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2.
Glob Chang Biol ; 26(1): 80-102, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31670444

RESUMO

Although cross generation (CGP) and multigenerational (MGP) plasticity have been identified as mechanisms of acclimation to global change, the weight of evidence indicates that parental conditioning over generations is not a panacea to rescue stress sensitivity in offspring. For many species, there were no benefits of parental conditioning. Even when improved performance was observed, this waned over time within a generation or across generations and fitness declined. CGP and MGP studies identified resilient species with stress tolerant genotypes in wild populations and selected family lines. Several bivalves possess favourable stress tolerance and phenotypically plastic traits potentially associated with genetic adaptation to life in habitats where they routinely experience temperature and/or acidification stress. These traits will be important to help 'climate proof' shellfish ventures. Species that are naturally stress tolerant and those that naturally experience a broad range of environmental conditions are good candidates to provide insights into the physiological and molecular mechanisms involved in CGP and MGP. It is challenging to conduct ecologically relevant global change experiments over the long times commensurate with the pace of changing climate. As a result, many studies present stressors in a shock-type exposure at rates much faster than projected scenarios. With more gradual stressor introduction over longer experimental durations and in context with conditions species are currently acclimatized and/or adapted to, the outcomes for sensitive species might differ. We highlight the importance to understand primordial germ cell development and the timing of gametogenesis with respect to stressor exposure. Although multigenerational exposure to global change stressors currently appears limited as a universal tool to rescue species in the face of changing climate, natural proxies of future conditions (upwelling zones, CO2 vents, naturally warm habitats) show that phenotypic adjustment and/or beneficial genetic selection is possible for some species, indicating complex plasticity-adaptation interactions.


Assuntos
Organismos Aquáticos , Mudança Climática , Aclimatação , Animais , Ecossistema , Invertebrados
3.
Gene ; 722: 144101, 2020 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31479714

RESUMO

The catadromous species, eels, invariably exposed to variable Ca2+ concentrations circumstance i.e., lagoon or ocean. They need to maintain Ca2+ homeostasis by exchanging Ca2+ under different culture conditions. To understand the effects of environmental Ca2+ to fish, three types of genes coding for voltage-dependent L-type calcium channels (cacnb1, 2, 3) were cloned by screening an A. marmorata cDNA library. Tissue distribution analysis of Western blot showed that Cacnb1, 2, 3 had a significantly high expression in gill; while mRNA results showed the expressions of cacnb1 and cacnb3 were predominated in skin tissue but only cacnb2 was expressed in intestine. Serum osmolality and Ca2+ concentrations of A.marmorata were increased in a high calcium environment while reduced in a low calcium environment within 7 days; however, they were not significantly different among Ca2+ treatments after the eels were acclimated for 7 days. We also examined the influence of ambient Ca2+ levels on cacnbs expression of eels. With the increasing of exposure time, mRNA and protein expressions of cacnb1 were up-regulated in high level of Ca2+ (10 mM) and down-regulated in deficient Ca2+ (0 mM) compared to the control Ca2+ (2 mM). However, the opposite results were observed in cacnb2 and cacnb3. Notably, the cacnb2 expression was not significant different among Ca2+ treatments on day 7. Our study provided the insightful evidence that cacnbs play important roles in maintaining Ca2+ homeostasis of fish.


Assuntos
Anguilla/metabolismo , Canais de Cálcio Tipo L/metabolismo , Cálcio/fisiologia , Aclimatação , Anguilla/sangue , Anguilla/genética , Animais , Cálcio/sangue , Canais de Cálcio Tipo L/química , Canais de Cálcio Tipo L/genética , Clonagem Molecular , Brânquias/metabolismo , Concentração Osmolar , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Distribuição Tecidual
4.
Sci Total Environ ; 699: 134404, 2020 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31678877

RESUMO

The climate change phenomenon has been occurring in every part of the world, including Malaysia. In particular, changes such as rising temperature, sea level rise, and unstable rain pattern are proven to affect the socio-economic routine of the community. Hence, it is necessary to learn how to adapt to it, especially those who heavily rely on nature stability. The present study examined the adaptation towards climate change among islanders in Malaysia. In addition, the current research was performed quantitatively using a developed questionnaire as the main data collection tool. In this case, a total of 400 islanders were selected as the respondents through a multi-stage sampling technique. The results revealed that the respondents recorded a moderate to high mean score for adaptation aspects namely awareness, dependency and structure. Accordingly, a number of recommendations that were highlighted can be utilized as a basis to develop community adaptation policy that is in line with the islanders' need, ability, and interests.


Assuntos
Mudança Climática , Aclimatação , Adaptação Fisiológica , Malásia , Chuva , Inquéritos e Questionários , Temperatura Ambiente
5.
Environ Technol ; 41(1): 49-58, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30461343

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to assess the effect of inoculum adaptation on biogas recovery from two identical lab-scale semi-continuous anaerobic digesters (AD) treating chicken waste (i.e. TS and VS contents of ca. 6.2% and 2.9%, respectively) at mesophilic condition (35°C). For the first two months; one of the AD was run with adapted whereas the second AD was run with unadapted granular sludge to chicken manure which was further operated for about 100 more days. In this scope, qPCR analysis and Illumina sequencing were also used to detect microbial community changes inside anaerobic reactors. Molecular analyses revealed that the number of archaea was significantly higher than that of overall archaea compared to the values obtained at the start-up time and methanogens also increased as the operation continued. On the other hand, although average daily biogas production was about 25% higher in adapted AD compared to the unadapted AD (i.e. biogas yields were ca. 0.6 and 0.7 m3/kg VSfeed, respectively), there was not a meaningful change in archaea numbers at the end of the operation. These suggest that changes in the structure of a microbial community lead to changes in biogas production and controlling ultimate methanogenic archaeal community may promote successful methane production in anaerobic reactors.


Assuntos
Esterco , Microbiota , Aclimatação , Anaerobiose , Animais , Archaea , Biocombustíveis , Reatores Biológicos , Galinhas , Metano
6.
Bioresour Technol ; 296: 122294, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31677410

RESUMO

The methane productivity and long chain fatty acids (LCFAs) degradation capability of unacclimatized seed sludge (USS) and acclimatized seed sludge (ASS) at different substrate ratios of fats oil and grease (FOG) and mixed sewage sludge were investigated in this study. Biogas produced in ASS in initial phase of anaerobic digestion had higher methane content (65-76%) than that in USS (26-73%). The degradation of major LCFAs in the ASS was 22-80%, 33-191%, and 7-64% higher for the substrate ratios of 100:10, 100:20, and 100:30, respectively, as compared to the LCFAs' degradation in USS. Microbial acclimatization increased the population of Firmicutes (40%), Bacteroidetes (32%), Synergistetes (10%), and Euryarchaeota (8%) in ASS, which supported the faster rate of LCFAs degradation for its later conversion to methane. The significant abundance of Syntrophomonas and Methanosarcina genera in ASS supported faster generation rate of methane in an obligatory syntrophic relationship.


Assuntos
Reatores Biológicos , Microbiota , Aclimatação , Anaerobiose , Biocombustíveis , Digestão , Metano , Esgotos
7.
Ecol Lett ; 23(1): 181-192, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31729141

RESUMO

Contemporary climate change is proceeding at an unprecedented rate. The question remains whether populations adapted to historical conditions can persist under rapid environmental change. We tested whether climate change will disrupt local adaptation and reduce population growth rates using the perennial plant Boechera stricta (Brassicaceae). In a large-scale field experiment conducted over five years, we exposed > 106 000 transplants to historical, current, or future climates and quantified fitness components. Low-elevation populations outperformed local populations under simulated climate change (snow removal) across all five experimental gardens. Local maladaptation also emerged in control treatments, but it was less pronounced than under snow removal. We recovered local adaptation under snow addition treatments, which reflect historical conditions. Our results revealed that low elevation populations risk rapid decline, whereas upslope migration could enable population persistence and expansion at higher elevation locales. Local adaptation to historical conditions could increase vulnerability to climate change, even for geographically widespread species.


Assuntos
Brassicaceae , Mudança Climática , Aclimatação , Adaptação Fisiológica , Neve
8.
Chemosphere ; 238: 124571, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31472351

RESUMO

Rhodococcus exhibits strong adaptability to environmental stressors and plays a crucial role in environmental bioremediation. However, seasonal changes in ambient temperature, especially rapid temperature drops exert an adverse effect on in situ bioremediation. In this paper, we studied the cell morphology and fatty acid composition of an aniline-degrading strain Rhodococcus sp. CNS16 at temperatures of 30 °C, 20 °C, and 10 °C. At suboptimal temperatures, cell morphology of CNS16 changed from short rod-shaped to long rod or irregular shaped, and the proportion of unsaturated fatty acids was upregulated. Transcriptomic technologies were then utilized to gain detailed insights into the adaptive mechanisms of CNS16 subjected to suboptimal temperatures. The results showed that the number of gene responses was significantly higher at 10 °C than that at 20 °C. The inhibition of peptidoglycan synthase expression and up-regulation of Filamentous Temperature Sensitive as well as unsaturated fatty acid synthesis genes at suboptimal temperatures might be closely related to corresponding changes in cell morphology and fatty acids composition. Strain CNS16 showed loss of catalase and superoxide dismutase activity, and utilized thioredoxin-dependent thiol peroxidase to resist oxidative stress. The up-regulation of carotenoid and Vitamin B2 synthesis at 10 °C might also be involved in the resistance to oxidative stress. Amino acid metabolism, coenzyme and vitamin metabolism, ABC transport, and energy metabolism are essential for peptidoglycan synthesis and regulation of cellular metabolism; therefore, synergistically resisting environmental stress. This study provides a mechanistic basis for the regulation of aniline degradation in Rhodococcus sp. CNS16 at low temperatures.


Assuntos
Aclimatação/fisiologia , Compostos de Anilina/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Peptidoglicano/biossíntese , Rhodococcus/metabolismo , Biodegradação Ambiental , Catalase/metabolismo , Temperatura Baixa , Estresse Oxidativo/fisiologia , Proteínas de Ligação às Penicilinas/biossíntese , Peroxirredoxinas/metabolismo , Rhodococcus/genética , Estações do Ano , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo , Transcriptoma
9.
J Int Soc Sports Nutr ; 16(1): 51, 2019 Nov 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31707995

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Altitude training is a common practice among middle-distance and marathon runners. During acclimatization, sympathetic drive may increase resting metabolic rate (RMR), therefore implementation of targeted nutritional interventions based on training demands and environmental conditions becomes paramount. This single case study represents the first nutritional intervention performed under hypobaric hypoxic conditions (3900 m) in Paralympic sport. These results may elucidate the unique nutritional requirements of upper body endurance athletes training at altitude. CASE PRESENTATION: This case study examined the effects of a nutritional intervention on the body mass of a 36-year-old professional wheelchair athlete (silver medalist at the Paralympic Games and 106 victories in assorted road events) during a five-week altitude training camp, divided into pre-altitude at sea level (BN), acclimatization to altitude (Puno, 3860 m) (BH), specific training (W1,2,3,4) and return to sea level (Post) phases. Energy intake (kcal) and body mass (kg) were recorded daily. Results demonstrated significant decrease in body mass between BN and BH (52.6 ± 0.4 vs 50.7 ± 0.5 kg, P < 0.001) which returned to pre-altitude values, upon returning to sea level at Post (52.1 ± 0.5 kg). A greater daily intake was observed during BH (2899 ± 670 kcal) and W1,2,3 (3037 ± 490; 3116 ± 170; 3101 ± 385 kcal) compared to BN (2397 ± 242 kcal, P < 0.01) and Post (2411 ± 137 kcal, P < 0.01). No differences were reported between W4 (2786 ± 375 kcal), BN and Post. The amount of carbohydrates ingested (g · kg- 1) was greater in W1,2,3, (9.6 ± 2.1; 9.9 ± 1.2; 9.6 ± 1.2) than in BN (7.1 ± 1.2) and Post (6.3 ± 0.8, P < 0.001). Effect sizes (Cohen's d) for all variables relative to BN (all time points) exceed a large effect (d > 0.80). CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest an elite wheelchair marathoner training at 3860 m required increased nutrient requirements as well as the systematic control needed to re-adapt a nutritional program. Moreover, our findings highlight training and nutritional prescription optimization of elite wheelchair athletes, under challenging environmental conditions.


Assuntos
Aclimatação , Desempenho Atlético , Dieta , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Esportiva , Adulto , Altitude , Humanos , Masculino , Cadeiras de Rodas
10.
Biol Lett ; 15(11): 20190626, 2019 11 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31744415

RESUMO

Eco-evolutionary feedbacks may determine the outcome of predator-prey interactions in nature, but little work has been done to quantify the feedback effect of short-term prey adaptation on predator performance. We tested the effects of prey availability and recent (less than 100 years) prey adaptation on the feeding and growth rate of largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides), foraging on western mosquitofish (Gambusia affinis). Field surveys showed higher densities and larger average body sizes of mosquitofish in recently introduced populations without bass. Over a six-week mesocosm experiment, bass were presented with either a high or low availability of mosquitofish prey from recently established populations either naive or experienced with bass. Naive mosquitofish were larger, less cryptic and more vulnerable to bass predation compared to their experienced counterparts. Bass consumed more naive prey, grew more quickly with naive prey, and grew more quickly per unit biomass of naive prey consumed. The effect of mosquitofish history with the bass on bass growth was similar in magnitude to the effect of mosquitofish availability. In showing that recently derived predation-related prey phenotypes strongly affect predator performance, this study supports the presence of reciprocal predator-prey trait feedbacks in nature.


Assuntos
Bass , Ciprinodontiformes , Aclimatação , Animais , Evolução Biológica , Comportamento Predatório
12.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 91(4): e20190055, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31778459

RESUMO

The immune state is an essential component of survival as it directly influences physiological performance and health status. Variation in the leukocyte profile, a significantly increase in body temperature, and a detriment of the eco-physiological performance are among the possible consequences of an unhealthy state. In this study we analyse and discuss how field body temperature, preferred body temperature, the speed for sprint and long runs, locomotor stamina, and body condition can be affected by the immunological state (i.e. leukocyte profile) in a wild population of Liolaemus sarmentoi. Juveniles and adult males with a high percentage of eosinophils, basophils, and a low percentage of monocytes preferred higher body temperatures in a thermal gradient, while pregnant females maintained thermal preferences independently of leukocyte profile. Although juveniles with a high percentage of heterophils showed less locomotor stamina, adult males and pregnant females showed no differences in locomotor performance in relation to leukocyte profile. This study represents a starting point in eco-immunology of a wild lizard population of Liolaemus in cold and temperate environments of Patagonia where the southward shift in the geographic ranges of pathogen populations due to global warming represents a threat to resident host populations.


Assuntos
Comportamento Animal/fisiologia , Temperatura Corporal/imunologia , Lagartos/sangue , Lagartos/imunologia , Atividade Motora/imunologia , Aclimatação , Animais , Temperatura Corporal/fisiologia , Feminino , Lagartos/fisiologia , Masculino , Atividade Motora/fisiologia , Gravidez
13.
Nature ; 575(7781): 109-118, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31695205

RESUMO

The current trajectory for crop yields is insufficient to nourish the world's population by 20501. Greater and more consistent crop production must be achieved against a backdrop of climatic stress that limits yields, owing to shifts in pests and pathogens, precipitation, heat-waves and other weather extremes. Here we consider the potential of plant sciences to address post-Green Revolution challenges in agriculture and explore emerging strategies for enhancing sustainable crop production and resilience in a changing climate. Accelerated crop improvement must leverage naturally evolved traits and transformative engineering driven by mechanistic understanding, to yield the resilient production systems that are needed to ensure future harvests.


Assuntos
Produção Agrícola/métodos , Produção Agrícola/estatística & dados numéricos , Produtos Agrícolas/genética , Abastecimento de Alimentos/métodos , Abastecimento de Alimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Aquecimento Global/estatística & dados numéricos , Desenvolvimento Sustentável/tendências , Aclimatação/genética , Aclimatação/fisiologia , Animais , Produtos Agrícolas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Produtos Agrícolas/microbiologia , Produtos Agrícolas/virologia , Fertilizantes , Humanos , Doenças das Plantas/genética , Doenças das Plantas/prevenção & controle , Doenças das Plantas/estatística & dados numéricos , Chuva
14.
Biol Lett ; 15(10): 20190613, 2019 10 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31615371

RESUMO

The ability to cope with increasing and more variable temperatures, due to predicted climate changes, through plastic and/or evolutionary responses will be crucial for the persistence of Arctic species. Here, we investigate plasticity of heat tolerance of the Greenlandic seed bug Nysius groenlandicus, which inhabits areas with widely fluctuating temperatures. We test the heat tolerance and hardening capacity (plasticity) of N. groenlandicus using both static (heat knock down time, HKDT) and dynamic (critical thermal maximum, CTmax) assays. We find that N. groenlandicus is able to tolerate short-term exposure to temperatures up to almost 50°C and that it can quickly increase heat resistance following heat hardening. Furthermore, we find that this hardening response is reversible within hours after hardening. These findings contrast with common observations from temperate and tropical insects and suggest high thermal plasticity in some Arctic insects which enables them to cope with extreme temperature variability in their habitats.


Assuntos
Mariposas , Termotolerância , Aclimatação , Animais , Mudança Climática , Temperatura Alta , Temperatura Ambiente
17.
Science ; 366(6464): 418-419, 2019 10 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31649180
18.
J Strength Cond Res ; 33(11): 2913-2919, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31658211

RESUMO

Morris, KL, Widstrom, L, Goodrich, J, Poddar, S, Rueda, M, Holliday, M, San Millian, I, and Byrnes, WC. A retrospective analysis of collegiate athlete blood biomarkers at moderate altitude. J Strength Cond Res 33(11): 2913-2919, 2019-Blood biomarkers are used to assess overall health and determine positive/negative adaptations to training/environmental stimuli. This study aimed to describe the changes in blood biomarkers in collegiate football (FB) (n = 31) and cross-country (XC) (n = 29; 16 women [FXC], 13 men [MXC]) athletes across a competitive season while training and living at a moderate altitude (1,655 m). This study used a database of previously collected hematological (complete blood count and serum ferritin) and muscle damage (lactate dehydrogenase and creatine kinase) blood biomarkers. Data were analyzed both within and between groups using linear mixed-model and variance component analyses, alpha = 0.05. All 3 groups had significant but different patterns of change in the measured biomarkers. Hematological blood biomarkers increased at different time points but remained within the normal reference ranges with greater between-subject vs. within-subject variability, suggesting no significant decrements to oxygen-carrying capacity across the season for FB, MXC, or FXC. Muscle damage biomarkers increased over time and exceeded the normal reference ranges, indicating cell damage pathology. However, it is also possible that the demands of training and competition might alter baseline values in these athletes, although this cannot be confirmed with the current experimental design. The patterns of change in the hematological and muscle damage biomarkers varied by sport discipline, suggesting that the training/competitive environments of these athletes influence these changes. Further studies should assess how much training, altitude, and nutrition influence these changes by using a more comprehensive set of biomarkers and related performance parameters.


Assuntos
Aclimatação , Altitude , Biomarcadores/sangue , Esportes/fisiologia , Atletas , Creatina Quinase/sangue , Feminino , Ferritinas/sangue , Humanos , L-Lactato Desidrogenase/sangue , Masculino , Oxigênio , Estudos Retrospectivos , Universidades
19.
PLoS Genet ; 15(10): e1008223, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31626626

RESUMO

Filamentous fungi rapidly evolve in response to environmental selection pressures in part due to their genomic plasticity. Parastagonospora nodorum, a fungal pathogen of wheat and causal agent of septoria nodorum blotch, responds to selection pressure exerted by its host, influencing the gain, loss, or functional diversification of virulence determinants, known as effector genes. Whole genome resequencing of 197 P. nodorum isolates collected from spring, durum, and winter wheat production regions of the United States enabled the examination of effector diversity and genomic regions under selection specific to geographically discrete populations. 1,026,859 SNPs/InDels were used to identify novel loci, as well as SnToxA and SnTox3 as factors in disease. Genes displaying presence/absence variation, predicted effector genes, and genes localized on an accessory chromosome had significantly higher pN/pS ratios, indicating a higher rate of sequence evolution. Population structure analyses indicated two P. nodorum populations corresponding to the Upper Midwest (Population 1) and Southern/Eastern United States (Population 2). Prevalence of SnToxA varied greatly between the two populations which correlated with presence of the host sensitivity gene Tsn1 in the most prevalent cultivars in the corresponding regions. Additionally, 12 and 5 candidate effector genes were observed to be under diversifying selection among isolates from Population 1 and 2, respectively, but under purifying selection or neutrally evolving in the opposite population. Selective sweep analysis revealed 10 and 19 regions that had recently undergone positive selection in Population 1 and 2, respectively, involving 92 genes in total. When comparing genes with and without presence/absence variation, those genes exhibiting this variation were significantly closer to transposable elements. Taken together, these results indicate that P. nodorum is rapidly adapting to distinct selection pressures unique to spring and winter wheat production regions by rapid adaptive evolution and various routes of genomic diversification, potentially facilitated through transposable element activity.


Assuntos
Ascomicetos/genética , Fungos/genética , Doenças das Plantas/genética , Seleção Genética/genética , Triticum/microbiologia , Aclimatação/genética , Ascomicetos/patogenicidade , Evolução Molecular , Proteínas Fúngicas/genética , Fungos/patogenicidade , Genética Populacional , Genômica , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/genética , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Locos de Características Quantitativas/genética , Triticum/genética , Triticum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fatores de Virulência/genética
20.
Plant Sci ; 289: 110215, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31623776

RESUMO

14-3-3 proteins are a family of conserved proteins present in eukaryotes as several isoforms, playing a regulatory role in many cellular and physiological processes. In plants, 14-3-3 proteins have been reported to be involved in the response to stress conditions, such as drought, salt and cold. In the present study, 14-3-3ε and 14-3-3ω isoforms, which were representative of ε and non-ε phylogenetic groups, were overexpressed in Arabidopsis thaliana plants; the effect of their overexpression was investigated on H+-ATPase activation and plant response to cold stress. Results demonstrated that H+-ATPase activity was increased in 14-3-3ω-overexpressing plants, whereas overexpression of both 14-3-3 isoforms brought about cold stress tolerance, which was evaluated through ion leakage, lipid peroxidation, osmolyte synthesis, and ROS production assays. A dedicated tandem mass tag (TMT)-based proteomic analysis demonstrated that different proteins involved in the plant response to cold or oxidative stress were over-represented in 14-3-3ε-overexpressing plants.


Assuntos
Proteínas 14-3-3/genética , Arabidopsis/genética , Temperatura Baixa , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/fisiologia , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Estresse Fisiológico/genética , Proteínas 14-3-3/metabolismo , Aclimatação/genética , Arabidopsis/enzimologia , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Isoformas de Proteínas/genética , Isoformas de Proteínas/metabolismo , ATPases Vacuolares Próton-Translocadoras/genética , ATPases Vacuolares Próton-Translocadoras/metabolismo
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