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1.
Pan Afr Med J ; 33: 215, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31692769

RESUMO

Introduction: Pediatric traumatic injury is a major public health concern that is poorly documented in lower and middle-income countries. This study analyzed data on pediatric injuries from a unique hospital trauma registry in Abuja, Nigeria. Methods: Data were analyzed on 220 traumatically injured patients aged 21 years/less to describe injury characteristics and to determine the association between mechanism of injury and pediatric head injuries in Abuja, Nigeria, between 2014 and 2015. Bivariate analysis using Pearson's chi-square and adjusted logistic regression were conducted to characterize the population and identify risk factors for head injury. P-values<0.05 were considered statistically significant. All statistical analyses were performed using STATA v.15.1. Results: The majority of patients were male (60.9%) with a mean age (SD) of 12.5±6.9 years. Head injuries were most common (49.6%), followed by chest (14.1%), abdomen (12.3%) and back (7.7%). The mechanism of injury was statistically significantly associated with head injury (p=0.027) with 63% of children in a motor vehicle accident sustaining a head injury. After adjusting for covariates, the odds of head injury were 3.8 times higher for children injured in a motor vehicle accidents (MVA) compared to those with falls (95%CI 1.40-10.40). Conclusion: This analysis reveals that motor vehicle accident is a risk factor for traumatic head injury among children in Nigeria. Therefore, efforts should be made to address motor vehicle accidents involving children. These data will help to inform age-related prevention and treatment strategies. The results of this study highlight the importance of collecting pediatric trauma data in developing countries.


Assuntos
Acidentes por Quedas/estatística & dados numéricos , Acidentes de Trânsito/estatística & dados numéricos , Traumatismos Craniocerebrais/epidemiologia , Ferimentos e Lesões/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Traumatismos Craniocerebrais/etiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Nigéria/epidemiologia , Sistema de Registros , Fatores de Risco , Ferimentos e Lesões/etiologia , Adulto Jovem
2.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(45): e17882, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31702661

RESUMO

The asymmetry in lower extremity strength is known to be related to the functional mobility in older adults living in the community. However, little is known about the association between lower extremity lean mass asymmetry and functional mobility in this patient group. Hence, this study aimed to determine whether asymmetry in lower extremity muscle mass has a significant relationship with functional mobility in older adults living in the community.This cross-sectional study analyzed the pre-existing data from the Korean Frailty and Aging Cohort Study. A total of 435 older people (aged 70-84 years) were divided into the following groups according to their Limb Asymmetry Index (LAsI): low, intermediate, and high asymmetric groups. LAsI is calculated using lower extremity lean mass, and comparisons between groups were conducted. The participants were also further divided into better and worse mobility groups based on their physical performance test results (Timed Up and Go and Short Physical Performance Battery), and comparisons between groups were conducted. Comparisons between fallers and non-fallers were also conducted. In addition, this study investigated the factors that had a significant effect on gait speed and fall experience within the past year among older adults living in the community.The LAsI was significantly associated with gait speed in older adults living in the community. Older adults in the highest tertile of the LAsI had a slower gait speed than those in the lowest tertile of the LAsI. However, no significant difference was observed in the LAsI between the better mobility group and worse mobility group. Moreover, the LAsI was not a significant predictor of falls.Asymmetry in lower extremity lean mass was significantly associated with gait speed in older adults living in the community.


Assuntos
Acidentes por Quedas/estatística & dados numéricos , Composição Corporal , Extremidade Inferior/patologia , Força Muscular , Desempenho Físico Funcional , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Fragilidade/complicações , Fragilidade/fisiopatologia , Avaliação Geriátrica/métodos , Humanos , Masculino , República da Coreia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Velocidade de Caminhada/fisiologia
3.
Rev Saude Publica ; 53: 83, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31576943

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Assess the magnitude and trend of hospitalization rates due to traumatic injuries in intensive care units (ICU) in Brazil from 1998 to 2015. METHODS: This is an ecological time-series study that analyzed data from the Hospital Information System. A trend analysis of hospitalization rates was performed according to diagnosis, sex and age using generalized linear regression models and Prais-Winsten estimation. RESULTS: Rates were higher among male patients, but increased hospitalization due to trauma among female patients influenced the ratio between both sexes. Falls and transport accidents were the most frequent causes of trauma. The average annual growth was 3.6% in ICU trauma hospitalization rates in Brazil, the highest growth was reported in the North region (8%; 95%CI 6.4-9.6), among women (5.4%; 95%CI 4.5-6.3), and among people aged 60 years and older (5.5%; 95%CI, 4.7-6.3). The most frequent causes of trauma are falls (4.5%; 95%CI 3.5-5.5) and care complications (5.4%; 95%CI 4.5-6.3). On the other hand, the annual hospital mortality rate due to trauma in ICU is 1.7% lower, on average (95%CI 2.1-1.3). CONCLUSION: An increase in ICU hospitalization rate due to trauma in Brazil may be the result of some factors, such as an increasing number of accidents and cases of violence, the implementation of pre-hospital care, and improved access to care, with more beds in ICU. In addition, population aging is another factor, as a greater increase in hospitalization was observed among people aged 60 years and older.


Assuntos
Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Hospitalização/tendências , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/estatística & dados numéricos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/tendências , Ferimentos e Lesões/epidemiologia , Acidentes por Quedas/estatística & dados numéricos , Acidentes de Trânsito/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Distribuição por Idade , Brasil/epidemiologia , Feminino , Mortalidade Hospitalar/tendências , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise de Regressão , Distribuição por Sexo , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
4.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(41): e17569, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31593143

RESUMO

Near misses and unsafe conditions have become more serious for patients in emergency departments (EDs). We aimed to search the near misses and unsafe conditions that occurred in an ED to improve patient safety.This was a retrospective analysis of a 10-year observational period from January 1, 2007 to December 31, 2016. We gained access to the adverse event notification forms (AENFs) sent to the hospital quality department from the ED. Patient age, sex, and date of presentation were recorded. The near misses and unsafe conditions were classified into 7 types: medication errors, falls, management errors, penetrative-sharp tool injuries, incidents due to institution security, incidents due to medical equipment, and forensic events. The outcome of these events was recorded.A total of 220 AENF were reported from 294,673 ED visits. The median age of the 166 patients was 60 (21-95) years. Of these, 57.1% of the patients were females and 47.9% were males. The most commonly reported events were medication errors (32.7%) and management errors (27.3%). The median age of falling patients was 67.5 years. The nurse-patient ratio between 2007 to 2011 and 2011 to 2016 were 1/10 and 1/7, respectively. We found that when this ratio increased, the adverse events results were less significant (P < .003).This was the 1st study investigating the adverse events in ED in Turkey. The reporting ratio of 0.07% for the total ED visits was too low. This showed that adverse events were under-reported.


Assuntos
Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/normas , Erros de Medicação/estatística & dados numéricos , Segurança do Paciente/normas , Acidentes por Quedas/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Programas de Assistência Gerenciada/estatística & dados numéricos , Erros Médicos/classificação , Erros Médicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Erros de Medicação/classificação , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ferimentos Penetrantes Produzidos por Agulha/classificação , Segurança do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medidas de Segurança/classificação , Turquia/epidemiologia
5.
Am Surg ; 85(10): 1089-1093, 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31657300

RESUMO

Older adults undergoing nonelective surgery are at risk for geriatric events (GEs: delirium, dehydration, falls/fractures, failure to thrive, and pressure ulcers), but the impact of GEs on postoperative outcomes is unclear. Using the 2013 to 2014 National Inpatient Sample, we analyzed nonelective hospital admissions for five common operations (laparoscopic cholecystectomy, colectomy, soft tissue debridement, small bowel resection, and laparoscopic appendectomy) in older adults (aged ≥65 years) and a younger referent group (aged 55-64 years). Nationally weighted descriptive statistics were generated for GEs. Logistic regression controlling for patient, procedure, and hospital characteristics estimated the association of 1) age with GEs and 2) GEs with outcomes. Of 471,325 overall admissions, 64.7 per cent were aged ≥65 years. The rate of any GE in older adults was 26.9 per cent; GEs varied by age and procedure (P < 0.001). After adjustment, the probability of any GE increased with age category (P < 0.001); having any GE was associated with higher probability of all outcomes (P < 0.001): mortality (4.5% vs 0.8%), postoperative complications (61.7% vs 24.9%), prolonged length of stay (24.3% vs 7.9%), and skilled nursing facility discharge (46.6% vs 10.3%). In addition, there was a dose-response relationship between GEs and negative outcomes. GEs are prevalent in the nonelective surgery setting and associated with worse clinical outcomes. Quality improvement efforts should focus on addressing GEs.


Assuntos
Apendicectomia/efeitos adversos , Colecistectomia Laparoscópica/efeitos adversos , Colectomia/efeitos adversos , Desbridamento/efeitos adversos , Intestino Delgado/cirurgia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Acidentes por Quedas/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Apendicectomia/estatística & dados numéricos , Colecistectomia Laparoscópica/estatística & dados numéricos , Colectomia/estatística & dados numéricos , Desbridamento/estatística & dados numéricos , Desidratação/epidemiologia , Desidratação/etiologia , Delírio/epidemiologia , Delírio/etiologia , Insuficiência de Crescimento/epidemiologia , Insuficiência de Crescimento/etiologia , Feminino , Fraturas Ósseas/epidemiologia , Fraturas Ósseas/etiologia , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Tempo de Internação/estatística & dados numéricos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Lesão por Pressão/epidemiologia , Lesão por Pressão/etiologia , Instituições de Cuidados Especializados de Enfermagem/estatística & dados numéricos , Resultado do Tratamento
6.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(38): e17123, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31567950

RESUMO

To investigate the age, gender, time, and etiology differences of traumatic lower limb fractures (TLLFs) in a population of children (≤18 years old), we retrospectively reviewed 936 children who had TLLFs and who came to our university-affiliated hospitals from 2001 to 2010. This study enrolled 657 males (70.2%) and 279 females (29.8%) aged (11.6 ±â€Š4.9) years old. The most common etiologies and fracture sites were motor vehicle collisions (MVCs, 440, 47.0%) and tibias (376, 40.2%). A total of 126 (13.5%) patients suffered neurological deficits (NDs), 127 (13.6%) patients sustained associated injuries (ASOIs), and 78 (8.3%) patients sustained complications. During all periods the occurrence increased with increasing age group and a male preponderance was observed in all age groups. With increasing age, the proportion of injuries due to different etiologies increased and the proportion of femur fracture decreased from 65.2% to 34.5%. With increasing year of admission, the proportion of injuries due to MVCs decreased. The most common fracture sites were tibias in MVCs, femurs in low fall, high fall, and struck by object, feet in sprain. Male patients presented with significantly higher proportions of injuries due to struck by object and sprain, significantly lower proportions of pelvis fracture than the female patients. MVCs and tibias were the most common etiologies and fracture sites. Prevention and treatment should be taken according to the pattern of TLLFs which have specific annual, gender, and age characteristics.


Assuntos
Fraturas do Fêmur/epidemiologia , Fraturas da Tíbia/epidemiologia , Acidentes por Quedas/estatística & dados numéricos , Acidentes de Trânsito/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Fatores Etários , Criança , Serviços de Saúde da Criança , Pré-Escolar , China/epidemiologia , Feminino , Fraturas do Fêmur/etiologia , Humanos , Lactente , Extremidade Inferior/lesões , Masculino , Fatores Sexuais , Fraturas da Tíbia/etiologia
7.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(38): e17299, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31568015

RESUMO

China's child population ranked second in the world. However, data on the overall patterns and epidemiologic trends of TULFs among children and adolescents in Chongqing, China are scarce. With development of urbanization, motorization, building industry, the incidence patterns of traumatic upper limb fractures in children and adolescents might be about to change. To investigate the incidence patterns of traumatic upper limb fractures in children and adolescents (≤18 years old) according to age (≤3 years old, 3-6 years old, 6-12 years old, and 12-18 years old), gender, time, and etiology groups in Chongqing, China, we retrospectively reviewed 1078 children and adolescents who had traumatic upper limb fractures and who came to our university-affiliated hospitals from 2001 to 2010. The patients were grouped into different age groups, genders, year of admission range groups, and aetiologies. We used Pearson chi-square tests and independent samples t tests to assess differences of the grouped data and continuous variables, respectively. This study enrolled 1078 patients (849 males, 229 females) aged 11.0 ±â€Š4.7 years old. The most common aetiologies and fracture sites of patients were low falls (705, 65.4%) and humerus (492, 45.6%). A total of 146 (13.5%) patients suffered a nerve injury, 94 (8.7%) patients sustained associated injuries, and 106 (9.8%) patients sustained complications. The proportion of injuries due to motor vehicle collisions increased with increasing age and year of admission. Female patients presented with significantly higher proportion of injuries due to motor vehicle collisions and significantly lower proportion of injuries due to hit by others. The proportion decreased from 63.2% to 33.3% in humeral fracture, increased from 8.8% to 35.5% in radius fracture, increased from 7.4% to 28.9% in ulna fracture with increasing age. Female patients presented with significantly higher proportion of humeral fracture, clavicle fracture and significantly lower proportion of radius fracture, ulna fracture, and hand fracture. Low falls and humerus fractures were the most common aetiologies and fracture sites. The pattern of traumatic upper limb fractures has specific age, gender, time, and etiology differences.


Assuntos
Fraturas do Úmero/epidemiologia , Fraturas do Rádio/epidemiologia , Fraturas da Ulna/epidemiologia , Acidentes por Quedas/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Fatores Etários , Criança , Pré-Escolar , China/epidemiologia , Clavícula/lesões , Feminino , Traumatismos da Mão/epidemiologia , Traumatismos da Mão/etiologia , Humanos , Fraturas do Úmero/etiologia , Incidência , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Fraturas do Rádio/etiologia , Fatores de Risco , Escápula/lesões , Fatores Sexuais , Fraturas da Ulna/etiologia
8.
Am Surg ; 85(8): 821-829, 2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31560301

RESUMO

Anticoagulated older adults suffering ground-level falls are a specialty trauma population at risk for intracranial hemorrhage (ICH). Delays in diagnosis or initiation of anticoagulation reversal can lead to increased morbidity/mortality. A novel "Headstrike" protocol was implemented to improve the treatment efficacy and disposition of these patients. The study objective was to determine effectiveness of the "Headstrike" protocol in providing these patients with timely treatment and disposition, while maintaining positive outcomes. A trauma performance improvement database was queried for all "Headstrike" activations for a 12-month period after implementation. Demographics, patient care, and health data were collected. Descriptive statistics were used for cohort analysis. Five hundred fifteen patients were activated as a "Headstrike" during the study period. Thirty eight patients were diagnosed with ICH (7.4%), 35 of whom were identified on initial imaging. Anticoagulation reversal was ordered for 84.6 per cent of these patients. Of the patients with negative initial CT, only three patients (0.8%) were found to have a delayed ICH on routine follow-up imaging. No anticoagulant/antiplatelet agent was associated with a significantly higher risk of ICH. Implementation of the "Headstrike" protocol resulted in trauma service line resources being used more efficiently, while ensuring high-quality, expeditious care to this population.


Assuntos
Acidentes por Quedas/estatística & dados numéricos , Anticoagulantes/administração & dosagem , Protocolos Clínicos , Hemorragias Intracranianas/etiologia , Hemorragias Intracranianas/terapia , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Hemorragias Intracranianas/diagnóstico por imagem , Masculino , Melhoria de Qualidade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Centros de Traumatologia , Resultado do Tratamento
9.
Am Surg ; 85(8): 877-882, 2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31560307

RESUMO

The Beers Criteria for Potentially Inappropriate Medication (PIM) use is a list of medications with multiple risks in older patients. Approximately 24 per cent use rate is reported in prior studies. Our objective was to determine the local PIM use and subsequent fall risk in geriatric trauma patients. We conducted a retrospective analysis of PIM use in all geriatric patients evaluated at our Level 1 trauma center between 2014 and 2017. Patients were identified from our trauma database. Pre-admission medication use was determined through medication reconciliation from our electronic medical record (EMR). Patients not undergoing medication reconciliation were excluded. After initial analysis, patients were stratified by age into three groups: 65 to 74, 75 to 84, and ≥85 years. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to calculate odds ratios of falls for specific PIMs. In all, 2181 patients met the inclusion criteria. Overall, 71.2 per cent of geriatric trauma patients were prescribed at least one PIM-73.1 per cent of falls compared with 68.6 per cent for other mechanisms. Specific PIM use varied by age group. PIMs associated with fall risk in all patients included antipsychotics, benzodiazepines, and diclofenac. For those aged 65 to 74 years, antihistamines, diclofenac, proton pump inhibitors, and promethazine were associated. In those aged 75 to 84 years, alprazolam, antipsychotics, benzodiazepines, cyclobenzaprine, diclofenac, and muscle relaxants were implicated. No significant associations were found for patients aged ≥85 years. PIM use at our trauma center seems to be rampant and well above the national average. Geriatric falls were associated with using ≥1 PIM and multiple specific PIMs implicated. We are designing a targeted educational program for local primary care physicians (PCPs) that will attempt to decrease geriatric PIM use.


Assuntos
Acidentes por Quedas/estatística & dados numéricos , Polimedicação , Lista de Medicamentos Potencialmente Inapropriados , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Registros Eletrônicos de Saúde , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalência , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Centros de Traumatologia
10.
Pan Afr Med J ; 33: 142, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31558940

RESUMO

Introduction: Hand injuries constitute a major proportion of trauma emergencies in developing countries. The hand establishes the individual in society, allowing them to meet social and economic responsibilities. Previously hand traumas accounted for 12% of major limb traumas in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia; but data on the specific types of tissue injuries and pattern of occurrence of these injuries over the years is limited. Methods: A retrospective study of sampled 178 patients with hand injury that presented to Yekatit 12 Hospital with hand injuries was done by reviewing the patient's medical records. Results: Hand trauma is the second commonest injury following burns that present to the Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery unit in Yekatit 12 hospital. It commonly occurs in males with ratio of 4:1. Average age of patients was 24.5 years. The right hand was more commonly injured than the left hand. Home and fall accidents were commonest cause of injury followed by machine injuries. Commonly occurring injuries were tendon injuries followed by fingertip injuries. The number of patients presenting to the hospital with hand injuries has doubled over the two year study period. Conclusion: The number of hand injury cases that presented to the hospital has doubled over the two years study period. Types of hand injuries presenting to the hospitals ranged from simple lacerations to deep tissue injuries requiring long duration of treatment and rehabilitation which has an impact on the productivity of the younger age group that was identified as the most at risk population.


Assuntos
Queimaduras/epidemiologia , Traumatismos da Mão/epidemiologia , Lacerações/epidemiologia , Acidentes por Quedas/estatística & dados numéricos , Acidentes Domésticos/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Etiópia , Feminino , Traumatismos dos Dedos/epidemiologia , Traumatismos da Mão/etiologia , Traumatismos da Mão/terapia , Hospitais , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Distribuição por Sexo , Traumatismos dos Tendões/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
11.
Hypertension ; 74(4): 1033-1040, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31476905

RESUMO

Hypertension treatment has been implicated in falls, syncope, and orthostatic hypotension (OH), common events among older adults. Whether the choice of antihypertensive agent influences the risk of falls, syncope, and OH in older adults is unknown. ALLHAT (Antihypertensive and Lipid-Lowering Treatment to Prevent Heart Attack Trial) was a randomized clinical trial that compared the effects of hypertension first-step therapy on fatal coronary heart disease or nonfatal myocardial infarction (1994-2002). In a subpopulation of ALLHAT participants, age 65 years and older, we determined the relative risk of falls, syncope, OH, or a composite based on Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services and Veterans Affairs claims, using Cox regression. We also determined the adjusted association of self-reported atenolol use (ascertained at the 1-month visit for indications other than hypertension) on outcomes in Cox models adjusted for age, sex, and race. Among 23 964 participants (mean age 69.8±6.8 years, 45% women, 31% non-Hispanic black) followed for a mean of 4.9 years, we identified 267 falls, 755 syncopes, 249 OH, and 1157 composite claims. There were no significant differences in the cumulative incidences of events across randomized drug assignments. However, amlodipine increased risk of falls during the first year of follow-up compared with chlorthalidone (hazard ratio [95% CI]: 2.24 [1.06-4.74]; P=0.03) or lisinopril (hazard ratio [95% CI]: 2.61 [1.03-6.72]; P=0.04). Atenolol use (N=928) was not associated with any of the 3 individual or composite claims. In older adults, the choice of antihypertensive agent had no effect on risk of fall, syncope, or OH long-term. However, amlodipine increased risk of falls within 1 year of initiation. These short-term findings require confirmation. Clinical Trial Registration- URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT00000542.


Assuntos
Acidentes por Quedas/estatística & dados numéricos , Anti-Hipertensivos/uso terapêutico , Hipertensão/tratamento farmacológico , Hipotensão Ortostática/epidemiologia , Síncope/epidemiologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Anlodipino/uso terapêutico , Atenolol/uso terapêutico , Clortalidona/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Medicare , Resultado do Tratamento , Estados Unidos
12.
Accid Anal Prev ; 132: 105282, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31539867

RESUMO

We study the effects of a studded footwear subsidy program in Gothenburg, Sweden, where a free pair of anti-slip devices was distributed to all residents aged over 65 years as a pedestrian falls prevention measure. Using a difference-in-differences approach with internal age-based controls, we find evidence of a short-term effect on emergency department visits due to slips on snow and ice during the first year of the intervention (-45% [95% CI: -54, -9] in 2013), which equates to 21.8 injuries prevented (95% CI: 3.34, 39.4). A cost-benefit analysis based on this result suggests that the short-term benefits outweigh the total costs of the intervention (benefit-cost ratio: 6.9 [95% CI: 1.05-12.46]), indicating that this type of subsidy program may be an important tool for the prevention of pedestrian falls among older adults during icy weather conditions. However, replication at other sites is recommended before drawing any strong and general conclusions.


Assuntos
Acidentes por Quedas/prevenção & controle , Pedestres/estatística & dados numéricos , Sapatos , Acidentes por Quedas/economia , Acidentes por Quedas/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso , Análise Custo-Benefício , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estações do Ano , Suécia
13.
Pan Afr Med J ; 33: 108, 2019.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31489086

RESUMO

Home accidents are a serious public health problem in Pediatrics. They are responsible for heavy morbidity and mortality in the paediatric population. We conducted a retrospective study of 231 cases of domestic accidents in childhood in the Division of General Pediatrics at the Hedi Chaker Hospital, Sfax over a period of 5 years (2008-2012). During the study period, we collected data from 231 domestic accidents. The study involved 124 boys (53.7 %) and 107 girls (46.3%). The average age of patients was 2 years, ranging from 1 day to 14 years; children under 4 years were the most exposed to home accidents (88.7%). Accidental poisonings were the most common accidents (105 cases). Caustics were the most common toxic agents (33 cases), followed by drugs (28 cases) and hydrocarbons (16 cases). Foreign body accidents were the second most common mechanism of injury (64 cases). They included 43 cases of inhalation of foreign bodies and 21 cases of foreign body ingestion. We recorded 28 cases of trauma, 25 cases were caused by a fall from a certain height. We noted 26 cases of scorpion envenomation, 5 cases of drowning, 2 cases of burn and a single case of electric shock. Accidental poisonings and foreign body accidents were the main home accidents noted during our study and the age group 1 -4 years was the most exposed to home accidents.


Assuntos
Acidentes por Quedas/estatística & dados numéricos , Acidentes Domésticos/estatística & dados numéricos , Corpos Estranhos/epidemiologia , Envenenamento/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Fatores Etários , Queimaduras/epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Envenenamento/etiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Picadas de Escorpião/epidemiologia , Tunísia/epidemiologia
14.
Am Surg ; 85(7): 752-756, 2019 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31405422

RESUMO

To characterize both emergency room (ER) and hospital discharge dispositions of patients presenting with farm-related injuries. The 2012 National Trauma Data Bank was queried in August 2017 for injuries occurring on a farm. Patients were stratified by gender, age group, race, Injury Severity Score (ISS), and injury type. We performed logistic regression analysis to correlate parameters with likelihood of discharge home or death. P values < 0.05 were considered significant. Five thousand six hundred thirty-one patients were identified, the majority of whom were male (72%) and white (85%). The most common mechanisms of injury included animal-related (29%), followed by falls, vehicles, and other causes. The highest ISSs were seen in vehicular injuries (11% ISS of 25+) and the greatest fatality rate was seen in machinery injuries (4%). Four thousand seven hundred fifty-three (84%) patients were admitted to the hospital, and 4056 (72%) were discharged home from the ER or after hospitalization. One hundred thirty patients (2%) died of their farm-related injury. Most patients presenting to the ER with farm-related injuries survive, are admitted to the hospital, and are ultimately discharged home. Few patients die of their injuries. Animal injury is most common and machinery injury most lethal of farm trauma patients presenting to the ER.


Assuntos
Agricultura , Fazendas , Ferimentos e Lesões/etiologia , Acidentes por Quedas/estatística & dados numéricos , Acidentes de Trabalho/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Distribuição por Idade , Idoso , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Escala de Gravidade do Ferimento , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
15.
Hypertension ; 74(3): 645-651, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31327266

RESUMO

Alpha-blockers (ABs) are commonly prescribed as part of a multidrug regimen in the management of hypertension. We set out to assess the risk of hypotension and related adverse events with AB use compared with other blood pressure (BP) lowering drugs using a population-based, retrospective cohort study of women (≥66 years) between 1995 and 2015 in Ontario, Canada. Cox proportional hazards examined the association of AB use and hypotension and related events (syncope, fall, and fracture) compared with other BP lowering drugs matched via a high dimensional propensity score. The primary outcome was a composite of hospitalizations for hypotension and related events (syncope, fractures, and falls) within 1 year. From 734 907 eligible women, 14 106 were dispensed an AB (mean age, 75.7; standard deviation 6.9 years, median follow-up 1 year) and matched to 14 106 dispensed other BP lowering agents. The crude incidence rate of hypotension and related events was 95.7 (95% CI [confidence interval], 90.4-101.1, events 1214 [8.6%]) with AB and 79.8 (95% CI, 74.9-84.7 per 1000 person-years, events 1025 [7.3%]) with other BP lowering medications (incident rate ratio, 1.20; 95% CI, 1.10-1.30). The risk was higher for hypotension (hazard ratio, 1.71; 95% CI, 1.33-2.20) and syncope (hazard ratio, 1.44; 95% CI, 1.18-1.75) with no difference in falls, fractures, adverse cardiac events, or all-cause mortality. Treatment of hypertension in women with ABs is associated with a higher risk of hypotension and hypotension-related events compared with other BP lowering agents. Our findings suggest that ABs should be used with caution, even as add on therapy for hypertension.


Assuntos
Antagonistas Adrenérgicos alfa/efeitos adversos , Hipertensão/tratamento farmacológico , Hipotensão/induzido quimicamente , Hipotensão/epidemiologia , Acidentes por Quedas/estatística & dados numéricos , Antagonistas Adrenérgicos alfa/uso terapêutico , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Anti-Hipertensivos/uso terapêutico , Canadá , Estudos de Coortes , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Esquema de Medicação , Feminino , Fraturas Ósseas/diagnóstico , Fraturas Ósseas/epidemiologia , Avaliação Geriátrica/métodos , Humanos , Hipertensão/diagnóstico , Hipotensão/fisiopatologia , Incidência , Prognóstico , Pontuação de Propensão , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Síncope/diagnóstico , Síncope/epidemiologia , Resultado do Tratamento
17.
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi ; 40(7): 779-785, 2019 Jul 10.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31357798

RESUMO

Objective: To understand the epidemiologic characteristics of fall in the elderly in Shanghai, as well as the differences between urban and rural areas, and provide evidence for targeted fall prevention and intervention. Methods: From January to March in 2017, a questionnaire survey was conducted in the elderly aged 60 or above selected from 7 urban communities and 6 rural communities in Shanghai to understand the epidemiologic characteristics of fall in the elderly and analyze the gender and urban-rural differences. Results: In urban area, a total of 3 386 elderly people were surveyed, in whom 441 (13.0%) had fall and 261 (7.7%) were injured after fall. In rural area, a total of 2 826 elderly people were surveyed, in whom 320 (11.3%) had fall and 169 (6.0%) were injured after fall. Fall risk in women were higher than that in men in both urban and rural areas with OR of 1.62 (95%CI: 1.42-1.86) and 1.16 (95%CI: 1.38-1.98) respectively, but the differences of fall related injury were not significant. Compared with urban areas, fall risk and fall related injury risk were both lower in rural areas with OR of 0.86 (95%CI: 0.73-0.99) and 0.74 (95%CI: 0.56-0.99). Compared with urban areas, men had lower risk for fall, and women had lower risk for fall related injury with OR of 0.68 (95%CI: 0.51-0.90) and 0.66 (95%CI: 0.47-0.93) respectively. Fall mainly occurred at home. Fall in urban area more frequently occurred on stairs, and fall in rural area more frequently occurred during farming. More than 60% of the falls had environmental risk factors. Slippery ground and uneven ground were main reasons. The incidence of fracture resulted from fall was high indicated by 89 fracture cases in urban areas (28.2%) and 64 fracture cases in rural areas (36.1%). Conclusions: The risk for fall in Shanghai had gender and urban-rural differences. Targeted intervention should be conducted according to the characteristics of fall in the elderly.


Assuntos
Acidentes por Quedas/estatística & dados numéricos , Fraturas Ósseas/epidemiologia , População Rural/estatística & dados numéricos , População Urbana/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso , China/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Distribuição por Sexo
18.
JAMA ; 321(21): 2092-2100, 2019 06 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31162569

RESUMO

Importance: Whether exercise reduces subsequent falls in high-risk older adults who have already experienced a fall is unknown. Objective: To assess the effect of a home-based exercise program as a fall prevention strategy in older adults who were referred to a fall prevention clinic after an index fall. Design, Setting, and Participants: A 12-month, single-blind, randomized clinical trial conducted from April 22, 2009, to June 5, 2018, among adults aged at least 70 years who had a fall within the past 12 months and were recruited from a fall prevention clinic. Interventions: Participants were randomized to receive usual care plus a home-based strength and balance retraining exercise program delivered by a physical therapist (intervention group; n = 173) or usual care, consisting of fall prevention care provided by a geriatrician (usual care group; n = 172). Both were provided for 12 months. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was self-reported number of falls over 12 months. Adverse event data were collected in the exercise group only and consisted of falls, injuries, or muscle soreness related to the exercise intervention. Results: Among 345 randomized patients (mean age, 81.6 [SD, 6.1] years; 67% women), 296 (86%) completed the trial. During a mean follow-up of 338 (SD, 81) days, a total of 236 falls occurred among 172 participants in the exercise group vs 366 falls among 172 participants in the usual care group. Estimated incidence rates of falls per person-year were 1.4 (95% CI, 0.1-2.0) vs 2.1 (95% CI, 0.1-3.2), respectively. The absolute difference in fall incidence was 0.74 (95% CI, 0.04-1.78; P = .006) falls per person-year and the incident rate ratio was 0.64 (95% CI, 0.46-0.90; P = .009). No adverse events related to the intervention were reported. Conclusions and Relevance: Among older adults receiving care at a fall prevention clinic after a fall, a home-based strength and balance retraining exercise program significantly reduced the rate of subsequent falls compared with usual care provided by a geriatrician. These findings support the use of this home-based exercise program for secondary fall prevention but require replication in other clinical settings. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifiers: NCT01029171; NCT00323596.


Assuntos
Acidentes por Quedas/prevenção & controle , Terapia por Exercício , Acidentes por Quedas/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Vida Independente , Masculino , Equilíbrio Postural , Treinamento de Resistência , Prevenção Secundária/métodos , Método Simples-Cego
19.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 19(1): 391, 2019 Jun 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31208427

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Fall prevention is a priority in Canadian tertiary rehabilitation hospitals. We aimed to understand the perspectives of hospital administrators on the challenges experienced when implementing fall prevention policies/procedures for patients with spinal cord injury (SCI) in tertiary rehabilitation hospitals. METHODS: Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 10 administrators employed in six Canadian tertiary rehabilitation hospitals. Guided by an interpretive description framework, interviews were analyzed using a constant comparison approach. RESULTS: Challenges with fall prevention experienced by administrators fell into the three categories: 1) fall prevention policy and procedural challenges (e.g. fall prevention policy not SCI-specific, expectation of zero falls, determining contributing factors, learning from falls, and overall effectiveness of the fall prevention policy), 2) clinician-related challenges (e.g. variable staff adherence with the organizations' fall prevention procedures, inconsistent delivery of fall prevention education, and integrating individualized fall risks to guide clinical practice), and 3) patient-related challenges (e.g. balancing risk vs independence and rehabilitation progress, responsibility for fall prevention, and non-preventable falls). CONCLUSIONS: Fall prevention policies/procedures required by the hospitals were insufficient for clinical practice in SCI rehabilitation.


Assuntos
Acidentes por Quedas/prevenção & controle , Acidentes por Quedas/estatística & dados numéricos , Administradores Hospitalares , Hospitais de Reabilitação , Traumatismos da Medula Espinal/reabilitação , Canadá/epidemiologia , Coleta de Dados , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Pesquisa sobre Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Fatores de Risco , Traumatismos da Medula Espinal/epidemiologia
20.
BMC Musculoskelet Disord ; 20(1): 273, 2019 Jun 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31159812

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Previous studies have indicated that trunk muscle strength decreases with chronic low back pain, and is associated with poor balance, poor functional performance, and falls in older adults. Strengthening exercises for chronic low back pain are considered the most effective intervention to improve functional outcomes. We developed an innovative exercise device for abdominal trunk muscles that also measures muscle strength. The correlation between muscle weakness, as measured by our device, the presence of chronic low back pain, and decreased physical ability associated with a risk of falling were evaluated in older women. METHODS: Thirty-eight elderly women, who could walk without support during daily activities and attended our outpatient clinic for treatment of chronic low back pain, knee or hip arthritis, or osteoporosis, were included in this study. Anthropometric measurements were performed. Grip power and one-leg standing time with eyes open were measured, and abdominal trunk muscle strength was measured using our device. History of falling in the previous 12 months was noted. Subjects with chronic low back pain (visual analog scale score ≥ 20 mm) for over 3 months were assigned to the low back pain group (n = 21). The remaining subjects formed the non-low back pain group (n = 17). RESULTS: Abdominal muscle strength of subjects in the low back pain group, and with history of falling, was significantly lower compared with that of subjects in the non-low back pain group, and in subjects without a history of falling, respectively. There was a moderate positive correlation between abdominal trunk muscle strength and one-leg standing time with eyes open. CONCLUSION: We measured abdominal muscle strength in older women with chronic low back pain using our device, and it was significantly lower than that of those without chronic low back pain. Muscle weakness was associated with a history and risk of falling.


Assuntos
Músculos Abdominais/fisiopatologia , Acidentes por Quedas/estatística & dados numéricos , Dor Lombar/complicações , Debilidade Muscular/diagnóstico , Acidentes por Quedas/prevenção & controle , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Coortes , Terapia por Exercício/instrumentação , Terapia por Exercício/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Dor Lombar/fisiopatologia , Dor Lombar/terapia , Força Muscular/fisiologia , Debilidade Muscular/etiologia , Debilidade Muscular/fisiopatologia
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