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1.
Prog Cardiovasc Dis ; 66: 92-100, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34332665

RESUMO

Stroke is a major driver of increased morbidity and mortality in patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF). While systemic oral anticoagulation (OAC) continues to be the mainstay for stroke reduction therapy in patients with NVAF, several barriers prevent the sustained long-term use of OAC, including increased risk of bleeding, non-compliance, cost, drug-drug interactions, and the need for ongoing laboratory testing. Given the need for continued stroke reduction therapies in patients who are intolerant of or non-compliant with OAC, percutaneous left atrial appendage (LAA) occlusion (LAAO) has emerged as a nonpharmacologic alternative to OAC. The development of percutaneous LAAO techniques is based on data suggesting that more than 90% of thrombi in patients with NVAF originate in the LAA. Two percutaneous LAAO devices are currently in widespread clinical use: Watchman (United States and Europe) and the Amplatzer type of devices (Europe); randomized trial data exist only for the Watchman device. Multiple randomized and nonrandomized trials and registries have demonstrated the safety and effectiveness of LAAO in patients who are suitable for short-term anticoagulation using a variety of post-procedural antithrombotic strategies. Ongoing randomized clinical trials on LAAO are focused on OAC-ineligible patients to compare efficacy of LAAO devices against a multitude of antithrombotic options. This review aims to discuss the rationale and evidence for LAAO and post procedural antithrombotic strategies and opportunities for research examination. In addition, we discuss the need for continued investigation of LAAO in populations not well represented in clinical trials or registries, including women, older patients, and underrepresented racial and ethnic groups.


Assuntos
Apêndice Atrial/fisiopatologia , Fibrilação Atrial/terapia , Cateterismo Cardíaco/instrumentação , Fibrinolíticos/uso terapêutico , Dispositivo para Oclusão Septal , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/prevenção & controle , Fibrilação Atrial/diagnóstico , Fibrilação Atrial/mortalidade , Fibrilação Atrial/fisiopatologia , Cateterismo Cardíaco/efeitos adversos , Cateterismo Cardíaco/mortalidade , Tomada de Decisão Clínica , Fibrinolíticos/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Seleção de Pacientes , Desenho de Prótese , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/diagnóstico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/mortalidade , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/fisiopatologia , Resultado do Tratamento
2.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 30(9): 105966, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34271274

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Stroke constitutes a significant public health problem in developing countries. Caregivers provide an important support system for patient care but usually lack knowledge and skill to attend their stroke patients. We assessed whether a caregiver-directed educational intervention would reduce hospital-acquired complications and improve stroke patients' outcomes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We randomly assigned two Neurology inpatient wards to receive either standard care or an educational intervention. The coprimary outcomes included incidence of hospital-acquired complications and in-hospital mortality. Secondary outcomes included the modified Rankin Scale and mortality at three months. RESULTS: Among 164 patients recruited, 82 received intervention, and standard care each. The mean (Standard deviation) Glasgow coma scale of patients was 11.01 (3.4), and National Institute of Health Stroke Scale was 19.17 (8.54). The incidence of complications (72 in the intervention versus 81 in the control group; p=0.56) was not different. Ten patients (12.2%) in the intervention group and 16 (19.5%) in the control group (p=0.20) died in-hospital. Twenty patients (27.8%) in the intervention and twelve (18.2%) in the control group attained modified Rankin Scale 0-2 at three months (p=0.12). The mortality at three months (20 [24.4%] in the intervention versus 25 [30.5%] in the control group) was not different (p=0.38). The intervention group had fewer complications (42 versus 68 in the control group; p=0.01) during the initial ten days of hospital stay, but adjusted analysis revealed no difference. CONCLUSION: A structured educational intervention did not reduce the incidence of hospital-acquired complications, mortality, or morbidity. However, there was a trend towards fewer complications in the initial days of hospital stay. Extended hospital stay, caregiver fatigue, and dilution of the intervention over time might be reasons for the apparent lack of effect. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION-URL: http://www.ctri.nic.in. Unique identifier: CTRI/2018/11/016312.


Assuntos
Cuidadores/educação , Educação em Saúde , Reabilitação do Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/terapia , Adulto , Idoso , Avaliação da Deficiência , Feminino , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos , Índia , Tempo de Internação , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Recuperação de Função Fisiológica , Fatores de Risco , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/complicações , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/diagnóstico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/mortalidade , Reabilitação do Acidente Vascular Cerebral/efeitos adversos , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
4.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 30(9): 105985, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34284323

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: COVID-19 pandemic has forced important changes in health care worldwide. Stroke care networks have been affected, especially during peak periods. We assessed the impact of the pandemic and lockdowns in stroke admissions and care in Latin America. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A multinational study (7 countries, 18 centers) of patients admitted during the pandemic outbreak (March-June 2020). Comparisons were made with the same period in 2019. Numbers of cases, stroke etiology and severity, acute care and hospitalization outcomes were assessed. RESULTS: Most countries reported mild decreases in stroke admissions compared to the same period of 2019 (1187 vs. 1166, p = 0.03). Among stroke subtypes, there was a reduction in ischemic strokes (IS) admissions (78.3% vs. 73.9%, p = 0.01) compared with 2019, especially in IS with NIHSS 0-5 (50.1% vs. 44.9%, p = 0.03). A substantial increase in the proportion of stroke admissions beyond 48 h from symptoms onset was observed (13.8% vs. 20.5%, p < 0.001). Nevertheless, no differences in total reperfusion treatment rates were observed, with similar door-to-needle, door-to-CT, and door-to-groin times in both periods. Other stroke outcomes, as all-type mortality during hospitalization (4.9% vs. 9.7%, p < 0.001), length of stay (IQR 1-5 days vs. 0-9 days, p < 0.001), and likelihood to be discharged home (91.6% vs. 83.0%, p < 0.001), were compromised during COVID-19 lockdown period. CONCLUSIONS: In this Latin America survey, there was a mild decrease in admissions of IS during the COVID-19 lockdown period, with a significant delay in time to consultations and worse hospitalization outcomes.


Assuntos
COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Procedimentos Endovasculares/tendências , Hospitalização/tendências , Padrões de Prática Médica/tendências , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/terapia , Tempo para o Tratamento/tendências , COVID-19/transmissão , Causas de Morte/tendências , Procedimentos Endovasculares/efeitos adversos , Procedimentos Endovasculares/mortalidade , Feminino , Pesquisas sobre Serviços de Saúde , Mortalidade Hospitalar/tendências , Humanos , América Latina , Tempo de Internação/tendências , Masculino , Admissão do Paciente/tendências , Alta do Paciente/tendências , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/diagnóstico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/mortalidade , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
5.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 30(9): 105927, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34252826

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: An assessment of the comparative incidence of fatal or disabling stroke may influence choice of intervention for patients with severe aortic stenosis. We explored whether transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) is associated with a lower incidence of fatal or disabling stroke, compared to surgical aortic valve replacement (SAVR). MATERIALS & METHODS: We classified stroke into two categories; fatal or disabling, or non-disabling, and completed meta-analyses for each. We explored randomised controlled trials to assess the effect publication year, predicted operative risk, and route of TAVI access. RESULTS: There was no difference between treatment groups per 100 person years of follow up for disabling or non-disabling stroke outcomes. In a stratified analysis by year of publication, there was a lower rate of fatal or disabling stroke with TAVI in trials published after 2015, compared to those published in 2015 or before (p-interaction = 0.01 at 30 days). Higher proportions of transfemoral route access (>90%), more common in recent trials, were associated with a lower rate of fatal or disabling stroke (p-interaction = 0.03 at 30 days). Lower average surgical risk scores were associated with lower rates of fatal or disabling stroke (p = 0.02 at 30 days). CONCLUSION: We found that treatment of aortic stenosis with TAVI compared with SAVR was not associated with an overall reduced risk in fatal or disabling stroke. Subgroup analyses suggested a lower risk of fatal or disabling stroke with TAVI in situations which reflect contemporary practice.


Assuntos
Estenose da Valva Aórtica/cirurgia , Valva Aórtica/cirurgia , Implante de Prótese de Valva Cardíaca/efeitos adversos , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia , Substituição da Valva Aórtica Transcateter/efeitos adversos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Valva Aórtica/diagnóstico por imagem , Valva Aórtica/fisiopatologia , Estenose da Valva Aórtica/diagnóstico por imagem , Estenose da Valva Aórtica/mortalidade , Estenose da Valva Aórtica/fisiopatologia , Avaliação da Deficiência , Feminino , Implante de Prótese de Valva Cardíaca/instrumentação , Implante de Prótese de Valva Cardíaca/mortalidade , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/diagnóstico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/mortalidade , Fatores de Tempo , Substituição da Valva Aórtica Transcateter/instrumentação , Substituição da Valva Aórtica Transcateter/mortalidade , Resultado do Tratamento
6.
Am J Cardiol ; 152: 120-124, 2021 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34130823

RESUMO

Since the first report of an association between cardiac troponin (cTn) and adverse outcome in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HD), there is a paucity in confirmative data. We performed a prospective, prespecified 5-year follow-up cohort study of 135 HC patients who participated in a national multicenter project and underwent clinical evaluation, MRI (cine, LGE and T2-weighted imaging) and biomarker assessment (high-sensitivity cTnT (hs-cTnT), N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide, soluble tumorgenicity suppressor-2, Galectin-3, Growth differentiation factor-15, C-terminal Propeptide of Type I Collagen (CICP)). An elevated hs-cTnT concentration was defined as ≥14ng/L. Follow-up was systematically performed for the primary endpoint: a composite of sudden cardiac death, heart failure related death, stroke-related death, heart failure hospitalization, hospitalization for stroke, spontaneous sustained ventricular tachycardia (VT) or appropriate ICD discharge, and progression to NYHA class III-IV. Elevated hs-cTnT was present in 33 of 135 (24%) HC patients. During a median follow-up of 5.0 years (IQR: 4.9-5.1) 18 patients reached the primary endpoint. Using Cox regression analysis, elevated hs-cTnT was univariately associated with the primary endpoint (HR: 3.4 (95%CI: 1.4-8.7, p=0.009). Also female sex, previous syncope, previous non-sustained VT, reduced LV ejection fraction (<50%) and CICP were associated with the primary endpoint. In multivariable analysis, elevated hs-cTnT remained independently associated with outcome (aHR: 4.7 (95%CI: 1.8-12.6, p = 0.002). In conclusion, this 5-year follow-up study is the first to prospectively confirm the association of elevated hs-cTnT and adverse outcomes. In addition to established clinical variables, cTn seems the biomarker of interest to further improve risk prediction in HC, which should be evaluated in larger prospective registries.


Assuntos
Cardiomiopatia Hipertrófica/sangue , Morte Súbita Cardíaca/epidemiologia , Insuficiência Cardíaca/mortalidade , Taquicardia Ventricular/epidemiologia , Troponina T/sangue , Idoso , Proteínas Sanguíneas , Estudos de Coortes , Desfibriladores Implantáveis , Cardioversão Elétrica/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Seguimentos , Galectinas/sangue , Fator 15 de Diferenciação de Crescimento/sangue , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Proteína 1 Semelhante a Receptor de Interleucina-1/sangue , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Imagem Cinética por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Peptídeo Natriurético Encefálico/sangue , Fragmentos de Peptídeos/sangue , Pró-Colágeno/sangue , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/mortalidade , Taquicardia Ventricular/terapia
7.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 30(9): 105937, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34174516

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Acute strokes due to large vessel occlusion in hospitalized patients is not uncommon. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to investigate the timing and outcome of endovascular thrombectomy (EVT) for in-hospital stroke. METHODS: We conducted a meta-analysis of clinical studies published in English until September 2020 in the MEDLINE and Cochrane databases. Studies reporting original data on the characteristics and outcomes of in-hospital stroke patients treated with EVT were included. We extracted data on the time-metrics from last known well (LKW) until reperfusion was achieved. We also collected data on procedural and functional outcomes. RESULTS: Out of 5093 retrieved studies, 8 were included (2,622 patients). The median age was 71.4 years and median NIHSS score on admission was 16. Patients were mostly admitted to the cardiology service (27.3%). The pooled time from LKW to recognition by staff was 72.9 min (95% CI: 40.7 to 105 min). 25.6% received IV tPA. The mean time from stroke recognition to arterial puncture was 134.5 min (95% CI: 94.9 to 174.1). Successful reperfusion occurred in 82.8.% with a pooled mean time from detection to reperfusion of 193.1 min (95% CI: 139.5 to 246.7). The 90-day independent functional outcome was reported in 42% of patients (95% CI 29 to 55%). CONCLUSION: EVT can be performed safely and successfully for in-hospital strokes. Noticeable delays from LKW to detection and then to puncture are noted. This calls for better stroke pathways to identify and treat these patients. BACKGROUND: Stroke in hospitalized patients, referred to as in-hospital stroke (IHS), accounts for 2.2-17% of all strokes.1 The majority of these are ischemic while intracranial hemorrhage represents 2-11% of all IHS.1 These patients are expected to have a rapid diagnosis and treatment given the ongoing medical supervision, and therefore favorable outcomes.1-3 However, existing studies report poor outcomes in patients with IHS with a mortality risk that exceeds that of community-onset stroke (COS): 24.7% vs 9.6%.4 Surviving IHS patients are also less likely to be discharged home compared to COS (27.7% vs 49.9%) and to be functionally independent at 3 months (31.0% vs 50.4%).1-4.


Assuntos
Atenção à Saúde , Procedimentos Endovasculares , Avaliação de Processos e Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/terapia , Trombectomia , Tempo para o Tratamento , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Avaliação da Deficiência , Procedimentos Endovasculares/efeitos adversos , Procedimentos Endovasculares/mortalidade , Feminino , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos , Pacientes Internados , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Admissão do Paciente , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/diagnóstico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/mortalidade , Trombectomia/efeitos adversos , Trombectomia/mortalidade , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Fluxo de Trabalho
8.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 6: CD012996, 2021 06 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34184251

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Stroke survivors are often physically inactive as well as sedentary,and may sit for long periods of time each day. This increases cardiometabolic risk and has impacts on physical and other functions. Interventions to reduce or interrupt periods of sedentary time, as well as to increase physical activity after stroke, could reduce the risk of secondary cardiovascular events and mortality during life after stroke. OBJECTIVES: To determine whether interventions designed to reduce sedentary behaviour after stroke, or interventions with the potential to do so, can reduce the risk of death or secondary vascular events, modify cardiovascular risk, and reduce sedentary behaviour. SEARCH METHODS: In December 2019, we searched the Cochrane Stroke Trials Register, CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL, PsycINFO, Conference Proceedings Citation Index, and PEDro. We also searched registers of ongoing trials, screened reference lists, and contacted experts in the field. SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomised trials comparing interventions to reduce sedentary time with usual care, no intervention, or waiting-list control, attention control, sham intervention or adjunct intervention. We also included interventions intended to fragment or interrupt periods of sedentary behaviour. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two review authors independently selected studies and performed 'Risk of bias' assessments. We analyzed data using random-effects meta-analyses and assessed the certainty of the evidence with the GRADE approach. MAIN RESULTS: We included 10 studies with 753 people with stroke. Five studies used physical activity interventions, four studies used a multicomponent lifestyle intervention, and one study used an intervention to reduce and interrupt sedentary behaviour. In all studies, the risk of bias was high or unclear in two or more domains. Nine studies had high risk of bias in at least one domain. The interventions did not increase or reduce deaths (risk difference (RD) 0.00, 95% confidence interval (CI) -0.02 to 0.03; 10 studies, 753 participants; low-certainty evidence), the incidence of recurrent cardiovascular or cerebrovascular events (RD -0.01, 95% CI -0.04 to 0.01; 10 studies, 753 participants; low-certainty evidence), the incidence of falls (and injuries) (RD 0.00, 95% CI -0.02 to 0.02; 10 studies, 753 participants; low-certainty evidence), or incidence of other adverse events (moderate-certainty evidence). Interventions did not increase or reduce the amount of sedentary behaviour time (mean difference (MD) +0.13 hours/day, 95% CI -0.42 to 0.68; 7 studies, 300 participants; very low-certainty evidence). There were too few data to examine effects on patterns of sedentary behaviour. The effect of interventions on cardiometabolic risk factors allowed very limited meta-analysis. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Sedentary behaviour research in stroke seems important, yet the evidence is currently incomplete, and we found no evidence for beneficial effects. Current World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines recommend reducing the amount of sedentary time in people with disabilities, in general. The evidence is currently not strong enough to guide practice on how best to reduce sedentariness specifically in people with stroke. More high-quality randomised trials are needed, particularly involving participants with mobility limitations. Trials should include longer-term interventions specifically targeted at reducing time spent sedentary, risk factor outcomes, objective measures of sedentary behaviour (and physical activity), and long-term follow-up.


Assuntos
Exercício Físico , Comportamento Sedentário , Reabilitação do Acidente Vascular Cerebral/métodos , Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Acidentes por Quedas/estatística & dados numéricos , Viés , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Humanos , Qualidade de Vida , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Recidiva , Postura Sentada , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/complicações , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/mortalidade , Sobreviventes , Fatores de Tempo , Caminhada
9.
BMC Neurol ; 21(1): 226, 2021 Jun 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34154568

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We aim to compare the effect of long-term anti-seizure medication (ASM) monotherapy on the risk of death and new ischemic stroke in patients with post-stroke epilepsy (PSE). PATIENTS AND METHODS: We identified all hospitalized patients (≥ 20 years) with a primary diagnosis of ischemic or hemorrhagic stroke from 2001 to 2012 using the National Health Insurance Research Database in Taiwan. The PSE cohort were defined as the stroke patients (1) who had no epilepsy and no ASMs use before the index stroke, and (2) who had epilepsy and ASMs use after 14 days from the stroke onset. The patients with PSE receiving ASM monotherapy were enrolled and were categorized into phenytoin, valproic acid, carbamazepine, and new ASM groups. We employed the Cox regression model to estimate the unadjusted and adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) with 95 % confidence intervals (CIs) of death and new ischemic stroke within 5 years across all groups, using the new ASM group as the reference. RESULTS: Of 6962 patients with PSE using ASM monotherapy, 3917 (56 %) were on phenytoin, 1623 (23 %) on valproic acid, 457 (7 %) on carbamazepine, and 965 (14 %) on new ASMs. After adjusting for confounders, compared with new ASM users, phenytoin users had a higher risk of death in 5 years (HR: 1.64; 95 % CI: 1.06-2.55). On the other hand, all ASM groups showed a similar risk of new ischemic stroke in 5 years. CONCLUSIONS: Among patients with PSE on first-line monotherapy, compared to new ASMs, use of phenytoin was associated with a higher risk of death in 5 years.


Assuntos
Anticonvulsivantes , Epilepsia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Anticonvulsivantes/efeitos adversos , Anticonvulsivantes/uso terapêutico , Epilepsia/tratamento farmacológico , Epilepsia/etiologia , Epilepsia/mortalidade , Humanos , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/complicações , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/mortalidade , Taiwan
10.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 30(8): 105912, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34130105

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: While postoperative stroke is a known complication of Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation (TAVI), predictors of early stroke occurrence have not been specifically reviewed. The objective of this study was to estimate the predictors and incidence of stroke during the first 30 days post-TAVI. METHODS: A cohort of 506 consecutive patients having undergone TAVI between January 2017 and June 2019 was extracted from a prospective database. Preoperative, intraoperative and postoperative characteristics were analyzed by univariate analysis followed by logistic regression to find predictors of the occurrence of stroke or death within the first 30 days after the procedure. RESULTS: Incidence of stroke within 30 days post-TAVI was 4.9%, [CI 95% 3.3-7.2], i.e., 25 strokes. Four out of the 25 patients (16%) with a stroke died within 30 days post-TAVI. After logistic regression analysis, the predictors of early stroke related to TAVI were: CHA2Ds2VASc score ≥ 5 (odds ratio [OR] 2.62; 95% CI: 1.06-6.49; p = .037), supra-aortic access vs. femoral access (OR: 9.00, 95%CI: 2.95-27.44; p = .001) and introduction post-TAVI of a single vs. two or three antithrombotic agents (OR: 5.13; CI 95%: 1.99 to 13.19; p = .001). Over the 30-day period, bleeding occurred in 28 patients (5.5%), in 25 of whom, it was associated with femoral or iliac artery access injury. Anti-thrombotic regimen was not associated with bleeding; two patients out of 48 (4.1%) bled with a single anti-thrombotic regimen vs. 26 patients out of 458 (5.6%) with a dual or triple anti-thrombotic regimen (p = 0.94). The overall 30-day mortality rate was 3.9%, [95% CI 2.5-6.0]. Patients with a single post-TAVI antithrombotic agent (OR: 44.07 [CI 95% 13.45-144.39]; p < .0001) and patients with previous coronary artery bypass surgery or coronary artery stenting (OR: 6.16, [CI 95% 1.99-21.29]; p = .002) were at significantly higher risk of death within the 30-day period. CONCLUSION: In this large-scale single-center retrospective study, a single post-TAVI antithrombotic regimen independently predicted occurrence of early stroke or death. Dual or triple antithrombotic regimen was not associated with a higher risk of bleeding and should be considered as an option in patients undergoing TAVI.


Assuntos
Estenose da Valva Aórtica/cirurgia , Fibrinolíticos/efeitos adversos , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia , Substituição da Valva Aórtica Transcateter/efeitos adversos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estenose da Valva Aórtica/diagnóstico por imagem , Estenose da Valva Aórtica/mortalidade , Bases de Dados Factuais , Quimioterapia Combinada , Feminino , Fibrinolíticos/administração & dosagem , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/diagnóstico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/mortalidade , Fatores de Tempo , Substituição da Valva Aórtica Transcateter/mortalidade
11.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 30(8): 105929, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34175577

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Low- to middle-income countries experience a marked rise in cardiovascular diseases, and have the highest incidence of HIV infection. Stroke data in HIV-positive patients is still scarce. This study compares risk factors and types of stroke between HIV-positive and -negative patients in South Africa. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study at Kalafong Provincial Tertiary Hospital in Pretoria over a 10-month period. All adult patients presenting with an acute stroke were included. RESULTS: One hundred and forty consecutive patients with stroke were included, 23% were HIV-positive. The average age in the HIV-positive group was 41 years, compared to 61 years in the HIV-negative group (p < 0.01). Ischemic infarcts occurred in 80.7 and 19.3% were hemorrhagic, with no significant difference between the HIV-positive and -negative group (ischemic: 81% vs 80%; hemorrhagic: 19% vs 20%; p = 0.55). Small vessel infarcts occurred more frequently in HIV-positive patients (25% vs 9.3%; p < 0.02). While 78% of HIV-positive patients presented with concomitant infections, these were found in only 23% of HIV-negative patients (P < 0.001). Hypertension (81% vs 37.5%; p = 0.01) and dyslipidemia (62% vs 38%; p = 0.01) were more prevalent in the HIV-negative patients. Confounding variables were gender and age. Although more than half of the HIV-positive patients were on antiretroviral therapy, the majority (62.5%) showed virological non-suppression. CONCLUSIONS: HIV infection occurred in almost one-quarter of stroke patients and was seen more in the younger age group. Small vessel ischemic infarcts and underlying infections were more common in HIV-positive patients. The high number of HIV-positive patients with virological non-suppression is concerning and needs to be addressed.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia , Adulto , Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Comorbidade , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/mortalidade , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Prognóstico , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , África do Sul/epidemiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/diagnóstico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/mortalidade , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/terapia , Carga Viral
12.
J Rehabil Med ; 53(6): jrm00208, 2021 Jun 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34096610

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To examine the prevalence and risk factors for readmission after inpatient rehabilitation in stroke survivors, in a developed multi-ethnic Southeast Asian country. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study of 1,235 stroke survivors who completed inpatient rehabilitation in a tertiary rehabilitation centre. RESULTS: A total of 296 (24.0%) patients with stroke were readmitted within the first year, and 87 (7.0%) patients were readmitted 1-3 years after stroke. Significant risk factors for readmission of patients in the first year post-stroke were older age (p = 0.027), lower admission Functional Independence Measure (FIM) motor (p = 0.001) and cognition scores (p = 0.025), a Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI) ≥1 (p < 0.001) and the presence of at least 1 medical complication during initial hospitalization (p < 0.001), while FIM gain was found to be protective (p < 0.001). Looking at readmission after 1 year post-stroke, a CCI≥1 (p < 0.001) and the presence of medical complications during initial hospitalization (p < 0.001) were risk factors for readmission, while FIM gain (p = 0.001) was protective. Common causes for readmission include recurrent stroke and falls. CONCLUSION: There is a high readmission rate in stroke survivors, even after the first year post-stroke. Interventions, such as fall risk assessments, vaccinations, meticulous catheter care, intensified secondary risk factors interventions and continued post-discharge rehabilitation, may hold promise for reducing readmission rates.


Assuntos
Readmissão do Paciente/tendências , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Pacientes Internados , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Alta do Paciente , Prevalência , Estudos Retrospectivos , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/mortalidade , Reabilitação do Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Sobreviventes , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
13.
N Engl J Med ; 384(20): 1910-1920, 2021 05 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34010530

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The effectiveness of endovascular therapy in patients with stroke caused by basilar-artery occlusion has not been well studied. METHODS: We randomly assigned patients within 6 hours after the estimated time of onset of a stroke due to basilar-artery occlusion, in a 1:1 ratio, to receive endovascular therapy or standard medical care. The primary outcome was a favorable functional outcome, defined as a score of 0 to 3 on the modified Rankin scale (range, 0 to 6, with 0 indicating no disability, 3 indicating moderate disability, and 6 indicating death) at 90 days. The primary safety outcomes were symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage within 3 days after the initiation of treatment and mortality at 90 days. RESULTS: A total of 300 patients were enrolled (154 in the endovascular therapy group and 146 in the medical care group). Intravenous thrombolysis was used in 78.6% of the patients in the endovascular group and in 79.5% of those in the medical group. Endovascular treatment was initiated at a median of 4.4 hours after stroke onset. A favorable functional outcome occurred in 68 of 154 patients (44.2%) in the endovascular group and 55 of 146 patients (37.7%) in the medical care group (risk ratio, 1.18; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.92 to 1.50). Symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage occurred in 4.5% of the patients after endovascular therapy and in 0.7% of those after medical therapy (risk ratio, 6.9; 95% CI, 0.9 to 53.0); mortality at 90 days was 38.3% and 43.2%, respectively (risk ratio, 0.87; 95% CI, 0.68 to 1.12). CONCLUSIONS: Among patients with stroke from basilar-artery occlusion, endovascular therapy and medical therapy did not differ significantly with respect to a favorable functional outcome, but, as reflected by the wide confidence interval for the primary outcome, the results of this trial may not exclude a substantial benefit of endovascular therapy. Larger trials are needed to determine the efficacy and safety of endovascular therapy for basilar-artery occlusion. (Funded by the Dutch Heart Foundation and others; BASICS ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01717755; Netherlands Trial Register number, NL2500.).


Assuntos
Procedimentos Endovasculares , Fibrinolíticos/uso terapêutico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/cirurgia , Trombectomia/métodos , Insuficiência Vertebrobasilar/complicações , Idoso , Arteriopatias Oclusivas/complicações , Artéria Basilar/diagnóstico por imagem , Intervalos de Confiança , Feminino , Humanos , Análise de Intenção de Tratamento , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Método Simples-Cego , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/tratamento farmacológico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/etiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/mortalidade , Terapia Trombolítica , Tempo para o Tratamento , Resultado do Tratamento
14.
Food Chem ; 360: 130145, 2021 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34034049

RESUMO

Green leafy vegetables (GLVs) are a key element of healthy eating patterns and are an important source of lutein. To clarify the evidence for associations between GLVs and lutein intake and multiple health outcomes, we performed a review. A total of 24 meta-analyses with 29 health outcomes were identified by eligibility criteria. Dose-response analyses revealed that, per 100 g/d GLV intake was associated with a decreased risk (ca. 25%) of all-cause mortality, coronary heart disease and stroke. Beneficial effects of GLV intake were found for cardiovascular disease and bladder and oral cancer. Dietary lutein intake was inversely associated with age-related macular degeneration, age-related cataracts, coronary heart disease, stroke, oesophageal cancer, non-Hodgkin lymphoma, metabolic syndrome, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Caution was warranted for contamination with potentially pathogenic organisms, specifically Escherichia coli. GLV consumption and lutein intake therein are generally safe and beneficial for multiple health outcomes in humans.


Assuntos
Dieta , Luteína/metabolismo , Verduras/metabolismo , Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Doenças Cardiovasculares/patologia , Humanos , Luteína/química , Neoplasias/mortalidade , Neoplasias/patologia , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/mortalidade , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/patologia , Verduras/química
15.
Lancet ; 397(10285): 1625-1636, 2021 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33933205

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The effects of pharmacological blood pressure lowering at normal or high-normal blood pressure ranges in people with or without pre-existing cardiovascular disease remains uncertain. We analysed individual participant data from randomised trials to investigate the effects of blood pressure lowering treatment on the risk of major cardiovascular events by baseline levels of systolic blood pressure. METHODS: We did a meta-analysis of individual participant-level data from 48 randomised trials of pharmacological blood pressure lowering medications versus placebo or other classes of blood pressure-lowering medications, or between more versus less intensive treatment regimens, which had at least 1000 persons-years of follow-up in each group. Trials exclusively done with participants with heart failure or short-term interventions in participants with acute myocardial infarction or other acute settings were excluded. Data from 51 studies published between 1972 and 2013 were obtained by the Blood Pressure Lowering Treatment Trialists' Collaboration (Oxford University, Oxford, UK). We pooled the data to investigate the stratified effects of blood pressure-lowering treatment in participants with and without prevalent cardiovascular disease (ie, any reports of stroke, myocardial infarction, or ischaemic heart disease before randomisation), overall and across seven systolic blood pressure categories (ranging from <120 to ≥170 mm Hg). The primary outcome was a major cardiovascular event (defined as a composite of fatal and non-fatal stroke, fatal or non-fatal myocardial infarction or ischaemic heart disease, or heart failure causing death or requiring admission to hospital), analysed as per intention to treat. FINDINGS: Data for 344 716 participants from 48 randomised clinical trials were available for this analysis. Pre-randomisation mean systolic/diastolic blood pressures were 146/84 mm Hg in participants with previous cardiovascular disease (n=157 728) and 157/89 mm Hg in participants without previous cardiovascular disease (n=186 988). There was substantial spread in participants' blood pressure at baseline, with 31 239 (19·8%) of participants with previous cardiovascular disease and 14 928 (8·0%) of individuals without previous cardiovascular disease having a systolic blood pressure of less than 130 mm Hg. The relative effects of blood pressure-lowering treatment were proportional to the intensity of systolic blood pressure reduction. After a median 4·15 years' follow-up (Q1-Q3 2·97-4·96), 42 324 participants (12·3%) had at least one major cardiovascular event. In participants without previous cardiovascular disease at baseline, the incidence rate for developing a major cardiovascular event per 1000 person-years was 31·9 (95% CI 31·3-32·5) in the comparator group and 25·9 (25·4-26·4) in the intervention group. In participants with previous cardiovascular disease at baseline, the corresponding rates were 39·7 (95% CI 39·0-40·5) and 36·0 (95% CI 35·3-36·7), in the comparator and intervention groups, respectively. Hazard ratios (HR) associated with a reduction of systolic blood pressure by 5 mm Hg for a major cardiovascular event were 0·91, 95% CI 0·89-0·94 for partipants without previous cardiovascular disease and 0·89, 0·86-0·92, for those with previous cardiovascular disease. In stratified analyses, there was no reliable evidence of heterogeneity of treatment effects on major cardiovascular events by baseline cardiovascular disease status or systolic blood pressure categories. INTERPRETATION: In this large-scale analysis of randomised trials, a 5 mm Hg reduction of systolic blood pressure reduced the risk of major cardiovascular events by about 10%, irrespective of previous diagnoses of cardiovascular disease, and even at normal or high-normal blood pressure values. These findings suggest that a fixed degree of pharmacological blood pressure lowering is similarly effective for primary and secondary prevention of major cardiovascular disease, even at blood pressure levels currently not considered for treatment. Physicians communicating the indication for blood pressure lowering treatment to their patients should emphasise its importance on reducing cardiovascular risk rather than focusing on blood pressure reduction itself. FUNDING: British Heart Foundation, UK National Institute for Health Research, and Oxford Martin School.


Assuntos
Anti-Hipertensivos/uso terapêutico , Pressão Sanguínea , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Hipertensão/prevenção & controle , Doenças Cardiovasculares/tratamento farmacológico , Insuficiência Cardíaca/epidemiologia , Insuficiência Cardíaca/mortalidade , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Hipertensão/tratamento farmacológico , Análise de Intenção de Tratamento , Infarto do Miocárdio/epidemiologia , Infarto do Miocárdio/mortalidade , Isquemia Miocárdica/epidemiologia , Isquemia Miocárdica/mortalidade , Prevenção Primária , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Prevenção Secundária , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/mortalidade
16.
Environ Health ; 20(1): 59, 2021 05 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33985498

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Noise pollution is increasingly recognised as a public health hazard, yet limited evidence is available from low- and middle-income countries (LMIC), particularly for specific sources. Here, we investigated the association between day-night average (Ldn) aircraft noise and the risk of death due to cardiovascular disease (CVD), stroke and coronary heart disease (CHD) at small-area level around São Paulo's Congonhas airport, Brazil during the period 2011-2016. METHODS: We selected 3259 census tracts across 16 districts partially or entirely exposed to ≥50 dB aircraft noise levels around the Congonhas airport, using pre-modelled 5 dB Ldn noise  bands (≤50 dB to > 65 dB). We estimated the average noise exposure per census tract using area-weighting. Age, sex and calendar year-specific death counts for CVD, stroke and CHD were calculated by census tract, according to the residential address at time of death. We fitted Poisson regression models to quantify the risk associated with aircraft noise exposure, adjusting for age, sex, calendar year and area-level covariates including socioeconomic development, ethnicity, smoking and road traffic related noise and air pollution. RESULTS: After accounting for all covariates, areas exposed to the highest levels of noise (> 65 dB) showed a relative risk (RR) for CVD and CHD of 1.06 (95% CI: 0.94; 1.20) and 1.11 (95%CI: 0.96; 1.27), respectively, compared to those exposed to reference noise levels (≤50 dB). The RR for stroke ranged between 1.05 (95%CI: 0.95;1.16) and 0.91 (95%CI: 0.78;1.11) for all the noise levels assessed. We found a statistically significant positive trend for CVD and CHD mortality risk with increasing levels of noise (p = 0.043 and p = 0.005, respectively). No significant linear trend was found for stroke. Risk estimates were generally higher after excluding road traffic density, suggesting that road traffic air and noise pollution are potentially important confounders. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides some evidence that aircraft noise is associated with increased risk of CVD and CHD mortality in a middle-income setting. More research is needed to validate these results in other LMIC settings and to further explore the influence of residual confounding and ecological bias. Remarkably, 60% of the study population living near the Congonhas airport (~ 1.5 million) were exposed to aircraft noise levels > 50 dB, well above those recommended by the WHO (45 dB), highlighting the need for public health interventions.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Ruído dos Transportes/efeitos adversos , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/mortalidade , Aeronaves , Aeroportos , Brasil/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores de Risco , Análise de Pequenas Áreas
17.
J Am Geriatr Soc ; 69(7): 1713-1721, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33955546

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: Emergency department (ED) visits have declined while excess mortality, not attributable to COVID-19, has grown. It is not known whether older adults are accessing emergency care differently from their younger counterparts. Our objective was to determine patterns of ED visit counts for emergent conditions during the COVID-19 pandemic for older adults. DESIGN: Retrospective, observational study. SETTING: Observational analysis of ED sites enrolled in a national clinical quality registry. PARTICIPANTS: One hundred and sixty-four ED sites in 33 states from January 1, 2019 to November 15, 2020. MAIN OUTCOME AND MEASURES: We measured daily ED visit counts for acute myocardial infarction (AMI), stroke, sepsis, fall, and hip fracture, as well as deaths in the ED, by age categories. We estimated Poisson regression models comparing early and post-early pandemic periods (defined by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention) to the pre-pandemic period. We report incident rate ratios to summarize changes in visit incidence. RESULTS: For AMI, stroke, and sepsis, the older (75-84) and oldest old (85+ years) had the greatest decline in visit counts initially and the smallest recovery in the post-early pandemic periods. For falls, visits declined early and partially recovered uniformly across age categories. In contrast, hip fractures exhibited less change in visit rates across time periods. Deaths in the ED increased during the early pandemic period, but then fell and were persistently lower than baseline, especially for the older (75-84) and oldest old (85+ years). CONCLUSIONS: The decline in ED visits for emergent conditions among older adults has been more pronounced and persistent than for younger patients, with fewer deaths in the ED. This is concerning given the greater prevalence and risk of poor outcomes for emergent conditions in this age group that are amenable to time-sensitive ED diagnosis and treatment, and may in part explain excess mortality during the COVID-19 era among older adults.


Assuntos
Acidentes por Quedas/estatística & dados numéricos , Envelhecimento , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , Infarto do Miocárdio , Sepse , Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Envelhecimento/fisiologia , Envelhecimento/psicologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Emergências/epidemiologia , Serviços Médicos de Emergência/métodos , Serviços Médicos de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Mortalidade , Infarto do Miocárdio/diagnóstico , Infarto do Miocárdio/mortalidade , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , SARS-CoV-2 , Sepse/diagnóstico , Sepse/mortalidade , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/diagnóstico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/mortalidade , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
18.
Clin Interv Aging ; 16: 707-719, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33953549

RESUMO

Purpose: We aimed to compare the rate of clinical outcomes among three age groups (<65, 65-74, and ≥75 years) of adult patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF). Patients and Methods: We prospectively enrolled NVAF patients from 27 Thailand medical centers. The following were collected at baseline: demographic data, risk factors, comorbid conditions, laboratory data, and medications. The clinical outcomes were ischemic stroke (IS) or transient ischemic attack (TIA), major bleeding (MB), intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH), heart failure (HF), and death. All events were adjudicated. Patients were categorized according to age group into three groups; age <65, 65-74, and ≥75 years. Results: Among the 3402 patients that were enrolled during 2014-2017, the mean age was 67.4±11.3 years, and 2073 (60.9%) were older. The average follow-up was 25.7±10.6 months. Oral anticoagulants were given in 75.4% of patients (91.1% of OAC was warfarin). The incidence rate of IS/TIA, MB, ICH, HF, and death was 1.43 (1.17-1.74), 2.11 (1.79-2.48), 0.70 (0.52-0.92), 3.03 (2.64-3.46), and 3.77 (3.33-4.24) per 100 person-years, respectively. The risk of IS/TIA, MB, ICH, HF, and death increased with age both before and after adjustment for potential confounders. Even though OAC reduced the risk of IS/TIA, it increased the risk of MB. Net clinical benefit (NCB) analysis favored oral anticoagulant (OAC) in the high-risk subset of older adults. Conclusion: Older adult NVAF patients had a significantly increased risk of IS/TIA, MB, ICH, HF, and death compared to younger NVAF before and after adjustment for potential confounders. Strategies to reduce overall risk, including OAC use and choice and integrated care, should be implemented.


Assuntos
Fibrilação Atrial/complicações , Hemorragia Cerebral/etiologia , Insuficiência Cardíaca/etiologia , Ataque Isquêmico Transitório/etiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/etiologia , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Anticoagulantes/uso terapêutico , Fibrilação Atrial/tratamento farmacológico , Fibrilação Atrial/mortalidade , Hemorragia Cerebral/mortalidade , Comorbidade , Feminino , Insuficiência Cardíaca/mortalidade , Humanos , Incidência , Ataque Isquêmico Transitório/mortalidade , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Sistema de Registros , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/mortalidade , Tailândia/epidemiologia
19.
Int J Qual Health Care ; 33(2)2021 May 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33961032

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Healthcare quality assessment is being conducted in many countries. Although improving health equity is one of the major objectives of medical quality assessment, it is not clear whether different socio-economic statuses show the same health outcomes even in the same medical quality hospitals. No study has directly compared the health outcomes of different socio-economic statuses in the same hospitals nationwide. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether the mortality rate of acute stroke patients differs according to socioeconomic status. METHODS: This study was a retrospective, observational study of patients who were subject to acute stroke quality assessment in 2013. A total of 10 399 stroke cases were included in the study. When evaluating the mortality rate, the researchers analysed 10 228 cases, after excluding 171 cases that were measured twice for the same person. The levels of socio-economic status were divided according to the use of medical benefits, either National Health Insurance (NHI) for general population or Medical Aid (MA) for the vulnerable. The primary outcomes measured according to socio-economic status were in-hospital mortality rate and 1-year follow-up mortality rate of stroke patients. The secondary outcome was the composite performance score. RESULTS: MA recipients had a higher in-hospital mortality rate (12.5 vs. 8.3%, P < 0.001) and 1-year follow-up mortality rate (14.9 vs. 10.8%, P < 0.001) than NHI subscribers. MA recipients had slightly lower scores than NHI subscribers (83.2 vs. 84.4, P = 0.02). In hospitals of the same grade, MA recipients had lower performance scores than NHI subscribers, although the difference was not statistically significant. CONCLUSIONS: There is a difference in mortality and healthcare performance according to socio-economic status in stroke patients in Korea. Efforts to improve equity are needed, including the development and monitoring of equality indicators and developing policies for healthcare equity.


Assuntos
Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde , Garantia da Qualidade dos Cuidados de Saúde , Qualidade da Assistência à Saúde , Reabilitação do Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/terapia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Equidade em Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , República da Coreia/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Classe Social , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/mortalidade
20.
Neurology ; 96(16): e2037-e2047, 2021 04 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33970881

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine contemporary trends in case fatality, discharge destination, and admission to long-term care after acute ischemic stroke and intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) using a large, population-based cohort. METHODS: We used linked administrative data to identify all emergency department visits and hospital admissions for first-ever ischemic stroke or ICH in Ontario, Canada, from 2003 to 2017. We calculated crude and age-/sex-standardized risk of death at 30 days and 1 year from stroke onset. We stratified crude trends by stroke type, age, and sex and used the Kendall τ-b correlation coefficient to evaluate the significance of trends. We determined trends in discharge home and to rehabilitation and admission to long-term care at 1 year. We used Cox proportional hazard and logistic regression models to assess whether trends in outcomes persisted after adjustment for baseline factors, estimated stroke severity, and use of life-sustaining care. RESULTS: There were 163,574 people with acute ischemic stroke or ICH across the study period. Between 2003 and 2017, age-/sex-standardized 30-day stroke case fatality decreased from 20.5% to 13.2% (7.3% absolute and 36% relative reduction) while that at 1 year decreased from 32.2% to 22.8% (9.3% absolute and 29% relative reduction). Findings were consistent across age, sex, and stroke type, and after adjustment for comorbid conditions, stroke severity, and use of life-sustaining care. There was a reduction in long-term care admission after ischemic stroke and an increase in discharge home or to rehabilitation for both stroke types. CONCLUSION: We observed substantial reductions in acute stroke case fatality from 2003 to 2017 with a concurrent increase in discharge to home or rehabilitation and a decrease in long-term care admissions, suggesting continuous improvements in stroke systems of care.


Assuntos
Mortalidade Hospitalar/tendências , Assistência de Longa Duração/tendências , Alta do Paciente/tendências , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/mortalidade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ontário/epidemiologia
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