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2.
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0243464, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33373371

RESUMO

Injuries are a leading cause of death and disability among children. Numerous injury prevention strategies have been successful in high-income countries, but the majority of unintentional injuries happen to children living in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). This project aims to delineate the childhood injury prevention initiatives in LMICs. For inclusion, peer-reviewed articles needed to address unintentional injury, include children <18, assess a prevention-related intervention, contain a control group, and be published after 1988. Two pairs of reviewers evaluated articles independently to determine study eligibility. 74 articles were included. 30 studies addressed road traffic injuries, 11 drowning, 8 burns, 3 falls, 8 poisonings, and 21 an unspecified injury type. The findings show positive effects on injury outcome measures following educational interventions, the need for longer follow-up periods after the intervention, the need for effectiveness trials for behavior change, and the need for an increase in injury prevention services in LMICs. This is the first systematic review to summarize the prevention initiatives for all types of childhood unintentional injuries in LMICs. Increased attention and funding are required to go beyond educational initiatives with self-reported measures and little follow-up time to robust interventions that will reduce the global burden of unintentional injuries among children.


Assuntos
Ferimentos e Lesões/prevenção & controle , Acidentes de Trânsito/prevenção & controle , Queimaduras/prevenção & controle , Criança , Bases de Dados Factuais , Países em Desenvolvimento , Humanos , Equipamentos de Proteção/normas , Gestão da Segurança
3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33333965

RESUMO

Like many other transit modes, the metro provides stop-to-stop services rather than door-to-door services, so its use undeniably involves first- and last-mile issues. Understanding the determinants of the first- and last-mile mode choice is essential. Existing literature, however, mostly overlooks the mode choice effects of traffic safety perception and attitudes toward the mode. To this end, based on a face-to-face questionnaire survey in Shenzhen, China, this study uses the two-sample t-test to confirm the systematic differences in traffic safety perception and attitudes between different subgroups and develops a series of multinomial logistic (MNL) models to identify the determinants of first- and last-mile mode choice for metro commuters. The results of this study show that: (1) Walking is the most frequently used travel mode, followed by dockless bike-sharing (DBS) and buses; (2) Variances in traffic safety perception and attitude exist across gender and location; (3) Vehicle-related crash risks discourage metro commuters from walking to/from the metro station but encourage them to use DBS and buses as feeder modes; (4) DBS-metro integration is encouraged by the attitude that DBS is quicker than buses and walking, and positive attitudes toward the bus and DBS availability are decisive for the bus-metro and DBS-metro integration, respectively; and (5) Substantial differences exist in the mode choice effects of traffic safety perception and attitudes for access and egress trips. This study provides a valuable reference for metro commuters' first- and last-mile travel mode choice, contributing to developing a sustainable urban transport system.


Assuntos
Transportes , Acidentes de Trânsito/prevenção & controle , Adulto , Atitude , Ciclismo , China , Comportamento de Escolha , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Percepção , Segurança , Caminhada
4.
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0243930, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33326462

RESUMO

Thailand has the highest road traffic fatality rate in Southeast Asia, making road safety a critical public health concern. A 2015 World Health Organization (WHO) Report showed that speeding behavior was the most important determinant for road traffic crashes in Thailand. Here, we aimed to examine associations of socio-demographic factors (gender, age, socioeconomic status) with self-reported motorcycle speeding behavior. Additionally, we examined a potential role of time discounting and risk preference as mediators in the association of socio-demographic factors with speeding. We used data obtained from the Mahasarakham University Social Network Survey 2018 (MSUSSS) (N = 150). We ran linear network autocorrelation models (lnam) to account for the data's social network structure. We found that males are more likely than females to engage in speeding behavior (ß = 0.140, p = 0.001) and to discount the future (ß = 5.175, p = 0.017). However, further causal mediation analysis showed that time discounting does not mediate the gender-speeding association (p for mediation = 0.540). Although socioeconomic status (subjective social class) was not associated with speeding (ß = 0.039, p = 0.177), age was marginally associated with speeding (ß = 0.005, p = 0.093). Future studies may consider using a larger sample.


Assuntos
Acidentes de Trânsito/psicologia , Condução de Veículo/psicologia , Comportamento , Acidentes de Trânsito/prevenção & controle , Adolescente , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Motocicletas , Fatores de Risco , Assunção de Riscos , Autorrelato , Fatores Sexuais , Rede Social , Tailândia , Universidades , Adulto Jovem
5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33353012

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Factors related to the wellness of taxi drivers are important for identifying high-risk drivers based on human factors. The purpose of this study is to predict high-risk taxi drivers based on a deep learning method by identifying the wellness of a driver, which reflects the personal characteristics of the driver. METHODS: In-depth interviews with taxi drivers are conducted to collect wellness data. The priorities of factors affecting the severity of accidents are derived through a random forest model. In addition, based on the derived priority of variables, various combinations of inputs are set as scenarios and optimal artificial neural network models are derived for each scenario. Finally, the model with the best performance for predicting high-risk taxi drivers is selected based on three criteria. RESULTS: A model with variables up to the 16th priority as inputs is selected as the best model; this has a classification accuracy of 86% and an F1-score of 0.77. CONCLUSIONS: The wellness-based model for predicting high-risk taxi drivers presented in this study can be used for developing a taxi driver management system. In addition, it is expected to be useful when establishing customized traffic safety improvement measures for commercial vehicle drivers.


Assuntos
Condução de Veículo , Aprendizado Profundo , Envio de Mensagens de Texto , Acidentes de Trânsito/prevenção & controle , Humanos
6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33353208

RESUMO

People mixing driving motor vehicles with consuming alcohol increases deaths and injuries on the roads, as was established irrefutably in the mid-1960s. This commentary discusses how society across Europe has responded since then to this burden by managing drink driving in the interests of road safety. The principal response has been to set, communicate and enforce limits on the level of alcohol in the blood above which it is illegal to drive and to deal in various ways with drivers found to be exceeding the limits. Achieving reduction in drink-related road deaths has benefitted public health, though the aim to change behaviour of drinking drivers has been a challenge to the profession. Other achievements have included changes in public attitude to drink driving, and reduction in reoffending by convicted offenders through rehabilitation courses and use of the alcohol interlock, which prevents starting of a vehicle by a driver who has drunk too much. There is scope for improved recording of road deaths identified as drink-related, greater understanding of effectiveness in enforcement of the legal limit and improved availability of the alcohol interlock. Relevance of experience with drink driving to management of other drug driving and prospects for building on the achievements so far are discussed.


Assuntos
Condução de Veículo , Dirigir sob a Influência , Acidentes de Trânsito/prevenção & controle , Acidentes de Trânsito/estatística & dados numéricos , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas , Europa (Continente) , Humanos , Preparações Farmacêuticas
7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33321945

RESUMO

Numerous traffic crashes occur every year on zebra crossings in China. Pedestrians are vulnerable road users who are usually injured severely or fatally during human-vehicle collisions. The development of an effective pedestrian street-crossing decision-making model is essential to improving pedestrian street-crossing safety. For this purpose, this paper carried out a naturalistic field experiment to collect a large number of vehicle and pedestrian motion data. Through interviewed with many pedestrians, it is found that they pay more attention to whether the driver can safely brake the vehicle before reaching the zebra crossing. Therefore, this work established a novel decision-making model based on the vehicle deceleration-safety gap (VD-SGM). The deceleration threshold of VD-SGM was determined based on signal detection theory (SDT). To verify the performance of VD-SGM proposed in this work, the model was compared with the Raff model. The results show that the VD-SGM performs better and the false alarm rate is lower. The VD-SGM proposed in this work is of great significance to improve pedestrians' safety. Meanwhile, the model can also increase the efficiency of autonomous vehicles.


Assuntos
Acidentes de Trânsito , Tomada de Decisões , Pedestres , Acidentes de Trânsito/prevenção & controle , China , Desaceleração , Humanos , Pedestres/psicologia , Segurança , Caminhada/psicologia
8.
Nihon Koshu Eisei Zasshi ; 67(11): 811-818, 2020.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33361688

RESUMO

Objectives Although previous studies have discussed the "voluntary" withdrawal of older drivers' driving license to prevent traffic accidents, there is less evidence about the experience of giving up driving. The present study investigated the decision-making process in the "voluntary" withdrawal of the driver's license and the conceptual meaning of "voluntary" among individuals who have experienced or shortly plan the event, as well as the transitions in their social relationships, social interactions, and body image perceptions.Methods Qualitative research was undertaken to examine the explanatory research question in City A, Ibaraki prefecture, Japan. A semi-structured interview was conducted with eight male participants. They were asked related questions, for example, the meaning of driving, lifestyle changes, and so on. Data were recorded and transcribed into transcripts to be analyzed using the grounded theory approach.Results The qualitative data revealed that when participants perceived their "body" as alienated from their "self" during driving or daily living, they became confused because they needed to be conscious of the aroused existence of the "self" that operates their "body," which was previously integrated with their "self." This awareness led the individuals to the process of "voluntary" withdrawal from driving in coping with their reflected "self" while they gradually distrusted their "self" regarding their deteriorating "body." Some participants lost their "self" and felt that they were forced to stop driving "voluntarily" when their "self" was determined as belonging to a risky "body," whereas others could decide "voluntary" driving cessation and realize their "self" through social interactions when they "re-evaluated" their "self" in light of their life stories. Both types of participants had "difficulties" after driving cessation; however, the latter effectively emphasized the re-construction of the "self" and "self"-based decision-making process due to aging.Conclusion The decision-making process in the withdrawal of a driver's license due to aging resembled the process of coping with disabilities. Previous relationships between "self," "body," and society might be affected by age- or illness-triggered events. Encouraging the re-construction of "self" and its relationships might alleviate the psychological impact on elderly people facing "voluntary" retirement from driving.


Assuntos
Acidentes de Trânsito/prevenção & controle , Adaptação Psicológica , Envelhecimento/psicologia , Condução de Veículo/psicologia , Imagem Corporal , Tomada de Decisões , Relações Interpessoais , Autoimagem , Inquéritos e Questionários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Japão , Masculino , Pesquisa Qualitativa
10.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0238605, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33064723

RESUMO

To "put oneself in the place of other road users" may improve understanding of the global traffic situation. It should be useful enabling drivers to anticipate and detect obstacles in time to prevent accidents to other road users, especially those most vulnerable. We created a pioneering Hazard Perception and Prediction test to explore this skill in different road users (pedestrians, cyclists and drivers), with videos recorded in naturalistic scenarios: walking, riding a bicycle and driving a car. There were 79 participants (30 pedestrians, 14 cyclists, 13 novice drivers and 22 experienced drivers). Sixty videos of hazardous traffic situations were presented, divided into 2 blocks of 30 videos each: 10 walking, 10 riding a bicycle, 10 driving a car. In each situation presented, we evaluated the performance of the participants carrying out the task of predicting the hazard and estimating the risk. In the second block, after they had carried out the task, we gave them feedback on their performance and let them see the whole video (i.e., checking what happened next). The results showed that the holistic test had acceptable psychometric properties (Cronbach's alpha = .846). The test was able to discriminate between the different conditions manipulated: a) between traffic hazards recorded from different perspectives: walking, riding a bicycle and driving a car; b) between participants with different user profiles: pedestrians, cyclists and drivers; c) between the two test blocks: the first evaluation only and the second combining evaluation with this complex intervention. We found modal bias effects in both Hazard Perception and Prediction; and in Risk Estimation.


Assuntos
Acidentes de Trânsito/prevenção & controle , Acidentes de Trânsito/psicologia , Condução de Veículo/psicologia , Ciclismo/psicologia , Caminhada/psicologia , Prevenção de Acidentes/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , Conscientização , Comportamento Perigoso , Feminino , Saúde Holística , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pedestres/psicologia , Adulto Jovem
11.
Annu Int Conf IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc ; 2020: 248-251, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33017975

RESUMO

Accurate and reliable detecting of driving fatigue using Electroencephalography (EEG) signals is a method to reduce traffic accidents. So far, it is natural to cut the part of operating the steering wheel data away for achieving the relatively high accuracy in detecting driving fatigue using EEG data. However, the data segment during operating the steering wheel also contains valuable information. Moreover, operating the steering wheel is a common practice during actual driving. In this study, we utilize the part of data operating the steering wheel to detecting fatigue. The feature used is the spectral band power calculates from the data. For each experiment and each experimental participant, the data and features are divided into sessions and subjects. Using the divided features, this work performs cross-session and cross-subject verification and comparison on the two classification methods of logistic regression and multi-layer perceptron. To compare the effect, the experiment is conducted on the data both operating the steering wheel and not operating the steering wheel. The result shows that the bias between the average accuracy of two types of data is only 2.27%, and the effect of using multi-layer perceptron is 10.37% better than using logistic regression. This proves that the data segment during operating the steering wheel also contains valid information and can be used for driving fatigue detection.


Assuntos
Condução de Veículo , Acidentes de Trânsito/prevenção & controle , Eletroencefalografia , Técnicas Histológicas , Humanos , Equipamentos de Proteção
12.
Annu Int Conf IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc ; 2020: 252-255, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33017976

RESUMO

Drowsy driving is one of the major causes in traffic accidents worldwide. Various electroencephalography (EEG)-based feature extraction methods are proposed to detect driving drowsiness, to name a few, spectral power features and fuzzy entropy features. However, most existing studies only concentrate on features in each channel separately to identify drowsiness, making them vulnerable to variability across different sessions and subjects without sufficient data. In this paper, we propose a method called Tensor Network Features (TNF) to exploit underlying structure of drowsiness patterns and extract features based on tensor network. This TNF method first introduces Tucker decomposition to tensorized EEG channel data of training set, then features of training and testing tensor samples are extracted from the corresponding subspace matrices through tensor network summation. The performance of the proposed TNF method was evaluated through a recently published EEG dataset during a sustained-attention driving task. Compared with spectral power features and fuzzy entropy features, the accuracy of TNF method is improved by 6.7% and 10.3% on average with maximum value 17.3% and 29.7% respectively, which is promising in developing practical and robust cross-session driving drowsiness detection system.


Assuntos
Condução de Veículo , Processamento de Sinais Assistido por Computador , Acidentes de Trânsito/prevenção & controle , Eletroencefalografia , Vigília
13.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0239394, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33085674

RESUMO

Recent advance in VMS technology has made it viable to ease traffic congestion and improve road traffic efficiency. However, the drivers' low compliance with the posted information may limit its performance to ease traffic congestion and improve traffic safety. This paper explores drivers' attitude to the service quality of VMS system resulted from the identified predominant influencing factors. A questionnaire is developed and used for surveying 9,600 drivers in Beijing, China. The collected data are analyzed with a multiple indicators and multiple causes (MIMIC) model considering different driver categories (e.g., private car driver, office car driver, taxi driver). The results show that the causal relationships between latent variables and socio-demographic characteristic is significant. Driving frequency, attitude towards contents of VMS, drivers' decision-making and the effectiveness of VMS message can directly and indirectly affect driver's perceived quality of service. The attitude towards formats of VMS indirectly affect their QoS resulting from the effectiveness of VMS message, while there is no indirect impact for taxi drivers. Besides, the drivers' decision-making directly affects the perceived quality of service for private car drivers and office car drivers, but there is no impact for taxi drivers. The findings of this study can provide guidance and reference for urban authorities to perform the relevant actions required to meet user expectations.


Assuntos
Condução de Veículo , Tecnologia , Acidentes de Trânsito/prevenção & controle , Adulto , Cidades , Planejamento de Cidades , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Percepção , Controle de Qualidade , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
14.
Ther Umsch ; 77(7): 328-332, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32996423

RESUMO

Diabetes, hypoglycemia and driving instructions in Switzerland Abstract. Many individuals with diabetes participate in road traffic in a regular and safe manner. Studies suggest that type 1 diabetes leads to more traffic accidents. Hypoglycemia is a risk factor for driving mishaps. Therefore, patients with diabetes medication, which can cause hypoglycemia, have to be informed and adhere to the guidelines regarding suitability for driving. These guidelines are summarized in this review.


Assuntos
Condução de Veículo , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/tratamento farmacológico , Hipoglicemia/induzido quimicamente , Acidentes de Trânsito/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Suíça
15.
Accid Anal Prev ; 146: 105747, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32911131

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The effect of mandated societal lockdown to reduce the transmission of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) on road traffic accidents is not known. For this reason, we performed an in-depth analysis using data from Statewide Traffic Accident Records System. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We reviewed data on total 2292 road traffic accident records in Missouri from January 1, 2020 through May 15, 2020. We treated March 23 as the first day of mandated societal lockdown and May 3 as the first day of re-opening. RESULTS: We have found that there was a significant reduction in road traffic accidents resulting in minor or no injuries (mean 14.5 versus 10.8, p < 0.0001) but not in accidents resulting in serious or fatal injuries (mean 3.4 versus 3.7, p = 0.42) after mandated societal lockdown. Furthermore, there was a significant reduction in road traffic accidents resulting in minor or no injuries after the mandated social lockdown (parameter estimate -5.9, p = 0.0028) in the time series analysis. There was an increase in road traffic accidents resulting in minor or no injuries after expiration of mandatory societal lockdown (mean 10.8 versus 13.7, p = 0.04). CONCLUSION: The mandated societal lockdown policies led to reduction in road traffic accidents resulting in non-serious or no injuries but not those resulting in serious or fatal injuries.


Assuntos
Acidentes de Trânsito/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Humanos , Missouri
16.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0238516, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32881906

RESUMO

PURPOSE: This study aimed to investigate whether young and old non-professional drivers in South Egypt have aberrant driving behaviors compared with their middle-aged counterparts. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, a total of 1764 non-professional drivers aged ≥ 19 years, residing in Beni-Suef in South Egypt, and having ≥ one year of driving experience were randomly selected. All drivers were asked to fill out a self-administered questionnaire, including personal information, driving habits, and the Arabic version of the Driver Behavior Questionnaire which evaluates driving violations, errors, and lapses. RESULTS: This study included 560 young drivers (19-25 years), 850 middle-aged drivers (26-59 years), and 354 old drivers (≥ 60 years). Compared with middle-aged drivers, young drivers reported more non-use of the seatbelt, eating while driving, and driving while feeling drowsy. Old drivers, in contrast, showed more careful driving behaviors including fewer violations, errors, and lapses and less likelihood of driving while feeling sleepy. CONCLUSION: This study supports the conception that young drivers pose less careful driving habits. Initiating educational programs targeting young drivers to improve their driving habits and create a traffic safety culture in Egypt is highly warranted.


Assuntos
Acidentes de Trânsito/prevenção & controle , Fatores Etários , Condução de Veículo/estatística & dados numéricos , Assunção de Riscos , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Egito , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Comportamento Multitarefa , Cintos de Segurança/estatística & dados numéricos , Autorrelato , Adulto Jovem
17.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 9: CD013738, 2020 09 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32966589

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Road traffic suicides are common. However, due to the difficulty in distinguishing between motor vehicle crash fatalities and actual suicides, no official figures exist for this method of suicide. Restricting access to means is an important universal or population-based approach to suicide prevention with clear evidence of its effectiveness. However, the evidence with respect to means restriction for the prevention of suicide on roads is not well established. We conducted a systematic review to assess the impact of restrictions on the availability of, or access to, means of suicide on roads. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effectiveness of interventions to restrict the availability of, or access to, means of suicide on roads. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO, and the Transport Research International Documentation (TRID) Database from the date of database inception to March 2020. We conducted searches of the World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) and ClinicalTrials.gov to identify unpublished and ongoing studies. We applied no date, language, or publication status restrictions to these searches. SELECTION CRITERIA: Eligible studies were randomised or quasi-randomised controlled trials, controlled intervention studies without randomisation, before-after studies, or studies using interrupted time series designs, which evaluated interventions to restrict the availability of, or access to, means of suicide on roads. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two review authors screened abstracts and full-text publications against the inclusion criteria. Two review authors planned to independently extract data and assess risk of bias of included studies. However, we identified no studies eligible for inclusion. MAIN RESULTS: We identified no studies that met the inclusion criteria for this review. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: This systematic review highlights the paucity of research around road traffic suicides and the need for future robust studies that aim to investigate the effectiveness of interventions to prevent suicide on roads. Suicide ascertainment is a key issue; therefore, clear objective criteria are necessary in order to scale up and study this method more accurately. In the absence of any substantial evidence, we advocate for more awareness on road traffic suicides and its inclusion in future government suicide prevention policies. Further research exploring effective measures, particularly those that do not require driver compliance, are also needed.


Assuntos
Acidentes de Trânsito/prevenção & controle , Suicídio/prevenção & controle , Acidentes de Trânsito/psicologia , Humanos , Fatores de Risco
18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32824601

RESUMO

Road transportation poses one of the significant public health risks. Several contributors and factors strongly link public health and road safety. The design and advancement of higher-quality roads can significantly contribute to safer roads and save lives. In this article, the safety aspect of the roads' horizontal curves under the standard of the American Association of State Highway Transportation Officials (AASHTO) is evaluated. Several factors, including vehicle weight, vehicle dimensions, longitudinal grades, and vehicle speed in the geometric design of the horizontal curves, are investigated through a multi-body dynamic simulation process. According to the AASHTO, a combination of simple circular and clothoid transition curves with various longitudinal upgrades and downgrades was designed. Three vehicles were used in this simulation, including a sedan, a bus, and a 3-axle truck. The analysis was based on the lateral friction between the tire and the pavement and also the safety margin parameter. The results showed that designers must differentiate between light and heavy vehicles, especially in curves with a high radius. Evaluation of longitudinal grade impacts indicated that the safety margin decreases when the vehicle is entering the curve. Safety margin reduction on the clothoid curve takes place with a lower grade toward the simple circular curve. By increasing the speed, the difference between lateral friction demand obtained from simulation and lateral friction demand proposed by AASHTO grows. The proposed novel methodology can be used for evaluating road safety.


Assuntos
Acidentes de Trânsito , Condução de Veículo , Planejamento Ambiental , Acidentes de Trânsito/prevenção & controle , Fricção , Veículos Automotores , Segurança
19.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0236147, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32797082

RESUMO

PURPOSE: A variety of visual and psychometric tests have been developed for assessing on-road driving performance and fitness to drive. The diagnostic power of a state of the art psychometric test battery (Vienna Test System) combined with a set of standard visual parameters recommended for assessing fitness to drive is investigated using an on-road driving test. The study aimed to determine whether a psychometric test battery could predict older adults' on-road driving performance. The relevance of visual standards required by law is discussed. METHODS: Vision impairment is more prevalent in later adulthood and many studies on visual and cognitive impact on driving safety and performance therefore focus on adults above 60 years of age. We therefore acquired an extensive set of driving-related visual and psychometric performance parameters in a group of elderly drivers (N = 84, median age 69, SD 6.6 years). Visual assessment included foveal acuity, perimetric field size, and dynamic aspects of peripheral vision (termed "PP") in the computer-based Vienna Test System (VTS; Schuhfried), as well as letter contrast thresholds in foveal and parafoveal vision in a separate setup. A selection of psychometric driving-aptitude tests that demonstrated the battery's capacity to predict aspects of driving performance and safety were further conducted on the VTS. Driving performance was assessed in a standardized on-road driving test. Two independent observers rated driving performance using a fixed scoring system assessing the number of driving errors in pre-defined traffic situations. In addition, globalized driving competence scores were assigned on a 6-point scale. RESULTS: The test battery performed excellent in identification of good drivers but failed in the prediction of bad driving performance. Visual performance indicators required by German law were less indicative of driving ability than psychometric assessment. Selective and divided attention turned out to be much more important for predicting fitness to drive than either visual acuity, size of the visual field, or contrast sensitivity. CONCLUSION: Predicting fitness to drive by means of visual and psychometric tests is an ambitious challenge. On the one hand sensitivity of a multi-disciplinary test-battery is too low to predict reliable driving ability in diagnostic settings which require an unambiguous interpretation of test results for individual drivers. Low sensitivity and low predictive values are incompatible with that objective. On the other hand, the results are valuable for a routine screening of fitness to drive. For that case, the assessment of attentional abilities in particular appears to be promising. Performance measures of divided and selective attention showed themselves to be the most predictive for fitness to drive in a sample pre-screened for clear visual deficits. Visual performance parameters required by law, in contrast, had no meaningful impact on driving performance, indicating a gap between mandatory regulations of state authorities and research results. Our results suggest that visual acuity tests designed for clinical diagnosis and monitoring of eye diseases should not at all be the choice for a screening of fitness to drive.


Assuntos
Acidentes de Trânsito/prevenção & controle , Atenção/fisiologia , Condução de Veículo/legislação & jurisprudência , Psicometria/métodos , Campos Visuais/fisiologia , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Envelhecimento/fisiologia , Condução de Veículo/psicologia , Feminino , Alemanha , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Padrões de Referência , Testes Visuais/normas , Pessoas com Deficiência Visual/legislação & jurisprudência , Pessoas com Deficiência Visual/psicologia
20.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0236589, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32716978

RESUMO

Despite discernible improvements in the last decades, speeding is still a pertinent problem for road safety, fuel efficiency, and greenhouse gas mitigation. In order to understand individual speeding decisions, we need a better understanding of who speeds. In our paper, we test whether individuals' general pace of life is associated with speeding decisions. We use a novel speed-choice experiment that confronts participants with a scenario in which they repeatedly decide between driving fast or slow. This decision is associated with different accident risks. Before the experiment, each participant's pace of life was measured. Our results show that individuals with a slower pace of life are more likely to choose slow in the experiment and are also more likely to switch to slow, even when they had success by driving fast in the preliminary round. Therefore, individuals' pace of life may contribute to our understanding of speeding.


Assuntos
Condução de Veículo/psicologia , Estilo de Vida , Acidentes de Trânsito/prevenção & controle , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Assunção de Riscos , Adulto Jovem
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