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1.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 5069, 2020 10 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33093493

RESUMO

Ongoing climate change is predicted to trigger major shifts in the geographic distribution of marine plankton species. However, it remains unclear whether species will successfully track optimal habitats to new regions, or face extinction. Here we show that one significant zooplankton group, the radiolaria, underwent a severe decline in high latitude species richness presaged by ecologic reorganization during the late Neogene, a time of amplified polar cooling. We find that the majority (71%) of affected species did not relocate to the warmer low latitudes, but went extinct. This indicates that some plankton species cannot track optimal temperatures on a global scale as assumed by ecologic models; instead, assemblages undergo restructuring and extinction once local environmental thresholds are exceeded. This pattern forewarns profound diversity loss of high latitude radiolaria in the near future, which may have cascading effects on the ocean food web and carbon cycle.


Assuntos
Mudança Climática/história , Ecossistema , Rhizaria/fisiologia , Zooplâncton/fisiologia , Aclimatação/fisiologia , Animais , Regiões Antárticas , Biodiversidade , Evolução Biológica , Extinção Biológica , História Antiga , Modelos Biológicos , Oceanos e Mares , Oceano Pacífico , Temperatura
2.
Nature ; 585(7824): 256-260, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32848244

RESUMO

Temperature controls plant growth and development, and climate change has already altered the phenology of wild plants and crops1. However, the mechanisms by which plants sense temperature are not well understood. The evening complex is a major signalling hub and a core component of the plant circadian clock2,3. The evening complex acts as a temperature-responsive transcriptional repressor, providing rhythmicity and temperature responsiveness to growth through unknown mechanisms2,4-6. The evening complex consists of EARLY FLOWERING 3 (ELF3)4,7, a large scaffold protein and key component of temperature sensing; ELF4, a small α-helical protein; and LUX ARRYTHMO (LUX), a DNA-binding protein required to recruit the evening complex to transcriptional targets. ELF3 contains a polyglutamine (polyQ) repeat8-10, embedded within a predicted prion domain (PrD). Here we find that the length of the polyQ repeat correlates with thermal responsiveness. We show that ELF3 proteins in plants from hotter climates, with no detectable PrD, are active at high temperatures, and lack thermal responsiveness. The temperature sensitivity of ELF3 is also modulated by the levels of ELF4, indicating that ELF4 can stabilize the function of ELF3. In both Arabidopsis and a heterologous system, ELF3 fused with green fluorescent protein forms speckles within minutes in response to higher temperatures, in a PrD-dependent manner. A purified fragment encompassing the ELF3 PrD reversibly forms liquid droplets in response to increasing temperatures in vitro, indicating that these properties reflect a direct biophysical response conferred by the PrD. The ability of temperature to rapidly shift ELF3 between active and inactive states via phase transition represents a previously unknown thermosensory mechanism.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Arabidopsis/química , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Proteínas Priônicas/química , Temperatura , Fatores de Transcrição/química , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Aclimatação/fisiologia , Arabidopsis/química , Temperatura Alta , Modelos Moleculares , Peptídeos/metabolismo , Transição de Fase , Domínios Proteicos , Proteínas Repressoras/química , Proteínas Repressoras/metabolismo
3.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0236399, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32845878

RESUMO

Climate change is impacting coral reefs now. Recent pan-tropical bleaching events driven by unprecedented global heat waves have shifted the playing field for coral reef management and policy. While best-practice conventional management remains essential, it may no longer be enough to sustain coral reefs under continued climate change. Nor will climate change mitigation be sufficient on its own. Committed warming and projected reef decline means solutions must involve a portfolio of mitigation, best-practice conventional management and coordinated restoration and adaptation measures involving new and perhaps radical interventions, including local and regional cooling and shading, assisted coral evolution, assisted gene flow, and measures to support and enhance coral recruitment. We propose that proactive research and development to expand the reef management toolbox fast but safely, combined with expedient trialling of promising interventions is now urgently needed, whatever emissions trajectory the world follows. We discuss the challenges and opportunities of embracing new interventions in a race against time, including their risks and uncertainties. Ultimately, solutions to the climate challenge for coral reefs will require consideration of what society wants, what can be achieved technically and economically, and what opportunities we have for action in a rapidly closing window. Finding solutions that work for coral reefs and people will require exceptional levels of coordination of science, management and policy, and open engagement with society. It will also require compromise, because reefs will change under climate change despite our best interventions. We argue that being clear about society's priorities, and understanding both the opportunities and risks that come with an expanded toolset, can help us make the most of a challenging situation. We offer a conceptual model to help reef managers frame decision problems and objectives, and to guide effective strategy choices in the face of complexity and uncertainty.


Assuntos
Antozoários/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Mudança Climática , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Ecossistema , Aclimatação/fisiologia , Animais , Recifes de Corais , Modelos Teóricos
4.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0235388, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32604405

RESUMO

The plasticity of different kelp populations to heat stress has seldom been investigated excluding environmental effects due to thermal histories, by raising a generation under common garden conditions. Comparisons of populations in the absence of environmental effects allow unbiased quantification of the meta-population adaptive potential and resolution of population-specific differentiation. Following this approach, we tested the hypothesis that genetically distinct arctic and temperate kelp exhibit different thermal phenotypes, by comparing the capacity of their microscopic life stages to recover from elevated temperatures. Gametophytes of Laminaria digitata (Arctic and North Sea) grown at 15°C for 3 years were subjected to common garden conditions with static or dynamic (i.e., gradual) thermal treatments ranging between 15 and 25°C and also to darkness. Gametophyte growth and survival during thermal stress conditions, and subsequent sporophyte recruitment at two recovery temperatures (5 and 15°C), were investigated. Population-specific responses were apparent; North Sea gametophytes exhibited higher growth rates and greater sporophyte recruitment than those from the Arctic when recovering from high temperatures, revealing differential thermal adaptation. All gametophytes performed poorly after recovery from a static 8-day exposure at 22.5°C compared to the response under a dynamic thermal treatment with a peak temperature of 25°C, demonstrating the importance of gradual warming and/or acclimation time in modifying thermal limits. Recovery temperature markedly affected the capacity of gametophytes to reproduce following high temperatures, regardless of the population. Recovery at 5°C resulted in higher sporophyte production following a 15°C and 20°C static exposure, whereas recovery at 15°C was better for gametophyte exposures to static 22.5°C or dynamic heat stress to 25°C. The subtle performance differences between populations originating from sites with contrasting local in situ temperatures support our hypothesis that their thermal plasticity has diverged over evolutionary time scales.


Assuntos
Aclimatação/fisiologia , Resposta ao Choque Térmico/fisiologia , Laminaria/fisiologia , Regiões Árticas , Células Germinativas Vegetais/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Células Germinativas Vegetais/fisiologia , Aquecimento Global , Temperatura Alta , Laminaria/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Mar do Norte , Fenótipo , Reprodução/fisiologia , Temperatura
5.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0236174, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32722719

RESUMO

To escape or alleviate low temperatures in winter, insects have evolved many behavioral and physiological strategies. The purple stem borer, Sesamia inferens (Walker) is currently reported to be expanding their northern distributions and causing damage to summer maize in Xinxiang, China. However, their method of coping with the lower temperature in the new northern breeding area in winter is largely unknown. This paper investigates the overwinter site of S. inferens, and identifies the cold hardiness of larvae collected from a new breeding area in winter and explores a potential distribution based on low temperature threshold and on species distribution model MaxEnt. The results show that the overwintering location of the S. inferens population is more likely to be underground with increasing latitude and the population gradually moved down the corn stalk and drilled completely underground in later winter (February) in the north. The cold hardiness test shows the species is a moderate freeze-tolerant one, and Supercooling Points (SCP), Freezing Points (FP) and the incidence of mortality during the middle of winter (January, SCP: -7.653, FP: -6.596) were significantly lower than early winter (October) or late winter (March). Distribution in the new expansion area was predicted and the survival probability area was below N 35° for the Air Lower Lethal Temperature (ALLT50) and below N 40° for the Underground Lower Lethal Temperature (ULLT50). The suitable habitat areas for S. inferens with MaxEnt were also below N 40°. This study suggests the overwinter strategies of S. inferens have led to the colonization of up to a five degree more northerly overwintering latitude.


Assuntos
Aclimatação/fisiologia , Mariposas/fisiologia , Animais , Comportamento Animal , Larva/fisiologia , Mariposas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Estações do Ano , Temperatura
6.
Proc Biol Sci ; 287(1931): 20200823, 2020 07 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32673554

RESUMO

Understanding rates and patterns of change in physiological and climatic-niche variables is of urgent importance as many species are increasingly threatened by rising global temperatures. Here, we broadly test several fundamental hypotheses about physiological and niche evolution for the first time (with appropriate phylogenetic methods), using published data from 2059 vertebrate species. Our main results show that: (i) physiological tolerances to heat evolve more slowly than those to cold, (ii) the hottest climatic-niche temperatures change more slowly than the coldest climatic-niche temperatures, and (iii) physiological tolerances to heat and cold evolve more slowly than the corresponding climatic-niche variables. Physiological tolerances are significantly and positively related to the corresponding climatic-niche variables, but species often occur in climates outside the range of these tolerances. However, mismatches between climate and physiology do not necessarily mean that the climatic-niche data are misleading. Instead, some standard physiological variables used in vertebrates (i.e. critical thermal maxima and minima) may reflect when species are active (daily, seasonally) and their local-scale microhabitats (sun versus shade), rather than their large-scale climatic distributions.


Assuntos
Aclimatação/fisiologia , Evolução Biológica , Animais , Mudança Climática , Ecossistema , Temperatura Alta , Vertebrados
7.
Respir Physiol Neurobiol ; 279: 103476, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32522574

RESUMO

A very recent epidemiological study provides preliminary evidence that living in habitats located at 2500 m above sea level (masl) might protect from the development of severe respiratory symptoms following infection with the novel SARS-CoV-2 virus. This epidemiological finding raises the question of whether physiological mechanisms underlying the acclimatization to high altitude identifies therapeutic targets for the effective treatment of severe acute respiratory syndrome pivotal to the reduction of global mortality during the COVID-19 pandemic. This article compares the symptoms of acute mountain sickness (AMS) with those of SARS-CoV-2 infection and explores overlapping patho-physiological mechanisms of the respiratory system including impaired oxygen transport, pulmonary gas exchange and brainstem circuits controlling respiration. In this context, we also discuss the potential impact of SARS-CoV-2 infection on oxygen sensing in the carotid body. Finally, since erythropoietin (EPO) is an effective prophylactic treatment for AMS, this article reviews the potential benefits of implementing FDA-approved erythropoietin-based (EPO) drug therapies to counteract a variety of acute respiratory and non-respiratory (e.g. excessive inflammation of vascular beds) symptoms of SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Assuntos
Aclimatação/fisiologia , Doença da Altitude/fisiopatologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Coronavirus/fisiopatologia , Eritropoetina/farmacologia , Hipóxia/fisiopatologia , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Pneumonia Viral/fisiopatologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/metabolismo , Humanos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Pneumonia Viral/metabolismo
8.
Plant Mol Biol ; 103(4-5): 545-560, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32504260

RESUMO

KEY MESSAGE: OsGTγ-2, a trihelix transcription factor, is a positive regulator of rice responses to salt stress by regulating the expression of ion transporters. Salinity stress seriously restricts rice growth and yield. Trihelix transcription factors (GT factors) specifically bind to GT elements and play a diverse role in plant morphological development and responses to abiotic stresses. In our previous study, we found that the GT-1 element (GAAAAA) is a key element in the salinity-induced OsRAV2 promoter. Here, we identified a rice OsGTγ family member, OsGTγ-2, which directly interacted with the GT-1 element in the OsRAV2 promoter. OsGTγ-2 specifically targeted the nucleus, was mainly expressed in roots, sheathes, stems and seeds, and was induced by salinity, osmotic and oxidative stresses and abscisic acid (ABA). The seed germination rate, seedling growth and survival rate under salinity stress was improved in OsGTγ-2 overexpressing lines (PZmUbi::OsGTγ-2). In contrast, CRISPR/Cas9-mediated OsGTγ-2 knockout lines (osgtγ-2) showed salt-hypersensitive phenotypes. In response to salt stress, different Na+ and K+ acclamation patterns were observed in PZmUbi::OsGTγ-2 lines and osgtγ-2 plants were observed. The molecular mechanism of OsGTγ-2 in rice salt adaptation was also investigated. Several major genes responsible for ion transporting, such as the OsHKT2; 1, OsHKT1; 3 and OsNHX1 were transcriptionally regulated by OsGTγ-2. A subsequent yeast one-hybrid assay and EMSA indicated that OsGTγ-2 directly interacted with the promoters of OsHKT2; 1, OsNHX1 and OsHKT1; 3. Taken together, these results suggest that OsGTγ-2 is an important positive regulator involved in rice responses to salt stress and suggest a potential role for OsGTγ-2 in regulating salinity adaptation in rice.


Assuntos
Aclimatação/fisiologia , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/metabolismo , Oryza/fisiologia , Estresse Salino/fisiologia , Tolerância ao Sal/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Ácido Abscísico/metabolismo , Aclimatação/genética , Adaptação Fisiológica , Sistemas CRISPR-Cas , Proteínas de Transporte de Cátions/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Oryza/genética , Oryza/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Desenvolvimento Vegetal , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Salinidade , Plântula/genética , Sementes/metabolismo , Sódio/metabolismo , Trocadores de Sódio-Hidrogênio/metabolismo , Estresse Fisiológico/genética , Simportadores/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/genética
9.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0233905, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32502194

RESUMO

Water stress (WS) and heat stress (HS) have a negative effect on soybean plant growth and crop productivity. Changes in the physiological characteristics, proteome, and specific metabolites investigated on molecular and cellular functions were studied in two soybean cultivars exposed to different heat and water stress conditions independently and in combination. Leaf protein composition was studied using 2-DE and complemented with MALDI TOF mass spectrometry. While the two cultivars displayed genetic variation in response to water and heat stress, thirty-nine proteins were significantly altered in their relative abundance in response to WS, HS and combined WS+HS in both cultivars. A majority of these proteins were involved in metabolism, response to heat and photosynthesis showing significant cross-tolerance mechanisms. This study revealed that MED37C, a probable mediator of RNA polymerase transcription II protein, has potential interacting partners in Arabidopsis and signified the marked impact of this on the PI-471938 cultivar. Elevated activities in antioxidant enzymes indicate that the PI-471938 cultivar can restore the oxidation levels and sustain the plant during the stress. The discovery of this plant's development of cross-stress tolerance could be used as a guide to foster ongoing genetic modifications in stress tolerance.


Assuntos
Aclimatação/fisiologia , Secas , Resposta ao Choque Térmico , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Soja/fisiologia , Clorofila/análise , Clorofila/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Oxirredução , Folhas de Planta/química , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Mapas de Interação de Proteínas/fisiologia , Proteoma/metabolismo , Proteômica , Solo/química , Água/análise
10.
Int J Sports Med ; 41(9): 589-595, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32353883

RESUMO

We aimed to characterize cardiac-autonomic responses to a 13-day preseason camp in the heat among an American college football team. Players were categorized as linemen (n=10) and non-linemen (n=18). RHR, natural logarithm of the root-mean square of successive differences multiplied by twenty (LnRMSSD), and subjective wellbeing (LnWellness) were acquired daily. Effect sizes±90% confidence interval showed that for linemen, LnRMSSD decreased (moderate) on day 2 (71.2±10.4) and increased (moderate) on day 12 (87.1±11.2) relative to day 1 (77.9±11.2) while RHR decreased (small-moderate) on days 6, 7, and 12 (67.7±9.3-70.4±5.5 b∙min-1) relative to day 1 (77.1±10.1 b∙min-1). For non-linemen, LnRMSSD increased (small-large) on days 3-5, 7, 12, and 13 (83.4±6.8-87.6±8.5) relative to day 1 (80.0±6.5) while RHR decreased (small-large) on days 3-9, 12, and 13 (62.1±5.2-67.9±8.1 b∙min-1) relative to day 1 (70.8±6.2 b∙min-1). Decrements in LnWellness were observed on days 4-10 and 13 for linemen (moderate) and on days 6-9, 12, and 13 for non-linemen (small-moderate). Despite reductions in LnWellness, cardiac-autonomic parameters demonstrated responses consistent with heat-acclimation, which possibly attenuated fatigue-related decrements.


Assuntos
Aclimatação/fisiologia , Futebol Americano/fisiologia , Frequência Cardíaca/fisiologia , Temperatura Alta , Condicionamento Físico Humano/fisiologia , Índice de Massa Corporal , Fadiga/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Masculino , Percepção/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
11.
J Sports Med Phys Fitness ; 60(5): 677-684, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32438783

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Erythropoietin (EPO) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) are important factors regulating erythropoiesis and angiogenesis. Altitude/hypoxic training may induce elevated VEGF-A and EPO levels. However, it appears that the range of adaptive changes depends largely on the training method used. Therefore, we investigated the changes in EPO and VEGF-A levels in athletes using three different altitude/hypoxic training concepts. METHODS: Thirty-four male cyclists were randomly divided into four groups: LH-TL group ("live high-train low" protocol), HiHiLo ("live high - base train high - interval train low" procedure), IHT ("intermittent hypoxic training") and control group (CN, normoxic training). The same 4-week training program was used in all groups. Blood samples were taken before and after each training week in order to evaluate serum EPO and VEGF-A levels. RESULTS: In the LH-TL and HiHiLo groups, EPO increased (P<0.001) after 1st week and remained elevated until 3rd week of altitude training. In the IHT and CN groups, EPO did not change significantly. VEGF-A was higher (P<0.001) after 2nd and 3rd week of training in the IHT group. In the HiHiLo group, VEGF-A changed (P<0.05) only after 3rd week. No significant changes of VEGF-A were noted in the LH-TL and CN groups. CONCLUSIONS: Altitude/hypoxic training is effective in increasing VEGF-A and EPO levels. However, a training method plays a key role in the pattern of adaptations. EPO level increase only when an adequate hypoxic dose is provided, whereas VEGF-A increases when the hypoxic exposure is combined with exercise, particularly at high intensity.


Assuntos
Aclimatação/fisiologia , Eritropoetina/sangue , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/sangue , Adulto , Altitude , Humanos , Hipóxia/sangue , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
12.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0233048, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32453791

RESUMO

Panagrolaimus sp. DAW1, a nematode cultured from the Antarctic, has the extraordinary physiological ability to survive total intracellular freezing throughout all of its compartments. While a few other organisms, all nematodes, have subsequently also been found to survive freezing in this manner, P. sp. DAW1 has so far shown the highest survival rates. In addition, P. sp. DAW1 is also, depending on the rate or extent of freezing, able to undergo cryoprotective dehydration. In this study, the proteome of P. sp DAW1 is explored, highlighting a number of differentially expressed proteins and pathways that occur when the nematodes undergo intracellular freezing. Among the strongest signals after being frozen is an upregulation of proteases and the downregulation of cytoskeletal and antioxidant activity, the latter possibly accumulated before freezing much in the way the sugar trehalose has been shown to be stored during acclimation.


Assuntos
Aclimatação/fisiologia , Redes Reguladoras de Genes , Proteômica/métodos , Rabditídios/fisiologia , Animais , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Temperatura Baixa , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Proteínas de Helminto/metabolismo , Peptídeo Hidrolases/metabolismo , Mapas de Interação de Proteínas
13.
J Physiol Anthropol ; 39(1): 10, 2020 Apr 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32290869

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: While active heat acclimation strategies have been robustly explored, not many studies highlighted passive heat acclimation strategies. Particularly, little evidence demonstrated advantages of utilizing a water-perfused suit as a passive heating strategy. This study aimed to explore heat adaptive changes in physiological and perceptual responses during 10-day heat acclimation training using a water-perfused suit. METHODS: Nineteen young males were divided into three experimental groups: exercise condition (N = 6, HAEXE, 1-h exercise at 6 km h-1 followed by 1-h rest in a sitting position), exercise and passive heating condition (N = 6, HAEXE+SUIT, 1-h exercise at 6 km h-1 followed 1-h passive heating in a sitting position), and passive heating condition (N = 7, HASUIT, 2-h passive heating in a sitting position). All heating programs were conducted for 10 consecutive days in a climatic chamber maintained at 33 °C with 60% relative humidity. The passive heating was conducted using a newly developed water-perfused suit with 44 °C water. RESULTS: Greater whole-body sweat rate and alleviated perceptual strain were found in HASUIT and HAEXE+SUIT after 5 and/or 10 days (P < 0.05) but not in the exercise-only condition (HAEXE). Lower rectal temperature and heart rate were found in all conditions after the training (P < 0.05). Heat adaptive changes appeared earlier in HASUIT except for sweat responses. CONCLUSIONS: For heat acclimation in hot humid environments, passive and post-exercise heat acclimation training using the suit (water inflow temperature 44 °C) were more effective than the mild exercise (1-h walking at 6 km h-1). This form of passive heating (HASUIT) may be an especially effective strategy for the elderly and the disabled who are not able to exercise in hot environments.


Assuntos
Aclimatação/fisiologia , Regulação da Temperatura Corporal/fisiologia , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Água , Adulto , Temperatura Alta , Humanos , Masculino , Percepção , República da Coreia , Sudorese , Adulto Jovem
14.
BMC Plant Biol ; 20(1): 139, 2020 Apr 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32245420

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Response and adaptation strategies of plants to the environment have always been the core issues in ecological research. So far, relatively little study exists on its functional traits responses to warming, especially in an urban environment. This information is the key to help understand plant responses and trade-off strategy to urban warming. RESULTS: We chose the common greening trees of mature age in Beijing (Fraxinus pennsylvanica, Koelreuteria paniculata, and Sophora japonica) as the research subjects, and used infrared heaters to simulate warming for three gradients of natural temperature (CK), moderate warming (T1) and severe warming (T2). Results showed that:(1) Leaf dry matter content (LDMC), chlorophyll content (CHL), leaf tissue density (LTD), and stomatal density (SD) all increased with temperature warming. Specific leaf area (SLA), stomatal size (SS), and stomatal aperture (SA) decreased with simulated warming. (2) SLA was extremely significantly negatively correlated with CHL, LDMC, LTD and SD (P < 0.01), and was extremely significantly positively correlated with SS (P < 0.01). SA was extremely negatively correlated with SD (P < 0.01), and was extremely significantly positively correlated with SS (P < 0.01). There was a significant positive correlation between LDMC and LTD (P < 0.01). This showed that urban greening trees adapted to the environment by coordinating adjustment among leaf functional traits. (3) Under the T1 treatment, the R2 and slope among the leaf traits were higher than CK, and the significance was also enhanced. The correlation between leaf traits was strengthened in this warming environment. Conversely, it will weaken the correlation between leaf traits under the T2 treatment. CONCLUSION: Our study demonstrated that there was a strong trade-off between leaf functional traits in the urban warming environment. Plants in the warming environment have adopted relatively consistent trade-offs and adaptation strategies. Moderate warming was more conducive to strengthening their trade-off potential. It is further verified that the global leaf economics spectrum also exists in urban ecosystems, which is generally tend to a quick-investment return type with the characteristics of thick leaves, strong photosynthetic capacity, low transpiration efficiency and long life in urban environments.


Assuntos
Folhas de Planta/fisiologia , Temperatura , Aclimatação/fisiologia , Clorofila/metabolismo , Parques Recreativos , Fotossíntese/fisiologia , Fenômenos Fisiológicos Vegetais , Árvores/fisiologia
15.
J Fish Biol ; 97(1): 231-245, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32333608

RESUMO

We tested whether thermal tolerance and aerobic performance differed between two populations of Nile perch (Lates niloticus) originating from the same source population six decades after their introduction into two lakes in the Lake Victoria basin in East Africa. We used short-term acclimation of juvenile fish to a range of temperatures from ambient to +6°C, and performed critical thermal maximum (CTmax ) and respirometry tests to measure upper thermal tolerance, resting and maximum metabolic rates, and aerobic scope (AS). Across acclimation temperatures, Nile perch from the cooler lake (Lake Nabugabo, Uganda) tended to have lower thermal tolerance (i.e., CTmax ) and lower aerobic performance (i.e., AS) than Nile perch from the warmer waters of Lake Victoria (Bugonga region, Uganda). Effects of temperature acclimation were more pronounced in the Lake Victoria population, with the Lake Nabugabo fish showing less thermal plasticity in most metabolic traits. Our results suggest phenotypic divergence in thermal tolerance between these two introduced populations in a direction consistent with an adaptive response to local thermal regimes.


Assuntos
Aclimatação/fisiologia , Espécies Introduzidas , Lagos/química , Oxigênio/química , Percas/fisiologia , Animais , Temperatura , Uganda
16.
Proc Biol Sci ; 287(1924): 20200189, 2020 04 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32228409

RESUMO

When a change in the environment occurs, organisms can maintain an optimal phenotypic state via plastic, reversible changes to their phenotypes. These adjustments, when occurring within a generation, are described as the process of acclimation. While acclimation has been studied for more than half a century, global environmental change has stimulated renewed interest in quantifying variation in the rate and capacity with which this process occurs, particularly among ectothermic organisms. Yet, despite the likely ecological importance of acclimation capacity and rate, how these traits change throughout life among members of the same species is largely unstudied. Here we investigate these relationships by measuring the acute heat tolerance of the clonally reproducing zooplankter Daphnia magna of different size/age and acclimation status. The heat tolerance of individuals completely acclimated to relatively warm (28°C) or cool (17°C) temperatures diverged during development, indicating that older, larger individuals had a greater capacity to increase heat tolerance. However, when cool acclimated individuals were briefly exposed to the warm temperature (i.e. were 'heat-hardened'), it was younger, smaller animals with less capacity to acclimate that were able to do so more rapidly because they obtained or came closer to obtaining complete acclimation of heat tolerance. Our results illustrate that within a species, individuals can differ substantially in how rapidly and by how much they can respond to environmental change. We urge greater investigation of the intraspecific relationship between acclimation and development along with further consideration of the factors that might contribute to these enigmatic patterns of phenotypic variation.


Assuntos
Aclimatação/fisiologia , Daphnia/fisiologia , Animais , Temperatura Baixa , Temperatura , Termotolerância , Zooplâncton
17.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 153: 111006, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32275552

RESUMO

The rapid pace of increasing oceanic acidity poses a major threat to the fitness of the marine ecosystem, as well as the buffering capacity of the oceans. Disruption in chemical equilibrium in the ocean leads to decreased carbonate ion precipitation, resulting in calcium carbonate saturation. If these trends continue, calcifying invertebrates will experience difficultly maintaining their calcium carbonate exoskeleton and shells. Because malfunction of exoskeleton formation by calcifiers in response to ocean acidification (OA) will have non-canonical biological cascading results in the marine ecosystem, many studies have investigated the direct and indirect consequences of OA on ecosystem- and physiology-related traits of marine invertebrates. Considering that evolutionary adaptation to OA depends on the duration of OA effects, long-term exposure to OA stress over multi-generations may result in adaptive mechanisms that increase the potential fitness of marine invertebrates in response to OA. Transgenerational studies have the potential to elucidate the roles of acclimation, carryover effects, and evolutionary adaptation within and over generations in response to OA. In particular, understanding mechanisms of transgenerational responses (e.g., antioxidant responses, metabolic changes, epigenetic reprogramming) to changes in OA will enhance our understanding of marine invertebrate in response to rapid climate change.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Invertebrados/fisiologia , Água do Mar , Aclimatação/fisiologia , Animais , Dióxido de Carbono , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Oceanos e Mares
19.
BMC Evol Biol ; 20(1): 36, 2020 03 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32171237

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The family Aegisthidae is known as typical component of deep-sea hyperbenthic waters that gradually colonized other marine environments. The phylogenetic relationships within this family have been examined here including hyperbenthic, planktonic, benthic forms and two associated Aegisthidae species. RESULTS: Ninety four specimens belong to 14 genera were studied using 18S and 28S rRNA and COI mtDNA. Bayesian analysis supports the monophyly of 10 genera whereas Andromastax, Jamstecia, Nudivorax and Aegisthus revealed to be paraphyletic. The first offshoot of the phylogenetic tree is a clade consists of the undescribed genus Aegisthidae gen.1 sister to the two monophyletic genera Cerviniella and Hase, whereas the other Cerviniinae members (represented by Cervinia and Expansicervinia) assemble a monophylum, sister to the hyperbenthic and planktonic aegisthid genera, resulting in the paraphyly of the subfamily Cerviniinae. Hence, we defined the new subfamily Cerviniellinae subfam. nov. encompassing the three benthic genera Cerviniella, Hase and Eucanuella. The subfamily Cerviniinae has been re-defined to include Cervinia, Expansicervinia and Paracerviniella. Members of the subfamily Pontostratiotinae were clustered into two clades, one consists of the genus Stratiopontotes sister to an undescribed genus + Cerviniopsis and Siphonis. The second contains Pontostratiotes sister to the members of the planktonic subfamily Aegisthinae, resulting in the paraphyly of the Pontostratiotinae. Therefore, the Pontostratiotinae has been re-defined to include only members of the genus Pontostratiotes; whereas the subfamily Cerviniopseinae has been re-erected and re-defined containing Stratiopontotes, Cerviniopsis, Siphonis, Aegisthidae gen. 2, Herdmaniopsis, Hemicervinia and Tonpostratiotes. Within this subfamily, the associated Siphonis clusters as sister to the Cerviniopsis represents an example of convergent evolution in which the possession of a stylet-like mandible and an oral cone reminiscent of the Siphonostomatoida. The planktonic Aegisthus, Andromastax, Jamstecia, Nudivorax and Scabrantenna confirm the monophylom Aegisthinae, sister to the Pontostratiotinae. CONCLUSIONS: Our DNA based phylogeny reveals the deep-sea origin of Aegisthidae by placing benthic Aegisthidae gen.1 and Cerviniellinae subfam. nov. as the most basal lineages. Secondary adaptations to hyperbenthic and planktonic realms, as well as associated lifestyle were discovered here by the derived positions of Pontostratiotinae, Aegisthinae and Siphonis respectively.


Assuntos
Aclimatação/fisiologia , Copépodes/anatomia & histologia , Copépodes/classificação , Ecossistema , Água do Mar , Animais , Copépodes/genética , DNA Mitocondrial/análise , DNA Mitocondrial/genética , Ecótipo , Filogenia , Filogeografia , RNA Ribossômico 28S/análise , RNA Ribossômico 28S/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA
20.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 1398, 2020 03 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32170152

RESUMO

Understanding how phenotypic traits vary among populations inhabiting different environments is critical for predicting a species' vulnerability to climate change. Yet, little is known about the key functional traits that determine the distribution of populations and the main mechanisms-phenotypic plasticity vs. local adaptation-underlying intraspecific functional trait variation. Using the Asian burying beetle Nicrophorus nepalensis, we demonstrate that mountain ranges differing in elevation and latitude offer unique thermal environments in which two functional traits-thermal tolerance and reproductive photoperiodism-interact to shape breeding phenology. We show that populations on different mountain ranges maintain similar thermal tolerances, but differ in reproductive photoperiodism. Through common garden and reciprocal transplant experiments, we confirm that reproductive photoperiodism is locally adapted and not phenotypically plastic. Accordingly, year-round breeding populations on mountains of intermediate elevation are likely to be most susceptible to future warming because maladaptation occurs when beetles try to breed at warmer temperatures.


Assuntos
Aclimatação/fisiologia , Mudança Climática , Besouros/fisiologia , Reprodução/fisiologia , Adaptação Fisiológica , Animais , Ásia , Evolução Biológica , Ecologia , Ecossistema , Feminino , Jardins , Masculino , Ovário , Fenótipo , Temperatura
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