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1.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(16)2021 Aug 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34450868

RESUMO

Behavioural studies of elusive wildlife species are challenging but important when they are threatened and involved in human-wildlife conflicts. Accelerometers (ACCs) and supervised machine learning algorithms (MLAs) are valuable tools to remotely determine behaviours. Here we used five captive cheetahs in Namibia to test the applicability of ACC data in identifying six behaviours by using six MLAs on data we ground-truthed by direct observations. We included two ensemble learning approaches and a probability threshold to improve prediction accuracy. We used the model to then identify the behaviours in four free-ranging cheetah males. Feeding behaviours identified by the model and matched with corresponding GPS clusters were verified with previously identified kill sites in the field. The MLAs and the two ensemble learning approaches in the captive cheetahs achieved precision (recall) ranging from 80.1% to 100.0% (87.3% to 99.2%) for resting, walking and trotting/running behaviour, from 74.4% to 81.6% (54.8% and 82.4%) for feeding behaviour and from 0.0% to 97.1% (0.0% and 56.2%) for drinking and grooming behaviour. The model application to the ACC data of the free-ranging cheetahs successfully identified all nine kill sites and 17 of the 18 feeding events of the two brother groups. We demonstrated that our behavioural model reliably detects feeding events of free-ranging cheetahs. This has useful applications for the determination of cheetah kill sites and helping to mitigate human-cheetah conflicts.


Assuntos
Acinonyx , Aceleração , Animais , Animais Selvagens , Humanos , Aprendizado de Máquina , Masculino , Namíbia
2.
J Vet Diagn Invest ; 33(4): 767-771, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33980074

RESUMO

Mesothelioma has been reported frequently in large felids. These neoplasms present a diagnostic challenge given their highly variable morphology that mimics carcinomas or sarcomas at different locations. Our goal was to characterize mesotheliomas morphologically and immunohistochemically to determine if a panel of antibodies could be used to more accurately support the diagnosis of these neoplasms in large felids. Mesotheliomas from 6 large felids, including 4 clouded leopards, 1 Bengal tiger, and 1 cheetah, were immunohistochemically labeled for vimentin, E-cadherin, pancytokeratin, Wilms tumor 1 (WT1), MUC-1, and calretinin. The mesotheliomas of the 4 clouded leopards and the tiger were of the epithelial subtype; the mesothelioma from the cheetah was biphasic. All 6 mesotheliomas had strong immunohistochemical labeling for vimentin, E-cadherin, and pancytokeratin. All cases had cytoplasmic labeling for WT1, and 2 also had nuclear labeling. The 3 mesotheliomas with distinct papillary fronds were weakly positive for MUC-1. These and one other epithelial mesothelioma were also positive for calretinin. Our study demonstrates that the morphologic and immunohistochemical phenotypes of mesothelioma that have been identified in humans and domestic species can occur in large felids, and a panel of pancytokeratin, vimentin, WT1, and calretinin can be utilized to support the diagnosis of these neoplasms.


Assuntos
Felidae , Imuno-Histoquímica/veterinária , Mesotelioma/veterinária , Acinonyx , Animais , Animais de Zoológico , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Feminino , Masculino , Mesotelioma/diagnóstico , Mesotelioma/patologia , Metástase Neoplásica/diagnóstico , Metástase Neoplásica/patologia , Tigres
3.
Parasit Vectors ; 14(1): 201, 2021 Apr 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33853647

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Besnoitia darlingi, B. neotomofelis and B. oryctofelisi are closely related coccidian parasites with felids as definitive hosts. These parasites use a variety of animal species as intermediate hosts. North American opossums (Didelphis virginiana), North American southern plains woodrats (Neotoma micropus) and South American domestic rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) are intermediate hosts of B. darlingi, B. neotomofelis and B. oryctofelisi, respectively. Based on conserved regions in the internal transcribed spacer-1 (ITS1) sequence of the ribosomal DNA (rDNA), a real-time PCR for a sensitive detection of these Besnoitia spp. in tissues of intermediate hosts and faeces of definitive hosts has recently been established. Available sequence data suggest that species such as B. akodoni and B. jellisoni are also covered by this real-time PCR. It has been hypothesised that additional Besnoitia spp. exist worldwide that are closely related to B. darlingi or B. darlingi-like parasites (B. neotomofelis, B. oryctofelisi, B. akodoni or B. jellisoni). Also related, but not as closely, is B. besnoiti, the cause of bovine besnoitiosis. METHODS: Faecal samples from two free-ranging cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus) from Namibia that had previously tested positive for coccidian parasites by coproscopy were used for this study. A conventional PCR verified the presence of coccidian parasite DNA. To clarify the identity of these coccidia, the faecal DNA samples were further characterised by species-specific PCRs and Sanger sequencing. RESULTS: One of the samples tested positive for B. darlingi or B. darlingi-like parasites by real-time PCR, while no other coccidian parasites, including Toxoplasma gondii, Hammondia hammondi, H. heydorni, B. besnoiti and Neospora caninum, were detected in the two samples. The rDNA of the B. darlingi-like parasite was amplified and partially sequenced. Comparison with existing sequences in GenBank revealed a close relationship to other Besnoitia spp., but also showed clear divergences. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that a so far unknown Besnoitia species exists in Namibian wildlife, which is closely related to B. darlingi, B. neotomofelis, B. oryctofelisi, B. akodoni or B. jellisoni. The cheetah appears to be the definitive host of this newly discovered parasite, while prey species of the cheetah may act as intermediate hosts.


Assuntos
Acinonyx/parasitologia , Coccidiose/veterinária , Sarcocystidae/classificação , Sarcocystidae/genética , Animais , Animais Selvagens/parasitologia , Coccidiose/parasitologia , Fezes/parasitologia , Especificidade de Hospedeiro , Namíbia , Filogenia , Sarcocystidae/isolamento & purificação , Sarcocystidae/fisiologia
4.
J Zoo Wildl Med ; 52(1): 320-326, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33827193

RESUMO

Hepatic veno-occlusive disease (VOD) is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in captive cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus), and the appearance of this disease in humans by computed tomography (CT) has been well described. Contrast-enhanced CT abdominal scans of cheetahs without evidence of hepatic disease (n = 5) were reviewed retrospectively to describe the normal appearance of cheetah livers as an aid to antemortem VOD diagnosis. Despite having no clinical signs, clinical pathology abnormalities, or hepatic biopsy histopathology supportive of VOD, all five cheetahs had at least one VOD consistent finding on CT. The results of this study suggest that given the progressive and potentially subclinical nature of VOD, CT could serve as a noninvasive screening tool and be used to monitor disease progression.


Assuntos
Acinonyx , Meios de Contraste/farmacologia , Fígado/diagnóstico por imagem , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/veterinária , Animais , Animais de Zoológico , Feminino , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/métodos
5.
Zoonoses Public Health ; 68(3): 239-246, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33576190

RESUMO

In January 2019, four cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus) kept at a Japanese zoo intermittently showed respiratory signs following the incidence of seasonal influenza in animal caregivers. Respiratory materials (saliva, sputum and food tray swabs) were non-invasively collected from the four cheetahs. Although we were unable to isolate the virus, the NP gene of influenza A virus was detected in three of the cheetahs but not in the fourth cheetah that had nearly recovered. From a food tray swab which tested weakly positive by a commercial influenza detection kit, we were able to obtain the whole-genome sequence of the influenza A virus. Analysis of the genome, A/cheetah/Kanagawa/2/2019(H1N1), revealed that the virus was closely related to influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 viruses isolated from humans in Japan in the 2018-2019 winter. Production of haemagglutinin inhibition (HI) antibodies (64-128 HI) against an A(H1N1)pdm09 virus in plasma samples confirmed infection of all four cheetahs. The animals continued to produce antibodies for at least 314 days after disease onset. These findings strongly suggest that reverse zoonotic transmission of A(H1N1)pdm09 virus occurred from human to cheetah and subsequently from cheetah to cheetah in the zoo. We also show that specimens can be safely and non-invasively collected from non-domesticated animals and used to investigate respiratory infectious diseases.


Assuntos
Acinonyx , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H1N1/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Orthomyxoviridae/veterinária , Animais , Animais de Zoológico , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Antígenos Virais/isolamento & purificação , Análise por Conglomerados , Microbiologia Ambiental , Feminino , Japão/epidemiologia , Masculino , Nasofaringe/virologia , Infecções por Orthomyxoviridae/sangue , Infecções por Orthomyxoviridae/epidemiologia , Infecções por Orthomyxoviridae/virologia , Saliva/virologia
6.
J Zoo Wildl Med ; 51(4): 1025-1034, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33480586

RESUMO

Mast cell tumors in nondomestic felids are rarely reported and their biological characteristics are not well described. A retrospective review of the pathology records of 52 zoo-housed cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus) identified five cases of mast cell tumor, involving four closely related individuals. The age at initial presentation varied from 14 mo to 6 yr. Four cases presented as solitary or multiple cutaneous masses that were mostly slow growing, up to 20 mm diameter, and predominantly nonulcerated. The diagnosis was made by fine needle aspiration cytology of a lesion in one case and by excisional biopsy in the others. Histopathologically, the lesions resembled low- to intermediate-grade canine mast cell tumors, with variations in the degree of anisocytosis and anisokaryosis. Surgical excision was incomplete for 80% of the cutaneous lesions, but local recurrence was not observed in any case. One animal with cutaneous lesions subsequently developed fatal visceral mastocytosis involving the spleen, liver, and adrenal gland. There was no evidence of lymph node invasion or paraneoplastic gastrointestinal signs in any of the cases.


Assuntos
Acinonyx , Mastocitoma/veterinária , Neoplasias Cutâneas/veterinária , Animais , Feminino , Masculino , Mastocitoma/patologia , Mastocitoma/cirurgia , Neoplasias Cutâneas/patologia , Neoplasias Cutâneas/cirurgia
7.
Mol Biol Rep ; 48(1): 171-181, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33275194

RESUMO

Cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus) are listed as vulnerable on the International Union for Conservation of Nature Red List of Threatened Species. Threats include loss of habitat, human-wildlife conflict and illegal wildlife trade. In South Africa, the export of wild cheetah is a restricted activity under the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES), however, limited legal trade is permitted of animals born to captive parents. To effectively monitor the legal and illegal trade in South Africa, it was thus essential to develop a validated molecular test. Here, we designed a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array for cheetah from Double Digest Restriction Associated DNA sequencing data for individual identification and parentage testing. In order to validate the array, unrelated individuals and 16 family groups consisting of both parents and one to three offspring were genotyped using the Applied Biosystems™ QuantStudio™ 12K Flex Real-Time PCR System. In addition, parentage assignments were compared to microsatellite data. Cross-species amplification was tested in various felids and cheetah sub-species in order to determine the utility of the SNP array in other species. We obtained successful genotyping results for 218 SNPs in cheetah (A. j. jubatus) with an optimal DNA input concentration ranging from 10 to 30 ng/µl. The combination of SNPs had a higher resolving power for individual identification compared to microsatellites and provided high assignment accuracy in known pedigrees. Cross-species amplification in other felids was determined to be limited. However, the SNP array demonstrated a clear genetic discrimination of two cheetah subspecies tested here. We conclude that the described SNP array is suitable for accurate parentage assignment and provides an important traceability tool for forensic investigations of cheetah trade.


Assuntos
Acinonyx/genética , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Genoma/genética , Genômica , Animais , Animais Selvagens/genética , Comércio , Ecossistema , Espécies em Perigo de Extinção , Genótipo , Humanos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , África do Sul
8.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(52): 33325-33333, 2020 12 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33288693

RESUMO

Human-wildlife conflicts occur worldwide. Although many nonlethal mitigation solutions are available, they rarely use the behavioral ecology of the conflict species to derive effective and long-lasting solutions. Here, we use a long-term study with 106 GPS-collared free-ranging cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus) to demonstrate how new insights into the socio-spatial organization of this species provide the key for such a solution. GPS-collared territory holders marked and defended communication hubs (CHs) in the core area of their territories. The CHs/territories were distributed in a regular pattern across the landscape such that they were not contiguous with each other but separated by a surrounding matrix. They were kept in this way by successive territory holders, thus maintaining this overdispersed distribution. The CHs were also visited by nonterritorial cheetah males and females for information exchange, thus forming hotspots of cheetah activity and presence. We hypothesized that the CHs pose an increased predation risk to young calves for cattle farmers in Namibia. In an experimental approach, farmers shifted cattle herds away from the CHs during the calving season. This drastically reduced their calf losses by cheetahs because cheetahs did not follow the herds but instead preyed on naturally occurring local wildlife prey in the CHs. This implies that in the cheetah system, there are "problem areas," the CHs, rather than "problem individuals." The incorporation of the behavioral ecology of conflict species opens promising areas to search for solutions in other conflict species with nonhomogenous space use.


Assuntos
Acinonyx/fisiologia , Comunicação Animal , Carnivoridade/fisiologia , Animais , Feminino , Geografia , Humanos , Masculino , Namíbia
9.
Zoology (Jena) ; 143: 125853, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33157508

RESUMO

Dietary composition is a fundamental part of animal ecology and an important component of population dynamics. Therefore, obtaining accurate information on what an animal consumes is important for conservation planning, especially for wild large carnivores that exist in human-dominated landscapes where they are prone to direct conflicts with local people. We used faecal DNA metabarcoding to identify the vertebrate taxa commonly predated on by cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus) with an emphasis on domestic taxa and determine the drivers of livestock predation by cheetahs residing in the Maasai Mara and Amboseli ecosystems which are important population strongholds in southern Kenya. From 84 cheetah faeces that we analysed, a total of 14 prey taxa were identified, including birds, wild and domestic mammals. The livestock taxa identified in cheetah faeces occurred at moderate frequency (12.8%) and the results showed that livestock predation was influenced neither by the sex of the cheetah nor by season. In general, our study shows that cheetahs prey on a diverse range of prey taxa including birds, wild ungulates of various sizes and occasionally on domestic animals, and that the faecal DNA metabarcoding approach represents a valuable complement to traditional dietary analysis methods.


Assuntos
Acinonyx/fisiologia , Fezes/química , Gado/genética , Mamíferos/genética , Comportamento Predatório , Animais , Animais Selvagens , DNA/genética , Dieta , Ecossistema , Feminino , Quênia , Masculino
10.
PLoS One ; 15(11): e0226861, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33232315

RESUMO

Models of political-ecological systems can inform policies for managing ecosystems that contain endangered species. To increase the credibility of these models, massive computation is needed to statistically estimate the model's parameters, compute confidence intervals for these parameters, determine the model's prediction error rate, and assess its sensitivity to parameter misspecification. To meet this statistical and computational challenge, this article delivers statistical algorithms and a method for constructing ecosystem management plans that are coded as distributed computing applications. These applications can run on cluster computers, the cloud, or a collection of in-house workstations. This downloadable code is used to address the challenge of conserving the East African cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus). This demonstration means that the new standard of credibility that any political-ecological model needs to meet is the one given herein.


Assuntos
Acinonyx , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/métodos , Algoritmos , Animais , Computação em Nuvem , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/legislação & jurisprudência , Ecossistema , Espécies em Perigo de Extinção , Modelos Teóricos , Política
11.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 17841, 2020 10 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33082386

RESUMO

Variability in habitat selection can lead to differences in fitness; however limited research exists on how habitat selection of mid-ranking predators can influence population-level processes in multi-predator systems. For mid-ranking, or mesopredators, differences in habitat use might have strong demographic effects because mesopredators need to simultaneously avoid apex predators and acquire prey. We studied spatially-explicit survival of cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus) in the Mun-Ya-Wana Conservancy, South Africa, to test hypotheses related to spatial influences of predation risk, prey availability, and vegetation complexity, on mesopredator survival. For each monitored cheetah, we estimated lion encounter risk, prey density, and vegetation complexity within their home range, on short-term (seasonal) and long-term (lifetime) scales and estimated survival based on these covariates. Survival was lowest for adult cheetahs and cubs in areas with high vegetation complexity on both seasonal and lifetime scales. Additionally, cub survival was negatively related to the long-term risk of encountering a lion. We suggest that complex habitats are only beneficial to mesopredators when they are able to effectively find and hunt prey, and show that spatial drivers of survival for mesopredators can vary temporally. Collectively, our research illustrates that individual variation in mesopredator habitat use can scale-up and have population-level effects.


Assuntos
Acinonyx/fisiologia , Ecossistema , Comportamento Predatório , Animais , Cadeia Alimentar , Dinâmica Populacional , África do Sul
12.
Environ Res ; 190: 109966, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32829186

RESUMO

Two of the world most endangered marine and terrestrial species are at the brink of extinction. The vaquita (Phocoena sinus) is the smallest existing cetacean and the population has declined to barely 22 individuals now remaining in Mexico's Gulf of California. With the ongoing decline, it is likely to go extinct within few years. The primary threat to this species has been mortality as a result of by-catch from gillnet fishing as well as environmental toxic chemicals and disturbance. This has called for the need to establish a National Park within the Gulf of California to expand essential habitat and provide the critical ecosystem protection for vaquita to thrive and multiply, given that proper conservation enforcement and management of the park are accomplished. In the terrestrial environment, the cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) is reduced to a low number worldwide with the Iran subpopulation currently listed as Critically Endangered and the Indian subpopulation already extinct. There is a need for conservation efforts due to habitat loss, but also an indication of the conspicuous threat of illegal trade and trafficking from Africa and Arab countries in the Middle East. Funds have also been set up to provide refuges for the cheetah by working directly with farmers and landowners, which is a critical movement in adaptive management. These are the potential options for the preservation and possibly the expansion of the overall vaquita and cheetah populations.


Assuntos
Acinonyx , África , Animais , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Ecossistema , Espécies em Perigo de Extinção , Humanos , Irã (Geográfico) , Oriente Médio
13.
Zoo Biol ; 39(5): 325-333, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32730659

RESUMO

The histological effect on the felid uterus of sterilization, via ovariectomy or salpingectomy, is currently unknown. To investigate the association of ovariectomy or salpingectomy with uterine health, it is first necessary to establish if changes are distributed evenly throughout the uterus. Both laparoscopic ovariectomy and salpingectomy with concurrent sampling of the tip of the uterine horn are possible in the cheetah. Currently accepted practice for histopathological screening of the uterus utilizes four biopsy samples. It is not known whether this method accurately reflects the status of the entire uterus. In this study we histologically examined the uteri of six older cheetahs (one 7-year-old and five 10-10.5-year-old animals) via 21 tissue samples (three samples from seven different anatomical regions) per cheetah to determine overall uterine health. Although no defined lesions were detected, mild endometrial gland dilation, assumed to be of no functional consequence, was observed in multiple samples. The odds of observing this dilation was lowest in the uterine body and progressively increased in a cranial direction, being significantly higher at the tip of the uterine horns (OR = 11.5; 95% CI, 2.0-65.1; p = 0.006). This supported the reliability of sampling the tip of the uterine horn to screen for endometrial gland dilation.


Assuntos
Acinonyx/fisiologia , Envelhecimento/fisiologia , Útero/fisiologia , Animais , Feminino
14.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(10)2020 May 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32466321

RESUMO

Artificial insemination (AI) is a valuable tool for ex situ wildlife conservation, allowing the re-infusion and dissemination of genetic material, even after death of the donor. However, the application of AI to species conservation is still limited, due mainly to the poor survival of cryopreserved sperm. Recent work demonstrated that oviductal extracellular vesicles (oEVs) improved cat sperm motility and reduced premature acrosomal exocytosis. Here, we build on these findings by describing the protein content of dog and cat oEVs and investigating whether the incubation of cryopreserved red wolf and cheetah sperm with oEVs during thawing improves sperm function. Both red wolf and cheetah sperm thawed with dog and cat oEVs, respectively, had more intact acrosomes than the non-EV controls. Moreover, red wolf sperm thawed in the presence of dog oEVs better maintained sperm motility over time (>15%) though such an improvement was not observed in cheetah sperm. Our work demonstrates that dog and cat oEVs carry proteins important for sperm function and improve post-thaw motility and/or acrosome integrity of red wolf and cheetah sperm in vitro. The findings show how oEVs can be a valuable tool for improving the success of AI with cryopreserved sperm in threatened species.


Assuntos
Acinonyx/fisiologia , Criopreservação/métodos , Exossomos/metabolismo , Inseminação Artificial/métodos , Preservação do Sêmen/métodos , Espermatozoides/fisiologia , Lobos/fisiologia , Animais , Espécies em Perigo de Extinção , Feminino , Masculino , Oviductos/metabolismo , Motilidade Espermática
15.
Am J Vet Res ; 81(4): 375-380, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32228261

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To establish a reference interval for glomerular filtration rate (GFR) determined by measuring serum clearance of a single IV dose of inulin in clinically normal cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus) and compare serum symmetric dimethylarginine (SDMA) concentration in cheetahs with GFR. ANIMALS: 33 cheetahs housed at 3 institutions. PROCEDURES: A single bolus of inulin (3,000 mg/m2) was administered IV, and 5 serial blood samples were collected and analyzed for serum inulin concentration with the anthrone technique. The GFR was estimated with a modified slope-intercept method for the slow component of the serum concentration-versus-time curve. Blood urea nitrogen and serum creatinine concentrations were measured in samples obtained immediately prior to inulin administration, and serum SDMA concentration was measured in stored samples. RESULTS: Mean ± SD measured GFR was 1.58 ± 0.39 mL/min/kg, and the calculated reference interval was 0.84 to 2.37 mL/min/kg. There were significant negative correlations between GFR and serum creatinine concentration (r = -0.499), BUN concentration (r = -0.592), and age (r = -0.463). Serum SDMA concentration was not significantly correlated with GFR (r = 0.385), BUN concentration (r = -0.281), or serum creatinine concentration (r = 0.165). CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: A reference interval for GFR in clinically normal cheetahs was obtained. Further evaluation of animals with renal disease is needed to determine whether measuring serum clearance of a single IV dose of inulin is a reliable diagnostic test for early detection of renal disease in cheetahs.


Assuntos
Acinonyx , Animais , Arginina/análogos & derivados , Creatinina , Testes Diagnósticos de Rotina , Taxa de Filtração Glomerular , Inulina
16.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 4618, 2020 03 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32165662

RESUMO

The Indian cheetah was hunted to extinction by the mid-20th century. While analysis of 139 bp of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) has confirmed that the Indian cheetah was part of the Asiatic subspecies (Acinonyx jubatus venaticus), the detailed relationships between cheetah populations remains unclear due to limited genetic data. We clarify these relationships by studying larger fragments of cheetah mtDNA, both from an Indian cheetah museum specimen and two African cheetah, one modern and one historic, imported into India at different times. Our results suggest that the most recent common ancestor of cheetah mtDNA is approximately twice as ancient as currently recognised. The Indian and Southeast African (Acinonyx jubatus jubatus) cheetah mtDNA diverged approximately 72 kya, while the Southeast and Northeast African (Acinonyx jubatus soemmeringii) cheetah mtDNA diverged around 139 kya. Additionally, the historic African cheetah sampled from India proved to have an A. j. jubatus haplotype, suggesting a hitherto unrecognised South African route of cheetah importation into India in the 19th century. Together, our results provide a deeper understanding of the relationships between cheetah subspecies, and have important implications for the conservation of A. j. venaticus and potential reintroduction of cheetahs into India.


Assuntos
Acinonyx/classificação , Acinonyx/genética , DNA Mitocondrial , Extinção Biológica , Variação Genética , Genética Populacional , África , Animais , Índia , Filogenia , Filogeografia
17.
J Zoo Wildl Med ; 51(1): 210-216, 2020 Mar 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32212565

RESUMO

Cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus) are particularly susceptible to feline herpesvirus-1 (FHV-1). Recommendations for preventive health care in cheetahs include vaccination against FHV-1 using killed and modified live virus (MLV) vaccines. Although MLV vaccines tend to induce a more robust immune response than killed vaccines, they can induce disease. This case series details an FHV-1 outbreak in four adult cheetahs following the use of MLV vaccine in one of them. All four cheetahs developed severe FHV-1 clinical signs and were euthanized. Clinical signs included depression, anorexia, nasal discharge, ocular discharge, sneezing, and ulcerative dermatitis. Herpesvirus infection was diagnosed using history, clinical signs, polymerase chain reaction, and histologic evaluation. The timeline of events suggests the MLV vaccine was the inciting cause, although this was not conclusively proven. Outcome of this case suggests that when considering MLV vaccines for cheetahs, careful risk and benefit discussions are merited.


Assuntos
Acinonyx , Infecções por Herpesviridae/veterinária , Vacinação/veterinária , Vacinas Atenuadas/efeitos adversos , Varicellovirus/fisiologia , Animais , Animais de Zoológico , Feminino , Infecções por Herpesviridae/diagnóstico , Infecções por Herpesviridae/etiologia , Infecções por Herpesviridae/prevenção & controle , Masculino , Resultado do Tratamento , Vacinação/efeitos adversos , Varicellovirus/efeitos dos fármacos
18.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 26(3): 630-631, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32091381

RESUMO

In South Africa, bovine tuberculosis threatens some of Africa's most iconic wildlife species, including the cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus). The lack of antemortem diagnostic tests for this species strongly hinders conservation efforts. We report use of antemortem and postmortem diagnostic assays to detect Mycobacterium bovis infection in a cheetah.


Assuntos
Acinonyx , Mycobacterium bovis , Tuberculose/veterinária , Animais , Imunoensaio/veterinária , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/veterinária , África do Sul , Tuberculose/diagnóstico , Tuberculose/patologia
19.
PLoS One ; 15(2): e0225354, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32040477

RESUMO

The North American cheetah population serves as a reservoir for the species, and acts as a research population to help understand the unique biology of the species. Little is known about the intrauterine physiology of the cheetah, including embryo differentiation, implantation, and the development of the placenta. After mating, cheetah females frequently experience (30-65% of matings) a non-pregnant luteal phase where progestogen metabolite levels match those found in pregnant females for the first ~55 days of gestation, but parturition does not occur. Immunoglobulin J chain (IgJ) is a molecule that is involved in the activation of the secretory immune response and has been found to be indicative of pregnancy in the cheetah using fecal monitoring. In this study, western blotting was employed to track IgJ abundance in pooled weekly fecal samples following natural breeding or exogenous stimulation to ovulate, and IgJ levels were compared between individuals undergoing a pregnant (n = 12) and non-pregnant (n = 19) luteal phase. It was revealed that IgJ abundance was increased in pregnant females compared to non-pregnant females at week 4 and week 8 post-breeding, indicating the potential modulation of maternal immunity in response to sensitive events such as implantation and the increased secretory activity of the placenta. IgJ levels also tended to be higher early after breeding in females that were bred naturally with intact males compared to exogenously stimulated females with no exposure to seminal plasma, potentially indicating a response to the act of intromission or the stress of breeding, or possibly demonstrating an immune response resulting in the promotion of maternal tolerance to seminal antigens present upon embryonic implantation. Monitoring fecal IgJ may be a potential method to determine gestational status in the cheetah and will aid future conservation efforts of the species.


Assuntos
Acinonyx/fisiologia , Cadeias J de Imunoglobulina/análise , Gravidez/imunologia , Reprodução/imunologia , Animais , Animais de Zoológico , Biomarcadores/análise , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Estrogênios/análise , Fezes/química , Feminino , Cadeias J de Imunoglobulina/metabolismo , Fase Luteal/imunologia , Masculino , Indução da Ovulação , Progestinas/análise , Sêmen , Comportamento Sexual Animal , Estados Unidos
20.
J Zoo Wildl Med ; 50(4): 997-999, 2020 Jan 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31926535

RESUMO

A single incision laparoscopic system (SILS) was used to remove the falciform ligament of an adult male cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) during routine diagnostic liver biopsy. Adipose tissue isolated from the falciform ligament was used to establish a mesenchymal stem cell culture. The use of a SILS port for liver biopsy and falciform ligament collection allowed for a large amount of fat to be collected from a small surgical incision and rapid postoperative recovery. This case expands the use of the single incision laparoscopy surgical technique beyond reproductive sterilization procedures in large cats.


Assuntos
Acinonyx/cirurgia , Laparoscopia/veterinária , Ligamentos/cirurgia , Tecido Adiposo/citologia , Animais , Biópsia/instrumentação , Biópsia/métodos , Biópsia/veterinária , Fígado/patologia , Masculino , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais
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