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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34207241

RESUMO

This case-control study aimed to investigate the association of peripheral vestibular disorders (PVD) with subsequent land transport accidents. Data for this study were obtained from Taiwan's National Health Insurance (NHI) dataset. We retrieved 8704 subjects who were newly found to have land transport accidents as cases. Their diagnosis date was used as their index date. Controls were identified by propensity score matching (one per case, n = 8704 controls) from the NHI dataset with their index date being the date of their first health service claim in 2017. Multiple logistic regressions were performed to calculate the prior PVD odds ratio of cases vs. controls. We found that 2.36% of the sampled patients had been diagnosed with PVD before the index date, 3.37% among cases and 1.36% among controls. Chi-square test revealed that there was a significant association between land transport accident and PVD (p < 0.001). Furthermore, multiple logistic regression analysis suggested that cases were more likely to have had a prior PVD diagnosis when compared to controls (OR = 2.533; 95% CI = 2.041-3.143; p < 0.001). After adjusting for age, gender, hypertension, diabetes, coronary heart disease, and hyperlipidemia, cases had a greater tendency to have a prior diagnosis of PVD than controls (OR = 3.001, 95% CI = 2.410-3.741, p < 0.001). We conclude that patients with PVD are at twofold higher odds for land transport accidents.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus , Hipertensão , Acidentes , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Humanos , Razão de Chances , Taiwan/epidemiologia
2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34204588

RESUMO

Lab safety problems have become an impeding factor that cannot be ignored in normal teaching and scientific research activities at colleges and universities. As the risk factors of lab accidents can be conceptualized as occurring at multiple levels, systematically improving and optimizing lab safety is the crucial route to accident prevention in labs. In this paper, a novel method that integrates a structural equation model (SEM) and system dynamics (SD) is presented to dynamically assess lab safety with the characteristics of insufficient data and uncertainty. On the basis of a questionnaire investigation, the SEM was utilized to determine the influencing factors on lab safety and acquire the path coefficients among these factors, which were embedded into the SD model as the weight of the influencing factors. An illustration was carried out to test and validate the proposed method, and a sensitivity analysis was also conducted to recognize variables contributing the most to the improvement of lab safety. The results demonstrated that the safety input of human and management subsystems is the most effective to improve the lab safety; meanwhile, "safety awareness", "emergency ability", "operation skills", "safety culture" and "safety training" are the top five contributing factors, which can promote lab safety in the shortest time.


Assuntos
Laboratórios , Gestão da Segurança , Prevenção de Acidentes , Acidentes , Humanos , Universidades
3.
Scand J Trauma Resusc Emerg Med ; 29(1): 96, 2021 Jul 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34281606

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: As any traumatic event, avalanches could trigger psychological disorders on survivors. Our objectives were to determine the prevalence of post-traumatic stress disorder among avalanche survivors and to evaluate post-traumatic stress disorder risks factors as well as the impact on quality of life. METHODS: A multicentre study was conducted in victims included in the North Alpine Avalanche Registry from 2014 to 2018. Data were collected through a standard questionnaire during semi-directed phone interviews. The primary outcome was the total score on the Impact of Event Scale Revised. Secondary outcomes were the Mental Component Scale and the Physical Component Scale scores of the Short Form 12 questionnaire. RESULTS: During the study period, 132 of 211 victims survived. Among the 107 victims included, 55 (51.4%) phone interviews were obtained. Six patients (10.9, 95% CI 1.76-20.05) had an Impact of Event Scale Revised score ≥ 33 indicating a strong probability for post-traumatic stress disorder. Median Mental Component Scale score was 39.0 (IQR 30.5-46.3) for post-traumatic stress disorder patients and 40.1 (IQR 36.5-43.4) for non post-traumatic stress disorder (p = 0.76). Median Physical Component Scale score was 39.4 (37.2-44.3) for post-traumatic stress disorder patients and 44.2 (39.1-46.8) for non post-traumatic stress disorder (p = 0.39). No significant difference in the quality of life in both populations was observed, and no independent risk factors of post-traumatic stress disorder was identified. CONCLUSION: Avalanche accidents may induce post-traumatic stress disorders among survivors in a comparable prevalence to the most traumatic event already studied. Early recognition and preventive measures should be set up in order to reduce the psychological burden in these victims. TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT03936738 .


Assuntos
Avalanches , Qualidade de Vida , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/etiologia , Sobreviventes/psicologia , Acidentes/psicologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Sistema de Registros , Inquéritos e Questionários
4.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 70(24): 869-874, 2021 Jun 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34138831

RESUMO

During 1999-2019, a total of 81,947 unintentional drowning deaths occurred in the United States (1). Drowning is one of the three leading causes of unintentional injury death among persons aged ≤29 years and results in more deaths among children aged 1-4 years than any other cause except birth defects (2). Drowning death rates have decreased since 1990 (declining by 57% worldwide and by 32% in the United States) (3). However, because of racial/ethnic disparities in drowning risk, rates remain high among certain racial/ethnic groups, particularly American Indian or Alaska Native (AI/AN) persons and Black or African-American (Black) persons (4). To assess whether decreasing drowning death rates have been accompanied by reductions in racial/ethnic disparities, and to further describe these disparities by age group and setting, CDC analyzed U.S. mortality data during 1999-2019. The drowning death rate among persons aged ≤29 years was 1.3 per 100,000 population. The rate per 100,000 among AI/AN persons (2.5) and Black persons (1.8) was higher than among all other racial/ethnic groups and was 2.0 and 1.5 times higher than among White persons (1.2). Racial/ethnic disparities in drowning death rates did not significantly decline for most groups, and the disparity in rates among Black persons compared with White persons increased significantly from 2005-2019. Drowning death rates are associated with persistent and concerning racial/ethnic disparities. A better understanding of the factors that contribute to drowning disparities is needed. Implementing and evaluating community-based interventions, including those promoting basic swimming and water safety skills, among disproportionately affected racial/ethnic groups could help reduce drowning disparities.


Assuntos
Acidentes/mortalidade , Grupos de Populações Continentais/estatística & dados numéricos , Afogamento/etnologia , Afogamento/mortalidade , Grupos Étnicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Lactente , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
5.
N Z Med J ; 134(1536): 124-131, 2021 06 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34140719

RESUMO

A patient with a long-standing medical condition was enrolled in a clinical trial, deemed as conducted for the benefit of the manufacturer. The patient entered the trial and, shortly afterward, developed a severe illness that left him with a significant permanent disability. Clinical investigators and clinicians not involved in the trial believed the illness was related to trial participation. Because the trial was for the manufacturer's benefit, the participant was not eligible for compensation from the Accident Compensation Corporation (ACC). Discussions with the trial sponsor took many years to resolve. This case highlights the numerous barriers faced by patients seeking compensation from trial sponsors for adverse events probably resulting from trial participation. Legal changes are required to resolve this situation. Without such changes, potential participants and researchers should consider carefully whether to participate and invite people to participate in trials conducted for the benefit of a manufacturer, as there may be little support available should a trial-related illness occur.


Assuntos
Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto/legislação & jurisprudência , Doença/etiologia , Drogas em Investigação/efeitos adversos , Acidentes/legislação & jurisprudência , Compensação e Reparação , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nova Zelândia , Qualidade de Vida
6.
Scand J Trauma Resusc Emerg Med ; 29(1): 80, 2021 Jun 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34120631

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The management of penetrating wounds is a rare challenge for trauma surgeons in Germany and Central Europe as a result of the low incidence of this type of trauma. In Germany, penetrating injuries are reported to occur in 4-5 % of the severely injured patients who are enrolled in the TraumaRegister DGU® (trauma registry of the German Trauma Society). They include gunshot injuries, knife stab injuries, which are far more common, and penetrating injuries of other origin, for example trauma caused by accidents. The objective of this study was to assess the epidemiology and outcome of penetrating injuries in Germany, with a particular focus on the level of care provided by the treating trauma centre to gain more understanding of this trauma mechanism and to anticipate the necessary steps in the initial treatment. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Since 2009, the TraumaRegister DGU® has been used to assess not only whether a trauma was penetrating but also whether it was caused by gunshot or stabbing. Data were taken from the standard documentation forms that participating German hospitals completed between 2009 and 2018. Excluded were patients with a maximum abbreviated injury scale (MAIS) score of 1 with a view to obtaining a realistic idea of this injury entity, which is rare in Germany. RESULTS: From 2009 to 2018, there were 1123 patients with gunshot wounds, corresponding to a prevalence rate of 0.5 %, and 4333 patients with stab wounds (1.8 %), which were frequently caused by violent crime. The high proportion of intentionally self-inflicted gunshot wounds to the head resulted in a cumulative mortality rate of 41 % for gunshot injuries. Stab wounds were associated with a lower mortality rate (6.8 %). Every fourth to fifth patient with a gunshot or stab wound presented with haemorrhagic shock, which is a problem that is seen during both the prehospital and the inhospital phase of patient management. Of the patients with penetrating injuries, 18.3 % required transfusions. This percentage was more than two times higher than that of the basic group of patients of the TraumaRegister DGU®, which consists of patients with a MAIS ≥ 3 and patients with a MAIS of 2 who died or were treated on the intensive care unit. CONCLUSIONS: In Germany, gunshot and stab wounds have a low incidence and are mostly caused by violent crime or attempted suicides. Depending on the site of injury, they have a high mortality and are often associated with major haemorrhage. As a result of the low incidence of these types of trauma, further data and analyses are required in order to provide the basis for evaluating the long-term quality of the management of patients with stab or gunshot wounds.


Assuntos
Ferimentos por Arma de Fogo/epidemiologia , Ferimentos por Arma de Fogo/terapia , Ferimentos Perfurantes/epidemiologia , Ferimentos Perfurantes/terapia , Acidentes/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Transfusão de Sangue/métodos , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Alemanha/epidemiologia , Hemorragia/epidemiologia , Humanos , Incidência , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Estudos Prospectivos , Sistema de Registros , Choque Hemorrágico/epidemiologia , Ferimentos por Arma de Fogo/mortalidade , Ferimentos Penetrantes/epidemiologia , Ferimentos Penetrantes/mortalidade , Ferimentos Penetrantes/terapia , Ferimentos Perfurantes/mortalidade , Adulto Jovem
7.
J Environ Manage ; 293: 112941, 2021 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34098356

RESUMO

Industrial demand has intensified production, utilization, and transport of hazardous materials (hazmat). As the production and use of hazardous materials are frequently carried out at different locations, accidents during the transport of hazmats constantly occur. The most critical points on the hazmat routs within inhabited urban or rural areas are centres where the population with increased vulnerability reside. This study aims to assess the exposure of people with disabilities to the impact of hazmat road accidents, in order to provide evidence-based knowledge necessary for the establishment of competent disaster preparedness procedures. A case study was developed for ammonia release from a tanker truck in the vicinity of the Institution for Children and Youth with Disabilities in Veternik, a suburban settlement of Novi Sad, Serbia. An integrated methodology for the risk assessment of the identified problem was proposed focusing on environmental and human-induced variables with a significant impact on the hazard magnitude. The simulation conducted with ALOHA (Areal Locations of Hazardous Atmospheres) confirmed assumption that the combination of high temperature and low wind speed can cause the worst-case scenario i.e. to expose a larger surface area to the influence of released ammonia. In addition, hazard maps were developed by importing the simulated area of ammonia spread into Quantum GIS (QGIS) software.


Assuntos
Sistemas de Informação Geográfica , Substâncias Perigosas , Acidentes , Adolescente , Criança , Humanos , Veículos Automotores , Medição de Risco , Sérvia
8.
Braz J Biol ; 82: e238110, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34105675

RESUMO

Scorpionic accidents are a major public health problem due to the high occurrence with potential seriousness. In this manner, the research aimed to analyze the occurrence of scorpionic accidents in a municipality in the northeastern of Brazil. An exploratory, descriptive study was made, with a quantitative approach, using secondary data which was gotten from the Notifiable Diseases Information System (SINAN), from 2008 to 2018. Data such as neighborhood, presence of street markets were also used, and the existence of sanitation and climatic data such as temperature and season. Geoprocessing was used to identify possible changes in the environment. In the analyzed period, 9,330 cases of scorpion accidents were recorded, with an average of 848 annual notifications. Scorpionic accidents occurred more frequently in women (5,686; 60.94%). Individuals aged 20 to 29 years (1.727; 18.51%) were more frequent to scorpion stings. Regarding the body parts where the stings were made, the highlights were on the foot (3.515; 37.67%) followed by the hand (2.818; 30.20%). No statistically significant relation was observed between climatic factors and scorpionic accidents. However, the high number of cases of scorpionic accidents was observed in the last 11 years studied. It was evident that during the study period there was no statistical relationship when climatic factors were correlated to scorpionic accidents. On its turn, when it was verified the results of the geoprocessing analysis, it was seen that anthropic factors have been motivating the potentiation of the occurrence of these accidents.


Assuntos
Acidentes , Escorpiões , Animais , Brasil/epidemiologia , Cidades , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos
9.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(11)2021 May 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34070237

RESUMO

Virtual reality (VR) has been widely used as a tool to assist people by letting them learn and simulate situations that are too dangerous and risky to practice in real life, and one of these is road safety training for children. Traditional video- and presentation-based road safety training has average output results as it lacks physical practice and the involvement of children during training, without any practical testing examination to check the learned abilities of a child before their exposure to real-world environments. Therefore, in this paper, we propose a 3D realistic open-ended VR and Kinect sensor-based training setup using the Unity game engine, wherein children are educated and involved in road safety exercises. The proposed system applies the concepts of VR in a game-like setting to let the children learn about traffic rules and practice them in their homes without any risk of being exposed to the outside environment. Thus, with our interactive and immersive training environment, we aim to minimize road accidents involving children and contribute to the generic domain of healthcare. Furthermore, the proposed framework evaluates the overall performance of the students in a virtual environment (VE) to develop their road-awareness skills. To ensure safety, the proposed system has an extra examination layer for children's abilities evaluation, whereby a child is considered fit for real-world practice in cases where they fulfil certain criteria by achieving set scores. To show the robustness and stability of the proposed system, we conduct four types of subjective activities by involving a group of ten students with average grades in their classes. The experimental results show the positive effect of the proposed system in improving the road crossing behavior of the children.


Assuntos
Realidade Virtual , Acidentes , Acidentes de Trânsito/prevenção & controle , Criança , Humanos , Aprendizagem , Estudantes
10.
Rev Environ Health ; 19(3-4): 253-270, 2021 Feb 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34058092

RESUMO

Injuries and deaths from home accidents are a major public health problem. This paper describes how data on housing characteristics were matched with dwelling-related mortality and injuries data. As no single database provided sufficient accurate data on housing and occupiers, this task involved identifying data-sets to create and validate a Housing and Population Database, which was matched with various data-sets on injuries and fatalities that are associated with the home. Taking account of both frequency of accidents and severity of outcomes, analyses of the matched data showed the true rank order of type of home accidents. Also investigated was whether one age group was more vulnerable to a particular type of accident and the relation between different types of accidents and the age and type of dwelling. A literature review was carried out to look at the relation between the design and condition of dwelling features and accidents and between human behavior and accidents. The results showed that little work has been done in most areas on the different degrees of the contribution made by human behavior and building conditions. Even though more focused research would be useful, preventative actions could reduce the scale oft he problem.


Assuntos
Acidentes , Habitação , Ferimentos e Lesões/epidemiologia , Humanos , Características de Residência , Reino Unido
11.
J Affect Disord ; 291: 65-75, 2021 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34023749

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Suicide is a potentially preventable cause of death. Epidemiology might help to identify death determinants and to monitor prevention strategies. Few studies address secular trends in suicide deaths, and even fewer describe trend-changes in relation to data collection/registration bias. Moreover, suicide is admittedly underreported. It is crucial to validate results in the context of other external causes of death trends, such as unintentional and undetermined intent deaths. We aimed to explore trends in suicide and other external causes of death in Portugal from the inception of registries until 2018, considering breaks in series. METHODS: We collected data from all available official primary sources. We calculated cause-specific age-standardized death rates (SDR) by sex for ages equal or higher than 15 years with reference to the European Standard Population. We considered suicide (S), undetermined intent deaths (UnD), accidents (Accs), and all causes of death (ttMty). A time-series structural analysis was executed. RESULTS: Suicide and other external causes of death rates were consistently higher in males than females. A global decline of deaths by suicide, undetermined intention and unintentional is observable. Breakpoints in years 1930, 1954, 1982, 2000-2001 were associated with major changes in deaths registration procedures or methodology. CONCLUSIONS: The epidemiology of suicide in Portugal has changed over 106 years. However, adjusted data and consideration of bias reduce trends fluctuation. Trend changes are akin to specific changes in methodology of death registry. Suicide surveillance will improve with more reliable and stable procedures.


Assuntos
Homicídio , Suicídio , Acidentes , Adolescente , Causas de Morte , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Portugal/epidemiologia
12.
Accid Anal Prev ; 158: 106182, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34052595

RESUMO

This paper presents an analysis of fatal train accident rates and trends on Europe's main line railways from 1990-2019. It is a sequel to the paper Fatal train accidents on Europe's railways: 1980-2009 (Evans (2011), which covers the three decades 1980-2009. The present paper discards the data for the 1980s, but adds the data for 2010-2019. The data cover the 28 countries of the European Union as in 2019, together with Norway and Switzerland. The source of the recent data is largely the European Union Agency for Railways. The estimated overall trend in the number of fatal train collisions and derailments per train-kilometre was -5.6 % per year from 1990-2019, with a 95 % confidence interval of -7.1 % to -4.2 %. The estimated accident rate in 2019 was 0.85 fatal collisions or derailments per billion train-kilometres, which represents a fall of 78 % since 1990. This gives an estimated mean number of fatal accidents in Europe in 2019 of 3.89. The data and results for 2010-2019 closely match the extrapolation of the results for 1990-2009, so that in 2009 extrapolation would have given a good forward projection for 2019. By the same argument this paper gives a forward projection of the mean number of accidents in 2029 of 2.12, assuming no change in train-kilometres, or pro-rata changes with changes in train-kilometres. The paper investigates the causes of accidents. A notable finding is that the proportion of accidents caused by signals passed at danger (SPADs) fell from 40 % in 1990-1999 to 21 % in 2010-2019. This is probably due to the increasing deployment of train protection systems. The number of fatalities in individual accidents has a skew distribution: most accidents have a small number of fatalities, but a few have a large number. The overall observed number of fatalities per accident is 4.23, and there is no indication that this mean changes with time. This implies that the mean number of fatalities per year has the same downward trend of 5.6 % per year as the mean number of accidents per year.


Assuntos
Ferrovias , Acidentes , Acidentes de Trânsito , Europa (Continente) , Humanos , Noruega , Suíça
13.
Exp Appl Acarol ; 84(2): 445-458, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33970406

RESUMO

Tyrophagus putrescentiae (Schrank), commonly known as the cereal mite, cheese mite, or ham mite, is a cosmopolitan species reported from various environments in the wild, including soil, plant material and vertebrate nests. It has also been recognized as a common pest of food storages, mycological collections as well as plant and invertebrate laboratory cultures. Laboratory observations indicate that T. putrescentiae feeds on a large range of dermatophytes, yeasts and molds. We have observed the interspecific relation between this mite and several species of true slime molds (Mycetozoa) under laboratory conditions, which confirms the very broad spectrum of feeding habits of T. putrescentiae. Mycetozoans were grown in semi-sterile in vitro cultures and fed with oat flour or oat flakes. Tyrophagus putrescentiae displayed affinity to all macroscopically identifiable stages of the life cycle of Fuligo septica (L.) F.H. Wigg, Physarum polycephalum Schwein and the Didymium sp. complex [Didymium iridis (Ditmar) Fr., Didymium nigripes (Link) Fr. and Didymium bahiense Gottsb.]: live, decaying or dead plasmodia, sporangia, aethalia, spores and sclerotia. The relation carrying symptoms of various types of interspecific interaction, is hypothesized to form an evolutionarily young phenomenon, which not only identifies a new aspect of mycetozoal biology, but also presents the cereal mite as a species of high adaptive potential.


Assuntos
Acaridae , Physarum polycephalum , Acidentes , Animais , Estágios do Ciclo de Vida , Leveduras
14.
Forensic Sci Int ; 324: 110830, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34000615

RESUMO

Post-mortem findings of gabapentinoids have often been connected to drug abuse and especially opioid use. We aimed to investigate whether gabapentinoids have been implicated in the cause of death without the presence of opioids. In a three-year study period from 2016 to 2018, a total of 907 Finnish post-mortem cases positive for pregabalin or gabapentin were found. In nearly half of the pregabalin cases and in a third of the gabapentin cases, the blood concentration was above the typical therapeutic range of the drug. Of the cases in which pregabalin was detected, in 35% the drug was implicated in a fatal poisoning with or without other drugs or alcohol. For gabapentin, the percentage was 22%. In most of the fatal gabapentinoid poisonings, opioids or other central nervous system depressants were additionally detected in relevant concentrations. There were eight non-opioid gabapentinoid poisonings, in which no relevant other drugs were detected. Many of these cases were unintentional poisonings with a relatively high gabapentinoid concentration in the blood. In all but one, the manner of death was accidental, or the intent was undetermined. This study confirmed the previous findings that gabapentinoids are mostly implicated in fatal poisoning together with opioids. Half of the non-opioid cases were related to drug abuse but in the other half the death was presumably caused by overuse of a prescribed drug or suicide. While the use of gabapentinoids is a well-known problem among people who use drugs, it is important to note other groups of users who may be at risk of overdose by gabapentinoids.


Assuntos
Analgésicos/envenenamento , Overdose de Drogas/mortalidade , Gabapentina/envenenamento , Pregabalina/envenenamento , Acidentes/mortalidade , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Analgésicos/sangue , Cromatografia Líquida , Feminino , Finlândia/epidemiologia , Toxicologia Forense , Gabapentina/sangue , Humanos , Masculino , Espectrometria de Massas , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pregabalina/sangue , Estudos Retrospectivos , Suicídio Consumado/estatística & dados numéricos
16.
Aust N Z J Public Health ; 45(3): 248-254, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34028908

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To examine temporal trends in drowning in Australia against targets set in the Australian Water Safety Strategy (AWSS) 2008-2020 and to inform the development of the next iteration of the Strategy. METHODS: A national analysis of unintentional fatal drowning rates per 100,000 population over 16 years (2004/05-2019/20) was conducted. Baseline rates (three-year average 2004/05-2006/07) were compared to the current three-year average (2017/18-2019/20) by sex, age group, drowning location and jurisdiction. RESULTS: The overall rate of unintentional fatal drowning during the period decreased by 28%. Substantial reductions were observed in children 0-4 years (-63%) and 5-14 years (-56%). Progress has been less pronounced among people aged 75 years and over (-11%) and 15-24-year-olds (-14%). All locations and jurisdictions recorded reductions, aside from rocks (+46%). CONCLUSIONS: Although the strategy fell short of its aspirational target of a 50% reduction in drowning by the year 2020, this target was exceeded in key age groups, including children. Implications for public health: The AWSS is a powerful tool to align drowning prevention sector actions to agreed objectives. Forthcoming strategies must take into consideration demographic and social change, areas where limited progress has been made and the latest evidence to guide future priorities.


Assuntos
Prevenção de Acidentes , Acidentes/mortalidade , Afogamento/mortalidade , Afogamento/prevenção & controle , Adolescente , Distribuição por Idade , Fatores Etários , Austrália/epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco
17.
Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen ; 141(7)2021 05 04.
Artigo em Inglês, Norueguês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33950661

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Poisonings by substances of abuse are potentially dangerous and indicate risky substance use behaviour. To be prepared to handle patients with poisonings by substances of abuse, we need updated knowledge about the kinds of substances we can be expected to encounter. Most substance use-related poisonings in Oslo are treated at the OAEOC, and we describe the poisonings observed there in the period 2014-2018. MATERIAL AND METHOD: We included all patients treated for poisoning by substances of abuse at the OAEOC in the years 2014-18, with the exception of lone ethanol poisonings. For 2018, these were also included. The patients were identified retrospectively by a review of the patient registration lists in the clinic's electronic records system. The diagnosis of the substances involved was based on the clinical assessment made by the doctor responsible for treatment. RESULTS: In the period 2014-18, altogether 8 116 cases of poisoning by a substance of abuse were treated at OAEOC, lone ethanol poisonings not included. The most frequently occurring intoxicants were heroin (3 237 cases), benzodiazepines (2 196), amphetamine/methamphetamine (1 827), cannabis (1 081), gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) (904), cocaine (569) and unspecified opioids (546). There was an increasing trend in number of cases per year for central stimulants, cannabis and GHB, and a decreasing one for benzodiazepines. The number of heroin poisonings fell until 2017, but rose again in 2018. In 2018 there were 4 021 poisonings by substances of abuse, of which 2 022 were lone ethanol poisonings. INTERPRETATION: The number of poisonings increased for most substances in 2014-18, but fell for heroin and benzodiazepines.


Assuntos
Envenenamento , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias , Acidentes , Instituições de Assistência Ambulatorial , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Humanos , Envenenamento/epidemiologia , Envenenamento/etiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/epidemiologia
18.
Clin Ter ; 172(3): 186-189, 2021 May 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33956033

RESUMO

Abstract: In the large series of forensic injury, death from accidental me-chanical asphyxiation in adults is rare and is usually secondary to suffocation, aspiration, strangulation caused by entrapment of clothing in machinery (deaths at work) or asphyxiation in the course of erotic maneuvers. Compression asphyxia is a form of violent mechanical asphyxia in which the asphyxiated insult is produced by means of a compression and constriction mechanism of the thoracic cage. The authors report an unusual case of asphyxiated death from chest com-pression resulting from the action of a compacting machine, which occurred in a person who had fallen asleep in a waste bin.


Assuntos
Acidentes , Asfixia/etiologia , Adulto , Medicina Legal , Humanos , Masculino
19.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 168: 112404, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33933984

RESUMO

Large ships are efficient in transporting oil and its derivatives. However, they can cause spills in the event of accidents. The aim of the study is to simulate oil dispersion processes in scenarios of likely accidents with ships traveling on sea routes interconnected with Amazonian ports and with the Atlantic Ocean. Navigation routes were based on traffic data to identify risk areas, as well as to compare them to data from the environmental (oil) sensitivity index and to results of numerical simulations of plumes dispersion. These three approaches were integrated to each other in order to assess potential environmental impacts of plumes on coastal biota and human populations. Scenarios results have indicated that the rainy season is the most critical period for plumes dispersion. But, depending on the emission point, plumes tend to remain close to the coast, extend up to 132 km within 72 h, affecting the biodiversity, protected areas and water supply systems from the urban areas.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ambientais , Rios , Acidentes , Oceano Atlântico , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Navios
20.
Rev Med Suisse ; 17(739): 1002, 2021 05 19.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34009762

Assuntos
Acidentes , Humanos
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