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1.
Med Clin North Am ; 103(5): 847-862, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31378330

RESUMO

Oral anticoagulation significantly reduces the risk of stroke in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF), and the decision to initiate therapy is based on assessing the patient's yearly risk of stroke. Although warfarin remains the drug of choice in patients with AF and artificial mechanical valves, the novel anticoagulation agents are becoming the drug of choice for all other patients with AF, because of their efficacy, safety, and ease of use. This article summarizes the current evidence for stroke prevention in AF, including valvular AF, subclinical AF, AF in patients with renal insufficiency, as well as stroke prevention around AF cardioversion.


Assuntos
Anticoagulantes/administração & dosagem , Fibrilação Atrial/tratamento farmacológico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/prevenção & controle , Administração Oral , Anticoagulantes/efeitos adversos , Fibrilação Atrial/complicações , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto , Humanos , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/etiologia , Varfarina/administração & dosagem , Varfarina/efeitos adversos
2.
Stud Health Technol Inform ; 264: 916-919, 2019 Aug 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31438057

RESUMO

The habits and lifestyles are the fundamental factors in the control of cardiovascular risk. Patients who have had a cerebrovascular accident (CVA) have a high risk of having a new event with similar characteristics. The exponentially growing success, penetration and adherence of the new communication technologies, based on applications (APPs), allows to use them to obtain information and influence the risk factors. We propose that empowering patients in their disease can make a more efficient management of it. For this reason, we designed and developed a system which integrates a mobile application and a web application. This system also makes use of peripheral devices to monitor patients and allow the automatic acquisition of information to enable the characterization of this kind of patients in relation to habits and lifestyle. At the same time, the system can also empower these patients with their disease to do secondary prevention.


Assuntos
Aplicativos Móveis , Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Hábitos , Humanos , Fatores de Risco , Prevenção Secundária , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/prevenção & controle
4.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 28(9): 2363-2375, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31281110

RESUMO

The prevalence of atrial fibrillation (AF), the most common cardiac arrhythmia, increases with age, predisposing elderly patients to an increased risk of embolic stroke. With an increasingly aged population the number of people who experience a stroke every year, overall global burden of stroke, and numbers of stroke survivors and related deaths continue to increase. Anticoagulation with vitamin K antagonists (VKAs) reduces the risk of ischemic stroke in patients with AF; however, increased bleeding risk is well documented, particularly in the elderly. Consequently, VKAs have been underused in the elderly. Alternative anticoagulants may offer a safer choice, particularly in patients who have experienced previous stroke. The aim of this narrative review is to examine available evidence for the effective treatment of patients with AF and previous cerebral vascular events with non-VKA oral anticoagulants, including the most appropriate time to start or reinitiate treatment after a stroke, systemic embolism, or clinically relevant bleed. For patients with AF treated with oral anticoagulants it is important to balance increased protection against future stroke/systemic embolism and reduced risk of major bleeding events. For patients with AF who have previously experienced a cerebrovascular event, the use of oral anticoagulants alone also appears more effective than low-molecular weight heparin (LMWH) alone or LMWH followed by oral anticoagulants. Available data suggest that significant reduction in stroke, symptomatic cerebral bleeding, and major extracranial bleeding within 90 days from acute stroke can be achieved if oral anticoagulation is initiated at 4-14 days from stroke onset.


Assuntos
Anticoagulantes/administração & dosagem , Fibrilação Atrial/tratamento farmacológico , Prevenção Secundária/métodos , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/prevenção & controle , Administração Oral , Anticoagulantes/efeitos adversos , Fibrilação Atrial/diagnóstico , Fibrilação Atrial/epidemiologia , Esquema de Medicação , Humanos , Hemorragias Intracranianas/induzido quimicamente , Hemorragias Intracranianas/epidemiologia , Recidiva , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/diagnóstico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
5.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 28(9): 2543-2554, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31296475

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Today there exists few intervention researches on cerebro-vascular function in populations at high risk of stroke in China. METHODS: Patients more than 40 years old, with at least 1 of stroke risk factors were recruited from outpatient department in 3 hospitals. A quasi-experimental design was performed by assigning participants into 3 groups: comprehensive intervention group, health education group, and control group. Participants in the control group received no intervention but were informed of risk factors of stroke. For health education group, a health education class was performed. Except to the health education program, participants in the comprehensive intervention group received an additional health life and behavior guidance. RESULTS: After the intervention, the Cerebro-Vascular Function Scores (CVFS) had significant differences among 3 groups (F = 5.252, P < 0.05). There was a significant increase in CVFS compared to the control group (P = 0.003, 95%CI: 1.552-8.493). Significantly changes in obesity were observed in comprehensive intervention group before and after the intervention (χ2 = 9.0747, P = 0.0026). The results of logistic regression showed that comprehensive intervention group had a significant decrease in prevalence of obesity (OR = 0.482, 95% CI: 0.242-0.961) compared to the control group. CONCLUSION: Health education on stroke in a high-risk population combined with guidance on proper health life and behavior can be effective in preventing stroke.


Assuntos
Circulação Cerebrovascular , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Educação de Pacientes como Assunto/métodos , Serviços Preventivos de Saúde/métodos , Comportamento de Redução do Risco , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/prevenção & controle , Adulto , China/epidemiologia , Feminino , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Estilo de Vida Saudável , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Obesidade/prevenção & controle , Prevalência , Fatores de Proteção , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/fisiopatologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/psicologia , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
6.
Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther ; 57(9): 458-463, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31347488

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Oral anticoagulation is efficient to prevent ischemic stroke in atrial fibrillation (AF), but in very old patients, physicians always remain cautious to use anticoagulants concerning the bleeding risk. This research aims to investigate the current situation of oral anticoagulation therapy in very old (≥ 80 years) AF patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We carried out a cross-sectional study in an urban area in China from 2014 to 2016. Characteristics of the very old patients (age ≥ 80 years) and the younger patients (age < 80 years) were compared. Logistic analysis was used to estimate the association between oral anticoagulation therapy and CHA2DS2-VASc score. RESULTS: A total of 1,000 AF patients were enrolled; 306 were very old patients, and 694 were younger patients. In the very old group, 48.0% were women, and the average age was 84.12 ± 3.62 years. In the younger group, 35.3% were women, and the average age was 66.92 ± 9.02 years. CHA2DS2-VASc score was 2.8 ± 1.7 in the younger group and 4.5 ± 1.5 in the very old group (p < 0.001). The proportion of oral anticoagulation was low in patients with AF (31.8%) and even lower in very old patients compared to younger patients (24.5 vs. 35.0%, p = 0.004). Moreover, oral anticoagulation therapy was strongly associated with CHA2DS2-VASc scores only in the younger group, but not in the very old group, which means the very old patients were not treated with oral anticoagulation according to their elevated CHA2DS2-VASc scores. CONCLUSION: Anticoagulants were underused in AF patients, particularly in very old patients. Evidence is accumulating that the very old patients could still benefit from anticoagulants so that physicians should not exclude such patients from anticoagulation only because of their older age.


Assuntos
Anticoagulantes/administração & dosagem , Fibrilação Atrial , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/prevenção & controle , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , China , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco
7.
Ideggyogy Sz ; 72(5-6): 195-197, 2019 May 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31241264

RESUMO

Background and purpose: Population-based screening is an option to identify persons at high risk for stroke. However it is associated with rather high expenses, necessitating the selection of effective methods that take local characteristics into account. The 12th district of Budapest has a long tradition of population-based screening for frequent and preventable diseases. The Szent János Hospital hosts an annual stroke screening day. In the present study, previously published data from the 2011 screening were compared with those obtained in 2016, looking for changes and tendencies throughout the examined period. Methods: The screening day was conducted in a generally similar way in 2011 and 2016. Similarly to the previous event, the program was organized on a Saturday, the call for the event was spread by the local newspaper. The crew composition was the same. As regards the components of the screening (currently including general history taking, risk status assessment, blood pressure measurement, BMI assessment, cholesterol and blood glucose tests, carotid duplex ultrasonography, and ophthalmological examination), the only difference was the absence of cardiologic examination (it was conducted on an independent day). The anonymous data sheet was the same. Results: The number of participants in the 2016 event was 33, to provide more comfortable conditions. The female predominance was slightly less pronounced but was still present in 2016 (60.6% vs. 72.9%). The mean age became substantially higher (71.2 y vs. 62.9 y). The ratios of participants with higher level of education (97% vs. 94%) and those who are married were still remarkable. The most frequent risk factors were the same; however the ratio of participants with hypertension, 'other heart disease', and diabetes increased, whereas that of with hyperlipidemia and obesity decreased. The incidence of atrial fibrillation was unaltered. None of the participants in 2016 admitted smoking (previously this ratio was 20.8%) or drinking heavily. The findings of the carotid ultrasonography revealed a more favorable vascular status. Ophthalmological assessments (predominantly hypertensive alterations on fundoscopy) revealed that the pathological vs. physiological ratio switched to 1:2 from 2:1. The final evaluation of the screening program likewise demonstrated an improved overall state of health of the population. Conclusion: We observed a more favorable stroke risk status of the population in 2016. Whether it is indeed a tendency unknown at present. The role of the local media in calling for screening is still decisive, and the cohesive power of the family is important.


Assuntos
Fibrilação Atrial/diagnóstico , Estenose das Carótidas/diagnóstico , Hipertensão/diagnóstico , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/prevenção & controle , Fibrilação Atrial/epidemiologia , Pressão Sanguínea , Feminino , Humanos , Hungria/epidemiologia , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Programas de Rastreamento/economia , Fatores de Risco , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/etiologia
8.
Presse Med ; 48(6): 655-663, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31151843

RESUMO

Prevention is essential to stroke management because of the high risk of recurrence. Stroke incidence is increased by known risk factors, which can be prevented. Cardiovascular prevention after stroke or TIA also includes aetiology-specific treatment, when it is known. Endovascular treatment is not indicated as a first-line treatment for atheromatous cervical or intracranial stenosis. Endovascular or surgical treatment is not indicated as first-line treatment for cervical arterial dissection because of its minor risk of stroke recurrence.


Assuntos
Acidente Vascular Cerebral/prevenção & controle , Procedimentos Endovasculares , Humanos , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/etiologia
9.
Expert Rev Cardiovasc Ther ; 17(6): 389-394, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31184225

RESUMO

Introduction: The treatment options for prevention of recurrent of cryptogenic stroke in patients with patent foramen ovale (PFO) have been intensely debated in the recent decades. The suggested options were percutaneous closure of PFO versus medical therapy. However, up to these date there is a controversy regarding the indication of percutaneous closure. Multiple meta-analysis and recent randomized control trials showed the benefit of PFO closure when compared with medical therapy alone. Areas covered: The article reviews the prevalence, physiology, diagnosis and treatment options of PFO after cryptogenic stroke. Furthermore, it will discuss the results of randomized control trials that compared the PFO closure to medical therapy. Expert opinion: The association between PFO and unexplained cryptogenic stroke has been well established in the multiple studies. The diagnosis and management of PFO might be challenging in some cases. Although multiple studies showed that PFO closure is associated with lower rates of recurrent stroke in patients presenting with cryptogenic stroke, the indication and patient selection for this intervention are not well established yet in the guidelines.


Assuntos
Forame Oval Patente/terapia , Seleção de Pacientes , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/diagnóstico
10.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 28(8): 2098-2108, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31160219

RESUMO

Sneddon syndrome (SS) is an episodic or chronic, slowly progressive disorder and characterized by generalized livedo racemosa (patchy, violaceous, skin discoloration) and recurrent cerebrovascular events. The histopathology of skin and brain is remarkable for a noninflammatory thrombotic vasculopathy involving medium- and small-sized dermal and cerebral arteries, respectively. Approximately 80% of the SS patients are women with a median age of diagnosis at 40 years. However, the onset of the disease during childhood have been reported. Etiopathogenesis of SS is unknown with 2 primary mechanisms proposed - autoimmune/inflammatory versus thrombophilia. SS is primarily classified as antiphospholipid positive or negative type. Neurological manifestations usually occur in 3 phases: (1) prodromal symptoms such as headaches, dizziness, and vertigo, (2) recurrent strokes, and (3) early onset dementia. Livedo racemosa precedes the onset of recurrent strokes by more than 10 years, but in many instances, the significance of the skin lesion is recognized only after the appearance of the stroke. The involvement of the heart valves, systolic labile hypertension, and retinal changes are also commonly associated with this syndrome. Treatment of SS is primarily based on anecdotal reports. Antiplatelet and antithrombotic agents are used for secondary stroke prophylaxis, and a recent study showed a relatively lower stroke recurrence rate with the universal use of antiplatelet/antithrombotic agents. Routine use of anti-inflammatory or immunosuppressive therapies is controversial. Neuropsychiatric prognosis of SS is relatively poor with predominant deficits in the concentration, attention, visual perception, and visuospatial skills.


Assuntos
Artérias Cerebrais/patologia , Livedo Reticular/etiologia , Pele/irrigação sanguínea , Síndrome de Sneddon/complicações , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/etiologia , Anti-Inflamatórios/uso terapêutico , Artérias Cerebrais/efeitos dos fármacos , Fibrinolíticos/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Imunossupressores/uso terapêutico , Livedo Reticular/patologia , Livedo Reticular/fisiopatologia , Livedo Reticular/prevenção & controle , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/uso terapêutico , Recidiva , Fatores de Risco , Síndrome de Sneddon/tratamento farmacológico , Síndrome de Sneddon/patologia , Síndrome de Sneddon/fisiopatologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/patologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/fisiopatologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/prevenção & controle , Resultado do Tratamento
11.
Presse Med ; 48(6): 672-683, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31153681

RESUMO

The risk of bleeding of unruptured aneurysms is increasing with aneurysm size. Small unruptured aneurysms can be treated conservatively with a regular MRI/MRA follow-up to detect a potential increase in size. If coiling is still the main endovascular technique for the treatment of unruptured aneurysms, several other techniques are now available including stent-assisted coiling, flow diversion, and flow disruption. After ARUBA study, there is no recommendation to treat unruptured brain AVMs. According to their hemorrhagic risk, dural arteriovenous fistulas with cortical venous drainage have to be treated, generally by endovascular approach through an arterial route.


Assuntos
Hemorragias Intracranianas/prevenção & controle , Radiografia Intervencionista/métodos , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/prevenção & controle , Procedimentos Endovasculares , Humanos , Aneurisma Intracraniano/complicações , Aneurisma Intracraniano/diagnóstico por imagem , Aneurisma Intracraniano/terapia , Hemorragias Intracranianas/diagnóstico por imagem , Hemorragias Intracranianas/etiologia , Neurorradiografia , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/diagnóstico por imagem , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/etiologia
12.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 28(8): 2124-2131, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31147254

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Orthostatic hypotension (OH) has been independently associated with increased risk of stroke and other cardiovascular events. We sought to investigate the relationship between OH at follow-up and recurrent stroke risk in SPS3 (Secondary Prevention of Small Subcortical Strokes) trial patient cohort. This is a retrospective cohort analysis. METHODS: We included all SPS3 trial participants with blood pressure measurements in both sitting and standing position per protocol at baseline, with at least 1 follow-up visit to establish the relationship between OH at follow-up and recurrent stroke risk (primary outcome). Secondary outcomes included major vascular events, myocardial infarction, all-cause mortality, and, ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke subtypes. Participants were classified as having OH at baseline and at each follow-up visit based on a systolic BP decline ≥20 mm Hg or a diastolic BP decline ≥10 mm Hg on position change from sitting to standing. We used Cox proportional hazards regression modeling to compare the risk of outcomes among those with and without OH. RESULTS: A total of 2275 patients were included with a mean follow up time 3.2 years (standard deviation = 1.6 years). 39% (881/2275) had OH at some point during their follow-up. Of these, 41% (366/881) had orthostatic symptoms accompanying the BP drop. In a fully adjusted model, those with OH had a 1.8 times higher risk of recurrent stroke than those without OH (95% confidence interval: 1.1-3.0). The risk of ischemic stroke, major vascular events, and all-cause mortality was similarly elevated among the OH group. CONCLUSION: OH was associated with increased recurrent stroke risk, vascular events, and all-cause death in this large cohort of lacunar stroke patients. Whether minimizing OH in the management of poststroke hypertension in patients with lacunar stroke reduces recurrent stroke risk deserves further study.


Assuntos
Pressão Sanguínea , Hipotensão Ortostática/complicações , Prevenção Secundária/métodos , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/etiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/prevenção & controle , Idoso , Causas de Morte , Feminino , Humanos , Hipotensão Ortostática/mortalidade , Hipotensão Ortostática/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Multicêntricos como Assunto , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Recidiva , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/mortalidade , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/fisiopatologia , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
13.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 28(8): 2268-2272, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31160220

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Early disability after stroke is common, though many patients improve. Stroke secondary prevention trials often prohibit the recruitment of nonambulatory patients, limiting their access to potential treatment options and impeding trial enrollment. We aimed to determine outcomes after early dependence around the time of transition from acute care to recovery. METHODS: Data were obtained from a composite of patients enrolled in acute stroke clinical trials within the Virtual International Stroke Trials Archive (VISTA-Acute). Early disability was defined by the modified Rankin Scale (mRS) of 4 or 5 between days 3-10 after onset, representing the time of discharge or transition to a rehabilitation-focused care setting. We developed multivariable models to identify factors associated with recovery to independent ambulatory function and recurrent stroke during the 90 days after stroke. RESULTS: 4965 patients were included, with 2905 (59%) having early disability. Patients with early dependence were older, more likely to be women, had higher baseline NIHSS scores, and had more atrial fibrillation and diabetes mellitus, compared with those who were initially ambulatory. Recovery to ambulatory function occurred in 58% with early mRS = 4, compared to only 16% with early mRS = 5. Of those with early mRS = 4, return to independent ambulatory status by 90 days was associated in multivariable analysis with age, diabetes, prior stroke, NIH motor and gaze subscores, and thrombolysis. Recurrent ischemic stroke through day 90 was reported in 126 of 2905 (4.3%) subjects with early dependence compared to 63 of 2060 (3.1%), which was not different after adjustment for age, sex, and risk factors (odds ratio 1.27; 95% confidence interval 0.92-1.73). CONCLUSIONS: Favorable outcomes are common among ischemic stroke patients previously enrolled in acute clinical trials despite early dependence (mRS = 4) after initial acute hospital care. Further, their risk of recurrent stroke is high in the short term. These patients likely benefit from aggressive poststroke care and should be actively recruited into secondary prevention trials.


Assuntos
Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto/métodos , Avaliação da Deficiência , Definição da Elegibilidade , Seleção de Pacientes , Prevenção Secundária/métodos , Reabilitação do Acidente Vascular Cerebral/métodos , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/prevenção & controle , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Bases de Dados Factuais , Feminino , Nível de Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Limitação da Mobilidade , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Recuperação de Função Fisiológica , Recidiva , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/diagnóstico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/fisiopatologia , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
14.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 28(9): 2569-2573, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31230824

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Detection and treatment of atrial fibrillation (AF) is a major goal in preventing secondary stroke. Insertable cardiac monitors (ICMs) are available for diagnosis of arrhythmia monitoring in patients with cryptogenic stroke. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-based diagnostic evaluation for acute ischemic stroke subtype classification is common in Japan and can be useful for specific diagnosis of cryptogenic stroke. PURPOSE: We aimed to investigate the detection rate of AF with an ICM in patients with cryptogenic stroke who were diagnosed by MRI. METHODS: We performed a retrospective, multicenter, observational study. AF monitoring data of an ICM (Reveal LINQ) in patients with cryptogenic stroke were registered from 5 stroke centers in Japan between October 2016 and March 2018. ICM candidates in cryptogenic stroke were diagnosed by MRI-based evaluation and selected according to the criteria proposed by the Japan Stroke Society. Detection of AF was defined as AF for longer than 120 seconds. RESULTS: Eighty-four consecutive patients (64 men; aged 38-90 years) underwent ICM implantation after diagnosis of cryptogenic stroke. AF was detected in 22 of 84 (26.2%) patients with an ICM during a median follow-up of 221.5 days (range: 93-365 days). The detection rate of AF within 3 months after ICM implantation was 21.4%. CONCLUSIONS: The AF detection rate with an ICM is approximately one fifth within 3 months in patients with cryptogenic stroke as diagnosed by MRI. Our data suggest that the Japanese criteria based on MRI may be useful for selecting adequate candidates for ICM implantation.


Assuntos
Fibrilação Atrial/diagnóstico , Frequência Cardíaca , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/diagnóstico por imagem , Telemetria/instrumentação , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Fibrilação Atrial/epidemiologia , Fibrilação Atrial/fisiopatologia , Fibrilação Atrial/terapia , Tomada de Decisão Clínica , Feminino , Humanos , Japão/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Prognóstico , Sistema de Registros , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/fisiopatologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/prevenção & controle , Fatores de Tempo
15.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 6: CD000028, 2019 06 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31167038

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This is the second substantive update of this review. It was originally published in 1998 and was previously updated in 2009. Elevated blood pressure (known as 'hypertension') increases with age - most rapidly over age 60. Systolic hypertension is more strongly associated with cardiovascular disease than is diastolic hypertension, and it occurs more commonly in older people. It is important to know the benefits and harms of antihypertensive treatment for hypertension in this age group, as well as separately for people 60 to 79 years old and people 80 years or older. OBJECTIVES: Primary objective• To quantify the effects of antihypertensive drug treatment as compared with placebo or no treatment on all-cause mortality in people 60 years and older with mild to moderate systolic or diastolic hypertensionSecondary objectives• To quantify the effects of antihypertensive drug treatment as compared with placebo or no treatment on cardiovascular-specific morbidity and mortality in people 60 years and older with mild to moderate systolic or diastolic hypertension• To quantify the rate of withdrawal due to adverse effects of antihypertensive drug treatment as compared with placebo or no treatment in people 60 years and older with mild to moderate systolic or diastolic hypertension SEARCH METHODS: The Cochrane Hypertension Information Specialist searched the following databases for randomised controlled trials up to 24 November 2017: the Cochrane Hypertension Specialised Register, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE Ovid (from 1946), Embase (from 1974), the World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry Platform, and ClinicalTrials.gov. We contacted authors of relevant papers regarding further published and unpublished work. SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomised controlled trials of at least one year's duration comparing antihypertensive drug therapy versus placebo or no treatment and providing morbidity and mortality data for adult patients (≥ 60 years old) with hypertension defined as blood pressure greater than 140/90 mmHg. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Outcomes assessed were all-cause mortality; cardiovascular morbidity and mortality; cerebrovascular morbidity and mortality; coronary heart disease morbidity and mortality; and withdrawal due to adverse effects. We modified the definition of cardiovascular mortality and morbidity to exclude transient ischaemic attacks when possible. MAIN RESULTS: This update includes one additional trial (MRC-TMH 1985). Sixteen trials (N = 26,795) in healthy ambulatory adults 60 years or older (mean age 73.4 years) from western industrialised countries with moderate to severe systolic and/or diastolic hypertension (average 182/95 mmHg) met the inclusion criteria. Most of these trials evaluated first-line thiazide diuretic therapy for a mean treatment duration of 3.8 years.Antihypertensive drug treatment reduced all-cause mortality (high-certainty evidence; 11% with control vs 10.0% with treatment; risk ratio (RR) 0.91, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.85 to 0.97; cardiovascular morbidity and mortality (moderate-certainty evidence; 13.6% with control vs 9.8% with treatment; RR 0.72, 95% CI 0.68 to 0.77; cerebrovascular mortality and morbidity (moderate-certainty evidence; 5.2% with control vs 3.4% with treatment; RR 0.66, 95% CI 0.59 to 0.74; and coronary heart disease mortality and morbidity (moderate-certainty evidence; 4.8% with control vs 3.7% with treatment; RR 0.78, 95% CI 0.69 to 0.88. Withdrawals due to adverse effects were increased with treatment (low-certainty evidence; 5.4% with control vs 15.7% with treatment; RR 2.91, 95% CI 2.56 to 3.30. In the three trials restricted to persons with isolated systolic hypertension, reported benefits were similar.This comprehensive systematic review provides additional evidence that the reduction in mortality observed was due mostly to reduction in the 60- to 79-year-old patient subgroup (high-certainty evidence; RR 0.86, 95% CI 0.79 to 0.95). Although cardiovascular mortality and morbidity was significantly reduced in both subgroups 60 to 79 years old (moderate-certainty evidence; RR 0.71, 95% CI 0.65 to 0.77) and 80 years or older (moderate-certainty evidence; RR 0.75, 95% CI 0.65 to 0.87), the magnitude of absolute risk reduction was probably higher among 60- to 79-year-old patients (3.8% vs 2.9%). The reduction in cardiovascular mortality and morbidity was primarily due to a reduction in cerebrovascular mortality and morbidity. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Treating healthy adults 60 years or older with moderate to severe systolic and/or diastolic hypertension with antihypertensive drug therapy reduced all-cause mortality, cardiovascular mortality and morbidity, cerebrovascular mortality and morbidity, and coronary heart disease mortality and morbidity. Most evidence of benefit pertains to a primary prevention population using a thiazide as first-line treatment.


Assuntos
Anti-Hipertensivos , Hipertensão , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Anti-Hipertensivos/uso terapêutico , Doença das Coronárias/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Hipertensão/tratamento farmacológico , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/prevenção & controle
16.
Angiology ; 70(10): 916-920, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31220924

RESUMO

We aimed to determine whether attempts to restore and maintain sinus rhythm will reduce recurrent stroke in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF). Patients (n = 245) between March 1998 and May 2002 with AF who had an ischemic stroke including transient ischemic attack 1 to 12 months before transesophageal echocardiographic examination and had been followed for 3 years were retrospectively reviewed. Cardioversion was attempted in 130 patients; 117 (90%) patients were successfully cardioverted (rhythm control group). The 13 patients who could not be cardioverted and 115 patients who did not undergo cardioversion were assigned to the rate control group. Age, gender, ischemic heart disease, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, congestive heart failure, mitral valve disease, and left atrial diameter were similar in both groups. The rhythm control group included 56 patients (48.7%) who were still in sinus rhythm after 3 years. During follow-up, there were 2 embolic events (3.4%) and 2 deaths (3.4%) in the rhythm control group, whereas 18 embolic events (14.6%) and 18 deaths (14.6%) occurred in the rate control group (P = .049 and P = .049, respectively). Restoration and maintenance of sinus rhythm seems to have a beneficial effect on secondary prevention of stroke in patients with AF.


Assuntos
Fibrilação Atrial/complicações , Embolia/prevenção & controle , Ataque Isquêmico Transitório/prevenção & controle , Prevenção Secundária , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/prevenção & controle , Adulto , Idoso , Fibrilação Atrial/diagnóstico , Ecocardiografia Transesofagiana/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Projetos Piloto , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/complicações , Resultado do Tratamento
17.
BMC Neurol ; 19(1): 82, 2019 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31043158

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Warfarin is evidence-based therapy for the prevention of cardioembolic stroke, but has not been studied for its effects on whole blood viscosity (WBV). This study investigated the effect of warfarin versus aspirin on WBV in patients presenting with non-valvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF) and acute cardioembolic stroke. METHODS: We enrolled patients with acute cerebral infarction, aged 56-90 years who had NVAF, CHADS2 score ≥ 2, presenting with mild-to-moderate stroke (National Institute of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score < 20 and modified Rankin Scale (2mRS) score < 4) in a single center. The patients were alternately assigned to warfarin or aspirin groups. Post-treatment WBV was assessed after international normalized ratio (INR) reached target range [2, 3] for patients in the warfarin group, and 5 days after baseline in the aspirin group. RESULTS: Total 67 patients were included, and 56 completed this study (33 warfarin and 23 aspirin). Compared to baseline values, warfarin reduced post-treatment BV at all shear rates. The BV reductions greater than 1 cP measured at shear rates of 300, 150, 5, and 1 s- 1 were independently and significantly associated with warfarin treatment compared to aspirin after adjusting for age, sex, CHA2DS2-VASc scores, and baseline hematocrit. CONCLUSIONS: Warfarin confers greater reductions in BV than aspirin in patients with acute cardioembolic stroke. BV could be a useful method to estimate thrombotic risk in patients receiving warfarin. TRIAL REGISTRATION: KCT0001291 , Date of Registration: 2014-12-01.


Assuntos
Anticoagulantes/uso terapêutico , Aspirina/uso terapêutico , Fibrilação Atrial/complicações , Viscosidade Sanguínea/efeitos dos fármacos , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/prevenção & controle , Varfarina/uso terapêutico , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/etiologia
18.
N Engl J Med ; 380(20): 1906-1917, 2019 05 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31091372

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cryptogenic strokes constitute 20 to 30% of ischemic strokes, and most cryptogenic strokes are considered to be embolic and of undetermined source. An earlier randomized trial showed that rivaroxaban is no more effective than aspirin in preventing recurrent stroke after a presumed embolic stroke from an undetermined source. Whether dabigatran would be effective in preventing recurrent strokes after this type of stroke was unclear. METHODS: We conducted a multicenter, randomized, double-blind trial of dabigatran at a dose of 150 mg or 110 mg twice daily as compared with aspirin at a dose of 100 mg once daily in patients who had had an embolic stroke of undetermined source. The primary outcome was recurrent stroke. The primary safety outcome was major bleeding. RESULTS: A total of 5390 patients were enrolled at 564 sites and were randomly assigned to receive dabigatran (2695 patients) or aspirin (2695 patients). During a median follow-up of 19 months, recurrent strokes occurred in 177 patients (6.6%) in the dabigatran group (4.1% per year) and in 207 patients (7.7%) in the aspirin group (4.8% per year) (hazard ratio, 0.85; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.69 to 1.03; P = 0.10). Ischemic strokes occurred in 172 patients (4.0% per year) and 203 patients (4.7% per year), respectively (hazard ratio, 0.84; 95% CI, 0.68 to 1.03). Major bleeding occurred in 77 patients (1.7% per year) in the dabigatran group and in 64 patients (1.4% per year) in the aspirin group (hazard ratio, 1.19; 95% CI, 0.85 to 1.66). Clinically relevant nonmajor bleeding occurred in 70 patients (1.6% per year) and 41 patients (0.9% per year), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with a recent history of embolic stroke of undetermined source, dabigatran was not superior to aspirin in preventing recurrent stroke. The incidence of major bleeding was not greater in the dabigatran group than in the aspirin group, but there were more clinically relevant nonmajor bleeding events in the dabigatran group. (Funded by Boehringer Ingelheim; RE-SPECT ESUS ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT02239120.).


Assuntos
Antitrombinas/administração & dosagem , Dabigatrana/administração & dosagem , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/prevenção & controle , Idoso , Antitrombinas/efeitos adversos , Aspirina/administração & dosagem , Aspirina/efeitos adversos , Dabigatrana/efeitos adversos , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Hemorragia/induzido quimicamente , Humanos , Incidência , Embolia Intracraniana/tratamento farmacológico , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/administração & dosagem , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/efeitos adversos , Recidiva , Prevenção Secundária , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/etiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/mortalidade
20.
Expert Opin Drug Metab Toxicol ; 15(6): 449-458, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31120800

RESUMO

Introduction: The inclusion of pharmacogenetics alongside clinical information in anticoagulant therapy offers the opportunity for a tailored approach to treatment according to individual patient characteristics. Areas covered: Literature was searched using PubMed database, focusing on pharmacogenetics of oral anticoagulants. Original research articles and review articles in English language were included in the literature reviewed. This article includes all information available for the genetic cause of inter-individual variability in anticoagulation response to oral anticoagulant drugs. The pharmacogenetics of VKAs and NOACs are described in detail. Expert opinion: There have been numerous studies focusing on the pharmacogenetics of VKAs, particularly warfarin. Current evidence suggests that known genetic and clinical factors explain a large proportion of the inter-individual variability in response to warfarin. Pharmacogenetic-based algorithms have been validated to determine their clinical utility with equivocal results. To date, only a limited number of mostly small studies on the pharmacogenetics of NOACs exists. The latter have highlighted genetic polymorphisms in specific genes that may affect clinical outcomes. Further evaluations of these polymorphisms are needed before firm conclusions can be drawn about the significance of pharmacogenetics on NOAC therapy.


Assuntos
Anticoagulantes/administração & dosagem , Fibrilação Atrial/tratamento farmacológico , Farmacogenética , Administração Oral , Algoritmos , Animais , Fibrilação Atrial/complicações , Humanos , Polimorfismo Genético , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/prevenção & controle , Vitamina K/antagonistas & inibidores , Varfarina/administração & dosagem
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