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1.
BMJ Case Rep ; 14(9)2021 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34479895

RESUMO

Luxation of the globe is a rare, vision-threatening event that can presently spontaneously or following trauma. A 35-year-old man presented with bilaterally luxated globe, postroad traffic accident. On imaging, bilateral LeFort fracture type 1, 2 and 3 with palatal split along with nasal bone and orbital floor fracture. Both condyles and left parasymphysis of mandible were fractured. There was no evidence of intracranial injury. There was pneumothorax on the right side for which intercostal drainage (ICD) tube was placed. On exploring, bilateral optic nerve avulsion was present. Both the globes were repositioned and a temporary tarsorrhaphy was placed for cosmetic rehabilitation. On follow-up visits after 6 months, both eyes were in their sockets with minimal exodeviation. It is important to reposition the globes, even with extensive periorbital fracture at the earliest. The longer the globe and orbital structures are prolapsed, the poorer are the structural and cosmetic prognosis owing to ocular ischaemia.


Assuntos
Traumatismos Oculares , Luxações Articulares , Fraturas Maxilares , Fraturas Orbitárias , Fraturas Cranianas , Acidentes de Trânsito , Adulto , Humanos , Masculino , Fraturas Orbitárias/complicações , Fraturas Orbitárias/diagnóstico por imagem , Fraturas Orbitárias/cirurgia
2.
Dan Med J ; 68(10)2021 Sep 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34498585

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The epidemiology of children admitted to Scandinavian trauma centres remains largely unknown. This study aimed to describe the characteristics of severe injuries in children admitted to a Danish university-level trauma centre. METHODS: A descriptive study of all severely injured (Injury Severity Score ≥ 16) children aged 0-15 years who were admitted to the university level trauma centre at Odense University Hospital, Denmark, in the 2002-2018 period. Data were extracted from the South Danish Register and from medical records. RESULTS: A total of 152 children were included. The median age was 11 (range: 0-15) years. Boys accounted for 57% of the cases. Accidents accounted for 99% of the cases. In the youngest age group (0-4 years), the majority of injuries occurred in domestic areas, in the daytime, in the summer and around the weekends. In the oldest age group (11-15 years), most injuries occurred in traffic areas, in the autumn, on weekdays and in the afternoon. In all age groups, the majority of lesions were sustained to the head/face/neck, limbs and thorax. The overall median number of days in hospital was six. Overall, 39 (26%) children died. Almost half of the injuries were traffic related and this proportion increased with increasing age group. One-third of the traffic injured children died. CONCLUSIONS: Based on a regional trauma register, we described the characteristics of severely injured children. The study included several aspects regarding injury pattern and severity, which may be useful for risk identification, prevention of accidents and for hospital resource planning. FUNDING: none TRIAL REGISTRATION: not relevant.


Assuntos
Centros de Traumatologia , Ferimentos e Lesões , Acidentes de Trânsito , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Dinamarca/epidemiologia , Hospitalização , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Escala de Gravidade do Ferimento , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estações do Ano , Ferimentos e Lesões/epidemiologia
3.
Cien Saude Colet ; 26(suppl 2): 3527-3534, 2021.
Artigo em Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34468648

RESUMO

The scope of this article is to address the relationship between mandatory restraint devices and hospitalizations and deaths of zero- to four-year-old age children in traffic accidents in Brazil. Based on the mandatory use of child restraint devices for children up to 4 years of age under Brazilian traffic legislation in 2010, the authors apply data from the DataSUS and Denatran databases to analyze the time series of hospitalizations and deaths of zero- to four-year-old age children in traffic accidents between September 2005 and August 2015. Two cut-off sample periods were examined, the first consisting of an analysis from 2005 to 2015, which was subsequently subdivided into two samples, namely before and after the requirement. The results of both cut-off sample periods suggest that demands concerning the use of restraint devices led to decreased hospitalizations and deaths of children due to traffic accidents in the zero- to four-year-old age group, with a prevalence of decreased rates of hospitalization over deaths.


Assuntos
Acidentes de Trânsito , Hospitalização , Brasil/epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Bases de Dados Factuais , Família , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido
4.
N Z Med J ; 134(1540): 46-55, 2021 08 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34482388

RESUMO

AIMS: To describe any change in the volume and mechanisms of injury of major trauma admissions during and after COVID-19 lockdown, and in doing so, to provide information for resource planning and identification of priority areas for injury prevention initiatives. METHODS: A retrospective, descriptive study conducted on Canterbury District Health Board trauma registry data. The study population consisted of all major trauma patients of all age groups admitted to Christchurch Hospital over three 33-day periods: before, during and after COVID-19 lockdown in New Zealand. Broadly speaking, major trauma is defined as having an injury severity score 13 or death following injury. RESULTS: There was a 42% reduction in the volume of major trauma admissions during lockdown. Falls were the most common injury during lockdown, and transport-related injuries after lockdown. Alcohol intoxication was associated with 19 to 33% of all injuries across the study periods. CONCLUSION: Major trauma inevitably occurred during lockdown, although at considerably lower volumes. After lockdown, once restrictions were eased, major trauma admissions reverted to pre-lockdown patterns. Injury prevention strategies can reduce avoidable pressures on hospitals at a time of pandemic. In New Zealand, focus should be placed on reducing alcohol- and transport-related injuries and increasing community awareness on falls prevention.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Pandemias , Ferimentos e Lesões/epidemiologia , Acidentes por Quedas/estatística & dados numéricos , Acidentes de Trânsito/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Idoso , Intoxicação Alcoólica/complicações , Intoxicação Alcoólica/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nova Zelândia/epidemiologia , Distanciamento Físico , Estudos Retrospectivos , SARS-CoV-2 , Ferimentos e Lesões/etiologia
5.
BMC Pediatr ; 21(Suppl 1): 311, 2021 09 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34496772

RESUMO

We looked at existing recommendations for preventing unintentional injuries in children under five years of age, and we attempted to identify the main sources used as evidence for formulating these recommendations.We conducted a literature search up to the 18th October 2019 by using key terms and manual search in selected sources. We summarized the recommendations and source of the evidence in tables for each of five areas of unintentional injuries: road traffic injuries, drowning, poisoning, thermal injuries, falls.In 2008, the World Health Organization (WHO) published a comprehensive report with strategies for child injury prevention for the European region. More recently, the WHO published several guidance documents focused on one area such as drowning, usually with a global focus. The PrevInfad workgroup (Spanish Association of Primary Care Pediatrics) updated their document on road safety in April 2019, providing recommendations and a summary of the existing evidence. Preventive strategies for injuries in childhood are mainly based on surveillance data and the identification of risk factors. The key strategies for preventing unintentional injuries are a combination of environmental and behaviour modification, that can be achieved through engineering, enforcement and education. Consequently, for this kind of strategies, it is important to evaluate the effectiveness of both the intervention itself, and the way the intervention is advised to parents and caretakers so that there is good compliance of the recommendation.


Assuntos
Lesões Acidentais , Queimaduras , Afogamento , Ferimentos e Lesões , Acidentes por Quedas , Acidentes de Trânsito , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Afogamento/epidemiologia , Afogamento/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Lactente , Fatores de Risco , Ferimentos e Lesões/epidemiologia , Ferimentos e Lesões/etiologia , Ferimentos e Lesões/prevenção & controle
6.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(17)2021 Aug 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34502657

RESUMO

For urban traffic, traffic accidents are the most direct and serious risk to people's lives, and rapid recognition and warning of traffic accidents is an important remedy to reduce their harmful effects. However, research scholars are often confronted with the problem of scarce and difficult-to-collect accident data resources for traffic accident scenarios. Therefore, in this paper, a traffic data generation model based on Generative Adversarial Networks (GAN) is developed. To make GAN applicable to non-graphical data, we improve the generator network structure of the model and used the generated model to resample the original data to obtain new traffic accident data. By constructing an adversarial neural network model, we generate a large number of data samples that are similar to the original traffic accident data. Results of the statistical test indicate that the generated samples are not significantly different from the original data. Furthermore, the experiments of traffic accident recognition with several representative classifiers demonstrate that the augmented data can effectively enhance the performance of accident recognition, with a maximum increase in accuracy of 3.05% and a maximum decrease in the false positive rate of 2.95%. Experimental results verify that the proposed method can provide reliable mass data support for the recognition of traffic accidents and road traffic safety.


Assuntos
Acidentes de Trânsito , Redes Neurais de Computação , Humanos , Projetos de Pesquisa
7.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(17)2021 Aug 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34502704

RESUMO

During the last decade, bicycles equipped with sensors became an essential tool for research, particularly for studies analyzing the lateral passing distance between motorized vehicles and bicycles. The objective of this article is to describe a low-cost open-source sensor called one metre plus (1m+) capable of measuring lateral passing distance, registering the geographical position of the cyclist, and video-recording the trip. The plans, codes, and schematic design are open and therefore easily accessible for the scientific community. This study describes in detail the conceptualization process, the characteristics of the device, and the materials from which they are made. The study also provides an evaluation of the product and describes the sensor's functionalities and its field of application. The objective of this project is to democratize research and develop a platform/participative project that offers tools to researchers worldwide, in order to standardize knowledge sharing and facilitate the comparability of results in various contexts.


Assuntos
Acidentes de Trânsito , Condução de Veículo , Ciclismo , Objetivos , Gravação em Vídeo
8.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(17)2021 Aug 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34502745

RESUMO

The development of automated driving is actively progressing, and connected cars are also under development. Connected cars are the technology of connecting vehicles to networks so that connected vehicles can enhance their services. Safety services are among the main services expected in connected car society. Cooperative perception belongs to safety services and improves safety by visualizing blind spots. This visualization is achieved by sharing sensor data via wireless communications. Therefore, the number of visualized blind spots highly depends upon the performance of wireless communications. In this paper, we analyzed the required sensor data rate to be shared for the cooperative perception in order to realize safe and reliable automated driving in an intersection scenario. The required sensor data rate was calculated by the combination of recognition and crossing decisions of an automated driving vehicle to adopt realistic assumptions. In this calculation, CVFH was used to derive tight requirements, and the minimum required braking aims to alleviate the traffic congestion around the intersection. At the end of the paper, we compare the required sensor data rate with the outage data rate realized by conventional and millimeter-wave communications, and show that millimeter-wave communications can support safe crossing at a realistic velocity.


Assuntos
Acidentes de Trânsito , Condução de Veículo , Automóveis , Percepção , Tecnologia
9.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(17)2021 Aug 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34502746

RESUMO

Automated driving systems are in need of accurate localization, i.e., achieving accuracies below 0.1 m at confidence levels above 95%. Although during the last decade numerous localization techniques have been proposed, a common methodology to validate their accuracies in relation to a ground-truth dataset is missing so far. This work aims at closing this gap by evaluating four different methods for validating localization accuracies of a vehicle's position trajectory to different ground truths: (1) a static driving-path, (2) the lane-centerline of a high-definition (HD) map with validated accuracy, (3) localized vehicle body overlaps of the lane-boundaries of a HD map, and (4) longitudinal accuracy at stop points. The methods are evaluated using two localization test datasets, one acquired by an automated vehicle following a static driving path, being additionally equipped with roof-mounted localization systems, and a second dataset acquired from manually-driven connected vehicles. Results show the broad applicability of the approach for evaluating localization accuracy and reveal the pros and cons of the different methods and ground truths. Results also show the feasibility of achieving localization accuracies below 0.1 m at confidence levels up to 99.9% for high-quality localization systems, while at the same time demonstrate that such accuracies are still challenging to achieve.


Assuntos
Acidentes de Trânsito , Condução de Veículo
10.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(17)2021 Aug 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34502757

RESUMO

Among the reasons for traffic accidents, distractions are the most common. Although there are many traffic signs on the road that contribute to safety, variable message signs (VMSs) require special attention, which is transformed into distraction. ADAS (advanced driver assistance system) devices are advanced systems that perceive the environment and provide assistance to the driver for his comfort or safety. This project aims to develop a prototype of a VMS (variable message sign) reading system using machine learning techniques, which are still not used, especially in this aspect. The assistant consists of two parts: a first one that recognizes the signal on the street and another one that extracts its text and transforms it into speech. For the first one, a set of images were labeled in PASCAL VOC format by manual annotations, scraping and data augmentation. With this dataset, the VMS recognition model was trained, a RetinaNet based off of ResNet50 pretrained on the dataset COCO. Firstly, in the reading process, the images were preprocessed and binarized to achieve the best possible quality. Finally, the extraction was done by the Tesseract OCR model in its 4.0 version, and the speech was done by the cloud service of IBM Watson Text to Speech.


Assuntos
Condução de Veículo , Acidentes de Trânsito , Aprendizado de Máquina , Leitura
11.
Head Face Med ; 17(1): 36, 2021 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34470621

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Electric bikes (E-bikes) and powered scooters (P-scooters) have become increasingly popular modes of public transportation, but they have been associated with injuries of all kinds, including dental trauma. Helmet use is promoted as a means of reducing injuries in accidents involving motorized and unmotorized vehicles. The aim of the study was to evaluate the impact of helmet use on the number and severity of oral and maxillofacial injuries caused by E-bikes and P-scooters. METHODS: A retrospective cross-sectional study design was used. The cohort included all patients referred to the emergency department of a tertiary medical center in 2014-2020 with oral and maxillofacial injuries involving E-bikes or P-scooters. Data were collected from the medical files on demographics, types of injuries, circumstances of occurrence, work-up, treatment, and outcome. Use of a helmet was recorded in each case. RESULTS: Of the total 1417 patients referred to the emergency department for E-bike and P-scooter-related trauma, 62 had oral and maxillofacial injuries, including 57 riders and 5 pedestrians. All had hard- or soft-tissue injuries; 20 (32.2%) had head injuries and 22 (35.5%) had dentoalveolar injuries. Eleven riders had worn a helmet at the time of injury (17.7%). Helmet use was associated with time of injury (weekday/weekend, daytime/night-time), type of motorized vehicle (E-bike or P-scooter), head injury, and number of bone fractures. Head injuries occurred more often on the weekend (57.9%) than during the week (20.9%) and were more likely to occur in riders who were not protected by a helmet (37.3% vs 18.2%). Patients who used helmets also had a lower rate of fractured bones (18.2%) and dentoalveolar injuries (23.7%) than patients who did not (68.8 and 37.3%, respectively). Interestingly, helmet use had no protective effect on soft-tissue injuries. CONCLUSIONS: Helmet use by E-bike and P-scooter riders decreased the probability of head injury and of hard tissue and dentoalveolar injuries. These results may provide guidance for effective legislation and regulation of helmet use and improved treatment protocols for general and dental physicians.


Assuntos
Dispositivos de Proteção da Cabeça , Traumatismos Maxilofaciais , Acidentes de Trânsito , Ciclismo , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Traumatismos Maxilofaciais/epidemiologia , Traumatismos Maxilofaciais/etiologia , Traumatismos Maxilofaciais/prevenção & controle , Estudos Retrospectivos
12.
Accid Anal Prev ; 159: 106289, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34340136

RESUMO

Crashes involving cyclists and pedestrians in Europe cause the deaths of about 7600 persons every year. Both cyclists and pedestrians are especially exposed in crashes with motorized vehicles and collisions with trucks can lead to severe injury outcomes. The two most frequent crash scenarios between trucks and these vulnerable road users (VRU) are: a) when the truck wants to turn right at an intersection, with a cyclist riding parallel and planning to cross the intersection and b) when a pedestrian crosses in front of the truck in perpendicular direction to the movement of the truck. Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS)-that are expected to prevent or mitigate these crashes-benefit from detailed information about the behavior of truck drivers. This study is a first exploration of this research area, with the aim to assess how drivers negotiate the encounters with VRUs in the two scenarios described above. Thirteen participants drove an instrumented truck on a test-track. After some baseline recordings, the drivers experienced two laps where they encountered a cyclist target and a pedestrian target crossing their path. The results show that the truck drivers adapted their kinematic and visual behavior in the laps where the VRU targets were crossing the intersection, compared to the baseline laps. The speed profiles of the drivers diverged approximately 30 m from the intersection and glances were directed more often towards front right and right, during the scenario with the cyclist in comparison to baseline laps. For the scenario with the pedestrian crossing, the drivers changed their speed about 14 m from the intersection and glances were directed more often towards the front center, compared to baseline laps. As a result, both the speed and distance from the intersection at the end of the maneuver were significantly different between VRU and baseline laps. Overall, the findings provide valuable information for the design of ADAS that warn the drivers about the presence of a cyclist travelling in parallel direction or that intervene to avoid a collision with a cyclist or pedestrian.


Assuntos
Condução de Veículo , Pedestres , Acidentes de Trânsito , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Humanos , Veículos Automotores
13.
Accid Anal Prev ; 160: 106298, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34358750

RESUMO

Three-fourths of pedestrian fatalities in the U.S. occur in the dark (National Center for Statistics and Analysis, 2020). Adaptive Headlight Systems (AHS) offer the potential to address this problem by improving the visibility of pedestrians for drivers and alerting pedestrians to approaching vehicles. The goal of this study was to investigate how pedestrians respond to different types of AHS. We conducted a mixed factor experiment with 106 college-age adults using a large-screen pedestrian simulator. The task for participants was to cross a stream of continuous traffic without colliding with a vehicle. There were four AHS treatment conditions that differed in the color (white or red) and timing of an icon projected on the roadway in front the participant as an AHS vehicle approached. Participants in the treatment conditions encountered a mix of AHS and non-AHS vehicles. There was also a control condition in which participants encountered only non-AHS vehicles. We found that the color and the timing of the icon projected on the roadway influenced the size of the gaps crossed. Participants in the red icon with early onset condition chose the largest gaps for crossing. An unexpected outcome was that participants in the AHS treatment conditions chose larger gaps even when crossing in front of non-AHS vehicles, suggesting that experiences with AHS vehicles generalized to non-AHS vehicles. We conclude that AHS can have a significant, positive impact on pedestrian road-crossing safety.


Assuntos
Pedestres , Acidentes de Trânsito/prevenção & controle , Adulto , Humanos , Segurança , Caminhada
14.
Accid Anal Prev ; 160: 106320, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34358751

RESUMO

Crash safety of electric two-wheelers (ETWs) has been one of the most important safety issues in China due to their high proportion of involvement in traffic accidents. Automated Emergency Braking (AEB) systems have proven to be effective in reducing the number of fatalities and injuries in traffic accidents. Providing test scenarios is one of the fundamental tasks required for establishing a set of AEB test programs for ETWs. Compared to traditional in-depth accident data, accident data accompanied with video recordings provide more accurate accident information prior to a crash as both the traffic environment and the crash process can be observed from the video. In this study, a set of typical AEB test scenarios for ETWs was developed using accident data with video information. Video recordings of 630 car-to-ETW crashes in China from 2010 to 2021 were selected from the VRU Traffic Accident database with Video (VRU-TRAVi). A K-medoids1 cluster analysis was carried out based on variables including the collision time, visual obstruction, motion of the car and ETW before the collision, relative motion direction between the car and ETW, and the ETW type. The velocity information of cars and ETWs was also accounted for in each clustering scenario. Seven typical pre-crash scenarios were obtained, including five electric-scooter (E-scooter) scenarios (representing two scenarios where the ETWs are approaching the car from the left side, two scenarios where the ETWs are approaching the car in the same direction and another scenario where the ETWs are approaching the car in the opposite direction) and two electric-bike (E-bike) scenarios where the E-bikes are approaching the car in the perpendicular direction. Both E-bike scenarios are consistent with the E-scooter scenario except for the ETW type and velocity range; therefore, by combining the E-bike and E-scooter scenarios, five ETW scenarios were finally recommended as AEB test scenarios. By comparing with typical scenarios extracted based on the China In-Depth Accident Study (CIDAS) data and the China New Car Assessment Program (C-NCAP) test scenarios, the results show that future AEB test scenarios for ETWs should focus on scenarios with visual obstructions and scenarios where either the car or the ETW is turning, with a velocity range of 15-30 km/h for ETWs.


Assuntos
Acidentes de Trânsito , Equipamentos de Proteção , Acidentes de Trânsito/prevenção & controle , Automóveis , Análise por Conglomerados , Humanos , Gravação em Vídeo
15.
Accid Anal Prev ; 160: 106315, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34363992

RESUMO

The dramatic increase in road traffic accidents poses social and economic challenges to nations, especially for developing countries. Thus, road safety urgently needs to be significantly improved at the national level to reduce the number of road traffic accidents and costs associated with it. Understanding road users' acceptance of road pricing regarding road safety improvement is crucial for safety-related investment programs. As such, this paper investigated the factors associated with public intention-to-pay (ITP) for road safety improvement in Pakistan. A structural equation model (SEM) was adopted to analyze the determinants of ITP according to the theory of planned behavior (TPB) combined with latent psychological variables that describe the personal characteristics and evaluations of different measures. Furthermore, the moderating effects of socioeconomic characteristics were also examined. A sample of 340 car drivers, interviewed at different locations of Peshawar, Pakistan, was used to test the model. Results of the SEM model indicated that Road Infrastructure Safety Perception and Perceived Behavioral Control have strong association with the ITP of car users' for road safety improvement. Risk Perception, Attitude towards Traffic Safety Responsibility, Attitude, Perceived Fairness, and Perceived Effectiveness were also associated with ITP. Differential age and gender-related moderating effects were also observed. Findings from this study are expected to assist the decision-makers in the effective planning and implementation of road safety projects and related budget allocations.


Assuntos
Acidentes de Trânsito , Intenção , Acidentes de Trânsito/prevenção & controle , Atitude , Humanos , Paquistão , Segurança , Inquéritos e Questionários
16.
Accid Anal Prev ; 160: 106322, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34365042

RESUMO

Vulnerable road users (VRUs) are exposed to the highest risk in the road traffic environment. Analyzing contributing factors that affect injury severity facilitates injury severity prediction and further application in developing countermeasures to guarantee VRUs safety. Recently, machine learning approaches have been introduced, in which analyses tend to be one-sided and may ignore important information. To solve this problem, this paper proposes a comprehensive analytic framework that employs a deep learning model referred to as the stacked sparse autoencoder (SSAE) to predict the injury severity of traffic accidents based on contributing factors. The essential idea of the method is to integrate various analyses into an analytical framework that performs corresponding data processing and analysis by different machine learning approaches. In the proposed method, first, we utilize a machine learning approach (i.e., Catboost) to analyze the importance and dependence of the contributing factors to injury severity and remove low correlation factors; second, according to the geographical information, we classify the data into different classes by utilizing a machine learning approach (i.e., k-means clustering); third, by employing high correlation factors, we employ an SSAE-based deep learning model to perform injury severity prediction in each data class. By experiments with a real-world traffic accident dataset, we demonstrated the effectiveness and applicability of the framework. Specifically, (1) the importance and dependence of contributing factors were obtained by CatBoost and the Shapley value, and (2) the SSAE-based deep learning model achieved the best performance compared to other baseline models. The proposed analytic framework can also be utilized for other accident data for severity or other risk indicator analyses involving VRUs safety.


Assuntos
Acidentes de Trânsito , Aprendizado Profundo , Humanos , Aprendizado de Máquina , Medição de Risco
17.
Accid Anal Prev ; 160: 106313, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34365043

RESUMO

The American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials' Highway Safety Manual (HSM) includes a collection of safety performance functions (SPFs) or statistical models to estimate the expected crash frequency of roadway segments, intersections, and interchanges. These models are applied in several steps of the safety management process, including to screen the road network for opportunities to improve safety and to evaluate the performance of safety countermeasure deployments. The SPFs in the HSM are generally estimated using negative binomial regression modeling. In some instances, they are estimated using annual crash frequency and site-specific (e.g., traffic volume) data, while in other instances they are estimated using aggregate crash frequency and site-specific data. This paper explores the differences that result from estimating SPFs using aggregate versus disaggregate data using the same methods as those used to estimate the SPFs in the HSM. A synthetic dataset was first used to conduct these comparisons - these data were generated in a manner that is consistent with the properties of the negative binomial distribution. Then, an observational dataset from Pennsylvania was used to compare the SPFs from both aggregate and disaggregate data. The results show that SPFs estimated using the panel (disaggregate) data and aggregated data provide similar model coefficients, although some differences may sometimes arise. However, the overdispersion parameter obtained using each dataset can differ significantly. These differences result in systematic biases in calculations of expected crash frequency when Empirical Bayes adjustments are applied, which - as the paper demonstrates - could lead to different outcomes in a network screening exercise. Overall, these results reveal that aggregating crash data might result in biased SPF outputs and lead to inconsistent Empirical Bayes adjustments.


Assuntos
Agregação de Dados , Planejamento Ambiental , Acidentes de Trânsito/prevenção & controle , Teorema de Bayes , Humanos , Modelos Estatísticos , Segurança , Gestão da Segurança
18.
Accid Anal Prev ; 160: 106327, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34371286

RESUMO

Young driver speeding behaviour remains a large contributor to road trauma worldwide. In order to provide a more-in depth understanding of how to deter young drivers from this behaviour, this study developed and tested a model of the legal and non-legal factors that influence young driver's intentional speeding behaviour (exceeding the speed limit by more than 10 km/hr). A prospective survey design was conducted to measure the impact of perceptions of legal factors (including classical deterrence and reconceptualised deterrence variables) and non-legal factors (including the variables of fear of physical loss, material loss and perceived social sanctions, as well as the perception that it is safe to engage in the behaviour without being involved in a crash) at time 1, on engagement in speeding behaviour at time 2, which occurred 3 months later. A total of 200 participants aged 17-25 years completed both surveys (Mean age = 20.44 years). Using structural equation modelling, a unique model combining classical and extended deterrence theory, as well as prominent non-legal factors was created, and the variables were able to explain 41% of the variance in speeding behaviour. A high perceived severity of the punishment, experiencing direct punishment avoidance and perceiving that it is safe to speed were significant direct predictors. Meanwhile, there were also numerous significant partially mediated relationships found for both legal and non-legal variables. These findings provide important implications for both the application of deterrence-based theories in road safety and for improving countermeasures to deter young drivers more effectively from engagement in speeding.


Assuntos
Condução de Veículo , Acidentes de Trânsito/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Estudos Prospectivos , Assunção de Riscos , Controle Social Formal , Inquéritos e Questionários
19.
Accid Anal Prev ; 160: 106324, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34371287

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic has led to the implementation of unprecedented public health measures. The effect of these lockdown measures on road safety remain to be fully understood, however preliminary data shows reductions in traffic volume and increases in risky driving behaviors. The objective of the present study is to compare self-reported risky driving behaviors (speeding, distracted driving, drinking and driving, and drugged driving) during the pandemic in Canada and the U.S. to determine what differences exist between these two countries. Data was collected using the Road Safety Monitor (RSM), an annual online public opinion survey that investigates key road safety issues, administered to a representative sample of N = 1,500 Canadian drivers and N = 1,501 U.S. drivers. Respondents were asked about the likelihood of engaging in risky driving during the pandemic as compared to before COVID-19. Results show the majority of respondents indicated their behavior did not change, and most positively, a small proportion reported they were less likely to engage in these risky driving behaviors. However, notable proportions indicated they were more likely to engage in risky driving behaviors during the pandemic, as compared to before COVID-19. Of those who indicated this, U.S. drivers had significantly higher percentages compared to their Canadian counterparts. Behaviors most often reported by this sub-section of drivers who admit to being more likely to engage in risky driving during the pandemic were speeding (7.6%) and drinking and driving (7.6%) in the U.S., and speeding (5.5%) and distracted driving (4.2%) in Canada. Logistic regression results confirm that country was a significant factor, as U.S. drivers had greater odds of reporting they were more likely to engage in these risky driving behaviors, with the exception of speeding. Age also had a significant effect, as increasing age was associated with lower odds of reporting that these risky driving behaviors were more likely during the pandemic. Conversely, sex did not have a significant effect. Overall, the current findings suggest that a small proportion of drivers reported being more likely to engage in risky driving behaviors and the pandemic may have led to changes in the profiles of those drivers engaging in risky driving behaviors during lockdown measures. These results have important implications for policies and can inform how to manage road safety during future lockdowns.


Assuntos
Condução de Veículo , COVID-19 , Acidentes de Trânsito/prevenção & controle , Canadá/epidemiologia , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Humanos , Pandemias , Assunção de Riscos , SARS-CoV-2 , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
20.
Accid Anal Prev ; 160: 106323, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34380083

RESUMO

Travel by bus is an efficient, cost-effective, safe and preferred means of intercity transport in many advanced countries. On the contrary, there is huge public sentiment about the safety records of intercity buses in low- and middle-income countries given the increasing bus-involved road traffic crashes and high fatality rates. This study sought to model the injury severity of intercity bus transport in Ghana using the random parameters multinomial logit with heterogeneity in means and variances modelling technique to account for unobserved heterogeneity in the dataset. The dataset involves crash data from the 575 km long Accra-Kumasi-Sunyani-Gonokrom highway in Ghana. Four discrete crash outcome categories were considered in this study: fatal injury, hospitalized injury, minor injury, and no injury. The study observed that crashes involving pedestrians, unlicensed drivers, and drivers and passengers aged more than 60 years have a higher probability of sustaining fatal injuries. Also, speeding, wrong overtaking, careless driving and inexperienced drivers were associated with fatal injury outcomes on the highway. The incidence of intercity bus transport crashes involving larger buses and minibuses were also found to more likely result in fatalities. The probability of hospitalized injury increased for crashes that occurred in a village setting. Given these findings, the study proposed improvement of the road infrastructure, enforcing seatbelt availability and use in intercity buses, increased enforcement of the traffic rules and regulations to deter driver recklessness and speeding as well as improving the luminance of the highways. Additionally, apps that have features for customers to rate intercity bus operators, the quality of services provided, and also have the option to report reckless driving activities can be developed to promote safe and inclusive public transport in the country.


Assuntos
Condução de Veículo , Pedestres , Ferimentos e Lesões , Acidentes de Trânsito , Gana/epidemiologia , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Veículos Automotores , Ferimentos e Lesões/epidemiologia
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