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1.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 70(10): 337-341, 2021 Mar 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33705365

RESUMO

Accidental consumption of poisonous mushrooms can result in serious illness and death (1). Reports of severe poisonings from consumption of foraged mushrooms for food or hallucinogenic purposes increased during 1999-2016 (2), and approximately 7,500 poisonous mushroom ingestions were reported annually to poison control centers across the United States (1). To estimate the frequency of emergency department (ED) visits, hospitalizations, and severe adverse outcomes associated with accidental poisonous mushroom ingestion in the United States, CDC analyzed 2016 data from the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project's* Nationwide Emergency Department Sample (HCUP-NEDS) and National Inpatient Sample (HCUP-NIS) databases as well as 2016-2018 data from three IBM MarketScan sources: Commercial Claims and Encounters (CCAE), Medicare Supplemental and Coordination of Benefits (Medicare), and Multi-State Medicaid databases. During 2016, 1,328 (standard error [SE] = 100) ED visits and 100 (SE = 22) hospitalizations (HCUP data) were associated with accidental poisonous mushroom ingestion. Among 556 patients with a diagnosis of accidental poisonous mushroom ingestion, 48 (8.6%) patients experienced a serious adverse outcome during 2016-2018 (MarketScan data). Serious adverse outcomes were more common among Medicaid-insured patients than among patients with commercial insurance or Medicare (11.5% versus 6.7%, p = 0.049). Because most mushroom poisonings are preventable, wild mushrooms should not be consumed unless they are identified by an expert; increased public health messaging about the potential dangers of mushroom poisoning is needed.


Assuntos
Acidentes/estatística & dados numéricos , Intoxicação Alimentar por Cogumelos/terapia , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Lactente , Seguro Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Medicaid/estatística & dados numéricos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Intoxicação Alimentar por Cogumelos/epidemiologia , Resultado do Tratamento , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
2.
J Hand Surg Asian Pac Vol ; 26(1): 36-40, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33559580

RESUMO

Background: Angle grinders are a handheld power tool used for grinding and polishing stone, metal, and concrete. Some people, however, use them with a circular saw blade attachment for cutting wood and consequently, suffer injuries. We aimed to investigate the underlying cause and mechanisms of injuries caused by cutting wood with an angle grinder. Methods: We conducted a retrospective study using medical records from our trauma center and identified 15 patients treated for angle grinder injury between 2017 and 2018. Moreover, we contacted the National Consumer Affairs Center of Japan for further information about angle grinder injuries. Results: Nine of the 15 patients used angle grinders improperly, of which only three patients were aware of the risk of injury. The details of the nine patients were as follows: the types of injuries: complete finger amputation (n = 2), partial finger amputation (n = 1), tendon injury with phalangeal fracture (n = 5), and tendon injury alone, (n = 1); the causes of accidents: kickback (n = 7) and glove entanglement (n = 2); and the accident situations: on-the-job (n = 5) and do-it-yourself (n = 4). Conclusions: The primary cause of angle grinder injury caused by cutting wood was a lack of user knowledge that an angle grinder cannot be used as a cutting tool. Appropriate feedback from hand surgeons are necessary to urge manufacturers to take safety measures.


Assuntos
Amputação Traumática/etiologia , Traumatismos dos Dedos/etiologia , Falanges dos Dedos da Mão/lesões , Fraturas Ósseas/etiologia , Traumatismos dos Tendões/etiologia , Acidentes/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Idoso , Humanos , Japão , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Centros de Traumatologia , Madeira , Adulto Jovem
3.
Rev. enferm. UERJ ; 28: e39729, jan.-dez. 2020.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | LILACS, BDENF - Enfermagem | ID: biblio-1116093

RESUMO

Objetivo: identificar as principais causas de óbito entre adolescentes de 10 a 19 anos em um município no interior do estado do Rio de Janeiro. Método: estudo descritivo, exploratório de abordagem quantitativa, a partir do levantamento de dados em registros de óbitos do município de Rio das Ostras. O desfecho foi causa básica do óbito. Os dados foram processados no Programa R. Resultados: foram observados 84 (100%) óbitos, com maior prevalência entre adolescentes de 17 a 19 anos, 49 (58,3%), do sexo masculino, 71 (84,5%) e de cor parda, 38 (45,2%). As principais causas de óbitos foram homicídio/perfuração por arma de fogo, 35 (41,7%), e acidentes, 32 (38,1%). Conclusão: o reconhecimento dessa vulnerabilidade configura importante caminho para o enfrentamento e resolução desse grave problema, sobretudo municípios localizados longe de centros urbanos, parece muitas vezes esquecido, no que tange o cumprimento de estatutos e políticas públicas a favor desse grupo etário.


Objective: to identify the main causes of death among adolescents aged 10 to 19 years in a municipality in the state of Rio de Janeiro. Method: in this exploratory, descriptive, quantitative study, based on data collected from death records in the municipality of Rio das Ostras, the basic cause of death was the outcome. The data were processed in the statistics software, R. Results: of the 84 (100%) deaths observed, prevalence was higher among adolescents aged 17 to 19 years (49; 58.3%), males (71; 84.5%), and pardos (38; 45.2%). The main causes of deaths were firearm Injury / homicide (35; 41.7%) and accidents (32; 38.1%). Conclusion: one important step towards confronting and solving this serious problem is to acknowledge this vulnerability, especially in municipalities distant from urban centers, which often seem neglected as regards compliance with statutes and public policies in favor of this age group.


Objetivo: identificar las principales causas de muerte entre adolescentes de 10 a 19 años en un municipio del estado de Río de Janeiro. Método: en este estudio exploratorio, descriptivo, cuantitativo, basado en los datos recopilados de los registros de defunciones en el municipio de Rio das Ostras, la causa básica de la muerte fue el resultado. Los datos se procesaron en el programa estadístico R. Resultados: de las 84 (100%) muertes observadas, la prevalencia fue mayor entre los adolescentes de 17 a 19 años (49; 58.3%), varones (71; 84.5%) y pardos (38; 45,2%). Las principales causas de muerte fueron lesiones por arma de fuego / homicidio (35; 41.7%) y accidentes (32; 38.1%). Conclusión: un paso importante para enfrentar y resolver este grave problema es reconocer esta vulnerabilidad, especialmente en municipios alejados de los centros urbanos, que a menudo parecen descuidados en cuanto al cumplimiento de los estatutos y las políticas públicas a favor de este grupo de edad.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Criança , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Acidentes/estatística & dados numéricos , Causas de Morte , Populações Vulneráveis/estatística & dados numéricos , Homicídio/estatística & dados numéricos , Brasil , Epidemiologia Descritiva , Fatores Etários , Vulnerabilidade Social , Mortalidade Prematura
4.
Leg Med (Tokyo) ; 47: 101783, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32919339

RESUMO

A study was undertaken of all drowning deaths that occurred over a 30-year period from 1988 to 2017 in the urban section of the River Torrens, Adelaide, South Australia, an augmented waterway that runs through the central business district. Autopsy records from Forensic Science South Australia (FSSA) were reviewed. There were 34 drownings (0-5 cases/yr) with 28 males and 6 females (M;F = 4.6:1), with an age range for males of 18-76yrs (mean 42.0; SD 18.0) and for females of 20-84yrs (mean 69.3; SD 24.5). There were 15 (44%) accidents, 11 (32%) suicides, 1 (3%) homicide and 7 (21%) undetermined. Of the 22 cases during or after 1994 with complete toxicology reports, 10 (45%) had a blood alcohol concentration (BAC) of greater than 0.05% (g/100 mL) with an illicit substance detected in 4 (18%) cases: (MDMA (3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine), methylamphetamine and THC (delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol) acid). The presence of various therapeutic drugs was also detected in 10 cases (45%) including temazepam, fluoxetine, diazepam, olanzapine, amitriptyline, carbamazepine, codeine, citalopram and valproate. Although the numbers of cases were not high, the urban portion of the River Torrens had a much higher number of drowning events per kilometre compared to other inland waterways in South Australia such as the Murray River. This is most likely due to the vulnerability that exists for intoxicated individuals in the city from falls into the water and to the availability of the river as a means of suicide to members of the adjacent urban population.


Assuntos
Afogamento/epidemiologia , Ciências Forenses , Rios , População Urbana/estatística & dados numéricos , Acidentes/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Austrália/epidemiologia , Afogamento/etiologia , Feminino , Homicídio/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Drogas Ilícitas/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Psicotrópicos/sangue , Detecção do Abuso de Substâncias , Suicídio/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
5.
Rev Bras Epidemiol ; 23 Suppl 1: e200005.SUPL.1, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32638990

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To describe the profile of burn victims attended in emergency services and to identify associations between the variables investigated. METHODS: Cross-sectional study based on data from the 2017 survey "Surveillance of violence and accidents in emergency units". We used descriptive analysis, according to demographic characteristics and aspects related to the burn injury, as well as the correspondence analysis technique, which allowed to verify possible associations between the variables investigated. RESULTS: Burns were more frequent: in adults aged between 20 and 39 years (40.7%); in men (57.0%); in the household (67.7%); due to hot substances (52.0%). Household accidents were more frequent in the age group 0-15 years (92.0%) and elderly (84.4%), and in women (81.6%). Accidents in commerce, services and industry affected individuals aged 16 to 59 years (73.6%). Referral to other hospitals was associated with cases in the elderly and hospitalization with the cases in individuals aged between 0 and 15 years old. Events in the working age population were associated with alcohol use and the workplace. Among women, it is suggested to associate burn accidents with household and hot substances. CONCLUSIONS: The results point to the need for oriented actions in the field of health education, as well as labor regulation and supervision.


Assuntos
Queimaduras/epidemiologia , Queimaduras/terapia , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , Acidentes/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Brasil/epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Violência/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
6.
S Afr Med J ; 110(5): 400-402, 2020 Apr 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32657725

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hanging is a common form of self-harm, and emergency care physicians will not infrequently be called upon to manage a survivor.Despite the relative frequency of the injury, there is a paucity of literature on the topic and the spectrum and incidence of associated injuries are poorly described. OBJECTIVES: To review experience with management of victims of hanging at a major trauma centre in South Africa. METHODS: All patients treated by the Pietermaritzburg Metropolitan Trauma Service following a hanging incident between December 2012 and December 2018 were identified from the Hybrid Electronic Medical Registry. Basic demographics were recorded, and the management and outcome of each patient were noted. RESULTS: During the 6-year period under review, a total of 154 patients were seen following a hanging incident. The mean age was 29.4 years. There were 24 females (15.6%) and 130 males (84.4%). The vast majority (n=150; 97.5%) had attempted suicide, and only 4 hangings (2.5%) were accidental. A total of 92 patients (60.9%) had consumed alcohol prior to the incident. There were 23 patients with a Glasgow Coma Score (GCS) <9 (severe traumatic brain injury (TBI)), 14 with a GCS of 9 - 12 (moderate TBI) and 117 with a GCS >12 (mild TBI). A total of 7 patients (4.5%) required intensive care unit admission, and 25 (16.2%) required intubation. The following extracranial injuries were documented on computed tomography scans: hyoid bone fractures (n=2), cervical spine fracture (n=10), mandible fracture (n=4) and oesophageal injury (n=1). Intracranial pathology was evident on 27.0% of scans, with the most common finding being global cerebral ischaemia. The mortality rate was 2.5% (4/154). CONCLUSIONS: Hanging is a common mechanism of self-harm. It is associated with significant injuries and mortality. The acute management of hanging should focus on airway protection followed by detailed imaging of the head and neck. Further work must attempt to include mortuary data on hanging.


Assuntos
Acidentes/estatística & dados numéricos , Asfixia/epidemiologia , Lesões do Pescoço/epidemiologia , Tentativa de Suicídio/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Isquemia Encefálica/diagnóstico por imagem , Isquemia Encefálica/epidemiologia , Vértebras Cervicais/diagnóstico por imagem , Vértebras Cervicais/lesões , Esôfago/diagnóstico por imagem , Esôfago/lesões , Feminino , Fraturas Ósseas/diagnóstico por imagem , Fraturas Ósseas/epidemiologia , Escala de Coma de Glasgow , Humanos , Osso Hioide/diagnóstico por imagem , Osso Hioide/lesões , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/estatística & dados numéricos , Intubação Intratraqueal/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Fraturas Mandibulares/diagnóstico por imagem , Fraturas Mandibulares/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Distribuição por Sexo , África do Sul/epidemiologia , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Centros de Traumatologia
7.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 595, 2020 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32357864

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Childhood injuries are a significant and growing global public health problem, often with high morbidity and, at times, mortality. A large proportion of injuries in preschool children occur in or around the home. We aimed to identify socioeconomic and demographic factors associated with preschool children injuries in Egypt. METHODS: Secondary data analysis were done for the Egyptian Demographic and Health Surveys (EDHS), 2014. Potential associated factors were measured from data on child welfare and questions on the prevalence of accidents and injuries of preschool children. These data were linked to the children demographic data, maternal age at marriage, working status of the mother, and questions on childcare arrangements. RESULTS: Out of the 634 injured children, 520 (83.4%) children required medical care for their injuries. The most common reported injury was an open wound 288 (45.5%), followed by fractures 237 (35.7%), burns 124 (19.7%), electrical shock 12 (1.9%) and other unknown types of injury 15 (2.4%). There was a positive correlation between injury and child's age, household wealth, mother's age at marriage, and unsupervised children or children left in the care of a minor. CONCLUSION: Leaving children unsupervised or in the presence of other young children is significantly associated with the occurrence of child injuries.


Assuntos
Acidentes/estatística & dados numéricos , Saúde da Criança/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Características de Residência/estatística & dados numéricos , Ferimentos e Lesões/epidemiologia , Fatores Etários , Pré-Escolar , Egito/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Fatores Socioeconômicos
8.
J Ayub Med Coll Abbottabad ; 32(1): 51-53, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32468755

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Medicolegal data is very important for administrators, health officials, philanthropists, social workers, law enforcement agencies. Because it is used for planning and implementation of strategies in order to reduce further incidents. This study is conducted with the aim to determine different types of medicolegal cases and patterns of weapons used. METHODS: A total of 246 cases were studied from 1st September 2017 to 31st January 2018. All information was collected on a pro forma. Statistical analysis was done by MS Excel. RESULTS: Out of 246 cases, 219 were male and 27 were female with age ranging from 3 to 72 years. Among total, 162(65.85%) patients were injured due to blunt weapon, 17 (6.91%) cases of firearms, 23 (9.34%) in road traffic accidents, 15 (6.09%) sharp-edged weapons, 7 (2.84%) cases were of sexual violence, 11 (4.47%) were of poisoning. CONCLUSIONS: Injuries of blunt weapons followed by sharp edge and accidental cases occurred more frequently.


Assuntos
Acidentes , Crime , Ferimentos e Lesões/epidemiologia , Acidentes/legislação & jurisprudência , Acidentes/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Crime/legislação & jurisprudência , Crime/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Hospitais de Ensino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Paquistão/epidemiologia , Ferimentos por Arma de Fogo/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32178361

RESUMO

With the increasing demand for electricity transmission and distribution, single-phase grounding accidents, which cause great economic losses and casualties, have occurred frequently. In this study, a Bayesian network (BN)-based risk assessment model for representing single-phase grounding accidents is proposed to examine accident evolution from causes to potential consequences. The Bayesian network of single-phase grounding accidents includes 21 nodes that take into account the influential factors of environment, management, equipment and human error. The Bow-tie method was employed to build the accident evolution path and then converted to a BN. The BN conditional probability tables are determined with reference to historical accident data and expert opinion obtained by the Delphi method. The probability of a single-phase grounding accident and its potential consequences in normal conditions and three typical accident scenarios are analyzed. We found that "Storm" is the most critical hazard of single-phase grounding, followed by "Aging" and "Icing". This study could quantitatively evaluate the single-phase grounding accident in multi-hazard coupling scenarios and provide technical support for occupational health and safety management of power transmission lines.


Assuntos
Acidentes , Fontes de Energia Elétrica , Gestão da Segurança , Acidentes/estatística & dados numéricos , Acidentes de Trabalho/estatística & dados numéricos , Teorema de Bayes , Fontes de Energia Elétrica/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Probabilidade , Medição de Risco
11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32050553

RESUMO

The study evaluated characteristics of non-fatal mountain hiking accidents caused by falls. Questionnaires were sent to mountain hikers who suffered a fall-related accident in Tyrol (Austria) during a 3-year period. The questionnaire included details of socio-demographic data, physical activity, medication intake, defective vision, breaks, fluid intake, level of fatigue, muscle soreness, use of backpacks, use of hiking sticks, and type of shoes. Data of 405 individuals (57% females and 43% males) were included in the analyses. Victims were 56 ± 15 years of age, had a body mass index of 24.8 ± 3.5, and indicated 4.2 ± 3.9 h/week regular physical activity. A defective vision was reported by 70% of the victims, breaks were frequent (in 80%), and alcohol intake was rare (4%) among the interviewed hikers. Subjective level of fatigue was low and only 5% reported muscle soreness. A backpack was carried by 83% of the victims and the average weight was higher in males compared to females. The majority (61%) of the victims wore ankle-height hiking shoes with a profiled sole. Victims of non-fatal falls in mountain hiking are older than the general population of mountain hikers and are often afflicted with defective vision.


Assuntos
Acidentes por Quedas/estatística & dados numéricos , Acidentes/estatística & dados numéricos , Montanhismo/lesões , Adulto , Áustria , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Montanhismo/estatística & dados numéricos , Sapatos , Esportes , Inquéritos e Questionários
12.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(4): e18789, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31977870

RESUMO

Clinical features of extremity fractures (EFs) in patients presenting with traumatic spinal fractures (TSFs) and spinal cord injury (SCI) have not been investigated. To investigate the clinical features and risk factors for EFs in patients presenting with TSFs and SCI.Data from 1392 patients presenting with TSFs and SCI in our hospitals between 2001 and 2010 were retrospectively reviewed, among which 165 patients (129 males and 36 females, 37.5 ±â€Š10.6 years old) presented with EFs. The clinical features of EFs have been investigated.The frequencies of upper limb fractures were significantly higher in the motor vehicle collisions (MVCs) group than in the high-fall group (P = .012) and the struck-by-object group (P = .002). The frequencies of lower limb fractures were significantly higher in the struck-by-object group (P = .019) and the high-fall group (P = .011) than the MVCs group. Univariate logistic regression analysis show that being in the 19 to 39 age group (P = .001), having a lumbar spinal fracture (P < .001) and experiencing a high fall (P < .001) were risk factors for EFs. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that we should focus on the factors that having a lumbar spinal fracture and experiencing a high fall.High fall and MVCs were the most common aetiologies for EFs. Having a lumbar spinal fracture and experiencing a high fall were significant risk factors for EFs. We should make early diagnoses and initiate timely treatment according to different patterns of extremity fractures in patients with TSFs and SCI.


Assuntos
Fraturas Ósseas/epidemiologia , Extremidade Inferior/lesões , Fraturas da Coluna Vertebral/epidemiologia , Extremidade Superior/lesões , Acidentes/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Feminino , Fraturas Ósseas/etiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Fraturas da Coluna Vertebral/etiologia
13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31940854

RESUMO

Escalator-related injuries have become an important issue in daily metro operation. To reduce the probability and severity of escalator-related injuries, this study conducted a probability and severity analysis of escalator-related injuries by using a Bayesian network to identify the risk factors that affect the escalator safety in metro stations. The Bayesian network structure was constructed based on expert knowledge and Dempster-Shafer evidence theory, and further modified based on conditional-independence test. Then, 950 escalator-related injuries were used to estimate the posterior probabilities of the Bayesian network with expectation-maximization (EM) algorithm. The results of probability analysis indicate that the most influential factor in four passenger behaviors is failing to stand firm (p = 0.48), followed by carrying out other tasks (p = 0.32), not holding the handrail (p = 0.23), and another passenger's movement (p = 0.20). Women (p = 0.64) and elderly people (aged 66 years and above, p = 0.48) are more likely to be involved in escalator-related injuries. Riding an escalator with company (p = 0.63) has a relatively high likelihood of resulting in escalator-related injuries. The results from the severity analysis show that head and neck injuries seem to be more serious and are more likely to require an ambulance for treatment. Passengers who suffer from entrapment injury tend to claim for compensation. Severe injuries, as expected, significantly increase the probability of a claim for compensation. These findings could provide valuable references for metro operation corporations to understand the characteristics of escalator-related injuries and develop effective injury prevention measures.


Assuntos
Acidentes/estatística & dados numéricos , Elevadores e Escadas Rolantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Elevadores e Escadas Rolantes/normas , Ferrovias/estatística & dados numéricos , Ferrovias/normas , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Teorema de Bayes , China , Análise Fatorial , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco
14.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 27(8): 8535-8547, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31907815

RESUMO

The working conditions of underground mining are complex and variable, and roof fall and rib spalling are one of the main types of accidents that can occur. Building an integrated model to evaluate the risk of roof fall and rib spalling is the foundation of mine safety. On the basis of the inherent attributes of event risk, the fuzzy evaluation set and probability of basic events are obtained by using the fuzzy fault tree analysis method based on the sample's fuzzy information. Subsequently, the likelihood of roof fall and rib spalling is determined. Consequence severity data are obtained by using the dynamic fuzzy logic method, and the consequence severity grade of roof fall and rib spalling is evaluated via the dynamic fuzzy comprehensive evaluation method. The event risk level is determined by the risk matrix method. Roof fall and rib spalling in a non-coal mine is analyzed and evaluated by using fuzzy fault tree analysis and dynamic fuzzy comprehensive evaluation. The weak links in the operation of an underground mine are identified by fuzzy fault tree analysis as "mining process, roof management, support and reinforcement." Then, the risk development trend is determined by the dynamic fuzzy comprehensive evaluation method. The risk matrix method is integrated to determine whether the risk level of the mine is "high risk, unacceptable" and expected to deteriorate in the future. The results show the validity and feasibility of the risk analysis and prediction model for roof fall and rib spalling.


Assuntos
Lógica Fuzzy , Mineração , Acidentes/estatística & dados numéricos , Mineração/métodos , Probabilidade
16.
Int Emerg Nurs ; 48: 100810, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31708479

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Recent research suggests that up to 20% of minor trauma patients admitted to the emergency department (ED) will suffer from non-specific chronic conditions over the subsequent several months. Thus, the present study assessed the correlates of symptoms that persisted at 4 months after an ED visit and, in particular, evaluated the associations between these symptoms and self-reported stress levels at ED admission and discharge. METHOD: This study was a prospective observational investigation conducted in the ED of Bordeaux University Hospital that included patients admitted for minor trauma. All participants were contacted by phone 4 months after presentation at the ED to assess the occurrence of post-concussion-like symptoms (PCLS). RESULTS: A total of 193 patients completed the follow-up assessment at 4 months; 5.2% of the participants suffered from post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and 24.5% suffered from PCLS. A multivariate analysis revealed an association between PCLS and stress level at discharge from the ED (odds ratios [OR]: 2.85, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.10-7.40). CONCLUSIONS: The risk of PCLS at 4 months after an ED visit for a minor injury increased in association with the level of stress at discharge from the ED. These results may improve the quality of life for the millions of patients who experience a stressful injury event every year.


Assuntos
Estresse Psicológico/etiologia , Tempo , Ferimentos e Lesões/complicações , Acidentes/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/organização & administração , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , França , Humanos , Masculino , Seleção de Pacientes , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Ferimentos e Lesões/psicologia
17.
J Sports Med Phys Fitness ; 60(1): 119-124, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31640310

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Alpine sports are associated with risk of serious injuries. To gain insight into factors that may help reduce injury severity, accident characteristics and injury patterns were analyzed in a cohort of injured skiers and snowboarders. METHODS: All patients with Alpine sports-related injuries, reporting the injury to a leading medical assistance organization in the Netherlands in the period of 2013-2016, were contacted. Medical data were collected from the patients' files. Only ski and snowboard incidents were included. Injuries were classified according to the Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) and Injury Severity Scale (ISS). Data on the accident conditions, i.e. risk factors, were collected using retrospective patient-reported questionnaires. Risk factors for injuries with ISS≥9 were analysed by multivariate modelling. RESULTS: Of the 1588 included patients, 421 patients filled out the questionnaire. Skiers (N.=1370) had more knee injuries (20.4% vs. 7.4%, P<0.001), femur fractures (5.3% vs. 0.5%, P=0.002) and lower leg fractures (27.5% vs. 11.5%, P<0.001) compared to snowboarders (N.=218). Skiers were also more seriously injured (ISS>9) (P=0.01). Injured snowboarders sustained more brain concussions (8.8% vs. 15.7%, P=0.003) and lower arm fractures (5.4% vs. 16.1%, P<0.001). Only 'a higher skills level' was borderline significant for predicting serious injury (OR: 4.0 95% CI: 0.86-18.50; P=0.08). No additional risk factors were identified. CONCLUSIONS: Injury patterns after skiing and snowboarding accidents differ, injury severity differed not. Preventive measures should therefore aim to protect specific body parts depending on the type of Alpine sport. Experienced skiers and snowboarders may be more at risk for serious injuries.


Assuntos
Acidentes/estatística & dados numéricos , Esqui/lesões , Adolescente , Adulto , Concussão Encefálica/epidemiologia , Bases de Dados Factuais , Feminino , Fraturas Ósseas/epidemiologia , Humanos , Escala de Gravidade do Ferimento , Traumatismos do Joelho/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Países Baixos/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
18.
J Pediatr Surg ; 55(3): 451-455, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29848451

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Golf cart trauma in southeast Georgia represents a significant source of morbidity in the pediatric population. We believe these events are related to the introduction of new state legislation that allows local authorities to govern golf cart operation. METHODS: We performed a retrospective review from 2010 to 2016 of children involved in golf cart traumas (n = 46). We recorded age, gender, Glasgow Coma Scale score (GCS), Injury Severity Score (ISS), location of event, and patient position during event. Outcomes included injury type and length of stay (LOS). RESULTS: The most common position in a golf cart was a passenger (52.2%). Events varied regionally and correlated with stringency of local legislation. Skull fractures afflicted 48% (n = 22) of children and traumatic brain injuries (TBIs) were noted in 35% (n = 17) of patients. TBIs (LOS = 4.6 days, p = 0.006) and abdominal injuries (LOS = 8.5 days, p = 0.017) lengthened mean hospital stay. Increasing ISS was associated with an increased probability of sustaining a TBI (OR 1.295, p = 0.004). Younger children were more likely to sustain a skull fracture (OR 1.170, p = 0.034) while older children incurred more orthopedic injuries (OR 1.217, p = 0.045). CONCLUSION: Skull fractures and TBIs are common following pediatric golf cart trauma. Georgia's varying municipality legislation likely contributes to the growing frequency of this trend. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Retrospective study, IV.


Assuntos
Acidentes/estatística & dados numéricos , Golfe , Veículos Off-Road , Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas/epidemiologia , Criança , Escala de Coma de Glasgow , Humanos , Escala de Gravidade do Ferimento , Tempo de Internação/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fraturas Cranianas/epidemiologia
19.
Arch Dis Child ; 105(6): 580-586, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31871044

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To identify how causative agents and mechanisms of injury influence the location of an accidental contact burn in children and whether these factors differ in cases referred for child protection (CP) assessment. DESIGN: Prospective multicentre cross-sectional study. SETTING: 20 hospital sites across England and Wales, including: emergency departments, minor injury units and regional burn units. PATIENTS: Children less than 5 years old who attended hospital for a contact burn (August 2015 to September 2018). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Location of burns with respect to agent and mechanism for accidental contact burns. Secondary outcome: mechanism, agent and location of burns referred for CP assessment. RESULTS: 816 accidental burns and 92 referrals for CP assessment. The most common for accidental burns: mechanism was reaching while stationary (68%, 553/816), agent was oven (24.5%, 200/816) and site was the hand (69.2%, 565/816). Burns to head and trunk were rare at 3.7% (30/816). The data enabled a tabulation of the locations of burns as predicted by agent and mechanism of injury. The location of the burn was most strongly influenced by mechanism.Burns from irons (p<0.01), caused by mechanisms independent of the child (p=0.01), unwitnessed burns (p<0.001) and burns to the head and trunk (p<0.001) were significantly more common among the children referred for CP assessment. CONCLUSIONS: By overlaying agent, mechanism and site it was possible to tabulate and quantify simple narratives of accidental contact burns in population of young children. These findings have the potential to aid clinicians in recognising accidental contact burns.


Assuntos
Queimaduras/etiologia , Serviços de Proteção Infantil , Encaminhamento e Consulta/estatística & dados numéricos , Acidentes/estatística & dados numéricos , Unidades de Queimados , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Inglaterra/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , País de Gales/epidemiologia
20.
S Afr Med J ; 110(1): 44-48, 2019 Dec 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31865942

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Trauma in South Africa (SA) has been referred to as a malignant epidemic, but the impact of trauma on the elderly has tended to be overlooked. OBJECTIVES: To address this deficit by focusing on trauma victims aged ≥65 years. METHODS: All patients aged ≥65 years who were admitted to Grey's Hospital, Pietermaritzburg, SA, following trauma between December 2012 and January 2019 were reviewed. RESULTS: Over the 6-year study period, a total of 281 patients aged ≥65 years were admitted to Grey's Hospital following trauma. There were 150 males (53.4%) and 97 females (34.5%). The sex of 34 patients was unknown. The average age was 72 years (range 65 - 97). There were 226 cases of blunt trauma, 42 cases of penetrating trauma (including two incidents of impalement following blunt trauma) and 15 cases of other types of trauma. The most common causes of blunt trauma were accidental falls (n=76), motor vehicle accidents (n=46), pedestrian vehicle accidents (n=32) and falls from a height (n=23). Gunshot wounds (n=22) and knife wounds (n=14) were the most common forms of penetrating trauma. Other trauma mainly comprised dog bites (n=6) and snakebites (n=6). There were 72 incidents of assault (25.6% of total cases). The majority of assaults were committed by a single perpetrator, and the perpetrator was frequently known to the victim. There were no significant differences in the proportions of penetrating, blunt and other trauma injuries between males and females. A total of 44 patients (15.7%) required surgical intervention, and 41 patients (14.6%) experienced complications during their hospitalisation. Respiratory, renal and cardiac complications were most frequent, and 5 patients had a cardiac arrest. Seven experienced acute kidney injury. Seventeen patients (6.0%) required intensive care unit admission and 5 (1.8%) required ventilation. Patients stayed in hospital for an average of 2.96 days (range 0 - 39). Of the patients, 241 (85.8%) survived, 32 (11.4%) died and 8 (2.9%) had an unknown outcome. CONCLUSIONS: Geriatric trauma in SA is relatively rare, but will increase as the population ages. There is a high incidence of assault as a mechanism, highlighting the fact that elderly people are a vulnerable group. Managing these patients is challenging and is associated with significant morbidity and mortality.


Assuntos
Ferimentos e Lesões/epidemiologia , Acidentes/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , África do Sul/epidemiologia , Violência/estatística & dados numéricos , Ferimentos e Lesões/diagnóstico , Ferimentos e Lesões/etiologia
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