 36.8 years (SD 7.4) for stroke patients (cases) and 36.8 years (SD 6.9) for controls. Female patients predominated in both groups 56.9% in cases and 52.9% in controls. Risk factors noted were HIV infection, OR 3.57 (95% CI 1.16-10.96), elevated waist to hip ratio, OR 11.59(95% CI 1.98-68.24) and sickle cell disease, OR 4.68 (95% CI 1.11-19.70). This study found a protective effect of oral contraceptive use for stroke OR 0.27 95% CI 0.08-0.87. There was no association between stroke and hypertension, diabetes, and hyperlipidemia. CONCLUSION: Among young adults with stroke, ischemic stroke predominated over hemorrhagic stroke. Risk factors for stroke were HIV infection, elevated waist to hip ratio and sickle cell disease.


Assuntos
Anemia Falciforme , Infecções por HIV , Acidente Vascular Cerebral Hemorrágico , AVC Isquêmico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Adolescente , Adulto , Anemia Falciforme/complicações , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/etiologia , Adulto Jovem
8.
Cardiovasc Diabetol ; 21(1): 177, 2022 Sep 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36068573

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To explore long-term cardiovascular prognosis after myocardial infarction (MI) among patients with type 1 diabetes. METHODS: Patients with type 1 diabetes surviving 90 days after MI (n = 1508; 60% male, mean age = 62.1 years) or without any type of diabetes (n = 62,785) in Finland during 2005-2018 were retrospectively studied using multiple national registries. The primary outcome of interest was a combined major adverse cardiovascular event (MACE; cardiovascular death, recurrent MI, ischemic stroke, or heart failure hospitalization) studied with a competing risk Fine-Gray analyses. Median follow-up was 3.9 years (maximum 12 years). Differences between groups were balanced by multivariable adjustments and propensity score matching (n = 1401 patient pairs). RESULTS: Cumulative incidence of MACE after MI was higher in patients with type 1 diabetes (67.6%) compared to propensity score-matched patients without diabetes (46.0%) (sub-distribution hazard ratio [sHR]: 1.94; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.74-2.17; p < 0.0001). Probabilities of cardiovascular death (sHR 1.81; p < 0.0001), recurrent MI (sHR 1.91; p < 0.0001), ischemic stroke (sHR 1.50; p = 0.0003), and heart failure hospitalization (sHR 1.98; p < 0.0001) were higher in patients with type 1 diabetes. Incidence of MACE was higher in diabetes patients than in controls in subgroups of men and women, patients aged < 60 and ≥ 60 years, revascularized and non-revascularized patients, and patients with and without atrial fibrillation, heart failure, or malignancy. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with type 1 diabetes have notably poorer long-term cardiovascular prognosis after an MI compared to patients without diabetes. These results underline the importance of effective secondary prevention after MI in patients with type 1 diabetes.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1 , Insuficiência Cardíaca , AVC Isquêmico , Infarto do Miocárdio , Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/diagnóstico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/epidemiologia , Feminino , Insuficiência Cardíaca/diagnóstico , Insuficiência Cardíaca/epidemiologia , Insuficiência Cardíaca/terapia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infarto do Miocárdio/diagnóstico , Infarto do Miocárdio/epidemiologia , Infarto do Miocárdio/terapia , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia
9.
PLoS One ; 17(9): e0274180, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36070300

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) increases blood pressure variability (BPV) and affects stroke outcomes. However, the effect of BPV on early neurological deterioration (END) may be different according to the renal function. METHODS: We enrolled ischemic stroke patients with a National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale of ≤5. END was defined as worsening of ≥1 point in motor power or ≥2 points in total score. BPV was calculated with BP measured during the first 5 days and presented as standard deviation (SD) and coefficient of variation (CoV). Renal function was classified using the Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) classification of CKD. Variables were compared between those with (KDIGO classification: moderate- to very-high-risk) and without renal impairment (KDIGO classification: low-risk) and factors associated with END were investigated. RESULTS: Among the 290 patients (136 [46.9%] renal impairment), END was observed in 59 (20.3%) patients. BPV parameters and the risk of END increased as renal function was impaired. Renal function and systolic BP (SBP) mean, SD, CoV, and diastolic BP (DBP) mean, SD were independently associated with END. We found no association between BPV parameters and END in normal renal function patients; however, among impaired renal function patients, SBP SD (odds ratio [OR]: 1.20, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.09-1.32, P<0.001) and CoV (1.30 [1.12-1.50], P<0.001) were associated with END. CONCLUSIONS: The association between END and BPV parameters differs according to renal function in minor ischemic stroke; BPV was associated with END in patients with renal impairment, but less in those with normal renal function.


Assuntos
AVC Isquêmico , Insuficiência Renal Crônica , Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Pressão Sanguínea/fisiologia , Determinação da Pressão Arterial , Humanos , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/complicações , Estados Unidos
12.
Comput Math Methods Med ; 2022: 8553539, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36072767

RESUMO

Background: Cerebral hemorrhage, also known as hemorrhagic stroke, is a common clinical cerebrovascular disease, accounting for about 10%-30% of stroke, with high morbidity and mortality. Objective: To observe the effect of optimal management of hyperglycemia and intensive nursing on blood glucose control level and complications in patients with postoperative cerebral hemorrhage. Methods: One hundred and eight patients with postoperative cerebral hemorrhage comorbid with stress hyperglycemia admitted to our neurosurgery department from February 2019 to February 2022 were selected and divided into a general group of 54 cases and an optimized group of 54 cases by simple random method. The general group was managed with conventional care, while the optimized group developed optimized management of hyperglycemia for intensive care. The indexes related to blood glucose control, electrolytes, National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) scores, Barthel Index (BI) scores, and time to achieve blood glucose standard, insulin pumping time, patient satisfaction, and prognosis were compared between the two groups. Results: Before intervention, there was no statistical significance in the comparison of blood glucose control-related indicators and electrolytes between the two groups (P > 0.05). After 7 d and 14 d of intervention, the fasting blood glucose and 2 h postprandial blood glucose in the two groups were lower than before, while K+ and Na+ were higher than before (P < 0.05). The blood glucose indexes at the same time point in the optimized group were found to be lower than those in the general group by statistical analysis, but electrolytes were not statistically significant when compared with the general group (P > 0.05). In the optimized group, the time to achieve blood glucose standard (6.59 ± 1.94) d and insulin pumping time (7.14 ± 1.89) d were shorter than those in the general group [(7.48 ± 2.12) d and (8.58 ± 2.14) d], insulin dosage (748.85 ± 63.61) U was less than that in the general group (923.54 ± 84.14) U, and the incidence of hypoglycemia (3.70%) was lower than that in the general group (16.67%), and the satisfaction rate (92.59%) was higher than that of the general group (77.78%), which was statistically significant (P < 0.05). Before intervention, there was no significant difference in NIHSS score and BI score between the two groups (P > 0.05). After 7 d and 14 d of intervention, the NIHSS scores of the two groups were lower than before, while the BI scores were higher than before, and the NIHSS scores of the optimized group at the same time point were all lower than those of the general group, and the BI scores were higher than those of the general group (P < 0.05). The incidence of pulmonary infection (11.11%) and rebleeding (7.41%) in the optimized group were lower than those in the general group (25.93% and 22.22%), while deep vein thrombosis, multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS), and death within 28 d was not statistically significant when compared with the general group (P > 0.05). Conclusion: Optimal management of hyperglycemia and intensive nursing can effectively control the blood sugar level of patients after cerebral hemorrhage, reducing insulin dosage, and the occurrence of hypoglycemia, pulmonary infection, and rebleeding.


Assuntos
Hiperglicemia , Hipoglicemia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Glicemia , Hemorragia Cerebral , Controle Glicêmico , Humanos , Hiperglicemia/complicações , Hipoglicemia/complicações , Insulina/uso terapêutico
13.
Curr Pharm Teach Learn ; 14(8): 938-948, 2022 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36055702

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The objective was to describe the interprofessional stroke simulation delivered across three campuses with seven types of health professions students and the impact the activity had on the students. METHODS: An interprofessional stroke simulation event was completed with pharmacy, medical, nursing, physician assistant, occupational therapy, physical therapy, and speech pathology students across a multi-site campus. Pre-activity, demographic information was requested including age, gender, discipline, year in respective program, number of experiences in prior interprofessional events, and comfort working with other health care professionals. The survey was repeated after the session and gathered free-text responses on whether learners gained information on working together, if they learned about the roles of other health care workers, and if they found the session useful. RESULTS: A total of 1820 health care professional students completed the simulation activity over four years. Of those students, 1035 (57%) completed the pre-survey, and 884 (49%) completed the post-survey. From the post-survey results, 91.5% of participants felt that they learned how health care disciplines can work together. Also, 87% of participants felt more comfortable working with learners from other professions. Most participants agreed the session was useful (77.1%) and rated it as moderately to extremely effective (81.8%). CONCLUSIONS: Interprofessional sessions with health care professional students are beneficial for learning new information about other professions and enhancing comfort levels in working with interprofessional groups. The interprofessional simulation improved the comfort level of students working with other health care professional students and should be considered in professional student curricula.


Assuntos
Relações Interprofissionais , Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Pessoal de Saúde , Humanos , Aprendizagem , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/terapia , Estudantes
14.
BMC Neurol ; 22(1): 331, 2022 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36056308

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hand knob stroke is a rare clinical disorder frequently misdiagnosed as peripheral neuropathy. The purpose of this study is to recognize this particular type of stroke by analyzing clinical features, etiology, and prognosis. METHODS: We enrolled 19 patients with acute hand knob stroke in the Department of Neurology of the Beijing Geriatric Hospital from January 2018 to January 2022, and the clinical and imaging data of the patients during hospitalization and follow-up were collected and summarized. RESULTS: Acute hand knob stroke accounted for 0.9% of all acute stroke, and ischemic stroke (17 cases, 89.5%) was more than hemorrhagic stroke (2 cases, 10.5%). All patients presented sudden contralateral hand paresis, 12 (63.2%) of them had only isolated hand paralysis, and the location of the lesion corresponded to different finger weakness. The cause of hand knob hemorrhage was hypertension, while the causes of hand knob infarction were mainly small-vessel occlusion (SVO) (35.3%) and large-artery atherosclerosis (LAA) (35.3%), and the rare causes include carotid artery dissection and carotid body tumor. After a median follow-up 13.5 months, the prognosis of 94.7% patients was good, and one patient (5.3%) had recurrent stroke. CONCLUSIONS: Hand knob stroke is a rare stroke with a good prognosis and a low stroke recurrence rate. Ischemic stroke is the predominant type and the main clinical manifestation is hand paresis. The cause of hand knob hemorrhage is hypertensive, while SVO and LAA are the main causes of hand knob infarction, but there are some rare etiologies.


Assuntos
Aterosclerose , AVC Isquêmico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Idoso , Aterosclerose/complicações , Infarto Cerebral/complicações , Humanos , Debilidade Muscular/etiologia , Paresia/etiologia , Prognóstico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/complicações , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia
15.
BMC Neurol ; 22(1): 330, 2022 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36056314

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Serum calcium abnormalities have been determined to be associated with the risk and outcome of stroke. The aim of the present study was to examine the associations of serum calcium with vascular recanalization, symptomatic intracranial haemorrhage and functional outcome in stroke patients after mechanical thrombectomy. METHODS: A total of 192 patients treated with mechanical thrombectomy for anterior circulation large vessel occlusion were consecutively included from August 2017 to June 2021. Serum calcium levels were measured on admission, and albumin-corrected calcium levels were calculated for subsequent analysis. Successful arterial revascularization was defined as a modified Thrombolysis in Cerebral Infarction scale score ≥ 2b. Symptomatic intracranial haemorrhage was assessed according to the European Cooperative Acute Stroke Study (ECASS) III criteria. Poor functional outcome was defined as a modified Rankin Scale score > 2 at 3 months. RESULTS: Patients with poor outcomes had higher albumin-corrected calcium levels than patients with good outcomes before (2.20 (2.10, 2.30) mmol/L vs. 2.13 (2.04, 2.24) mmol/L, P = 0.002), and after adjusting for other factors (AOR 95% CI, 1.812 (1.253, 2.621), P = 0.002). Patients with unsuccessful recanalization had higher albumin-corrected calcium levels than those with recanalization (2.26 (2.09, 2.46) mmol/L vs. 2.17 (2.07, 2.27) mmol/L, P = 0.029), and after adjusting for other factors (AOR 95% CI, 2.068 (1.214, 3.524)), P = 0.008). No association was found between albumin-corrected calcium and symptomatic intracranial haemorrhage. CONCLUSIONS: Higher serum albumin-corrected calcium levels are independently associated with revascularization and poor outcome in stroke patients after mechanical thrombectomy.


Assuntos
Isquemia Encefálica , Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Isquemia Encefálica/etiologia , Cálcio , Humanos , Hemorragias Intracranianas/epidemiologia , Hemorragias Intracranianas/etiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Albumina Sérica , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/terapia , Trombectomia/efeitos adversos , Resultado do Tratamento
16.
Trials ; 23(1): 729, 2022 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36056399

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: High-intensity repetitive task-specific practice might be the most effective strategy to promote motor recovery after stroke, and electromechanical-assisted gait training represents one of the treatment options. However, there is still difficulty in clarifying the difference between conventional gait training and electromechanically assisted gait training. METHODS: The study is a multicenter, randomized, parallel-group clinical trial for stroke patients. Three clinical research centers in Korea (Dongguk University Ilsan Hospital, Chungnam National University Hospital, and Seoul National University Bundang Hospital) will participate in the clinical trial and 144 stroke patients will be registered. Enrolled patients are assigned to two groups, an experimental group and a control group, according to a randomization table. In addition, patients are treated for half an hour (one session) five times a week for 4 weeks. Both groups carry out basic rehabilitation (central nervous system development therapy and strength exercise) and the experimental group executes robotic walking rehabilitation treatment, and the control group executes conventional gait rehabilitation treatment. The primary endpoint variable is the Functional Ambulation Category (FAC) that determines the degree of independent walking and is measured before, after, and after 4 weeks of treatment. Secondary endpoint variables are 11 variables that take into account motor function and range, measured at the same time as the primary endpoint variable. DISCUSSION: There are still insufficient data on the effectiveness of electromechanical-assisted gait training for stroke patients and large-scale research is lacking. Thus, the research described here is a large-scale study of stroke patients that can supplement the limitations mentioned in other previous studies. In addition, the clinical studies described here include physical epidemiological analysis parameters that can determine walking ability. The results of this study can lead to prove the generalizable effectiveness and safety of electromechanical-assisted gait training with EXOWALK®. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinical Research Information Service (CRIS), Republic of Korea KCT0003411, Registered on 30 October 2018.


Assuntos
Reabilitação do Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Terapia por Exercício/métodos , Marcha/fisiologia , Humanos , Estudos Multicêntricos como Assunto , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Recuperação de Função Fisiológica , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/complicações , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/diagnóstico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/terapia , Reabilitação do Acidente Vascular Cerebral/métodos , Resultado do Tratamento , Caminhada/fisiologia
17.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 11(17): e026123, 2022 Sep 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36056724

RESUMO

Background Women have been reported to have worse health-related quality of life (HRQoL) following stroke than men, but uncertainty exists over the reasons for the sex difference. Methods and Results We included all ischemic strokes registered with the BASIC (Brain Attack Surveillance in Corpus Christi) project (May 2010-December 2016), a population-based stroke study, who completed a 90-day outcome interview. Information on baseline characteristics was obtained from medical records and in-person interviews. HRQoL was measured by the 12-item short-form Stroke Specific Quality of Life Scale. Multivariable Tobit regression was used to estimate the mean difference in overall HRQoL scores (range, 1-5; higher indicating better HRQoL) between sexes and to identify contributing factors to the differences. We included 1061 cases with complete data on HRQoL and covariates (median age, 67 years; 51% women). In unadjusted analyses, women had poorer overall HRQoL than men (mean difference, -0.26 [95% CI, -0.40 to -0.13]). Contributors to this difference included sociodemographic/prestroke factors (eg, age, race and ethnicity, prestroke function), risk factors/comorbidities (eg, history of stroke, Alzheimer disease/dementia), and initial stroke severity. Sociodemographic/prestroke factors explained 62% of the sex difference (mean difference, -0.08 [95% CI, -0.21 to 0.04]). In a fully adjusted model that included adjustment for all confounding factors, the sex difference was eliminated and became nonsignificant (mean difference, -0.03 [95% CI, -0.16 to 0.09]). Conclusions Poorer HRQoL in women compared with men was observed and explained by the combination of sociodemographic and prestroke factors, including physical function before stroke and stroke severity. The findings suggest potential subgroups of women who might benefit from more targeted interventions before and after stroke to improve HRQoL.


Assuntos
AVC Isquêmico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Idoso , Encéfalo , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Qualidade de Vida , Fatores de Risco , Caracteres Sexuais , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/diagnóstico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia
18.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 11(17): e024970, 2022 Sep 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36056729

RESUMO

Background We investigated the predictors related to major bleeding events during treatment with edoxaban 15 mg in patients aged ≥80 years with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation and high bleeding risk, for whom standard oral anticoagulants are inappropriate, focusing on standard laboratory tests related to bleeding. Methods and Results This was a prespecified subanalysis of the on-treatment analysis set of the ELDERCARE-AF (Edoxaban Low-Dose for Elder Care Atrial Fibrillation Patients) trial. Major bleeding was the primary safety end point. The event rates were calculated according to prespecified characteristics at baseline. A total of 984 Japanese patients were randomly assigned to edoxaban 15 mg or placebo (n=492, each). During the study period, 20 and 11 major bleeding events occurred in the edoxaban and placebo groups, respectively. The adjusted analysis revealed that hemoglobin <12.3 g/dL (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR], 3.57 [95% CI, 1.10-11.55]) and prothrombin time ≥12.7 seconds; (aHR, 2.89 [95% CI, 1.05-8.02]) independently predicted major bleeding, while creatinine clearance <30 mL/min showed a tendency towards an increase in major bleeding (aHR, 2.68; 95% CI, 0.96-7.46). In patients treated with edoxaban lacking these 3 risk factors, no major bleeding occurred; major bleeding event rates increased with each risk factor. Patients with 3 risk factors were significantly more likely to have a major bleeding event at 11.05%/year (HR, 7.15 [95% CI, 1.92-26.71]). Conclusions In elderly patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation with high bleeding risk, baseline hemoglobin <12.3 g/dL, prothrombin time ≥12.7 seconds, and creatinine clearance <30 mL/min may predict major bleeding during treatment with edoxaban 15 mg. Registration URL: ELDERCARE-AF https://www.clinicaltrials.gov; Unique number: NCT02801669.


Assuntos
Fibrilação Atrial , Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Idoso , Anticoagulantes/uso terapêutico , Fibrilação Atrial/complicações , Fibrilação Atrial/diagnóstico , Fibrilação Atrial/tratamento farmacológico , Creatinina , Método Duplo-Cego , Inibidores do Fator Xa , Hemorragia/induzido quimicamente , Hemorragia/epidemiologia , Humanos , Piridinas , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/etiologia , Tiazóis , Varfarina
19.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 11(17): e026528, 2022 Sep 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36056731

RESUMO

After ischemic stroke, there is a significant burden of cardiovascular complications, both in the acute and chronic phase. Severe adverse cardiac events occur in 10% to 20% of patients within the first few days after stroke and comprise a continuum of cardiac changes ranging from acute myocardial injury and coronary syndromes to heart failure or arrhythmia. Recently, the term stroke-heart syndrome was introduced to provide an integrated conceptual framework that summarizes neurocardiogenic mechanisms that lead to these cardiac events after stroke. New findings from experimental and clinical studies have further refined our understanding of the clinical manifestations, pathophysiology, and potential long-term consequences of the stroke-heart syndrome. Local cerebral and systemic mediators, which mainly involve autonomic dysfunction and increased inflammation, may lead to altered cardiomyocyte metabolism, dysregulation of (tissue-resident) leukocyte populations, and (micro-) vascular changes. However, at the individual patient level, it remains challenging to differentiate between comorbid cardiovascular conditions and stroke-induced heart injury. Therefore, further research activities led by joint teams of basic and clinical researchers with backgrounds in both cardiology and neurology are needed to identify the most relevant therapeutic targets that can be tested in clinical trials.


Assuntos
Cardiopatias , Insuficiência Cardíaca , Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Coração , Cardiopatias/complicações , Insuficiência Cardíaca/complicações , Humanos , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/diagnóstico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/etiologia
20.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 11(17): e027143, 2022 Sep 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36056733

RESUMO

BACKGROUND Despite accumulating evidence suggesting that bereavement is associated with increased risks of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, the association between bereavement and prognosis after acute myocardial infarction (AMI) has not been well documented. We investigated the association by using Swedish register data. METHODS AND RESULTS We studied 266 651 patients with a first AMI included in the SWEDEHEART (Swedish Web-system for Enhancement and Development of Evidence-based care in Heart disease Evaluated According to Recommended Therapies) quality register from 1991 to 2018. We obtained information on bereavement (ie, death of a partner, child, grandchild, sibling, or parent), on primary (nonfatal recurrent AMI and death attributed to ischemic heart disease) and secondary outcomes (total mortality, heart failure, and stroke) and on covariates from several national registers. The association was analyzed using Poisson regression. The bereaved patients had a slightly increased risk of the primary outcome; the corresponding risk ratio (RR) was 1.02 (95% CI, 1.00-1.04). An increased risk was noted any time bereavement occurred, except if the loss was in the year after the first AMI. The association was strongest for the loss of a partner, followed by the loss of a child, grandchild, sibling, or parent. We also observed increased risks for total mortality (RR, 1.14 [95% CI, 1.12-1.16]), heart failure (RR, 1.05 [95% CI, 1.02-1.08]), and stroke (RR, 1.09 [95% CI, 1.05-1.13]) following bereavement. CONCLUSIONS Bereavement was associated with an increased risk of poor prognosis after a first AMI. The association varied by the relationship to the deceased.


Assuntos
Luto , Insuficiência Cardíaca , Infarto do Miocárdio , Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Criança , Estudos de Coortes , Insuficiência Cardíaca/diagnóstico , Insuficiência Cardíaca/epidemiologia , Insuficiência Cardíaca/terapia , Humanos , Infarto do Miocárdio/diagnóstico , Infarto do Miocárdio/epidemiologia , Infarto do Miocárdio/terapia , Prognóstico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/complicações , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/diagnóstico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia , Suécia/epidemiologia
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