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1.
Rev. enferm. UERJ ; 28: e39729, jan.-dez. 2020.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | LILACS, BDENF - Enfermagem | ID: biblio-1116093

RESUMO

Objetivo: identificar as principais causas de óbito entre adolescentes de 10 a 19 anos em um município no interior do estado do Rio de Janeiro. Método: estudo descritivo, exploratório de abordagem quantitativa, a partir do levantamento de dados em registros de óbitos do município de Rio das Ostras. O desfecho foi causa básica do óbito. Os dados foram processados no Programa R. Resultados: foram observados 84 (100%) óbitos, com maior prevalência entre adolescentes de 17 a 19 anos, 49 (58,3%), do sexo masculino, 71 (84,5%) e de cor parda, 38 (45,2%). As principais causas de óbitos foram homicídio/perfuração por arma de fogo, 35 (41,7%), e acidentes, 32 (38,1%). Conclusão: o reconhecimento dessa vulnerabilidade configura importante caminho para o enfrentamento e resolução desse grave problema, sobretudo municípios localizados longe de centros urbanos, parece muitas vezes esquecido, no que tange o cumprimento de estatutos e políticas públicas a favor desse grupo etário.


Objective: to identify the main causes of death among adolescents aged 10 to 19 years in a municipality in the state of Rio de Janeiro. Method: in this exploratory, descriptive, quantitative study, based on data collected from death records in the municipality of Rio das Ostras, the basic cause of death was the outcome. The data were processed in the statistics software, R. Results: of the 84 (100%) deaths observed, prevalence was higher among adolescents aged 17 to 19 years (49; 58.3%), males (71; 84.5%), and pardos (38; 45.2%). The main causes of deaths were firearm Injury / homicide (35; 41.7%) and accidents (32; 38.1%). Conclusion: one important step towards confronting and solving this serious problem is to acknowledge this vulnerability, especially in municipalities distant from urban centers, which often seem neglected as regards compliance with statutes and public policies in favor of this age group.


Objetivo: identificar las principales causas de muerte entre adolescentes de 10 a 19 años en un municipio del estado de Río de Janeiro. Método: en este estudio exploratorio, descriptivo, cuantitativo, basado en los datos recopilados de los registros de defunciones en el municipio de Rio das Ostras, la causa básica de la muerte fue el resultado. Los datos se procesaron en el programa estadístico R. Resultados: de las 84 (100%) muertes observadas, la prevalencia fue mayor entre los adolescentes de 17 a 19 años (49; 58.3%), varones (71; 84.5%) y pardos (38; 45,2%). Las principales causas de muerte fueron lesiones por arma de fuego / homicidio (35; 41.7%) y accidentes (32; 38.1%). Conclusión: un paso importante para enfrentar y resolver este grave problema es reconocer esta vulnerabilidad, especialmente en municipios alejados de los centros urbanos, que a menudo parecen descuidados en cuanto al cumplimiento de los estatutos y las políticas públicas a favor de este grupo de edad.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Criança , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Acidentes/estatística & dados numéricos , Causas de Morte , Populações Vulneráveis/estatística & dados numéricos , Homicídio/estatística & dados numéricos , Brasil , Epidemiologia Descritiva , Fatores Etários , Vulnerabilidade Social , Mortalidade Prematura
2.
S Afr Med J ; 110(5): 400-402, 2020 Apr 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32657725

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hanging is a common form of self-harm, and emergency care physicians will not infrequently be called upon to manage a survivor.Despite the relative frequency of the injury, there is a paucity of literature on the topic and the spectrum and incidence of associated injuries are poorly described. OBJECTIVES: To review experience with management of victims of hanging at a major trauma centre in South Africa. METHODS: All patients treated by the Pietermaritzburg Metropolitan Trauma Service following a hanging incident between December 2012 and December 2018 were identified from the Hybrid Electronic Medical Registry. Basic demographics were recorded, and the management and outcome of each patient were noted. RESULTS: During the 6-year period under review, a total of 154 patients were seen following a hanging incident. The mean age was 29.4 years. There were 24 females (15.6%) and 130 males (84.4%). The vast majority (n=150; 97.5%) had attempted suicide, and only 4 hangings (2.5%) were accidental. A total of 92 patients (60.9%) had consumed alcohol prior to the incident. There were 23 patients with a Glasgow Coma Score (GCS) <9 (severe traumatic brain injury (TBI)), 14 with a GCS of 9 - 12 (moderate TBI) and 117 with a GCS >12 (mild TBI). A total of 7 patients (4.5%) required intensive care unit admission, and 25 (16.2%) required intubation. The following extracranial injuries were documented on computed tomography scans: hyoid bone fractures (n=2), cervical spine fracture (n=10), mandible fracture (n=4) and oesophageal injury (n=1). Intracranial pathology was evident on 27.0% of scans, with the most common finding being global cerebral ischaemia. The mortality rate was 2.5% (4/154). CONCLUSIONS: Hanging is a common mechanism of self-harm. It is associated with significant injuries and mortality. The acute management of hanging should focus on airway protection followed by detailed imaging of the head and neck. Further work must attempt to include mortuary data on hanging.


Assuntos
Acidentes/estatística & dados numéricos , Asfixia/epidemiologia , Lesões do Pescoço/epidemiologia , Tentativa de Suicídio/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Isquemia Encefálica/diagnóstico por imagem , Isquemia Encefálica/epidemiologia , Vértebras Cervicais/diagnóstico por imagem , Vértebras Cervicais/lesões , Esôfago/diagnóstico por imagem , Esôfago/lesões , Feminino , Fraturas Ósseas/diagnóstico por imagem , Fraturas Ósseas/epidemiologia , Escala de Coma de Glasgow , Humanos , Osso Hioide/diagnóstico por imagem , Osso Hioide/lesões , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/estatística & dados numéricos , Intubação Intratraqueal/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Fraturas Mandibulares/diagnóstico por imagem , Fraturas Mandibulares/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Distribuição por Sexo , África do Sul/epidemiologia , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Centros de Traumatologia
3.
Rev Bras Epidemiol ; 23 Suppl 1: e200005.SUPL.1, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32638990

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To describe the profile of burn victims attended in emergency services and to identify associations between the variables investigated. METHODS: Cross-sectional study based on data from the 2017 survey "Surveillance of violence and accidents in emergency units". We used descriptive analysis, according to demographic characteristics and aspects related to the burn injury, as well as the correspondence analysis technique, which allowed to verify possible associations between the variables investigated. RESULTS: Burns were more frequent: in adults aged between 20 and 39 years (40.7%); in men (57.0%); in the household (67.7%); due to hot substances (52.0%). Household accidents were more frequent in the age group 0-15 years (92.0%) and elderly (84.4%), and in women (81.6%). Accidents in commerce, services and industry affected individuals aged 16 to 59 years (73.6%). Referral to other hospitals was associated with cases in the elderly and hospitalization with the cases in individuals aged between 0 and 15 years old. Events in the working age population were associated with alcohol use and the workplace. Among women, it is suggested to associate burn accidents with household and hot substances. CONCLUSIONS: The results point to the need for oriented actions in the field of health education, as well as labor regulation and supervision.


Assuntos
Queimaduras/epidemiologia , Queimaduras/terapia , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , Acidentes/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Brasil/epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Violência/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
4.
Stomatologija ; 21(1): 17-22, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32706342

RESUMO

The aim of this paper was to analyze the literature published in the research related to sodium hypochlorite induced injury. An internet search using search engines (Google, Researchgate and PubMed) was carried out. The keywords used for search were sodium hypochlorite, injury, cellulitis, apical extrusion, ulcer, endodontics. Full text articles of the articles were collected from the year 2007 to 2017. The data available from the clinical trials the journal articles were analyzed and presented in both tabular and descriptive patterns.


Assuntos
Endodontia , Hipoclorito de Sódio , Acidentes , Hipoclorito de Sódio/efeitos adversos
5.
J Environ Manage ; 269: 110780, 2020 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32560997

RESUMO

The continued and extended use of nuclear power is often considered and discussed as a viable energy policy option to meet energy demands while also meeting national CO2 emission reduction goals. A central issue in energy policy for sustainability is the question of nuclear reactor safety. However, studies on nuclear reactor safety often run up against the problem of estimating the probability of a major accident from patchy and limited empirical data. Here, we describe a simple probabilistic model of catastrophic nuclear reactor accidents based on a set of four assumptions. The model treats the accident probability in each of n reactors as a variable and returns the probability of a major accident in the reactor fleet. We find that, at 99.5% reactor safety, the probability of another Chernobyl- or Fukushima-sized event is 49% for the global fleet, and that safety would have to be 99.96% in order to bring that probability below 5%. We discuss our findings in light of the debate on energy policy for sustainability.


Assuntos
Acidente Nuclear de Fukushima , Liberação Nociva de Radioativos , Acidentes , Modelos Estatísticos , Probabilidade
6.
Chin J Traumatol ; 23(4): 224-232, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32576425

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The mortality rate for severely injured patients with the injury severity score (ISS) ≥16 has decreased in Germany. There is robust evidence that mortality is influenced not only by the acute trauma itself but also by physical health, age and sex. The aim of this study was to identify other possible influences on the mortality of severely injured patients. METHODS: In a matched-pair analysis of data from Trauma Register DGU®, non-surviving patients from Germany between 2009 and 2014 with an ISS≥16 were compared with surviving matching partners. Matching was performed on the basis of age, sex, physical health, injury pattern, trauma mechanism, conscious state at the scene of the accident based on the Glasgow coma scale, and the presence of shock on arrival at the emergency room. RESULTS: We matched two homogeneous groups, each of which consisted of 657 patients (535 male, average age 37 years). There was no significant difference in the vital parameters at the scene of the accident, the length of the pre-hospital phase, the type of transport (ground or air), pre-hospital fluid management and amounts, ISS, initial care level, the length of the emergency room stay, the care received at night or from on-call personnel during the weekend, the use of abdominal sonographic imaging, the type of X-ray imaging used, and the percentage of patients who developed sepsis. We found a significant difference in the new injury severity score, the frequency of multi-organ failure, hemoglobine at admission, base excess and international normalized ratio in the emergency room, the type of accident (fall or road traffic accident), the pre-hospital intubation rate, reanimation, in-hospital fluid management, the frequency of transfusion, tomography (whole-body computed tomography), and the necessity of emergency intervention. CONCLUSION: Previously postulated factors such as the level of care and the length of the emergency room stay did not appear to have a significant influence in this study. Further studies should be conducted to analyse the identified factors with a view to optimising the treatment of severely injured patients. Our study shows that there are significant factors that can predict or influence the mortality of severely injured patients.


Assuntos
Análise de Dados , Análise por Pareamento , Sistema de Registros , Ferimentos e Lesões/mortalidade , Acidentes/classificação , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Transfusão de Sangue , Serviços Médicos de Emergência , Feminino , Hidratação , Alemanha/epidemiologia , Hemoglobinas , Humanos , Coeficiente Internacional Normatizado , Intubação/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Insuficiência de Múltiplos Órgãos , Fatores Sexuais , Taxa de Sobrevida , Índices de Gravidade do Trauma
7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32560433

RESUMO

Research recognizes the shared perceptions of the priority attributed to safety in comparison to other organizational goals (i.e., safety climate) as a potential antecedent of safety behavior among construction workers. This type of climate can dismantle barriers to the promotion of effective strategies to mitigate workplace hazards. On the other hand, the current understanding of the underlying process that links the perception of a safety climate to the implementation of safety behavior is far from being exhaustive. Accordingly, this study aimed to explore the role of risk perception and safety knowledge in explaining the positive impact of safety climate before attending a training course (Time 0) and safety behavior after the training completion (Time 1). Data were collected at two time-points on a sample of N = 278 construction workers taking part in different safety training courses promoted by a vocational training organization in Northern Italy. The hypothesized relationships were tested using a serial mediation model bootstrapping approach. The obtained results indicated that the perception of a safety climate at Time 0 (T0) among construction workers is associated with higher risk perception and safety knowledge that, in turn, resulted in a higher implementation of safety behavior at Time 1 (T1). These findings contribute to the understanding of those factors that constitute a fertile ground for preventing injuries and accidents in the construction sector.


Assuntos
Indústria da Construção , Saúde do Trabalhador , Gestão da Segurança , Acidentes , Acidentes de Trabalho , Humanos , Cultura Organizacional , Segurança , Local de Trabalho
8.
Unfallchirurg ; 123(7): 580-586, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32444885

RESUMO

It is not infrequent for physicians or lawyers who only occasionally deal with medical expert opinions to have difficulty understanding terms used in a legal context. A question of proof relating to consequences of an accidental injury can refer to the accidental injury itself and it seems relatively unknown that the term accident can apply to both the event and the damage/harm to health. The special situations with mental injuries (psychotrauma) are not dealt with in this article.This article explains the concepts and terms that are frequently used in relation to questions of causality and explains the fundamentals of medical causality assessment, from the viewpoint of both medical expertise and law. The focus is on private and public accident insurance, but the law relating to accidents at work of public officials and liability are also considered.


Assuntos
Acidentes , Prova Pericial
9.
Cancer Radiother ; 24(4): 316-322, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32467083

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Gantry collision is a concern in linac-based stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS). Without collision screening, the planner may compromise optimal planning, unnecessary re-planning delays can occur, and incomplete treatments may be delivered. To address these concerns, we developed a software for collision prediction based on simple machine measurements. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Three types of collision were identified; gantry-couch mount, gantry-couch and gantry-patient. Trigonometric formulas to calculate the distance from each potential point of collision to the gantry rotation axis were generated. For each point, collision occurs when that distance is greater than the gantry head to gantry rotational axis distance. The colliding arc for each point is calculated. A computer code incorporating these formulas was generated. The inputs required are the couch coordinates relative to the isocenter, the patient dimensions, and the presence or absence of a circular SRS collimator. The software outputs the collision-free gantry angles, and for each point, the shortest distance to the gantry or the colliding sector when collision is identified. The software was tested for accuracy on a TrueBEAM® machine equipped with BrainLab® accessories for 80 virtual isocenter-couch angle configurations with and without a circular collimator and a parallelepiped phantom. RESULTS: The software predicted the absence of collision for 19 configurations. The mean absolute error between the measured and predicted gantry angle of collision for the remaining 61 cases was 0.86 (0.01-2.49). CONCLUSION: This tool accurately predicted collisions for linac-based intracranial SRS and is easy to implement in any radiotherapy facility.


Assuntos
Acidentes , Irradiação Craniana/instrumentação , Radiocirurgia/instrumentação , Planejamento da Radioterapia Assistida por Computador/métodos , Rotação , Software , Tamanho Corporal , Desenho de Equipamento , Humanos , Matemática
10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32353996

RESUMO

The aim of this paper is to analyze the changes in accident rates resulting from the privatization of forest operations. Data from the years 1990-2017 were obtained from the Statistical Forestry Yearbooks issued by Statistics Poland, and were analyzed for two periods: the time of intensive privatization (1991-2002) and the post-privatization period (2003-2017). The data from 1990 were treated as a benchmark. There were 14,626 accidents in total, of which 236 (1.61%) were fatal. The non-fatal accident rate in the whole forestry industry showed a decreasing trend in the study period (t = 2.27, p < 0.05). In the case of the fatal accident rate we can observe an upward trend; in the period of intensive privatization the average annual fatality rate was 0.11, and after privatization it was 0.18 (t = -2.68, p < 0.05). In both periods the fatality rate was twice as high in the private forestry sector as in the public sector. The number of working days lost declined in the public sector and increased in the private sector. An accident in the private sector resulted in 20 days' longer absence than one in the public sector. The study confirms that despite economic transition, accident rates in Polish forestry remain a serious issue. The main problem to be addressed is the increase in the fatal accident rate, especially in the private sector.


Assuntos
Acidentes , Agricultura Florestal , Setor Privado , Privatização , Acidentes/mortalidade , Humanos , Polônia
11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32414127

RESUMO

Escalator accidents not only happen frequently but also have cascading effects. The purpose of this study is to block the formation of cascading accident networks by identifying and preventing critical hazards. A modified five-step task-driven method (FTDM) is proposed to break down passenger-related cascading escalator accidents. Three complex network parameters in complex network theory are utilized to identify critical and non-critical Risk Passenger Behavior (RPB) hazards and Other Hazards related with Risk Passenger Behavior (OH-RPB) in accident chains. A total of 327 accidents that occurred in the Beijing metro rail transit (MRT) stations were used for case studies. The results are consistent in critical and non-critical RPB and OH-RPB and prove that through combination of FTDM accident investigation model and complex network analysis method, critical and non-critical RPB and OH-RPB in a complicated cascading hazards network can be identified. Prevention of critical RPB can block the formation of cascading accident networks. The method not only can be used by safety manager to make the corresponding preventive measures according to the results in daily management but also the findings can guide the allocation of limited preventive resources to critical hazards rather than non-critical hazards. Moreover, the defects of management plan and product design can be re-examined according to the research results.


Assuntos
Prevenção de Acidentes , Acidentes , Elevadores e Escadas Rolantes , Pequim , Humanos , Ferrovias , Assunção de Riscos
12.
J Ayub Med Coll Abbottabad ; 32(1): 51-53, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32468755

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Medicolegal data is very important for administrators, health officials, philanthropists, social workers, law enforcement agencies. Because it is used for planning and implementation of strategies in order to reduce further incidents. This study is conducted with the aim to determine different types of medicolegal cases and patterns of weapons used. METHODS: A total of 246 cases were studied from 1st September 2017 to 31st January 2018. All information was collected on a pro forma. Statistical analysis was done by MS Excel. RESULTS: Out of 246 cases, 219 were male and 27 were female with age ranging from 3 to 72 years. Among total, 162(65.85%) patients were injured due to blunt weapon, 17 (6.91%) cases of firearms, 23 (9.34%) in road traffic accidents, 15 (6.09%) sharp-edged weapons, 7 (2.84%) cases were of sexual violence, 11 (4.47%) were of poisoning. CONCLUSIONS: Injuries of blunt weapons followed by sharp edge and accidental cases occurred more frequently.


Assuntos
Acidentes , Crime , Ferimentos e Lesões/epidemiologia , Acidentes/legislação & jurisprudência , Acidentes/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Crime/legislação & jurisprudência , Crime/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Hospitais de Ensino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Paquistão/epidemiologia , Ferimentos por Arma de Fogo/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
13.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 595, 2020 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32357864

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Childhood injuries are a significant and growing global public health problem, often with high morbidity and, at times, mortality. A large proportion of injuries in preschool children occur in or around the home. We aimed to identify socioeconomic and demographic factors associated with preschool children injuries in Egypt. METHODS: Secondary data analysis were done for the Egyptian Demographic and Health Surveys (EDHS), 2014. Potential associated factors were measured from data on child welfare and questions on the prevalence of accidents and injuries of preschool children. These data were linked to the children demographic data, maternal age at marriage, working status of the mother, and questions on childcare arrangements. RESULTS: Out of the 634 injured children, 520 (83.4%) children required medical care for their injuries. The most common reported injury was an open wound 288 (45.5%), followed by fractures 237 (35.7%), burns 124 (19.7%), electrical shock 12 (1.9%) and other unknown types of injury 15 (2.4%). There was a positive correlation between injury and child's age, household wealth, mother's age at marriage, and unsupervised children or children left in the care of a minor. CONCLUSION: Leaving children unsupervised or in the presence of other young children is significantly associated with the occurrence of child injuries.


Assuntos
Acidentes/estatística & dados numéricos , Saúde da Criança/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Características de Residência/estatística & dados numéricos , Ferimentos e Lesões/epidemiologia , Fatores Etários , Pré-Escolar , Egito/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Fatores Socioeconômicos
14.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 735, 2020 May 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32434479

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The adverse life-long consequences of being looked-after as a child are well recognised, but follow-up periods for mortality risk have mostly ended in young adulthood and mortality suggested to differ by age of placement, gender and cohort in small samples. METHODS: Data on 353,601 Office for National Statistics Longitudinal Study (LS) members during census years 1971-2001, and Cox proportional hazards regression models with time-varying covariates (age as the timescale), were used to examine whether childhood out-of-home care was associated with all-cause mortality until the end of 2013. After adjusting for baseline age and age2, gender, born outside the United Kingdom, number of census observations in childhood and baseline census year we tested whether mortality risk varied for those in care by age, gender and baseline census year, by separate assessment of interaction terms. Supplementary analyses assessed robustness of findings. RESULTS: Adults who had been in care at any census (maximum of two) had an adjusted all-cause mortality hazard ratio 1.62 (95% CI 1.43, 1.86) times higher than adults who had never been in care. The excess mortality was mainly attributable to deaths categorised as self-harm, accidents and mental & behavioural causes. Mortality risk was elevated if the LS member was initially assessed in 1981 or 2001, compared to 1971. There was no significant variation in mortality risk for those in care by age or gender. The main findings were consistent irrespective of choice of comparison group (whole population, disadvantaged population), care placement (residential, non-residential) and age at death (all ages, adulthood only). CONCLUSIONS: In this large, nationally representative study of dependent children resident in England and Wales, those who had been in care during childhood had a higher risk of mortality long after they had left care on average, mainly from unnatural causes. No differences by age or gender were found. Children in care have not benefitted from the general decline in mortality risk over time.


Assuntos
Causas de Morte , Cuidado da Criança , Características de Residência , Instituições Residenciais , Acidentes/mortalidade , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Inglaterra/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Transtornos Mentais/mortalidade , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Comportamento Autodestrutivo/mortalidade , Reino Unido/epidemiologia , Populações Vulneráveis , País de Gales/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
17.
J Emerg Manag ; 18(2): 105-111, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32181866

RESUMO

A new approach is proposed for assessing the integrated indicator of the technogenic risk of accidents on the city territory. The indicator is determined by the values of the individual indicators: potential danger, security, and vulner-ability of the territory. This approach allows us to assess the technogenic risk qualitatively and quantitatively and to take into account the complex of important factors affecting the safety of the city territory.


Assuntos
Acidentes , Planejamento em Desastres/organização & administração , Medição de Risco , Cidades , Humanos
18.
West Afr J Med ; 37(2): 131-137, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32150631

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Trauma in developing countries has assumed an epidemic proportion and is now a public health problem. This is largely due to the rising incidence of road traffic crashes (RTC), increasing urbanization, industrialization and armed conflicts including terrorism fuelled by political, ethnic and religious factors in most developing countries. Unfortunately, this public health menace has not gotten the attention it deserves from the governments of the low-income countries, global non-governmental organisations and the mass media compared to the infectious diseases. METHODS: This was a 2-year retrospective cohort study of trauma patients who presented to our emergency department and died within 72 hours of admission. RESULTS: Within the period, a total of 6,858 patients, consisting of 2,228 trauma patients were admitted into our emergency department. Out of the trauma admissions, 256 patients died; giving a mortality rate of 11.5%. However, only 237 of the dead patients' case files could be reviewed. There were 195 (82.3%) males and 42 (17.7%) females. Majority of the deaths were in the age group 31 years - 45 years, with a mean age of 33.6 years. Road traffic crash was the most common cause of trauma deaths, 194 (81.9%); followed by flame burn, 15 (6.3%). Traumatic brain injury with or without other associated lesser injuries was the predominant diagnosis at presentation, 157 (66.2%). Most of the patients presented within 4 hours of their injuries, 136 (57.4%). Majority of the patients were brought to hospital by other road users, 133 (56.1%); and commercial bus was the commonest mode of transportation of the patients to the hospital, 102 (43.1%). CONCLUSION: The trauma mortality rate in our emergency department calls for urgent intervention measures. Critical amongst them is the need for establishment of a trauma system with an efficient pre-hospital emergency medical service component in our region.


Assuntos
Acidentes de Trânsito/mortalidade , Acidentes/mortalidade , Emergências/epidemiologia , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Ferimentos e Lesões/epidemiologia , Acidentes de Trânsito/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Causas de Morte , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nigéria/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Centros de Atenção Terciária
19.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 27(15): 18269-18286, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32180146

RESUMO

In the event of an accident in an industrial plant, the damage caused by it can be enormous. There may be environmental contamination in a large area. Injured persons may be both employees of the plant staying on its premises and local residents. The control of major accidents is realised by implementing the procedures regarding: safety analysis, emergency and operational planning, effective land-use planning (LUP), strategic environmental assessment (SEA), environmental impact assessment (EIA) and public consultation. The paper presents findings of a case study aiming to analyse selected spatial planning documents prepared at the municipality and SEA reports accompanying them, with regard to hazards of major industrial accidents in six Polish cities. In addition, changes of relevant Polish legislation taking place from 1995 till now are explained referring to European Union (EU) law. This article is the very first to present the situation concerning LUP around hazardous plants in Poland based on such extensive data. The assessment shows that the way of recording the major accident hazards is varied, but legal norms, binding at the time when the documents were drawn up, were met in each of the analysed documents. Changes of relevant Poland legislation were not the only reason for differences in the ways of recording the hazards of major industrial accidents in these documents. The case study has revealed that relevant Polish regulations can be still improved. The results of the study have useful implications for the control of major accidents, spatial policy-making and environmental management.


Assuntos
Acidentes de Trabalho , Acidentes , Cidades , Poluição Ambiental , União Europeia , Polônia
20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32183054

RESUMO

The daily operation and maintenance work of railways are very dangerous. Railway employees often have safety accidents while working, and the safety citizenship behavior (SCB) of railway employees can effectively reduce the accident rate. Therefore, it is of great significance to identify the main safety constructs affecting the SCB of railway employees to minimize accidents. This paper puts forward a supposed model of the influence mechanism of safety leadership (SL) on employee SCB through the mediation of safety attitude (SA). A questionnaire was used with railway employees, and 238 valid responses were finally collected. A structural equation model (SEM) was used to explore the relationship between SL, SA and SCB. The results showed the SL is positively related to the SA, and it can further promote the SCB of railway employees. In addition, SA has a positive impact on employee SCB.


Assuntos
Atitude , Liderança , Saúde do Trabalhador , Transportes , Acidentes , Humanos , Manutenção , Inquéritos e Questionários
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