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1.
Med Lav ; 111(4): 285-295, 2020 Aug 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32869765

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The construction industry is characterized by a high prevalence of accidents and injuries. Inadequate risk management measures, including failure to use or incorrect use of personal protective equipment (PPE) may significantly increase the risk of accidents. OBJECTIVES: The main objectives of the current study were to measure the prevalence of PPE use and accidents and their associated factors among construction workers. METHODS: A cross-sectional field study with an analytic component was carried out on 384 workers from different sites in Port-Said, Egypt, using an interview administered questionnaire. The questionnaire included sociodemographic and occupational data, practice of PPE use and accident analysis. RESULTS: About 60% of workers use PPE during work. Main reasons for non-use are discomfort, lack of knowledge on how to use it and poor fit. Occupational accidents in the last 12 months were reported by 64.3% of workers. The main accident types were: being hit by falling objects, falls from height, and tool related accidents. Safety training was the significant independent predictor of PPE use (AOR=2.0). However, age, marital status, smoking, safety training, and PPE use were also significant independent predictors of accidents (AOR=2.4, 3.1, 0.5, 0.5, and 0.2; respectively). DISCUSSION: Among construction workers, PPE utilization is low with significant relation to safety training while occupational accidents are common and significantly related to safety training and PPE use. Therefore, safety training should be provided, and PPE use should be enforced at construction sites.


Assuntos
Acidentes de Trabalho , Indústria da Construção , Saúde do Trabalhador , Equipamento de Proteção Individual , Acidentes de Trabalho/prevenção & controle , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Local de Trabalho
2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32781556

RESUMO

The aim of this research was to study the impact of the unitary prevention delegates (UPDs) on the Spanish working environment. To this end, a cross-sectional study was carried out using microdata from the National Survey on Health and Safety Management in Companies (ENGE-2009) with a sample of 5147 work centres. To measure the relationship between the presence of UPD in workplaces with preventive management indicators and damage to health, individual and multiple logistic regression models were carried out, calculating the crude (cOR) and adjusted (aOR) odds ratios by sociodemographic covariates, with their corresponding 95% confidence intervals (95% CI). Ambivalent results were obtained. On the one hand, a positive impact of the UPDs was found, in the management of prevention showing a higher probability of prevention plans being carried out (aOR = 3.97; 95% CI: 3.26-4.83), risk assessments (aOR = 5.96; 95% CI: 4.44-8.01) and preventive actions were planned (aOR = 3.01; 95% CI: 2.55-3.56), as well as 1.56 times less likely to register minor occupational accidents (aOR = 0.64; 95% CI: 0.53-0.76). On the other hand, the presence of the UPDs did not promote the activation of a participatory culture and did not reduce the probability of suffering serious and fatal accidents at work. In conclusion, UPDs need to activate workers' participation to improve results.


Assuntos
Acidentes de Trabalho/prevenção & controle , Saúde do Trabalhador , Gestão da Segurança , Local de Trabalho , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Razão de Chances , Política Organizacional
3.
J Agric Saf Health ; 26(2): 61-65, 2020 Jun 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32727168

RESUMO

In 2006, Cole et al. (2006) reported on tractor overturn-related injuries in Kentucky from a random sample of farmers that numbered 6,063 respondents. The highest number of people who experienced tractor overturns were operators 16 to 20 years old. In 2007, at a National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Tractor Safety Initiative meeting in Colorado, John Myers of NIOSH presented a map of the states with the highest overturn fatality rates: Tennessee, Kentucky, West Virginia, Ohio, Pennsylvania, and Illinois. Significantly, four of these states, including Kentucky, overlap the Appalachian region (Cole, 2007; Hard and Myers, 2001). In Kentucky, this region involves farming on slopes, as examined by Saman et al. (2012), who found a high-risk cluster of tractor overturns among ten Kentucky counties in the Appalachian region, with a 97% increased risk of overturn as compared to other Kentucky counties. In 1971, James Arndt of Deere & Company presented a 50-year review of rollover protective structures (ROPS) at a Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) conference. Arndt (1971) estimated that, over the previous 50 years, 30,000 operators had been killed when crushed by tractor overturns in agriculture and construction work. Since then, ROPS have been recognized as an effective device to prevent death in the event of a tractor overturn (Reynolds and Groves, 2000). Nevertheless, the epidemic of tractor-related deaths has continued into the modern era, and the cost of ROPS has been found to be a significant barrier to retrofitting tractors that lack ROPS (Myers et al., 1998). To provide a low-cost alternative, NIOSH safety engineers have designed, tested, and provided instructions for building and fitting cost-effective ROPS (CROPS) onto pre-ROPS tractors (i.e., tractors built before 1968) (Hard et al., 2016).


Assuntos
Acidentes de Trabalho/prevenção & controle , Agricultura , Segurança de Equipamentos , Equipamentos de Proteção , Humanos , Estados Unidos
4.
J Agric Saf Health ; 26(1): 15-29, 2020 Jan 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32429617

RESUMO

Each year, many fatalities result from rollovers of agricultural tractors in Japan. In addition to rollover protective structures (ROPS) and seat belts, a warning device that alerts the operator of impending rollover based on the tractor stability index is a measure used to prevent rollovers. The stability index requires inertial parameters, which have been measured only for the single body of the tractor, to calculate the warning threshold. In this study, the center of gravity (CoG) and lateral stability angles of three agricultural tractors were measured, and lateral stability angles were also calculated and compared with measured values for three tractor-tiller combinations to analyze the effect of the attached implement on the tractor stability as well as to verify the accuracy of the calculation methods. The roll moment of inertia (RMI) was also measured for two tractors and two rotary tillers, and RMI values for tractor-tiller combinations were calculated. The measurement and calculation results show that the attached implement increased the lateral stability angle of tractors in phase I rollover and decreased the lateral stability angle in phase II rollover, and for a certain tractor-tiller combination, there was no transition from phase I to phase II rollover. The difference between the measured and calculated lateral stability angles in phase I ranged from -3.5° to 2.5°, while that in phase II ranged from 0.2° to 5.2°. The RMI about the longitudinal axis through the CoG was 203 and 433 kg m-2 for tractors A and B, respectively, and 52 and 94 kg m-2 for rotary tillers D and F, respectively. The calculated RMI values were 265 and 540 kg m-2 for tractor-tiller combinations A-D and B-E, respectively.


Assuntos
Acidentes de Trabalho/prevenção & controle , Agricultura/instrumentação , Segurança de Equipamentos
5.
Accid Anal Prev ; 142: 105572, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32361476

RESUMO

Employee safety citizenship behavior (SCB) is critical for workplace safety in a high-risk work environment, but few studies have addressed how safety stressors affect SCB. This study investigates the different relationships between safety stressors (safety role ambiguity, safety role conflict, and interpersonal safety conflict) and two forms of SCB (proactive and prosocial). It also examines the moderating effect of safety-specific trust (cognition- and affect-based) within these relationships. An analysis of 332 multisource data from frontline workers and their safety supervisors in China reveals that safety role ambiguity and safety role conflict negatively affect proactive safety behaviors, while interpersonal safety conflict impedes prosocial safety behaviors. Additionally, cognition-based safety trust alleviates the effects of safety role ambiguity and safety role conflict on proactive safety behaviors, whereas affect-based safety trust effectively restricts the influence of interpersonal safety conflict on prosocial safety behaviors. These results suggest that managers need to instill SCB in their subordinates and combat stressful conditions through interventions that enhance safety-specific trust.


Assuntos
Acidentes de Trabalho/prevenção & controle , Gestão da Segurança/organização & administração , Local de Trabalho/organização & administração , Adulto , China , Conflito Psicológico , Feminino , Humanos , Relações Interpessoais , Masculino , Confiança
11.
Am J Public Health ; 110(5): 631-635, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32191515

RESUMO

The passage of the Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970 brought unprecedented changes in US workplaces, and the activities of the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) have contributed to a significant reduction in work-related deaths, injuries, and illnesses. Despite this, millions of workers are injured annually, and thousands killed.To reduce the toll, OSHA needs greater resources, a new standard-setting process, increased civil and criminal penalties, full coverage for all workers, and stronger whistleblower protections. Workers should not be injured or made sick by their jobs. To eliminate work injuries and illnesses, we must remake and modernize OSHA and restructure the relationship of employers and workers with the agency and each other.This includes changing the expectation of what employers must do to protect workers and implementing a requirement that firms have a "duty of care" to protect all people who may be harmed by their activities. Only by making major changes can we ensure that every worker leaves work as healthy as they were when their work shift began.


Assuntos
Saúde do Trabalhador/normas , United States Occupational Safety and Health Administration/organização & administração , Local de Trabalho/normas , Acidentes de Trabalho/prevenção & controle , Governo Federal , Humanos , Doenças Profissionais/prevenção & controle , Exposição Ocupacional/prevenção & controle , Saúde do Trabalhador/legislação & jurisprudência , Gestão da Segurança/normas , Estados Unidos , United States Occupational Safety and Health Administration/legislação & jurisprudência , United States Occupational Safety and Health Administration/normas , Local de Trabalho/legislação & jurisprudência
12.
Arch. prev. riesgos labor. (Ed. impr.) ; 23(1): 96-100, ene.-mar. 2020.
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-192644

RESUMO

El objetivo de este trabajo de investigación1 es el de analizar la realidad preventiva presente en las empresas el sector de la construcción en España, desde el prisma de la formación, la gestión de la prevención y los recursos destinados a dichas partidas. Para ello, se realiza un estudio comparativo en profundidad de dicha realidad preventiva, a través de los datos obtenidos de las encuestas realizadas y de los focus group creados ex profeso para el estudio, en conjunción con la Segunda Encuesta Europea sobre Riesgos Nuevos y Emergentes (ESENER-2), así como de su homóloga versión española (ESENER-2 España). Se diseñaron los focus group con agentes y empresarios implicados en el sector, tanto del sector público como del sector privado, para aportar una mayor imparcialidad a los datos resultantes. Conforme a los objetivos de la investigación, se analizaron los principales indicadores estratégicos, a modo de guion para el moderador de los distintos focus group. Los resultados muestran la gran coincidencia entre los datos extractados de los focus group y los de las encuestas ESENER-2 y ESENER-2 España; lo que pone de manifiesto la idiosincrasia que rodea a este sector productivo en el entorno europeo, tan maltratado por la crisis económica. Todo ello pone de relieve la imperiosa necesidad de profesionalizar el sector de la construcción, implantando una «cultura preventiva» entre todos los agentes implicados en los procesos constructivo-preventivos que rodean las actividades de construcción. La preocupante situación del sector, en conjunción con su elevada siniestralidad, pone de manifiesto una necesaria reestructuración, tendente a la profesionalización del mismo, para lo que resulta imperativo que se involucren todos los estamentos de la empresa, las autoridades y los servicios de prevención


No disponible


Assuntos
Humanos , Indústria da Construção , Liderança , Saúde do Trabalhador/normas , Setor Privado , Profissionalismo , Acidentes de Trabalho/prevenção & controle , Grupos Focais , Espanha , Inquéritos e Questionários , Fidelidade a Diretrizes
13.
PLoS One ; 15(3): e0229825, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32142534

RESUMO

Organizations that develop or operate complex engineering systems are plagued by systems engineering failures like schedule overruns, budget exceedances, and project cancellations. Unfortunately, there is not much actionable guidance on why these failures happen or how to prevent them. Our approach contains two novel aspects. First, we argue that system accidents and other failures in systems engineering are manifestations of similar underlying problems. Therefore, we can leverage the literature on accident causation and the many publicly available accident investigation reports to better understand how and why failures in systems engineering occur, and to identify ways of preventing them. Second, to address the lack of concrete guidance on identifying and preventing incipient failures, we provide specific examples of each type of failure cause and of the recommendations for preventing these causes. We analyzed a set of 30 accidents and 33 project failures, spanning a range of industries, and found 23 different failure causes, most of which appear in both accidents and other project failures, suggesting that accidents and project failures do happen in similar was. We also identified 16 different recommended remedial actions. We link these causes and recommendations in a cause-recommendation network, and associate over 900 specific examples of how these causes manifested in failures, and over 600 specific examples of the associated recommended remedial actions, with each cause or recommendation.


Assuntos
Prevenção de Acidentes , Acidentes de Trabalho/prevenção & controle , Análise de Dados , Engenharia/instrumentação , Indústrias/instrumentação , Análise de Causa Fundamental/métodos , Conjuntos de Dados como Assunto , Humanos
14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32121507

RESUMO

Previous literature has recognized that workers' unsafe behavior is the combined result of both isolated individual cognitive processes and their interaction with others. Based on the consideration of both individual cognitive factors and social organizational factors, this paper aims to develop an Agent-Based Modeling (ABM) approach to explore construction workers' sociocognitive processes under the interaction with managers, coworkers, and foremen. The developed model is applied to explore the causes of cognitive failure of construction workers and the influence of social groups and social organizational factors on the workers' unsafe behavior. The results indicate that (1) workers' unsafe behaviors are gradually reduced with the interaction with managers, foremen, and workers; (2) the foreman is most influential in reducing workers' unsafe behaviors, and their demonstration role can hardly be ignored; (3) the failure of sociocognitive process of construction workers is affected by many factors, and cognitive process errors could be corrected under social norms; and (4) among various social organizational factors, social identity has the most obvious effect on reducing workers' unsafe behaviors, and preventive measures are more effective than reactive measures in reducing workers' unsafe behaviors.


Assuntos
Acidentes de Trabalho/psicologia , Cognição , Indústria da Construção , Comportamento Perigoso , Comportamento Social , Percepção Social , Acidentes de Trabalho/prevenção & controle , Indústria da Construção/organização & administração , Humanos , Modelos Psicológicos , Identificação Social , Análise de Sistemas
15.
Accid Anal Prev ; 139: 105496, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32199157

RESUMO

Within the last decades the incidence of workspace injuries and fatalities in the UK construction industry has declined markedly following the developments in occupational health and safety (OHS) management systems. However, safety statistics have reached a plateau and actions for further improvement of OHS management systems are called for. OHS is a form of organizational expertise that has both tacit and explicit dimensions and is situated in the ongoing practices. There is a need for institutionalization and for the transfer of knowledge across and along construction supply chains to reduce OHS risks and facilitate cultural change. The focus of this article is the factors that facilitate OHS knowledge transfer in and between organizations involved in construction projects. An interpretative methodology is used in this research to embrace tacit aspects of knowledge transfer and application. Thematic analysis is supported by a cognitive mapping technique that allows understanding of interrelationships among the concepts expressed by the respondents. This paper demonstrates inconsistency in OHS practices in construction organizations and highlights the importance of cultivating a positive safety culture to encourage transfer of lessons learnt from good practices, incidents, near misses and failures between projects, from projects to programmes and across supply chains. Governmental health and safety regulations, norms and guidelines do not include all possible safety issues specific to different working environments and tied to work contexts. The OHS system should encourage employees to report near misses, incidents and failures in a 'no-blame' context and to take appropriate actions. This research provides foundation for construction project practitioners to adopt more socially oriented approaches towards promoting learning-rich organizational contexts to overcome variation in the OHS and move beyond the current plateau reached in safety statistics.


Assuntos
Prevenção de Acidentes/métodos , Indústria da Construção/normas , Saúde do Trabalhador/normas , Acidentes de Trabalho/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Cultura Organizacional , Pesquisa Qualitativa
16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32050565

RESUMO

Health and safety education for farmers has the potential to increase the level of health, safety literacy, and thereby improve farmers' health and quality of life. The aim of this paper is to provide a systematic review of the published literature documenting different educational interventions for agricultural workers that have the improvement of health and/or safety literacy as an outcome. A systematic search was conducted in PubMed, Embase, Scopus and PsycINFO databases for articles focusing on educational interventions for farmers' health and safety. From the 3357 initial hits, 36 unduplicated records met the inclusion criteria. The articles included in the review used educational interventions for farmers with the purpose of preventing farm-induced diseases and injuries, increasing the health and well-being of farmers, and promoting good manufacturing practices. The educational approaches considered varied from lectures, videos, newsletters, games, and community fairs, to involving the community in designing the intervention and training farmers to deliver the intervention to the community. Interventions that used evidence-based theories, which took into account cultural aspects and individual factors, used biomarkers as a behavior change measurement, and involved the community in the development of the intervention had the best results in terms of behavior change. The strategies of educational interventions identified in this review that produced good results have the potential to inform future researchers and policy makers in the design and implementation of public health interventions, programs and policies to improve the health of farmers and their families.


Assuntos
Acidentes de Trabalho/prevenção & controle , Doenças dos Trabalhadores Agrícolas/prevenção & controle , Agricultura , Fazendeiros/educação , Letramento em Saúde , Ferimentos e Lesões/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Saúde do Trabalhador , Qualidade de Vida
17.
Occup Environ Med ; 77(2): 94-99, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31896614

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To understand and characterise the construct of 'near misses' from the perspective of temporary construction workers and to describe the safety and health risks associated with and contributing to near misses and injuries in temporary workers in the construction industry. METHODS: Six semistructured language-sensitive (ie, English and Spanish) focus group discussions were conducted with workers (n=43) employed with temporary staffing agencies in South Florida. This convenience sample completed a demographic questionnaire prior to the focus group discussion. A general inductive approach was used to examine near misses in the construction industry and the unique safety and health concerns of temporary workers. RESULTS: Four broad themes describing near misses, reporting practices and workplace safety hazards in the construction industry were derived from the group discussions: (1) non-standard workers in the construction industry draw a clear distinction between near misses and injury and believe their best protections from both occur at the worker level; (2) social network structure on construction worksites is an effective way to protect workers against injury and near misses; (3) safety and health priorities and policies at the organisational level differ from those at the worker level, which contributes to workplace injury; and (4) reporting of safety concerns and near misses is influenced by injury severity. CONCLUSIONS: Temporary workers in the construction industry are familiar with near misses but have limited resources to protect themselves against potential health and safety hazards. These non-standard workers addressed unique barriers to staying safe at work and identified potential improvements.


Assuntos
Acidentes de Trabalho/prevenção & controle , Indústria da Construção , Emprego , Saúde do Trabalhador , Segurança , Recursos Humanos , Ferimentos e Lesões/prevenção & controle , Adulto , Atitude , Feminino , Grupos Focais , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Organizações , Políticas , Relatório de Pesquisa , Inquéritos e Questionários , Local de Trabalho , Adulto Jovem
18.
Accid Anal Prev ; 136: 105404, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31927452

RESUMO

Forklifts are among the machines involved with the highest levels of occupational fatalities. As many accidents involved with a forklift can be attributed to the low situation awareness (SA) of the operator, it is essential to understand the factors influencing a forklift operator's SA for reducing forklift accidents, especially of collision type. Against this background, this research aims to investigate how a forklift operator's SA about other people around can be influenced by the type of subtasks they are carrying out. In this research, a virtual reality (VR) environment is used as the experiment environment, in which subjects perform a series of subtasks, such as driving, turning, reversing, loading and unloading, with a VR forklift simulation model. A SAGAT-an established SA measurement technique based on a series of queries targeting Level 1, 2, and 3 SA-is used as the main method to collect data about subjects' SA in the experiment. The analysis of the data reveals that a forklift operator is likely to have a reduced SA about the workers around when he/she is performing a loading or unloading task due to attention narrowing, which occurs when a person concentrates on a cognitively demanding task. The findings provide insights into how forklift operator SA could be improved through an SA-oriented safety training program and also how sensing technologies might assist forklift operators with maintaining a good SA.


Assuntos
Acidentes de Trabalho/prevenção & controle , Conscientização , Realidade Virtual , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Gestão da Segurança/métodos
19.
Rev. Rol enferm ; 43(1,supl): 322-334, ene. 2020. tab
Artigo em Português | IBECS | ID: ibc-193325

RESUMO

Introduction and Objective: The current perspective of healthy workplaces implies reinventing new approaches to the relationships between health and work, emphasizing it as a health-promoting agent. Thus, welfare programmes have emerged that include best practices in occupational health. The aim of this study is to present the data gathered on the effectiveness of health promotion programmes in the workplace, through an integrative review. Methodology: Integrative review of the literature according to the Whittemore and Knafl methods, based on English and Portuguese literature published between 2010 and 2019 in the Medline (via PubMed) and EBSCO databases. Grey literature collection was based on searches in the Open Access Scientific Repositories of Portugal and Google Scholar. Studies with experimental, quasi-experimental and descriptive design were included. Results: A total of 57 studies were extracted, in which 98% of the programmes were included in the generation of well-being, namely programmes focused on disease management, treatment of chronic diseases, lifestyle management or prevention of chronic diseases. Most of the programmes showed positive results, since participants decreased body weight, blood pressure, cholesterol level, glycaemia, tobacco consumption, sedentarism and stress level, and increased the level of knowledge, confidence, physical activity, overall health and consumption of healthy food. Conclusion: The results of this study are of potential interest for health professionals and policy-makers, as they provide valuable information for the design of new strategies to promote the health of employees


No disponible


Assuntos
Humanos , Promoção da Saúde/organização & administração , Programa de Saúde Ocupacional , Política de Saúde do Trabalhador , Serviços de Saúde do Trabalhador/organização & administração , Acidentes de Trabalho/prevenção & controle , Esgotamento Profissional/prevenção & controle , Doenças Profissionais/prevenção & controle
20.
Int J Occup Saf Ergon ; 26(1): 121-128, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30422083

RESUMO

In Morocco, the construction sector is very dynamic economically, but suffers from weak safety performance. The few available statistics about the rates of occupational injuries and fatalities point to an alarming situation. However, root causes are yet to be identified. To fill this gap in knowledge, we conducted this study using an exploratory approach. Literature review, onsite observations and a survey were conducted to gather information about safety and risk aspects on construction sites. We conducted a series of correlation tests and a regression analysis using IBM SPSS version 20. The results showed that: (a) there is a relatively strong risk perception bias among workers, with an underestimation of risk severity and occurrence probability; (b) risk perception was not found to predict safety behavior; (c) a positive safety climate seems to neutralize the negative impact that high risk tolerance had on safety behavior.


Assuntos
Indústria da Construção , Saúde do Trabalhador , Acidentes de Trabalho/prevenção & controle , Adolescente , Adulto , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Marrocos , Observação , Cultura Organizacional , Medição de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
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