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1.
Eur. j. psychol. appl. legal context (Internet) ; 11(2): 81-92, jul.-dic. 2019. tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-183602

RESUMO

Traffic safety is an important social problem. Many accidents are due to non-compliance with traffic regulations. Serious or repeated offenses are sanctioned with penalty points or court conviction, and sanctions can lead to disqualification from driving. This paper explores the relevance of alcohol consumption and personality factors as predictors of driving disqualification. The aim of the study is to determine whether the behaviors of persistent offenders and their propensity for law-breaking are related to their characteristics and patterns of drinking. A sample of 358 drivers participated in the study: 126 non-offender habitual drivers and 232 persistent traffic offenders disqualified from driving for serious or repeated traffic offenses, 127 of them after conviction, 105 without conviction (by accumulation of penalties). Participants were given a battery of tests measuring a set of explanatory personality and alcohol consumption factors. We used a cross-sectional study design and performed statistical analysis of variance and regression searching for differences among the groups. The results reveal group effects, with significant differences in a number of factors between traffic offenders and non-offenders, and between both categories of offenders in a number of variables, including traffic violations that lead to demerit points and/or loss of a driver's license and crash involvement. Certain variables, including problem drinking, high levels of activity or excitement, penchant for thrill or sensation seeking, and propensity to hostility while driving, can accurately predict group membership. Alcohol disorders are the best predictors of disqualification from driving for serious or repeat traffic offenses, both penalized and convicted


La seguridad vial es un importante problema social. Muchos accidentes se deben al incumplimiento de las normas de tráfico. Las infracciones graves o reiteradas se sancionan por la vía administrativa o judicial y en ambos casos las sanciones pueden suponer la pérdida del permiso de conducir. Este artículo explora la relevancia del alcohol y la personalidad como factores predictivos. El objetivo del estudio es determinar si el comportamiento delictivo de los infractores persistentes está relacionado con sus características de personalidad y patrones de consumo de alcohol. Se utilizó una muestra de 358 conductores: 232 infractores persistentes, a los que les había sido retirado el carnet de conducir (127 por sentencia judicial y 105 por pérdida total de puntos), y 126 conductores habituales no infractores. Se administró una batería de pruebas que miden un conjunto de factores explicativos de personalidad y consumo de alcohol. Se utilizó un diseño transversal y se realizaron análisis estadísticos de varianza y regresión buscando diferencias entre los grupos. Los resultados revelan diferencias significativas en el tipo de infracciones y accidentes entre infractores de tráfico y no infractores y entre ambas categorías de infractores. Además, ciertas variables, como el abuso de alcohol, altos niveles de actividad, activación emocional, búsqueda de sensaciones y la tendencia a la hostilidad durante la conducción, pueden predecir con precisión la pertenencia a uno u otro grupo. Los problemas con la bebida son el mejor predictor de la pérdida del permiso de conducir, tanto por condena como por acumulación de sanciones


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Condução de Veículo/psicologia , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/efeitos adversos , Comportamento Perigoso , Transtornos da Personalidade/psicologia , Direção Distraída/psicologia , Direção Agressiva/psicologia , Acidentes de Trânsito/estatística & dados numéricos , Assunção de Riscos , Avaliação de Resultado de Intervenções Terapêuticas
2.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 68(46): 1050-1056, 2019 Nov 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31751321

RESUMO

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) affects the lives of millions of Americans each year (1). To describe the trends in TBI-related deaths among different racial/ethnic groups and by sex, CDC analyzed death data from the National Vital Statistics System (NVSS) over an 18-year period (2000-2017). Injuries were also categorized by intent, and unintentional injuries were further categorized by mechanism of injury. In 2017, TBI contributed to 61,131 deaths in the United States, representing 2.2% of approximately 2.8 million deaths that year. From 2015 to 2017, 44% of TBI-related deaths were categorized as intentional injuries (i.e., homicides or suicides). The leading category of TBI-related death varied over time and by race/ethnicity. For example, during the last 10 years of the study period, suicide surpassed unintentional motor vehicle crashes as the leading category of TBI-related death. This shift was in part driven by a 32% increase in TBI-related suicide deaths among non-Hispanic whites. Firearm injury was the underlying mechanism of injury in nearly all (97%) TBI-related suicides among all groups. An analysis of TBI-related death rates by sex and race/ethnicity found that TBI-related deaths were significantly higher among males and persons who were American Indians/Alaska Natives (AI/ANs) than among all other groups across all years. Other leading categories of TBI-related deaths included unintentional motor vehicle crashes, unintentional falls, and homicide. Understanding the leading contributors to TBI-related death and identifying groups at increased risk is important in preventing this injury. Broader implementation of evidence-based TBI prevention efforts for the leading categories of injury, such as those aimed at stemming the significant increase in TBI-related deaths from suicide, are warranted.


Assuntos
Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas/mortalidade , Acidentes de Trânsito/estatística & dados numéricos , Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas/etnologia , Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas/etiologia , Grupos de Populações Continentais/estatística & dados numéricos , Grupos Étnicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Armas de Fogo/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Intenção , Masculino , Fatores de Risco , Distribuição por Sexo , Suicídio/etnologia , Suicídio/estatística & dados numéricos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
4.
Pan Afr Med J ; 33: 215, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31692769

RESUMO

Introduction: Pediatric traumatic injury is a major public health concern that is poorly documented in lower and middle-income countries. This study analyzed data on pediatric injuries from a unique hospital trauma registry in Abuja, Nigeria. Methods: Data were analyzed on 220 traumatically injured patients aged 21 years/less to describe injury characteristics and to determine the association between mechanism of injury and pediatric head injuries in Abuja, Nigeria, between 2014 and 2015. Bivariate analysis using Pearson's chi-square and adjusted logistic regression were conducted to characterize the population and identify risk factors for head injury. P-values<0.05 were considered statistically significant. All statistical analyses were performed using STATA v.15.1. Results: The majority of patients were male (60.9%) with a mean age (SD) of 12.5±6.9 years. Head injuries were most common (49.6%), followed by chest (14.1%), abdomen (12.3%) and back (7.7%). The mechanism of injury was statistically significantly associated with head injury (p=0.027) with 63% of children in a motor vehicle accident sustaining a head injury. After adjusting for covariates, the odds of head injury were 3.8 times higher for children injured in a motor vehicle accidents (MVA) compared to those with falls (95%CI 1.40-10.40). Conclusion: This analysis reveals that motor vehicle accident is a risk factor for traumatic head injury among children in Nigeria. Therefore, efforts should be made to address motor vehicle accidents involving children. These data will help to inform age-related prevention and treatment strategies. The results of this study highlight the importance of collecting pediatric trauma data in developing countries.


Assuntos
Acidentes por Quedas/estatística & dados numéricos , Acidentes de Trânsito/estatística & dados numéricos , Traumatismos Craniocerebrais/epidemiologia , Ferimentos e Lesões/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Traumatismos Craniocerebrais/etiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Nigéria/epidemiologia , Sistema de Registros , Fatores de Risco , Ferimentos e Lesões/etiologia , Adulto Jovem
5.
Pan Afr Med J ; 33: 234, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31692766

RESUMO

Introduction: Management of open fractures poses a constant challenge to Orthopaedic surgeons in Nigeria. Our aim is to determine the epidemiological pattern of open fractures in our centre and share our experiences on the initial management and problems encountered. Methods: This was an 18 month prospective study of patients that presented with open fractures at our emergency room. Already prepared data collection sheets were used to collect relevant data directly from patients and patients' files. Results: There were 58 open fractures in 52 patients (31 males and 21 females). Mean age of patients was 36.4 ± 12.2 years. Most patients (82.7%) fell within the age group of 20-49 years. Traders (28.9%) and students (19.6%) were mostly affected. Most open fractures (88.5%) were due to road traffic accidents. The tibia and fibula were the most frequently affected (44.4%). Most injuries were Gustilo et al. types IIIA & IIIB (79.3%) open fractures. Patients had initial resuscitation followed by debridement in 42 cases (72%). Fractures were initially stabilized with external fixators in 23 cases (39.7%) and cast slabs in 19 cases (32.8%). The average time between presentation and debridement was 30 hours and average hospital stay was 36 days. Forty two point five per cent of wounds were infected. Conclusion: Open fractures were mostly due to road traffic accidents and affected the tibia and fibula most frequently with Gustilo et al. types IIIA and IIIB forming the bulk of the injuries. Management was challenging with late presentations, scarcity of resources and consequent high rate of infections, prolonged morbidity and hospital stay. These problems were worsened by delay in antibiotic commencement and initial debridement, sub-optimal treatment at peripherial hospitals and mis-management by traditional bone setters.


Assuntos
Desbridamento/métodos , Fixadores Externos , Fixação de Fratura/métodos , Fraturas Expostas/cirurgia , Acidentes de Trânsito/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Criança , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Feminino , Fraturas Expostas/epidemiologia , Hospitais de Ensino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nigéria , Estudos Prospectivos , Infecção da Ferida Cirúrgica/epidemiologia , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
6.
Rev Saude Publica ; 53: 83, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31576943

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Assess the magnitude and trend of hospitalization rates due to traumatic injuries in intensive care units (ICU) in Brazil from 1998 to 2015. METHODS: This is an ecological time-series study that analyzed data from the Hospital Information System. A trend analysis of hospitalization rates was performed according to diagnosis, sex and age using generalized linear regression models and Prais-Winsten estimation. RESULTS: Rates were higher among male patients, but increased hospitalization due to trauma among female patients influenced the ratio between both sexes. Falls and transport accidents were the most frequent causes of trauma. The average annual growth was 3.6% in ICU trauma hospitalization rates in Brazil, the highest growth was reported in the North region (8%; 95%CI 6.4-9.6), among women (5.4%; 95%CI 4.5-6.3), and among people aged 60 years and older (5.5%; 95%CI, 4.7-6.3). The most frequent causes of trauma are falls (4.5%; 95%CI 3.5-5.5) and care complications (5.4%; 95%CI 4.5-6.3). On the other hand, the annual hospital mortality rate due to trauma in ICU is 1.7% lower, on average (95%CI 2.1-1.3). CONCLUSION: An increase in ICU hospitalization rate due to trauma in Brazil may be the result of some factors, such as an increasing number of accidents and cases of violence, the implementation of pre-hospital care, and improved access to care, with more beds in ICU. In addition, population aging is another factor, as a greater increase in hospitalization was observed among people aged 60 years and older.


Assuntos
Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Hospitalização/tendências , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/estatística & dados numéricos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/tendências , Ferimentos e Lesões/epidemiologia , Acidentes por Quedas/estatística & dados numéricos , Acidentes de Trânsito/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Distribuição por Idade , Brasil/epidemiologia , Feminino , Mortalidade Hospitalar/tendências , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise de Regressão , Distribuição por Sexo , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
7.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(38): e17123, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31567950

RESUMO

To investigate the age, gender, time, and etiology differences of traumatic lower limb fractures (TLLFs) in a population of children (≤18 years old), we retrospectively reviewed 936 children who had TLLFs and who came to our university-affiliated hospitals from 2001 to 2010. This study enrolled 657 males (70.2%) and 279 females (29.8%) aged (11.6 ±â€Š4.9) years old. The most common etiologies and fracture sites were motor vehicle collisions (MVCs, 440, 47.0%) and tibias (376, 40.2%). A total of 126 (13.5%) patients suffered neurological deficits (NDs), 127 (13.6%) patients sustained associated injuries (ASOIs), and 78 (8.3%) patients sustained complications. During all periods the occurrence increased with increasing age group and a male preponderance was observed in all age groups. With increasing age, the proportion of injuries due to different etiologies increased and the proportion of femur fracture decreased from 65.2% to 34.5%. With increasing year of admission, the proportion of injuries due to MVCs decreased. The most common fracture sites were tibias in MVCs, femurs in low fall, high fall, and struck by object, feet in sprain. Male patients presented with significantly higher proportions of injuries due to struck by object and sprain, significantly lower proportions of pelvis fracture than the female patients. MVCs and tibias were the most common etiologies and fracture sites. Prevention and treatment should be taken according to the pattern of TLLFs which have specific annual, gender, and age characteristics.


Assuntos
Fraturas do Fêmur/epidemiologia , Fraturas da Tíbia/epidemiologia , Acidentes por Quedas/estatística & dados numéricos , Acidentes de Trânsito/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Fatores Etários , Criança , Serviços de Saúde da Criança , Pré-Escolar , China/epidemiologia , Feminino , Fraturas do Fêmur/etiologia , Humanos , Lactente , Extremidade Inferior/lesões , Masculino , Fatores Sexuais , Fraturas da Tíbia/etiologia
8.
Accid Anal Prev ; 132: 105237, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31476584

RESUMO

Traffic safety around school locations is a topic of particular interest given the large number of vulnerable users, such as pedestrians or cyclists, that commute to them at certain times of the day. A dataset of traffic accidents recorded in Valencia (Spain) during 2014 and 2015 is analyzed in order to estimate the effects that school locations produce on traffic risk within their surroundings. The four typologies of school in this city according to the academic levels they offer (All-level, Preschool, Primary, Secondary) are distinguished and taken into consideration for the analysis. Two time windows comprising the starting time in the morning and the evening time once day school has ended are analyzed independently. Several statistical methods are used, including observed vs expected ratios, macroscopic conditional autoregressive modelling, logistic regression in the context of a case-control study design and risk modelling in relation to several school locations. The distances to each type of school and a set of environmental, traffic-related, demographic and socioeconomic covariates are employed for the analysis. The macroscopic modelling of accident counts and the modelling of risk as a function of the distance to each type of school serves to confirm that proximity to a school has an effect on the incidence of traffic accidents in particular time windows. Specifically, school types coexisting in Valencia show differential behaviour in this regard. In addition, several covariates have displayed a positive (bus stop density, complex intersections, main road length) and negative (land use entropy) association with accident counts in the time windows investigated. Finally, the definition of a case-control study design enabled us to observe some differences undetected by the macroscopic approaches that would require further research.


Assuntos
Acidentes de Trânsito/estatística & dados numéricos , Instituições Acadêmicas/estatística & dados numéricos , Ambiente Construído/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Espanha , Análise Espacial , Fatores de Tempo
10.
Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen ; 139(12)2019 09 10.
Artigo em Inglês, Norueguês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31502796

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: It is a policy objective to increase the percentage of journeys made by bicycle in Norway from the current 5 % to 10 %. Kristiansand is one of the most active cities in Norway in terms of cycling. We wished to identify the extent of injuries among cyclists admitted to the hospital. MATERIAL AND METHOD: We reviewed the medical records of patients with cycling-related injuries who were admitted to Sørlandet Hospital, Kristiansand in the period 1 January 2012 to 31 December 2015. Patient, accident, injury and treatment characteristics were recorded, as well as any sequelae after 12 months. RESULTS: Altogether 224 adults and 53 children (<16 years) were registered with cycling-related injuries, most of which (n=192, 69 %) were mild/moderate. Very severe and critical injuries were recorded in 6 (11 %) children and 22 (10 %) adults. Fractures (n=179, 65 %) and minor head injuries (n= 78, 28 %) dominated the injury panorama. Surgical treatment was undertaken in 107 (48 %) adults and 19 (36 %) children. A total of 12 (4 %) patients were transferred to the trauma centre at Oslo University Hospital Ullevål. Four adults had significant sequelae after 12 months, all related to severe head/neck injury. INTERPRETATION: A considerable proportion of serious and complex injuries require that the national guidelines for use of a trauma team be followed. Systematic and ongoing registration of cyclists' injuries in the form of a national registry could help increase our insight into the circumstances surrounding accidents and the extent of injuries related to these.


Assuntos
Acidentes de Trânsito/estatística & dados numéricos , Ciclismo/lesões , Adolescente , Adulto , Ciclismo/estatística & dados numéricos , Criança , Traumatismos Craniocerebrais/epidemiologia , Serviços Médicos de Emergência , Feminino , Fraturas Ósseas/epidemiologia , Humanos , Tempo de Internação , Masculino , Registros Médicos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Noruega/epidemiologia , Estações do Ano , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Operatórios/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores de Tempo , Transporte de Pacientes , Índices de Gravidade do Trauma
11.
Accid Anal Prev ; 132: 105266, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31473441

RESUMO

Novice drivers are statistically over-represented in reported road crashes, with recent evidence suggesting that some of this increased crash involvement may be a result of limitations in their cognitive processing. Such processing has typically been measured by recording drivers' patterns of eye movements, however, the exact ways in which eye movements are reported and interpreted varies substantially between different studies in the literature. Therefore, the objective of this systematic review was to investigate whether novice drivers and experienced drivers do differ in clear and reproducible ways in their visual search. Studies were identified through searches of Web of Science, Medline, TRID Database, and the TRB Research in Progress Database, with no restrictions on publication status. Studies were included if they compared the visual search of a novice driver group (<3 years driving experience) and an experienced driver group (>3 years driving experience) using an eye tracking method and reported at least one of the following four visual search outcomes: fixation durations, horizontal spread of search, vertical spread of search and number of fixations. Two reviewers independently screened searches and assessed the full texts of potentially included studies. Of the 235 studies initially identified 18 were included in the review, with 13 studies reporting sufficient data to be included in the meta-analysis for at least one outcome measure. Given that the included studies deployed a range of method types, additional sub-group analyses were conducted using this factor. Sensitivity analyses were also conducted by temporarily removing extreme experience groups (e.g. driving instructors and learner drivers) in order to test the effect of different levels of experience and training. The meta-analyses, along with support from results discussed narratively, revealed that novice drivers have a narrower horizontal spread of search compared to experienced drivers, however, there were no overall differences in fixation durations, vertical spread of search or number of fixations when the studies were pooled together. These findings have important primary implications for the development of novice training interventions, with novice drivers needing to develop a broader horizontal spread of visual search, but not to necessarily learn to fixate further down the road. Subgroup analyses also provided considerations for future research studies in terms of the experience of the driver groups, and the method type used.


Assuntos
Condução de Veículo , Movimentos Oculares/fisiologia , Acidentes de Trânsito/prevenção & controle , Acidentes de Trânsito/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Feminino , Fixação Ocular , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores de Tempo
12.
Accid Anal Prev ; 132: 105286, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31487665

RESUMO

Safety performance functions (SPFs) are generally used to relate exposure to the expected number of crashes aggregated over a long time (e.g. a year) by holding all other risk factors constant, and to identify hotspots that have excessive crashes regardless of different time periods. However, it is highly likely that the relationships of exposure, risk factors and crash occurrence can vary across different times of day. This study aims to establish time-dependent SPFs for urban roads by using large-scale dangerous driving event data captured by smartphones in different times of day. Multivariate conditional autoregressive (MVCAR) models are developed to jointly account for spatial and temporal dependence of crash observations. Results of two-sample Kolmogorov-Smirnov tests affirm the heterogeneity of the safety effects of dangerous driving events in different time periods. Time-dependent hotspots are identified using potential for safety improvement (PSI) metric. The assumption here is that due to the change of traffic conditions and environment across different times of day, safety hotspots for different time periods should be different from each other. According to the results of Wilcoxon signed-rank tests, hotspots identified by times of day are found to be mostly different from each other. The findings of this study provide insights into temporal effects of risk factors and can support the development of time-dependent safety countermeasures. Besides, this study also shows the potential of leveraging anonymized and aggregated dangerous driving data to assess traffic safety issues.


Assuntos
Acidentes de Trânsito/estatística & dados numéricos , Condução de Veículo/estatística & dados numéricos , Coleta de Dados/métodos , Smartphone , Acidentes de Trânsito/prevenção & controle , Ambiente Construído , Humanos , Fatores de Risco , Segurança
13.
Accid Anal Prev ; 132: 105279, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31491683

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pedestrians, cyclists and motorcyclists are vulnerable to serious injury due to limited external protective devices. Understanding the level of recovery, and differences between these road user groups, is an important step towards improved understanding of the burden of road trauma, and prioritisation of prevention efforts. This study aimed to characterise and describe patient-reported outcomes of vulnerable road users at 6 and 12 months following orthopaedic trauma. METHODS: A registry-based cohort study was conducted using data from the Victorian Orthopaedic Trauma Outcomes Registry (VOTOR) and included pedestrians, cyclists and motorcyclists who were hospitalised for an orthopaedic injury following an on-road collision that occurred between January 2009 and December 2016. Outcomes were measured using the 3-level EuroQol 5 dimensions questionnaire (EQ-5D-3 L), Glasgow Outcome Scale - Extended (GOS-E) and return to work questions. Outcomes were collected at 6 and 12 months post-injury. Multivariable generalized estimating equations (GEE), adjusted for confounders, were used to compare outcomes between the road user groups over time. RESULTS: 6186 orthopaedic trauma patients met the inclusion criteria during the 8-year period. Most patients were motorcyclists (42.8%) followed by cyclists (32.6%) and pedestrians (24.6%). Problems were most prevalent on the usual activities item of the EQ-5D-3 L at 6-months post-injury, and the pain/discomfort item of the EQ-5D-3 L at 12 months. The adjusted odds of reporting problems on all EQ-5D-3 L items were lower for cyclists when compared to pedestrians. Moreover, an average cyclist had a greater odds of a good recovery on the GOS-E, (AOR 2.75, 95% CI 2.33, 3.25) and a greater odds of returning to work (AOR = 3.13, 95% CI 2.46, 3.99) compared to an average pedestrian. CONCLUSION: Pedestrians and motorcyclists involved in on-road collisions experienced poorer patient-reported outcomes at 6 and 12 months post-injury when compared to cyclists. A focus on both primary injury prevention strategies, and investment in ongoing support and treatment to maximise recovery, is necessary to reduce the burden of road trauma for vulnerable road users.


Assuntos
Acidentes de Trânsito/estatística & dados numéricos , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Qualidade de Vida , Ferimentos e Lesões/epidemiologia , Ferimentos e Lesões/reabilitação , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Ciclismo/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Escala de Gravidade do Ferimento , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Motocicletas/estatística & dados numéricos , Medidas de Resultados Relatados pelo Paciente , Pedestres/estatística & dados numéricos , Sistema de Registros , Adulto Jovem
14.
Accid Anal Prev ; 132: 105288, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31505306

RESUMO

In many countries, motorcycle taxis remain an important mode of travel due to their fast, flexible, and inexpensive service. The recent advent of ride-hailing services has led to dramatic growth in the fleet of motorcycle taxis and additional types of motorcycle taxi drivers. Furthermore, mobile phone use while riding a motorcycle is an emerging safety issue, particularly among ride-hailing motorcycle taxi drivers. This paper investigates mobile phone use while riding, crashes and mobile phone related crashes among ride-hailing, traditional, and hybrid motorcycle taxi drivers, using data from a survey in Hanoi, Vietnam. Results show that ride-hailing motorcycle taxi drivers had the highest prevalence of mobile phone use while riding a motorcycle taxi (95.3%), followed by hybrid (88.6%) and traditional taxi drivers (64%). Approximately 32.6%, 19.3%, and 9.7% of motorcycle taxi drivers reported being involved in a crash, injury crash, and mobile phone related crash respectively. Mobile phone related crashes represent 20.5% of all reported crashes. Logistic and negative binomial regression were used to explore factors influencing mobile phone use while riding and crash frequencies. Regression results indicate that ride-hailing taxi drivers were more likely to be involved in a mobile phone related crash. Delivery trips were found to be associated with increases in crashes whereas passenger trips were found to be associated with decreases in crashes. Policy implications are also discussed.


Assuntos
Acidentes de Trânsito/estatística & dados numéricos , Uso do Telefone Celular/estatística & dados numéricos , Motocicletas/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Medição de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários , Vietnã/epidemiologia
15.
Accid Anal Prev ; 132: 105287, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31514085

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Rollover crashes of buses occur less frequently than do those involving passenger cars; however, they are associated with higher fatality rates. During rollover crashes, a vehicle experiences multidirectional acceleration and multiple impacts, yielding a complex interaction between structural components and its occupants. A better understanding of vehicle and occupant's motion, structural deformation, and vehicle and road interactions are necessary to improve the safety of the occupants during this event. One of the key factors in rollover crashworthiness assessment is to investigate the relationship between the strength of the vehicle's structure and the risk of injury outcomes. However, rollover crashes involving buses have received less research attention than have those involving passenger cars. Experimental studies in bus rollover safety have mainly focused on the structural integrity of the passenger compartment without considering the occupant responses. The main goal of this research is to evaluate the rollover mechanism and associated injury risk during two experimental rollover tests for a paratransit cutaway bus that is commonly used by transit agencies. METHODS: The modified dolly rollover (MDR) and tilt table (TT) tests were conducted using a similar bus and anthropomorphic test device (ATD) configurations. In each test, a 2-point and 3-point belted Hybrid III 50th percent male ATDs were used to quantify the kinematics of the occupants. The deformation index (DI), accelerations and angular velocities of the bus's CG were measured as vehicle responses. The collected data were then calibrated and filtered to assess the effects of the test procedure on kinematic responses of the vehicle and occupants. Next, the effectiveness of the 2-point vs 3-point seatbelt to reduce or prevent the injuries, the vulnerable body regions and corresponded injury risk were evaluated. RESULTS: The residual space remained intact (DI < 1) during both rollover tests, however, the ATD responses were quite different. The results of the injury assessment indicate that the risk of the injuries in the MDR test was significantly higher than the TT test. The highest risk of injuries was identified for the head, neck, and shoulder of 2-point belted ATD during the MDR test. Also, the main source of injuries during the MDR test was partial ejection due to the shattered side window, whereas for the TT test impacts between the ATDs and the side window and/or window frame were the injury causes. From the vehicle point of view, the total energy produced in the MDR was 3.5 times higher than the TT test, but the overall structural deformation in the TT test was higher than MDR test. Overall, the tilt table test provides a more severe scenario compared to the MDR test for the assessment of structural strength. Considering the limited real-world injury data in rollover crashes of buses, the MDR test presented the more realistic occupant responses.


Assuntos
Acidentes de Trânsito/prevenção & controle , Veículos Automotores , Ferimentos e Lesões/etiologia , Acidentes de Trânsito/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Medição de Risco , Cintos de Segurança/estatística & dados numéricos , Ferimentos e Lesões/prevenção & controle
16.
Accid Anal Prev ; 132: 105280, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31514086

RESUMO

This study aimed to develop an industry-specific tool to identify risk of poor physical and mental recovery following minor to moderate injuries sustained in a road traffic crash (RTC). Existing tools are often designed for implementation by health professionals rather than insurer case managers who may not have a background in health. This study is a secondary analysis of a longitudinal cohort study using data collected at 2-6 months and 24 months post-RTC. Participants were claimants (n = 254; Mean age = 50 years; 65% female) with mild-moderate injuries recruited through the common-law 'fault-based' compulsory third party scheme in Queensland, Australia. Sociodemographic, functional and psychological health factors were collected at baseline (2-6 months post RTC) and used as potential predictors for physical and mental health-related quality of life (Short Form 36 v2) at the 2-year follow-up. The LASSO (Least Absolute Shrinkage and Selection Operator) analysis identified six disability items (from the World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule 2) to predict poor physical and one item to predict poor mental health-related quality of life. Logistic regressions of these items in addition to age and gender were used to develop a screening tool. Using the tool, 90% of those at risk of poor physical and 80% of those at risk of poor mental health-related quality of life were identified correctly. To conclude, this study presents an 8-item, context-specific tool to help injury managers identify individuals at risk of poor physical and mental health recovery following mild-moderate RTC-related injuries. The tool requires validation in a new cohort and confirmation of acceptability by end-users.


Assuntos
Acidentes de Trânsito/psicologia , Avaliação da Deficiência , Qualidade de Vida , Ferimentos e Lesões , Acidentes de Trânsito/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Queensland , Medição de Risco , Ferimentos e Lesões/psicologia , Ferimentos e Lesões/reabilitação
17.
Accid Anal Prev ; 132: 105277, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31514087

RESUMO

The sequence of instantaneous driving decisions and its variations, known as driving volatility, prior to involvement in safety critical events can be a leading indicator of safety. This study focuses on the component of "driving volatility matrix" related to specific normal and safety-critical events, named "event-based volatility." The research issue is characterizing volatility in instantaneous driving decisions in the longitudinal and lateral directions, and how it varies across drivers involved in normal driving, crash, and/or near-crash events. To explore the issue, a rigorous quasi-experimental study design is adopted to help compare driving behaviors in normal vs unsafe outcomes. Using a unique real-world naturalistic driving database from the 2nd Strategic Highway Research Program (SHRP), a test set of 9593 driving events featuring 2.2 million temporal samples of real-world driving are analyzed. This study features a plethora of kinematic sensors, video, and radar spatiotemporal data about vehicle movement and therefore offers the opportunity to initiate such exploration. By using information related to longitudinal and lateral accelerations and vehicular jerk, 24 different aggregate and segmented measures of driving volatility are proposed that captures variations in extreme instantaneous driving decisions. In doing so, careful attention is given to the issue of intentional vs. unintentional volatility. The volatility indices, as leading indicators of near-crash and crash events, are then linked with safety critical events, crash propensity, and other event specific explanatory variables. Owing to the presence of unobserved heterogeneity and omitted variable bias, fixed- and random-parameter discrete choice models are developed that relate crash propensity to unintentional driving volatility and other factors. Statistically significant evidence is found that driver volatilities in near-crash and crash events are significantly greater than volatility in normal driving events. After controlling for traffic, roadway, and unobserved factors, the results suggest that greater intentional volatility increases the likelihood of both crash and near-crash events. A one-unit increase in intentional volatility is associated with positive vehicular jerk in longitudinal direction increases the chance of crash and near-crash outcome by 15.79 and 12.52 percentage points, respectively. Importantly, intentional volatility in positive vehicular jerk in lateral direction has more negative consequences than intentional volatility in positive vehicular jerk in longitudinal direction. Compared to acceleration/deceleration, vehicular jerk can better characterize the volatility in microscopic instantaneous driving decisions prior to involvement in safety critical events. Finally, the magnitudes of correlations exhibit significant heterogeneity, and that accounting for the heterogeneous effects in the modeling framework can provide more reliable and accurate results. The study demonstrates the value of quasi-experimental study design and big data analytics for understanding extreme driving behaviors in safe vs. unsafe driving outcomes.


Assuntos
Acidentes de Trânsito/estatística & dados numéricos , Condução de Veículo/psicologia , Aceleração/efeitos adversos , Big Data , Bases de Dados Factuais , Desaceleração/efeitos adversos , Tomada de Decisões , Humanos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados não Aleatórios como Assunto
18.
Accid Anal Prev ; 132: 105278, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31518763

RESUMO

Traffic accidents can take place in very different ways and involve a substantially distinct number and types of vehicles. Thus, it is of interest to know which parts of a road structure present an overrepresentation of a specific type of traffic accident, specially for some typologies of collisions and vehicles that tend to trigger more severe consequences for the users being involved. In this study, a spatial approach is followed to estimate the risk that different types of collisions and vehicles present in the central area of Valencia (Spain), considering the accidents observed in this city during the period 2014-2017. A directed spatial linear network representing the non-pedestrian road structure of the area of interest was employed to guarantee an accurate analysis of the point pattern. A kernel density estimation technique was used to approximate the probability of risk along the network for each collision and vehicle type. A procedure based on these estimates and the sample size locally available within the network was designed and tested to determine a set of differential risk hotspots for each typology of accident considered. A Monte Carlo based simulation process was then defined to assess the statistical significance of each of the differential risk hotspots found, allowing the elaboration of rankings of importance and the possible rejection of the least significant ones.


Assuntos
Acidentes de Trânsito/prevenção & controle , Veículos Automotores/estatística & dados numéricos , Acidentes de Trânsito/classificação , Acidentes de Trânsito/estatística & dados numéricos , Ambiente Construído , Humanos , Método de Monte Carlo , Veículos Automotores/classificação , Medição de Risco , Espanha , Análise Espacial
19.
Accid Anal Prev ; 132: 105276, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31525649

RESUMO

Traffic safety analysis at the macroscopic level usually relies on previously defined areal traffic analysis zones (TAZs) that are used as the units of investigation. Hence, statistical inference is made on the basis of such units, implying that the consideration of a certain TAZ configuration may influence the results and conclusions achieved. Regarding this, the modifiable areal unit problem (MAUP) is a well-known issue in the field of spatial statistics, which refers to the effects that arise in statistical properties and estimations when there is a change in areal units of analysis. In this paper, the consequences of MAUP have been investigated through a dataset of traffic crashes that occurred in Valencia within the years 2014 and 2015 and two common statistical models: a conditional autoregressive model and a geographically weighted regression. In the absence of an established TAZ scheme for the city, four classes of basic spatial units (BSUs) were considered: census tracts, hexagonal units and two types with construction based on the structure of main roads and intersections of the city. Each of these BSU types was specified at different levels of spatial aggregation. The main research objective was to investigate the final effects that changes in BSU type and scale have on model parameter estimations, but also the specific alterations that MAUP causes to data in terms of the distributional characteristics of the response, multicollinearity among the covariates and covariates' spatial autocorrelation. The results showed the presence and severity of MAUP for the dataset and area that were analysed. Although effects from scale variations were more moderate, changing the BSU type affected the results severely. The joint use of hexagonal units and a conditional autoregressive model achieved the best performance among all the possibilities explored, but the choice of a proper BSU unit should rely on more factors. Despite MAUP effects, educational centres showed a consistent (and negative) association with traffic crashes, a fact possibly related to their distribution across the whole city. Other covariates revealed a positive correlation with crash counts, but these findings were more uncertain given the discrepancies found at different scales and zonings.


Assuntos
Acidentes de Trânsito/estatística & dados numéricos , Análise Espacial , Acidentes de Trânsito/prevenção & controle , Planejamento de Cidades , Humanos , Modelos Estatísticos , Segurança , Espanha
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