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1.
J Trauma Acute Care Surg ; 90(4): 738-743, 2021 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33740785

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: As the prevalence of geriatric trauma patients has increased, protocols are being developed to address the unique requirements of this demographic. However, categorical definitions for geriatric patients vary, potentially creating confusion concerning which patients should be cared for according to geriatric-specific standards. The aim of this study was to identify data-driven cut points for mortality based on age to support implementation of age-driven guidelines. METHODS: Adults aged 18 to 100 years with blunt or penetrating injury were selected from 95 hospitals' trauma registries. Change point analysis techniques were used to detect inflection points in the proportion of deaths at each age. Based on these calculated points, patients were allocated into age groups, and their characteristics and outcomes were compared. Logistic regression was used to estimate risk-adjusted in-hospital mortality controlling for sex, race, Injury Severity Score, Glasgow Coma Scale, and number of comorbidities. RESULTS: A total of 255,099 patients were identified (female, 45.7%; mean age, 59.3 years; mean Injury Severity Score, 8.69; blunt injury, 92.6%). Statistically significant increases in mortality rate were noted at ages 55, 77, and 82 years. Compared with the referent group (age, <55 years), adjusted odds ratios (AORs) showed increases in mortality if age 55 to 76 years (AOR, 2.42), age 77 to 81 years (AOR, 4.70), or age 82 years or older (AOR, 6.43). National Trauma Data Standard-defined comorbidities significantly increased once age surpassed 55 years, as the rate more than doubled for each of the older age categories (p < 0.001). As age increased, each group was more likely to be female, have dementia, sustain a ground level fall, and be discharged to a skilled nursing facility (p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: This large multicenter analysis established a clinically and statistically significant increase in mortality at ages 55, 77, and 82 years. This research strongly suggests that trauma patients older than 55 years be considered for inclusion in geriatric trauma protocols. The other age inflection points identified (77 and 82 years) may also warrant additional specialized care considerations. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Epidemiological study, level III; Care management, level IV.


Assuntos
Ferimentos não Penetrantes/mortalidade , Ferimentos Penetrantes/mortalidade , Acidentes por Quedas/mortalidade , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Avaliação Geriátrica , Escala de Coma de Glasgow , Hospitalização , Humanos , Escala de Gravidade do Ferimento , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Taxa de Sobrevida , Centros de Traumatologia , Ferimentos não Penetrantes/diagnóstico , Ferimentos não Penetrantes/terapia , Ferimentos Penetrantes/diagnóstico , Ferimentos Penetrantes/terapia , Adulto Jovem
2.
J Forensic Leg Med ; 78: 102113, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33485089

RESUMO

Falls from height are the most common cause of blunt trauma after traffic accidents. The focus of this retrospective study was to analyze the relationship between injuries in fatal falls and fall height, body mass index (BMI), and sex in 206 autopsy reports. Age, sex, weight, height, place of the fall, fall height, period between the incidence and death, external examination findings in the autopsy, intracranial findings, fractures, internal organ injuries, and information about the causes of death were recorded. Accidents and men were the largest groups. Injuries to the upper and lower extremities were frequently detected in accidents. Lower extremity injuries were more common in women. The occurrence of head and neck injuries were rare in overweight individuals. When evaluated by manner of death, there were differences in extremities and posterior body injuries. There was no difference between sex in terms of autopsy findings. It was observed that the injuries increased as the height increased. There was a statistical difference between the BMI groups in terms of liver, rib and sternum injuries. The most common cause of death was head injuries. Many factors have been known to affect injury patterns in cases of falls from height. Fall height, BMI, and gender are just a few of these factors. This study will be beneficial to support the findings of this study with larger-scale studies and statistical modeling that consider more factors affecting injuries in cases of falls.


Assuntos
Acidentes por Quedas/mortalidade , Ferimentos e Lesões/mortalidade , Adulto , Autopsia , Índice de Massa Corporal , Osso e Ossos/lesões , Traumatismos Craniocerebrais/mortalidade , Feminino , Humanos , Extremidade Inferior/lesões , Masculino , Pelve/lesões , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores Sexuais , Turquia/epidemiologia , Extremidade Superior/lesões
3.
PLoS One ; 16(1): e0244862, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33406164

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study encompassed fall-related deaths, including those who died prior to medical care, that were admitted to multiple healthcare institutions, regardless of whether they died at home, in long-term care, or in hospice. The common element was that all deaths resulted directly or indirectly from injuries sustained during a fall, regardless of the temporal relationship. This comprehensive approach provides an unusual illustration of the clinical sequence of fall-related deaths. Understanding this pathway lays the groundwork for identification of gaps in healthcare needs. DESIGN: This is a retrospective study of 2014 fall-related deaths recorded by one medical examiner's office (n = 511) within a larger dataset of all trauma related deaths (n = 1848). Decedent demographic characteristics and fall-related variables associated with the deaths were coded and described. RESULTS: Of those falling, 483 (94.5%) were from heights less than 10 feet and 394 (77.1%) were aged 65+. The largest proportion of deaths (n = 267, 52.3%) occurred post-discharge from an acute care setting. Of those who had a documented prior fall, 216 (42.3%) had a history of one fall while 31 (6.1%) had ≥2 falls prior to their fatal incident. For the 267 post-acute care deaths, 440 healthcare admissions were involved in their care. Of 267 deaths occurring post-acute care, 129 (48.3%) were readmitted within 30 days. Preventability, defined as opportunities for improvement in care that may have influenced the outcome, was assessed. Of the 1848 trauma deaths, 511 (27.7%) were due to falls of which 361 (70.6%) were determined to be preventable or potentially preventable. CONCLUSION: Our data show that readmissions and repeated falls are frequent events in the clinical sequence of fall fatalities. Efforts to prevent fall-related readmissions should be a top priority for improving fall outcomes and increasing the quality of life among those at risk of falling.


Assuntos
Acidentes por Quedas/mortalidade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Comorbidade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos
4.
J Surg Res ; 257: 118-127, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32823009

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: As the population ages, the incidence of traumatic falls has been increasing. We hypothesize that a machine learning algorithm can more accurately predict mortality after a fall compared with a standard logistic regression (LR) model based on immediately available admission data. Secondary objectives were to predict who would be discharged home and determine which variables had the largest effect on prediction. METHODS: All patients who were admitted for fall between 2012 and 2017 at our level 1 trauma center were reviewed. Fourteen variables describing patient demographics, injury characteristics, and physiology were collected at the time of admission and were used for prediction modeling. Algorithms assessed included LR, decision tree classifier (DTC), and random forest classifier (RFC). Area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) values were calculated for each algorithm for mortality and discharge to home. RESULTS: About 4725 patients met inclusion criteria. The mean age was 61 ± 20.5 y, Injury Severity Score 8 ± 7, length of stay 5.8 ± 7.6 d, intensive care unit length of stay 1.8± 5.2 d, and ventilator days 0.7 ± 4.2 d. The mortality rate was 3% and three times greater for elderly (aged 65 y and older) patients (5.0% versus 1.6%, P < 0.001). The AUC for predicting mortality for LR, DTC, and RFC was 0.78, 0.64, and 0.86, respectively. The AUC for predicting discharge to home for LR, DTC, and RFC was 0.72, 0.61, and 0.74, respectively. The top five variables that contribute to the prediction of mortality in descending order of importance are the Glasgow Coma Score (GCS) motor, GCS verbal, respiratory rate, GCS eye, and temperature. CONCLUSIONS: RFC can accurately predict mortality and discharge home after a fall. This predictive model can be implemented at the time of patient arrival and may help identify candidates for targeted intervention as well as improve prognostication and resource utilization.


Assuntos
Acidentes por Quedas/mortalidade , Acidentes por Quedas/estatística & dados numéricos , Aprendizado de Máquina , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Algoritmos , Árvores de Decisões , Feminino , Escala de Coma de Glasgow , Humanos , Escala de Gravidade do Ferimento , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Tempo de Internação , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Alta do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Curva ROC , Estudos Retrospectivos , Centros de Traumatologia
5.
Rev Saude Publica ; 54: 76, 2020.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32813869

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE To estimate the trends of fall-related hospitalization, mortality, and lethality among older adults in Brazil and regions. METHODS This is a descriptive study based on data from the Hospital Information System of the Brazilian Unified Health System. We included records of every older adult, aged 60 years or older, hospitalized for accidental fall from January, 1998 to November, 2015 in all Brazilian regions. We selected the codes E885, E886, E880, E884, E884 from the International Classification of Diseases, 9th revision, and W01, W03, W10, W17, W18 from the 10th revision, and calculated fall-related hospitalization and mortality rates per 100,000 inhabitants, as well as lethality. To estimate trends, we applied the Prais-Winsten regression for time series analysis. RESULTS During the period, 1,192,829 fall-related hospitalizations occurred, among which 54,673 had a fatal outcome; lethality was 4.5%. Hospitalization rates showed upward trends, with seasonality, in Brazil (11%), and in the Northeast (44%), Midwest (13%), and South regions (14%). The North showed a decreasing hospitalization rate (48%), and the Southeast a stationary one (3%). CONCLUSIONS In Brazil, fall-related hospitalizations, mortality, and lethality among older adults showed an upward trend from 1998 to 2015, with seasonal peaks in the second and third quarters. Considering we are in plain demographic transition, to improve hospital healthcare and encourage falls prevention programs among older adults is essential.


Assuntos
Acidentes por Quedas/mortalidade , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Acidentes por Quedas/estatística & dados numéricos , Distribuição por Idade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Brasil/epidemiologia , Feminino , Hospitalização/tendências , Humanos , Classificação Internacional de Doenças , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estações do Ano , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
6.
Fisioterapia (Madr., Ed. impr.) ; 42(4): 203-213, jul.-ago. 2020. graf, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-193507

RESUMO

ANTECEDENTES: Las caídas son la segunda causa mundial de muerte por lesiones accidentales. La mayor tasa de mortalidad se produce en los adultos mayores. OBJETIVO: Evaluar si la práctica del método Pilates es efectiva para reducir las caídas y el riesgo de caída en el adulto mayor. MÉTODOS: Revisión sistemática de artículos originales publicados desde el inicio hasta octubre de 2018. Bases de datos consultadas: Medline, PubMed, Google Scholar, Web of Knowledge, OVID y ScienceDirect. Se incluyeron estudios experimentales y cuasi-experimentales en los que los participantes fueron adultos mayores y recibieron una intervención basada en el método Pilates, y en los que se evaluaron los efectos sobre las caídas, el riesgo o el miedo a las caídas. La síntesis fue descriptiva y se evaluó la calidad de los estudios incluidos con las escalas PEDro y Otawa. RESULTADOS: Seis estudios cumplieron los criterios de elegibilidad. Cinco fueron estudios clínicos aleatorizados y el restante un estudio de intervención. Un total de 216 participantes fueron incluidos. Dos estudios evaluaron el efecto sobre las caídas con resultados inconcluyentes. En general los efectos sobre el equilibrio asociado con el riesgo de caídas fueron positivos. El efecto sobre el miedo a la caída, valorado por un estudio, también dedujo resultados positivos derivados de la práctica de Pilates. CONCLUSIONES: La práctica de ejercicio basado en el método Pilates es efectiva para mejorar las habilidades de equilibrio estático y dinámico, así como la fuerza muscular en adultos mayores (predictores de caídas). Existe escasez de estudios orientados a evaluar específicamente la reducción del número de caídas y del miedo a caer. La implementación de ensayos clínicos con poder adecuado queda justificada para resolver el efecto del método Pilates sobre las caídas en el adulto mayor


BACKGROUND: Falls are the second leading cause of death by accidental injury worldwide. The highest death rate is in older adults. OBJECTIVE: To assess whether practicing the Pilates Method is effective in reducing falls and the risk of falling. METHODS: A systematic review of original articles published from inception until October 2018. Databases consulted: Medline, PubMed, Google Scholar, Web of Knowledge, OVID, and ScienceDirect. We included experimental and quasi-experimental studies in which the participants were older adults and had undergone an intervention based on the Pilates Method, and in which the effects on falls, risk, and fear of falling were assessed. The synthesis was descriptive, and the quality of the studies included was assessed with the PEDro and Ottawa scales. RESULTS: Six studies met the eligibility criteria. Five were randomised trials and one was an intervention study. A total of 216 participants were included. Two studies assessed the effect on falls with inconclusive results. Overall, the effects on balance associated with risk of falling were positive. The effect on fear of falling, assessed by one study, also concluded positive results from the practice of Pilates. CONCLUSIONS: Exercising based on the Pilates method is effective in improving static and dynamic balance skills and muscle strength in older adults (predictors of falls). There are few studies that specifically assess reduction in number of falls and fear of falling. The implementation of clinical trials of adequate power is justified to establish the effect of the Pilates method on falls in older adults


Assuntos
Humanos , Idoso , Técnicas de Exercício e de Movimento/métodos , Acidentes por Quedas/prevenção & controle , Medo/psicologia , Acidentes por Quedas/mortalidade , Técnica Delfos
7.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 1186, 2020 Jul 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32727594

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Fall-related injuries are important public health problem worldwide. We aimed to describe the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of fall-related injuries in a level 1 trauma center. METHOD: A retrospective analysis of Qatar Trauma Registry data was conducted on patients admitted for fall-related injuries between 2010 and 2017. Comparative analyses of data by gender, age-groups and height of falls were performed to describe the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of patients, and in-hospital outcomes. RESULTS: A total of 4040 patients with fall-related injuries were identified in the study duration which corresponds to the rate of 2.34 per 10,000 population. Although the rate of fall-related injuries decreased over the years, the average number of patients per year remained high accounting for 32% of the hospitalized patients with moderate to severe injuries. Most of the injuries affected the head (36%) followed by spines (29%) and chest (23%). Males were predominant (89%), more likely to fall at workplace, fall from a greater height and have polytrauma than females. The working age-group (20-59 years) constituted the majority of injured (73%) and were more likely to fall at workplace, and to fall from higher heights compared to the older adults who sustained more fall at home. Overall in-hospital mortality was 3%. Outcomes including longer hospital length of stay and mortality were generally correlated with the height of fall except for the fall at home. CONCLUSION: Fall-related injuries remain as significant burden even in a level 1 trauma center. Variations in the pattern of injuries by age, gender and height of fall provide important information for targeted preventive measures.


Assuntos
Acidentes por Quedas , Hospitalização , Escala de Gravidade do Ferimento , Ferimentos e Lesões/epidemiologia , Ferimentos e Lesões/etiologia , Acidentes por Quedas/mortalidade , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Traumatismos Craniocerebrais/epidemiologia , Traumatismos Craniocerebrais/etiologia , Feminino , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Traumatismo Múltiplo , Catar/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Traumatismos da Coluna Vertebral/epidemiologia , Traumatismos da Coluna Vertebral/etiologia , Traumatismos Torácicos/epidemiologia , Traumatismos Torácicos/etiologia , Adulto Jovem
8.
N Engl J Med ; 383(2): 129-140, 2020 07 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32640131

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Injuries from falls are major contributors to complications and death in older adults. Despite evidence from efficacy trials that many falls can be prevented, rates of falls resulting in injury have not declined. METHODS: We conducted a pragmatic, cluster-randomized trial to evaluate the effectiveness of a multifactorial intervention that included risk assessment and individualized plans, administered by specially trained nurses, to prevent fall injuries. A total of 86 primary care practices across 10 health care systems were randomly assigned to the intervention or to enhanced usual care (the control) (43 practices each). The participants were community-dwelling adults, 70 years of age or older, who were at increased risk for fall injuries. The primary outcome, assessed in a time-to-event analysis, was the first serious fall injury, adjudicated with the use of participant report, electronic health records, and claims data. We hypothesized that the event rate would be lower by 20% in the intervention group than in the control group. RESULTS: The demographic and baseline characteristics of the participants were similar in the intervention group (2802 participants) and the control group (2649 participants); the mean age was 80 years, and 62.0% of the participants were women. The rate of a first adjudicated serious fall injury did not differ significantly between the groups, as assessed in a time-to-first-event analysis (events per 100 person-years of follow-up, 4.9 in the intervention group and 5.3 in the control group; hazard ratio, 0.92; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.80 to 1.06; P = 0.25). The rate of a first participant-reported fall injury was 25.6 events per 100 person-years of follow-up in the intervention group and 28.6 events per 100 person-years of follow-up in the control group (hazard ratio, 0.90; 95% CI, 0.83 to 0.99; P = 0.004). The rates of hospitalization or death were similar in the two groups. CONCLUSIONS: A multifactorial intervention, administered by nurses, did not result in a significantly lower rate of a first adjudicated serious fall injury than enhanced usual care. (Funded by the Patient-Centered Outcomes Research Institute and others; STRIDE ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT02475850.).


Assuntos
Acidentes por Quedas/prevenção & controle , Lesões Acidentais/prevenção & controle , Administração dos Cuidados ao Paciente/métodos , Acidentes por Quedas/mortalidade , Acidentes por Quedas/estatística & dados numéricos , Lesões Acidentais/epidemiologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Incidência , Vida Independente , Masculino , Medicina de Precisão , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco
9.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 903, 2020 Jun 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32522173

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Injuries are of growing public health concern in China, and the trends of urban-rural injury mortality disparity for the last decade are still being explored. This study aims to analyze trends in injury mortality disparity between urban and rural areas of China by region, sex, and age from 2010 to 2016. METHODS: Using data from the Disease Surveillance Points system (DSPs) collected by the Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) from 2010 to 2016, injury age-standardized mortality rates (ASMRs) and rate ratios (RRs) were calculated for different groups. Chi-square tests were used to compare differences in rates between urban and rural residents. The time trends of injury ASMRs were assessed via the annual percentage change (APC), and RRs were used to analyze urban-rural mortality disparity. RESULTS: The crude injury mortality rate of rural areas was 1.5 times higher than that of urban areas. The urban-rural RR of injury ASMR decreased from 1.8 to 1.5 (APC = 5.0%) over time, from 2.0 to 1.7 (APC = 4.7%) for eastern regions, from 1.9 to 1.5 (APC = 5.4%) and from 1.6 to 1.3 (APC = 4.5%) among males and females, respectively. Further decreases were from 2.0 to 1.4 (APC = 7.8%), from 1.9 to 1.6 (APC = 6.4%), and from 1.8 to 1.2 (APC = 5.7%) in the 5-14, 45-64, and 65+ year age groups, respectively. The urban-rural RRs of ASMRs for fall, drowning and suicide decreased from 1.3 to 1.2 (APC = - 3.0%), from 2.3 to 1.6 (APC = - 13.8%) and from 2.1 to 1.6 (APC = - 9.9%,), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The urban-rural injury mortality disparity was large, but showed a significant decreasing trend in China. Residents of eastern regions, males/females, 5-14/45+ year age groups in the urban-rural injury mortality disparity all decreased gradually during the investigated period.


Assuntos
População Rural/tendências , População Urbana/tendências , Ferimentos e Lesões/mortalidade , Acidentes por Quedas/mortalidade , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Distribuição de Qui-Quadrado , Criança , Pré-Escolar , China/epidemiologia , Afogamento/mortalidade , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores Sexuais , Suicídio/tendências , Estados Unidos , Ferimentos e Lesões/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32545236

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Accidental falls are a common cause of injury and deaths. Both ground-level falls (GLF) and non-GLF may lead to significant morbidity or mortality. This study aimed to explore the relationship between height of falls and mortality. METHOD: This is a retrospective study based on the data from a registered trauma database and included 8699 adult patients who were hospitalized between 1 January 2009 and 31 December 2017 for the treatment of fall-related injuries. Study subjects were divided into three groups of two categories based on the height of fall: GLF (group I: < 1 m) and non-GLF (group II: 1-6 m and group III: > 6 m). The primary outcome was in-hospital mortality. The adjusted odds ratio (AOR) of mortality adjusted for age, sex, and comorbidities with or without an injury severity score (ISS) was calculated using multiple logistic regression. RESULTS: Among the 7001 patients in group I, 1588 in group II, and 110 in group III, patients in the GLF group were older, predominantly female, had less intentional injuries, and had more pre-existing comorbidities than those in the non-GLF group. The patients in the non-GLF group had a significantly lower Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS), a higher injury severity score (ISS), worse physiological responses, and required more procedures performed in the emergency department. The mortality rate for the patients in group I, II, and III were 2.5%, 3.5%, and 5.5%, respectively. After adjustment by age, sex, and comorbidities, group II and group III patients had significantly higher adjusted odds of mortality than group I patients (AOR 2.2, 95% CI 1.64-2.89, p < 0.001 and AOR 2.5, 95% CI 1.84-3.38, p < 0.001, respectively). With additional adjustment by ISS, group II did not have significantly higher adjusted odds of mortality than group I patients (AOR 1.4, 95% CI 0.95-2.22, p = 0.082), but group III patients still had significantly higher adjusted odds of mortality than group I patients (AOR 10.0, 95% CI 2.22-33.33, p = 0.002). CONCLUSION: This study suggested that patients who sustained GLF and non-GLF were distinct groups of patients, and the height of fall did have an impact on mortality in patients of fall accidents. A significantly higher adjusted odds of mortality was found in the GLF group than in the non-GLF group after adjusting for age, sex, and comorbidities.


Assuntos
Acidentes por Quedas/mortalidade , Ferimentos e Lesões/mortalidade , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Escala de Gravidade do Ferimento , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Centros de Traumatologia
11.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0231618, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32379771

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To assess the association between having suffered a fall in the month prior to interview and long-term overall survival in nursing-home residents. METHODS: Retrospective cohort study conducting an overall survival follow-up of 689 representative nursing-home residents from Madrid, Spain. Residents lived in three types of facilities: public, subsidized and private and its information was collected by interviewing the residents, caregivers and/or facility physicians. Residents contributed to follow-up time from their baseline interviews until death or being censored at the end of the 5-year follow-up period. The association between suffering a fall during the month prior to interview and long-term overall survival was analyzed using Cox proportional hazards models. To adjust for potential confounders we used progressive adjusted models. We then repeated the analyses with severity of the fall (no fall, non-severe, severe) as the main independent variable. RESULTS: After a 2408 person-year follow-up (median 4.5 years), 372 participants had died. In fully-adjusted models, residents who had suffered any kind of fall in the previous month showed virtually the same survival rates compared to non-fallers (hazard ratio (HR) = 1.03; 95% CI = 0.75-1.40). There was a weak graded relationship between increased fall severity and survival rates for the non-severe fall group (HR = 0.92; 95% CI = 0.58-1.45) and the severe fall group (HR = 1.36; 95% CI = 0.73-2.53) compared with residents who had not suffered any kind of fall. The hazard ratios for severe falls were higher in men, residents with less comorbidity, fewer medications, and those functionally independent. CONCLUSION: We found no associations between having suffered a fall in the month prior to interview and long-term survival; neither did we find a marked association when severity of fall was accounted for in the whole population. In some subgroups, however, the results merit further scrutiny.


Assuntos
Acidentes por Quedas/mortalidade , Casas de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Sobreviventes/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Instituição de Longa Permanência para Idosos/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Espanha
12.
Med. intensiva (Madr., Ed. impr.) ; 44(4): 210-215, mayo 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-190572

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To analyze outcomes and factors related to mortality among very elderly trauma patients admitted to intensive care units (ICUs) participating in the Spanish trauma ICU registry. DESIGN: A multicenter nationwide registry. Retrospective analysis. November 2012-May 2017. SETTING: Participating ICUs. PATIENTS: Trauma patients aged ≥ 80 years. INTERVENTIONS: None. Main variables of interest: The outcomes and influence of limitation of life sustaining therapy (LLST) were analyzed.comparisons were established using the Wilcoxon test, Chi-squared test or Fisher's exact test as appropriate. Multiple logistic regression analysis was performed to analyze variables related to mortality. A p-value < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. RESULTS: The mean patient age was 83.4 ± 3.3 years; 281 males (60.4%). Low-energy falls were the mechanisms of injury in 256 patients (55.1%). The mean ISS was 20.5 ± 11.1, with a mean ICU stay of 7.45 ± 9.9 days. The probability of survival based on the TRISS methodology was 69.8 ± 29.7%. The ICU mortality rate was 15.5%, with an in-hospital mortality rate of 19.2%. The main cause of mortality was intracranial hypertension (42.7%). The ISS, the need for first- and second-tier measures to control intracranial pressure, and being admitted to the ICU for organ donation were independent mortality predictors. LLST was applied in 128 patients (27.9%). Patients who received LLST were older, with more severe trauma, and with more severe brain injury. CONCLUSIONS: Very elderly trauma ICU patients presented mortality rates lower than predicted on the basis of the severity of injury


OBJETIVO: Analizar el desenlace y los factores relacionados con la mortalidad de los pacientes traumáticos muy ancianos ingresados en las Unidades de Cuidados Intensivos (UCI) participantes en el Registro Español de Trauma en las UCI (RETRAUCI). DISEÑO: Registro multicéntrico nacional. Análisis retrospectivo. Noviembre de 2012-mayo de 2017. Ámbito: Las UCI participantes. Pacientes o PARTICIPANTES: Pacientes traumáticos con edad ≥ 80 años. INTERVENCIONES: Ninguna. Variables de interés principales: Analizamos el desenlace y la influencia de la limitación de los tratamientos de soporte vital (LLST). Las comparaciones entre grupos se realizaron mediante la prueba de Wilcoxon, la prueba de Chi-cuadrado y la prueba exacta de Fisher según estuviera indicado. Se realizó un análisis multivariante mediante regresión logística para analizar las variables asociadas a la mortalidad. Un valor de p < 0,05 se consideró el límite de la significación estadística. RESULTADOS: La edad media fue de 83,4 ± 3,3 años. Varones 281 (60,4%). La causa principal del traumatismo fueron las caídas de baja energía en 256 pacientes (55,1%). El Injury Severity Score (ISS) medio fue de 20,5 ± 11,1. La estancia media en las UCI fue de 7,45 ± 9,9 días. La probabilidad de supervivencia, de acuerdo con la metodología TRISS fue de 69,8 ± 29,7%. La mortalidad en las UCI fue del 15,5%. La mortalidad hospitalaria fue del 19,2%. La causa principal fue la hipertensión intracraneal (42,7%). El ISS, la necesidad de medidas de primer o segundo nivel para controlar la presión intracraneal y el ingreso en las UCI orientado a la donación de órganos fueron predictores independientes de mortalidad. Se documentó la LLST en 128 pacientes (27,9%). Los pacientes con LLST fueron mayores, con una mayor gravedad lesional y un traumatismo craneoencefálico más grave. CONCLUSIONES: Los pacientes traumáticos muy ancianos en las UCI presentaron menor mortalidad de la predicha por la gravedad del traumatismo


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Resultados de Cuidados Críticos , Registros/normas , Acidentes por Quedas/mortalidade , Traumatismos Cranianos Penetrantes/mortalidade , Espanha , Estudos Retrospectivos , Modelos Logísticos , Análise Multivariada , Evolução Fatal , Mortalidade Hospitalar
13.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 69(9): 225-230, 2020 Mar 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32134910

RESUMO

One in 10 U.S. residents aged ≥18 years reports falling each year (1). Among all age groups, falls can cause serious injury and are the second leading cause of traumatic brain injury (TBI)-related deaths (2). TBI is a head injury caused by a bump, blow, or jolt to the head or body or a penetrating head injury that results in disruption of normal brain function.* CDC estimated national and state-specific rates and trends for TBI-related deaths (TBI deaths) caused by unintentional falls (fall-related TBI deaths) among U.S. residents during 2008-2017, by selected decedent characteristics. The national age-adjusted rate of fall-related TBI deaths increased by 17% from 2008 to 2017. Rate trends at the national level increased significantly for nearly all decedent characteristics, with the most notable increases observed among persons living in noncore (i.e., most rural), nonmetropolitan counties and those aged ≥75 years. Analysis of state-specific rate trends determined that rates of fall-related TBI deaths increased significantly in 29 states over the 10-year study period. A fall can happen to anyone of any age, but falls are preventable. Health care providers and the public need to be aware of evidence-based strategies to prevent falls, given that rates of fall-related TBI deaths are increasing. Health care providers can educate patients on fall and TBI prevention, assess their risk for falls, and when needed, encourage participation in appropriate evidence-based fall prevention programs.†.


Assuntos
Acidentes por Quedas/mortalidade , Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas/mortalidade , Acidentes por Quedas/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas/etiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
14.
Public Health ; 182: 32-38, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32151824

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To investigate ethnic differences in falls and road traffic injuries (RTIs) in Scotland. STUDY DESIGN: A retrospective cohort of 4.62 million people, linking the Scottish Census 2001, with self-reported ethnicity, to hospitalisation and death records for 2001-2013. METHODS: We selected cases with International Classification of Diseases-10 diagnostic codes for falls and RTIs. Using Poisson regression, age-adjusted risk ratios (RRs, multiplied by 100 as percentages) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated by sex for 10 ethnic groups with the White Scottish as reference. We further adjusted for country of birth and socio-economic status (SES). RESULTS: During about 49 million person-years, there were 275,995 hospitalisations or deaths from fall-related injuries and 43,875 from RTIs. Compared with the White Scottish, RRs for falls were higher in most White and Mixed groups, e.g., White Irish males (RR: 131; 95% CI: 122-140) and Mixed females (126; 112-143), but lower in Pakistani males (72; 64-81) and females (72; 63-82) and African females (79; 63-99). For RTIs, RRs were higher in other White British males (161; 147-176) and females (156; 138-176) and other White males (119; 104-137) and females (143; 121-169) and lower in Pakistani females (74; 57-98). The ethnic variations differed by road user type, with few cases among non-White motorcyclists and non-White female cyclists. The RRs were minimally altered by adjustment for country of birth or SES. CONCLUSION: We found important ethnic variations in injuries owing to falls and RTIs, with generally lower risks in non-White groups. Culturally related differences in behaviour offer the most plausible explanation, including variations in alcohol use. The findings do not point to the need for new interventions in Scotland at present. However, as the ethnic mix of each country is unique, other countries could benefit from similar data linkage-based research.


Assuntos
Acidentes por Quedas/estatística & dados numéricos , Acidentes de Trânsito/estatística & dados numéricos , Grupos Étnicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Acidentes por Quedas/mortalidade , Acidentes de Trânsito/mortalidade , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Estudos Retrospectivos , Escócia , Classe Social , Adulto Jovem
15.
Epilepsia ; 61(3): 479-488, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32072623

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to investigate the accident-related mortality among people younger than 55 years of age with epilepsy compared with the general population and to study how psychiatric comorbidity influences this risk. METHODS: This is a population-based cohort study of individuals born in Denmark between 1960 and 2015 (n = 3, 665 616). Persons diagnosed with epilepsy and psychiatric disorders were identified in the Danish National Patient Register and the Danish Central Psychiatric Central Register. We estimated the hazard ratio (HR) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of accidental death in people with epilepsy compared with persons without epilepsy. RESULTS: We identified 61 330 persons (1.7%) diagnosed with epilepsy. Median age at end of follow-up was 27.8 years. In people with epilepsy, 5253 died during follow-up, 480 (9%) of whom died from accidents. Among people without epilepsy, 52 588 died during follow-up, of whom 1280 (2.4%) died from accidents. People with epilepsy had a 3.7-fold (95% CI 3.4-4.1) increased risk of accidental death compared with persons without epilepsy. When we adjusted for psychiatric disorders, the risk remained significantly elevated in people with epilepsy compared to people without epilepsy (adjusted HR [aHR] 2.44, 95% CI 2.22-2.69). When stratifying the analyses on epilepsy and psychiatric disorders, people with epilepsy and psychiatric disorders had an aHR of 4.95 (95% CI 3.82-6.41) when compared with persons without epilepsy and psychiatric disorders. SIGNIFICANCE: The risk of accidental death was increased in people with epilepsy and was particularly high among people with epilepsy with psychiatric comorbidity. The findings highlight the need for awareness and prevention strategies in people with epilepsy, especially in people with comorbid psychiatric disorders.


Assuntos
Acidentes/mortalidade , Epilepsia/epidemiologia , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Acidentes por Quedas/mortalidade , Acidentes de Trânsito/mortalidade , Adolescente , Adulto , Asfixia/mortalidade , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Comorbidade , Dinamarca/epidemiologia , Afogamento/mortalidade , Feminino , Fogo , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Adulto Jovem
16.
Arch Gerontol Geriatr ; 88: 104017, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32044524

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To longitudinally investigate the effect of fear of falling on all-cause mortality. METHODS: Data from the KLoSA from 2006 to 2016 was used and 10,219 middle aged and older adults were included for analysis. The association between fear of falling and all-cause mortality was analyzed by Cox proportional hazard model with controlling for demographic characteristics, number of chronic conditions, depressive symptoms and fall experience. RESULTS: Of the 10,219 individuals at baseline 2006, those with fall experience for 2 years were 411 participants (4.2 %) and about 18.5 % of these participants (n: 76) died. In terms of FOF, 14.83 % of participants (1,515/10,219) reported serious fear for falling. Adjusted hazard ratio (HR) of all-cause mortality shows those who are very afraid of falling had a significantly increased risk of mortality compared with those without a FOF (HR 1.861, 95 % CI 1.589-2.179, P-value:.0001). CONCLUSION: This study shows a statistically significant association between fear of falling and all-cause mortality in a Korean middle aged and aged population.


Assuntos
Acidentes por Quedas , Medo , Mortalidade , Acidentes por Quedas/mortalidade , Idoso , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mortalidade/tendências , República da Coreia/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco
17.
Public Health ; 181: 114-118, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32006854

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: With the progress of aging, fall injuries have become a global public health issue. This research was conducted to describe in detail situations of injury occurrence among the elderly by distinguishing between falls from heights and ground-level falls. We assume that different fall mechanisms occur in different situations and result in a wide range of consequences. STUDY DESIGN: This is a registry-based descriptive study. METHODS: The analysis included 55,126 patients with fall injuries, aged 65 years and more, having an Injury Severity Score (ISS) ≧9, and registered in a trauma registry in Japan between 2004 and 2015. We described patients' distribution in terms of age, severity, outcome, season, time, and injured body parts by gender and fall mechanisms. RESULTS: Falls from heights (n = 15,748) were more common among men and those younger than 75 years. Ground-level falls (n = 39,378) were more common among women and those older than 75 years. The ISS was high in men and for those who fell from heights. Falls from heights were common in autumn, whereas ground-level falls were common in winter. Both mechanisms occurred frequently during the daytime. The head and lower extremities were the most commonly injured parts for those who fell from heights and ground-level falls, respectively. Injuries to the head, chest, spine, upper extremities, and pelvis were common among those who fell from heights. Injuries to the lower extremities were common in ground-level fallers. Among those who fell from heights, women had more frequent lower extremity injuries than did men. Among ground-level fallers, men had more frequent head injuries than did women. The highest case-fatality rate was recorded for abdominal injuries among those who fell from heights and head injuries among ground-level fallers. In both mechanisms of injury, the case-fatality rate of limbs was the lowest. CONCLUSIONS: Our study showed different patterns between falls from heights and ground-level falls, whereas previous studies rarely distinguished between these two fall mechanisms.


Assuntos
Acidentes por Quedas/estatística & dados numéricos , Envelhecimento , Sistema de Registros , Ferimentos e Lesões/mortalidade , Traumatismos Abdominais/etiologia , Traumatismos Abdominais/mortalidade , Acidentes por Quedas/mortalidade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Traumatismos Craniocerebrais/mortalidade , Feminino , Fraturas Ósseas/etiologia , Fraturas Ósseas/mortalidade , Geriatria , Humanos , Escala de Gravidade do Ferimento , Japão/epidemiologia , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estações do Ano , Ferimentos e Lesões/etiologia
18.
Epilepsia ; 61(3): e17-e22, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32030739

RESUMO

Excess mortality due to epilepsy is greatest among young adults. However, the relative proportions of sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP) and other epilepsy-related causes of death are not well defined. We prospectively adjudicated cause of death in all 18- to 45-year-olds with a history of seizure/epilepsy who underwent medicolegal investigation in San Diego County between 2014 and 2017. We identified 108 decedents with definite or probable epilepsy; 62% died from an epilepsy-related cause. SUDEP accounted for 42.6% (N = 46) of deaths, which were usually unwitnessed deaths, at home in bed. Other frequent causes of death were drug overdose (N = 23), suicide (N = 8), trauma (N = 8), and drowning (N = 6). SUDEP autopsies were similar to those of decedents from other causes. Most deaths in young adults with epilepsy that undergo medico-legal investigation are epilepsy-related, and SUDEP is the leading cause. Improved seizure control can potentially save many lives.


Assuntos
Afogamento/mortalidade , Overdose de Drogas/mortalidade , Epilepsia/epidemiologia , Morte Súbita Inesperada na Epilepsia/epidemiologia , Suicídio/estatística & dados numéricos , Ferimentos e Lesões/mortalidade , Acidentes por Quedas/mortalidade , Acidentes de Trânsito/mortalidade , Adulto , Afro-Americanos , Encéfalo/patologia , California/epidemiologia , Sistema Cardiovascular/patologia , Causas de Morte , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu , Feminino , Patologia Legal , Hispano-Americanos , Humanos , Pulmão/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Decúbito Ventral , Decúbito Dorsal , Adulto Jovem
19.
Injury ; 51(2): 230-234, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31902573

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Falls from height are a common cause of death and disability. Falls from height can be divided between accidental and suicide attempts. The aim of this study is to ascertain the demographic characteristics of these patients, and to identify the fracture patterns. METHODS: In this retrospective cross sectional comparative study we present 244 patients who sustained injuries as a result of a fall from height. They were divided into those with accidental falls (n = 180, group I) and those with suicide attempts (n = 64, group II). Data collected included age, gender, associated trauma, injury severity score (ISS), Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS), haemodynamic status, length of intensive care unit (ICU) and hospital stay. The diagnosis of mental disorder was ascertained by psychiatric specialists using the criteria of the International Classification of Disease Ninth Version Clinical Modification (ICD - 9CM). Postoperative follow-up ranged from 12 months to 10 years. RESULTS: The injuries sustained were as follows: Abdominal trauma in 9 cases (5 in group I, 4 in II), thoracic trauma in 81 cases (49 in group I, 32 in II), head injury in 23 cases (7 in group I, 16 in II), 383 extremities fractures (184 in group I, 199 in II) and 133 spinal fractures (101 in group I, 32 in II). Twenty-one patients died in hospital while 223 patients survived to hospital discharge. The mean height from which the fall occurred was 5.4 m (range, 3 - 25 m). The mean Injury Severity Score was 19 (range, 6 to 58) for all fall victims. CONCLUSIONS: Patients following an accidental high fall mostly had upper limb fractures. Patients following a suicidal high fall mostly had lower limb fractures, pelvis, spinal fractures and head injuries. Spinal fractures are common either when the fall is accidental or following suicide attempt.


Assuntos
Acidentes por Quedas/mortalidade , Fraturas Ósseas/etiologia , Transtornos Mentais/psicologia , Fraturas da Coluna Vertebral/etiologia , Tentativa de Suicídio/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Assistência ao Convalescente , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Escala de Coma de Glasgow , Grécia/epidemiologia , Hemodinâmica/fisiologia , Humanos , Escala de Gravidade do Ferimento , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/estatística & dados numéricos , Tempo de Internação/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Transtornos Mentais/diagnóstico , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Ferimentos e Lesões/complicações
20.
J Surg Res ; 247: 66-76, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31767279

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The elderly population is at increased risk of fall-related readmissions (FRRs). This study is aimed to identify the factors predictive of repeat falls and to analyze the associated outcomes. METHODS: We studied the Nationwide Readmission Database for the year 2010 and identified the patients (≥65 years) who were admitted after falls, and from that subset, further analyzed patients with ≥1 FRRs. Descriptive statistics were used to analyze continuous and categorical variables. Multivariable logistic regression was used to identify predictors of readmission in geriatric patients after controlling for covariates. RESULTS: A total of 358,581 initial fall-related admissions in geriatric adults were identified, and of these, 21,713 experienced ≥1 FRRs (6.06% risk of repeat fall-related admission). Females outnumbered males, and female gender was identified as an independent predictor of FRR (OR 1.10 95% CI 1.07-1.14 P = 0.000). The other independent predictors significantly associated with FRR were age (OR 1.007, 95% CI 1.005-1.009), depression (OR 1.25, 95% CI 1.21-1.30), drug abuse (OR 1.37, 95% CI 1.15-1.63), liver disease (OR 1.25, 95% CI 1.15-1.43, P < 0.001), psychosis (OR 1.16, 95% CI 1.09-1.23), valvular heart disease (OR 1.07, 95% CI 1.02-1.12), chronic pulmonary disease (OR 1.10, 95% CI 1.06-1.13), and number of chronic conditions (OR 1.022, 95% CI 1.016-1.29). Patients admitted emergently or urgently had higher odds of FRR (OR 1.44, 95% CI 1.36-1.52). Hospital demographic was a significant predictor of FRR, as hospitals with bed number >500 was associated with lower odds (OR 0.95, 95% CI 0.92-0.98, P < 0.001). Geriatric patients admitted at nonteaching hospitals and hospitals in large metro areas (population > 1 million) had higher odds of FRR (OR 1.10, 95% CI 1.03 - 1.16) and (OR 1.10, 95% C1 1.07-1.14), respectively. With respect to discharge disposition, patients in the FRR group were less likely to go home (5.9% versus 21.0%) or with home health care (12.6% versus 18.5%), but more likely to be discharged to skilled nursing or intermediate-care facilities (64.1% versus 54.9%) and short-term hospitals (2.8% versus 1.4%). The mortality rate was higher in the FRR group but was not statistically significant (OR 1.06, 95% CI 0.99-1.14). CONCLUSIONS: Given the high burden of fall-related injuries and FRRs to patients and the health care system, it is essential to identify those who are at risk. This study provides a comprehensive list of high-risk predictors as well as the impact on patient outcomes, and hence a chance to intervene for patients with FRRs.


Assuntos
Acidentes por Quedas/estatística & dados numéricos , Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença , Readmissão do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Ferimentos e Lesões/epidemiologia , Acidentes por Quedas/economia , Acidentes por Quedas/mortalidade , Acidentes por Quedas/prevenção & controle , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Bases de Dados Factuais/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Readmissão do Paciente/economia , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Ferimentos e Lesões/economia , Ferimentos e Lesões/etiologia , Ferimentos e Lesões/terapia
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