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1.
Plant Mol Biol ; 103(1-2): 211-223, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32172495

RESUMO

The mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascade pathway, which has three components, MAP3Ks, MKKs and MPKs, is involved in diverse biological processes in plants. In the current study, MAPK cascade genes were identified in three cotton species, based on gene homology with Arabidopsis. Selection pressure analysis of MAPK cascade genes revealed that purifying selection occurred among the cotton species. Expression pattern analysis showed that some MAPK cascade genes differentially expressed under abiotic stresses and phytohormones treatments, and especially under drought stress. Yeast two-hybrid (Y2H) and bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC) experiments showed extensive interactions between different MAPK cascade proteins. Virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) assays showed that some MAPK cascade modules play important roles in the drought stress response, and the GhMAP3K14-GhMKK11-GhMPK31 signal pathway was demonstrated to regulate drought stress tolerance in cotton. This study provides new information on the function of MAPK cascade genes in the drought response, and will help direct molecular breeding for improved drought stress tolerance in cotton.


Assuntos
Gossypium/genética , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases/genética , Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Aclimatação/genética , Secas , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Genes de Plantas , Genoma de Planta , Gossypium/enzimologia , Gossypium/fisiologia , Filogenia
2.
Microbiol Res ; 236: 126451, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32146294

RESUMO

Burkholderia species have different lifestyles establishing mutualist or pathogenic associations with plants and animals. Changes in the ecological behavior of these bacteria may depend on genetic variations in response to niche adaptation. Here, we studied 15 Burkholderia strains isolated from different environments with respect to genetic and phenotypic traits. By Multilocus Sequence Analysis (MLSA) these isolates fell into 6 distinct groups. MLSA clusters did not correlate with strain antibiotic sensitivity, but with the bacterial ability to produce antimicrobial compounds and control orchid necrosis. Further, the B. seminalis strain TC3.4.2R3, a mutualistic bacterium, was inoculated into orchid plants and the interaction with the host was evaluated by analyzing the plant response and the bacterial oxidative stress response in planta. TC3.4.2R3 responded to plant colonization by increasing its own growth rate and by differential gene regulation upon oxidative stress caused by the plant, while reducing the plant's membrane lipid peroxidation. The bacterial responses to oxidative stress were recapitulated by bacterial exposure to the herbicide paraquat. We suggest that the ability of Burkholderia species to successfully establish in the rhizosphere correlates with genetic variation, whereas traits associated with antibiotic resistance are more likely to be categorized as strain specific.


Assuntos
Adaptação Biológica/genética , Infecções por Burkholderia , Burkholderia , Interações entre Hospedeiro e Microrganismos , Orchidaceae/microbiologia , Aclimatação/genética , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Agentes de Controle Biológico/farmacologia , Burkholderia/genética , Burkholderia/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Burkholderia/isolamento & purificação , Burkholderia/metabolismo , Resistência Microbiana a Medicamentos/genética , Endófitos/genética , Endófitos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Endófitos/isolamento & purificação , Endófitos/metabolismo , Genes Bacterianos , Ilhas Genômicas , Genótipo , Peroxidação de Lipídeos , Tipagem de Sequências Multilocus , Orchidaceae/fisiologia , Estresse Oxidativo/genética , Fenótipo , Filogenia , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Doenças das Plantas/terapia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Simbiose , Transcriptoma
3.
DNA Cell Biol ; 39(4): 548-554, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32155344

RESUMO

The Qing-Tibet Plateau is characterized by low oxygen pressure, which is an important biomedical and ecological stressor. However, the variation in gene expression during periods of stay on the plateau has not been well studied. We recruited eight volunteers to stay on the plateau for 3, 7, and 30 days. Human Clariom D arrays were used to measure transcriptome changes in the mRNA expression profiles in these volunteers' blood. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) indicated that 699 genes were significantly differentially expressed in response to entering the plateau during hypoxic exposure. The genes with changes in transcript abundance were involved in the terms phosphoprotein, acetylation, protein binding, and protein transport. Furthermore, numerous genes involved in hematopoietic functions, including erythropoiesis and immunoregulation, were differentially expressed in response to hypoxia. This phenomenon may be one of reasons why the majority of people entering the plateau do not have excessive erythrocyte proliferation and are susceptible to infection.


Assuntos
Aclimatação/genética , Doença da Altitude/genética , Doença da Altitude/fisiopatologia , Hipóxia/fisiopatologia , Leucócitos/fisiologia , Altitude , Eritrócitos/citologia , Eritropoese/genética , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/genética , Humanos , Leucopoese/genética , Masculino , Oxigênio , Tibet
4.
Gene ; 741: 144547, 2020 May 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32165299

RESUMO

Acclimation to low salinities is a vital physiological challenge for euryhaline fish as the European sea bass Dicentrarchus labrax. This species undertakes seasonal migrations towards lagoons and estuaries where a wide range of salinity variations occur along the year. We have previously reported intraspecific differences in freshwater tolerance, with an average 30% mortality rate. In this study, we bring new evidence of mechanisms underlying freshwater tolerance in sea bass at gill and kidney levels. In fresh water (FW), intraspecific differences in mRNA expression levels of several ion transporters and prolactin receptors were measured. We showed that the branchial Cl-/HCO3- anion transporter (slc26a6c) was over-expressed in freshwater intolerant fish, probably as a compensatory response to low blood chloride levels and potential metabolic alkalosis. Moreover, prolactin receptor a (prlra) and Na+/Cl- cotransporter (ncc1) but not ncc-2a expression seemed to be slightly increased and highly variable between individuals in freshwater intolerant fish. In the posterior kidney, freshwater intolerant fish exhibited differential expression levels of slc26 anion transporters and Na+/K+/2Cl- cotransporter 1b (nkcc1b). Lower expression levels of prolactin receptors (prlra, prlrb) were measured in posterior kidney which probably contributes to the failure in ion reuptake at the kidney level. Freshwater intolerance seems to be a consequence of renal failure of ion reabsorption, which is not sufficiently compensated at the branchial level.


Assuntos
Bass/genética , Brânquias/metabolismo , Rim/metabolismo , Membro 1 da Família 12 de Carreador de Soluto/genética , Aclimatação/genética , Animais , Bass/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Água Doce , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/genética , Brânquias/fisiologia , Transporte de Íons/genética , Rim/fisiologia , Osmorregulação/genética , Salinidade , Água do Mar , Sódio/metabolismo , ATPase Trocadora de Sódio-Potássio/genética
5.
Aquat Toxicol ; 222: 105452, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32092594

RESUMO

Arginine kinase (AK), an important member of the phosphokinase family, is involved in temporal and spatial adenosine triphosphate (ATP) buffering systems. AK plays an important role in physiological function and metabolic regulations, in particular tissues with high and fluctuating energy demands. In present study, four AK genes were firstly identified from Yesso scallop (Patinopecten yessoensis) genome, respectively named PyAK1-4. PyAKs have highly conserved structures with a six-exon/five-exon structure, except for PyAK3. PyAK3 contains an unusual two-domain structure and a "bridge intron" between the two domains, which may originate from gene duplication and subsequent fusion. Phylogenetic analysis showed that all PyAKs belonged to an AK supercluster together with other AK proteins from Mollusca, Platyhelminthes, Arthropoda, and Nematode. A transcriptome database demonstrated that PyAK3 and PyAK4 were the main functional executors with high expression level during larval development and in adult tissues, while PyAK1 and PyAK2 were expressed at a low level. Furthermore, both PyAK2 and PyAK3 showed notably high expression in the male gonad, and PyAK4 was broadly expressed in almost all tissues with the highest level in striated muscle, indicating a tissue-specific expression pattern of PyAKs. In addition, quantitative real-time PCR results demonstrated that the expression of PyAK2, PyAK3 and PyAK4 were significantly upregulated in response to pH stress, especially in an extremely acidifying condition (pH 6.5), revealing the possible involvement of PyAKs in energetic homeostasis during environmental changes. Collectively, a comprehensive analysis of PyAKs was conducted in P. yessoensis. The diversity of PyAKs and their specific expression patterns promote a better understanding of energy metabolism in the growth, development and environmental response of P. yessoensis.


Assuntos
Arginina Quinase/metabolismo , Pectinidae/enzimologia , Estresse Fisiológico/efeitos dos fármacos , Transcriptoma/efeitos dos fármacos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Aclimatação/efeitos dos fármacos , Aclimatação/genética , Animais , Arginina Quinase/química , Arginina Quinase/genética , Bases de Dados Genéticas , Metabolismo Energético/efeitos dos fármacos , Metabolismo Energético/genética , Genoma , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Pectinidae/genética , Filogenia , Estrutura Secundária de Proteína , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Água do Mar/química , Alinhamento de Sequência , Estresse Fisiológico/genética
6.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 253, 2020 01 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31937774

RESUMO

Colonization of new habitats is expected to require genetic adaptations to overcome environmental challenges. Here, we use full genome re-sequencing and extensive common garden experiments to investigate demographic and selective processes associated with colonization of Japan by Lotus japonicus over the past ~20,000 years. Based on patterns of genomic variation, we infer the details of the colonization process where L. japonicus gradually spread from subtropical conditions to much colder climates in northern Japan. We identify genomic regions with extreme genetic differentiation between northern and southern subpopulations and perform population structure-corrected association mapping of phenotypic traits measured in a common garden. Comparing the results of these analyses, we find that signatures of extreme subpopulation differentiation overlap strongly with phenotype association signals for overwintering and flowering time traits. Our results provide evidence that these traits were direct targets of selection during colonization and point to associated candidate genes.


Assuntos
Aclimatação/genética , Lotus/genética , Evolução Biológica , Genes de Plantas/genética , Variação Genética , Genoma de Planta/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Genótipo , Geografia , Japão , Lotus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Lotus/fisiologia , Fenótipo , Seleção Genética
7.
PLoS One ; 15(1): e0227587, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31923275

RESUMO

Diffusing fluid at a deep-sea hydrothermal vent creates rapid, acute physico-chemical gradients that correlate strongly with the distribution of the vent fauna. Two alvinocaridid shrimps, Alvinocaris longirostris and Shinkaicaris leurokolos occupy distinct microhabitats around these vents and exhibit different thermal preferences. S. leurokolos inhabits the central area closer to the active chimney, while A. longirostris inhabits the peripheral area. In this study, we screened candidate genes that might be involved in niche separation and microhabitat adaptation through comparative transcriptomics. The results showed that among the top 20% of overexpressed genes, gene families related to protein synthesis and structural components were much more abundant in S. leurokolos compared to A. longirostris. Moreover, 15 out of 25 genes involved in cellular carbohydrate metabolism were related to trehalose biosynthesis, versus 1 out of 5 in A. longirostris. Trehalose, a non-reducing disaccharide, is a multifunctional molecule and has been proven to act as a protectant responsible for thermotolerance in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Putative positively selected genes involved in chitin metabolism and the immune system (lectin, serine protease and antimicrobial peptide) were enriched in S. leurokolos. In particular, one collagen and two serine proteases were found to have experienced strong positive selection. In addition, sulfotransferase-related genes were both overexpressed and positively selected in S. leurokolos. Finally, genes related to structural proteins, immune proteins and protectants were overexpressed or positively selected. These characteristics could represent adaptations of S. leurokolos to its microhabitat, which need to be confirmed by more evidence, such as data from large samples and different development stages of these alvinocaridid shrimps.


Assuntos
Aclimatação/genética , Adaptação Fisiológica/genética , Decápodes/genética , Animais , Crustáceos/genética , Ecossistema , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Fontes Hidrotermais , Filogenia , Transcriptoma/genética
8.
PLoS One ; 15(1): e0226905, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31923196

RESUMO

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play vital roles in various biological processes under multiple stress conditions by leading to mRNA cleavage or translational repression. However, the detailed roles of miRNAs in cold acclimation in fish are still unclear. In the present study, high-throughput sequencing was performed to identify miRNAs from 6 small RNA libraries from the zebrafish embryonic fibroblast ZF4 cells under control (28°C, 30 days) and cold-acclimation (18°C, 30 days) conditions. A total of 414 miRNAs, 349 known and 65 novel, were identified. Among those miRNAs, 24 (19 known and 5 novel) were up-regulated, and 23 (9 known and 14 novel) were down-regulated in cold acclimated cells. The Gene Ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopaedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) enrichment analyses indicated that the target genes of known differentially expressed miRNAs (DE-miRNA) are involved in cold acclimation by regulation of phosphorylation, cell junction, intracellular signal transduction, ECM-receptor interaction and so on. Moreover, both miR-100-3p inhibitor and miR-16b mimics could protect ZF4 cells under cold stress, indicating the involvement of miRNA in cold acclimation. Further study showed that miR-100-3p and miR-16b could regulate inversely the expression of their target gene (atad5a, cyp2ae1, lamp1, rilp, atxn7, tnika, btbd9), and that overexpression of miR-100-3p disturbed the early embryonic development of zebrafish. In summary, the present data show that miRNAs are closely involved in cold acclimation in zebrafish ZF4 cells and provide information for further understanding of the roles of miRNAs in cold acclimation in fish.


Assuntos
Aclimatação/genética , Temperatura Baixa , MicroRNAs/genética , Peixe-Zebra/genética , Peixe-Zebra/fisiologia , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Análise de Sequência de RNA
9.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 190: 110178, 2020 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31927193

RESUMO

Given the limitation of crop production in Cd-polluted areas, the identification and selection of plant genotypes tolerant to Cd stress are of great significance. In the present work, we show the existence of genotypic variation for Cd tolerance in common bean. The laboratory screening of 25 bean genotypes indicated a significant positive correlation of the mean productivity (MP) and the geometric mean productivity (GMP) with plant fresh weight both in control and Cd-treated plants. A principal component analysis further confirmed this variation and, together with other analyses, led to the selection of genotypes G-11867, Taylor, Emerson, and D-81083 as tolerant genotypes. A total of six bean genotypes with different degrees of Cd tolerance were selected, and their long-term physiological responses to Cd (0, 45, and 90 mg/kg soil) were evaluated. Increasing Cd concentrations led to higher Cd accumulation both in roots and shoots, and to significant rises in the levels of the oxidative stress biomarkers malondialdehyde (MDA), dityrosine (D-T), and 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OH-2'-dG). Remarkable reductions in plant hormone levels and chlorophyll contents, as well as in dry and fresh weight, were observed in Cd-treated plants. Among the examined genotypes, Emerson, Taylor, and G-11867 were found to be more tolerant to Cd owing to lower Cd accumulation and lower oxidative stress levels, as well as higher chlorophyll and hormone contents. Our results contribute to the understanding of the physiological and biochemical basis of Cd tolerance in bean plants and may therefore, be useful for breeding programs directed towards obtaining bean varieties showing low Cd accumulation.


Assuntos
Aclimatação/genética , Cádmio/toxicidade , Phaseolus/efeitos dos fármacos , Poluentes do Solo/toxicidade , 8-Hidroxi-2'-Desoxiguanosina/metabolismo , Clorofila/metabolismo , Genótipo , Malondialdeído/metabolismo , Phaseolus/genética , Phaseolus/metabolismo , Reguladores de Crescimento de Planta/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Raízes de Plantas/genética , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Brotos de Planta/efeitos dos fármacos , Brotos de Planta/genética , Brotos de Planta/metabolismo , Estresse Fisiológico/genética , Tirosina/análogos & derivados , Tirosina/metabolismo
10.
Plant Mol Biol ; 102(1-2): 185-198, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31797248

RESUMO

KEY MESSAGE: Upon loss of either its chloroplast or mitochondrial target, a uniquely dual-targeted factor for C-to-U RNA editing in angiosperms reveals low evidence for improved molecular adaptation to its remaining target. RNA-binding pentatricopeptide repeat (PPR) proteins specifically recognize target sites for C-to-U RNA editing in the transcriptomes of plant chloroplasts and mitochondria. Among more than 80 PPR-type editing factors that have meantime been characterized, AEF1 (or MPR25) is a special case given its dual targeting to both organelles and addressing an essential mitochondrial (nad5eU1580SL) and an essential chloroplast (atpFeU92SL) RNA editing site in parallel in Arabidopsis. Here, we explored the angiosperm-wide conservation of AEF1 and its two organelle targets. Despite numerous independent losses of the chloroplast editing site by C-to-T conversion and at least four such conversions at the mitochondrial target site in other taxa, AEF1 remains consistently conserved in more than 120 sampled angiosperm genomes. Not a single case of simultaneous loss of the chloroplast and mitochondrial editing target or of AEF1 disintegration or loss could be identified, contrasting previous findings for editing factors targeted to only one organelle. Like in most RNA editing factors, the PPR array of AEF1 reveals potential for conceptually "improved fits" to its targets according to the current PPR-RNA binding code. Surprisingly, we observe only minor evidence for adaptation to the mitochondrial target also after deep losses of the chloroplast target among Asterales, Caryophyllales and Poales or, vice versa, for the remaining chloroplast target after a deep loss of the mitochondrial target among Malvales. The evolutionary observations support the notion that PPR-RNA mismatches may be essential for proper function of editing factors.


Assuntos
Aclimatação/genética , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/genética , Cloroplastos/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Mitocôndrias/genética , Edição de RNA , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Arabidopsis/genética , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Evolução Biológica , Proteínas de Cloroplastos/genética , Proteínas de Cloroplastos/metabolismo , Genoma de Planta , Magnoliopsida/genética , Filogenia , RNA de Cloroplastos/genética , RNA de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA/metabolismo , Alinhamento de Sequência
11.
Aquat Toxicol ; 218: 105359, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31765944

RESUMO

Carbohydrate metabolism switches from aerobic to anaerobic (glycolysis) to supply energy in response to acute hypoxic stress. Acute hypoxic stress with dissolved oxygen (DO) levels of 1.2 ±â€¯0.1 mg/L for 24 h and 12 h re-oxygenation was used to investigate the response of the anaerobic glycolytic pathway in Micropterus salmoides muscle. The results showed that the glucose concentration was significantly lower in muscle, while the lactic acid and pyruvic acid concentrations tended to increase during hypoxic stress. No significant difference was observed in muscle glycogen, and ATP content fluctuated significantly. The activities of gluconeogenesis-related enzymes were slightly elevated, such as phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK). The activities of the glycolytic enzymes increased after the induction of hypoxia, such as hexokinase (HK), pyruvate kinase (PK), and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH). Curiously, phosphofructokinase (PFK) activity was significantly down-regulated within 4 h during hypoxia, although these effects were transient, and most indices returned to control levels after 12 h of re-oxygenation. Upregulated hif-1α, ampkα, hk, glut1, and ldh mRNA expression suggested that carbohydrate metabolism was reprogrammed under hypoxia. Lactate transport was regulated by miR-124-5p according to quantitative polymerase chain reaction and dual luciferase reporter assays. Our findings provide new insight into the molecular regulatory mechanism of hypoxia in Micropterus salmoides muscle.


Assuntos
Aclimatação/fisiologia , Bass/metabolismo , Hipóxia/metabolismo , Ácido Láctico/metabolismo , MicroRNAs/genética , Transportadores de Ácidos Monocarboxílicos/genética , Músculos/metabolismo , Simportadores/genética , Aclimatação/genética , Animais , Bass/genética , Metabolismo dos Carboidratos/genética , Metabolismo dos Carboidratos/fisiologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Hipóxia/genética , Músculos/enzimologia , Oxigênio/metabolismo
12.
Plant Mol Biol ; 102(1-2): 89-107, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31768809

RESUMO

KEY MESSAGE: OsPUB67, a U-box E3 ubiquitin ligase, may interact with two drought tolerance negative regulators (OsRZFP34 and OsDIS1) and improve drought tolerance by enhancing the reactive oxygen scavenging ability and stomatal closure. E3 ubiquitin ligases are major components of the ubiquitination cascade and contribute to the biotic and abiotic stress response in plants. In the present study, we show that a rice drought responsive gene, OsPUB67, encoding the U-box E3 ubiquitin ligase was significantly induced by drought, salt, cold, JA, and ABA, and was expressed in nuclei, cytoplasm, and membrane systems. This distribution of expression suggests a significant role for OsPUB67 in a wide range of biological processes and abiotic stress response. Over-expression of OsPUB67 improved drought stress tolerance by enhancing the reactive oxygen scavenging ability and stomatal closure. Bimolecular fluorescence complementation assays revealed that a few E2s interacted with OsPUB67 with unique functional implications in different cell components. Further evidence showed that several E3 ubiquitin ligases interacted with OsPUB67, especially OsRZFP34 and OsDIS1, which are negative regulators of drought tolerance. This interaction on the stomata implied OsPUB67 might function as a heterodimeric ubiquitination complex in response to drought stress. Comprehensive transcriptome analysis revealed OsPUB67 participated in regulating genes involved in the abiotic stress response and transcriptional regulation in an ABA-dependent manner. Our findings revealed OsPUB67 mediated a multilayered complex drought stress tolerance mechanism.


Assuntos
Secas , Oryza/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Estresse Fisiológico/fisiologia , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligases/metabolismo , Aclimatação/genética , Aclimatação/fisiologia , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Oryza/genética , Fenótipo , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Estômatos de Plantas/metabolismo , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/genética , Proteínas Recombinantes/genética , Proteínas Recombinantes/isolamento & purificação , Plântula , Alinhamento de Sequência , Análise de Sequência de Proteína , Cloreto de Sódio/farmacologia , Estresse Fisiológico/genética , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligases/genética , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligases/isolamento & purificação , Ubiquitinação
13.
Gene ; 729: 144321, 2020 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31887331

RESUMO

Tibetan chicken, a unique plateau breed, has a suite of adaptive features that enable it to tolerate the high-altitude hypoxic environment. HIF-1α (hypoxia inducible factor 1 subunit alpha) is a crucial mediator of the cellular response to hypoxia. HIF-1α maintains oxygen homeostasis by inducing glycolysis, erythropoiesis, and angiogenesis. In this study, using ChIP-seq, we analyzed HIF-1α binding regions in the chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) tissue of embryos, and identified differential HIF-1α target genes (DTGs) by comparing Chahua (CH) and Tibetan chicken (TC) that had distinct genetic performances, associated with hypoxic adaptation. We identified 752 HIF-1α target genes (TGs), of which 112 were DTGs between the two breeds. We found that eight genes (PTK2, GPNMB, CALD1, CBWD1, SLC25A1, SPRY2, NUPL2, and ST8SIA3) play important roles in hypoxic adaptation by regulating blood vessel development, energy metabolism through angiogenesis, vascular smooth muscle contraction, and various hypoxia-related signaling pathways (including VEGF and PI3K-Akt) in Tibetan chickens during embryonic development. This study enhances our understanding of the molecular mechanisms of hypoxic adaptation in Tibetan chickens and provides new insights into adaptation to hypoxia in humans and other species living at high altitude.


Assuntos
Galinhas/genética , Subunidade alfa do Fator 1 Induzível por Hipóxia/genética , Hipóxia/genética , Aclimatação/genética , Adaptação Biológica/genética , Adaptação Fisiológica/genética , Animais , Embrião de Galinha , Membrana Corioalantoide , Sequenciamento de Cromatina por Imunoprecipitação/métodos , Subunidade alfa do Fator 1 Induzível por Hipóxia/metabolismo , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intracelular/genética , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Neovascularização Patológica/genética , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Tibet , Transcriptoma/genética
14.
BMC Plant Biol ; 19(1): 575, 2019 Dec 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31864302

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Low temperature is one of the main environmental factors that limits crop growth, development, and production. Medicago falcata is an important leguminous herb that is widely distributed worldwide. M. falcata is related to alfalfa but is more tolerant to low temperature than alfalfa. Understanding the low temperature tolerance mechanism of M. falcata is important for the genetic improvement of alfalfa. RESULTS: In this study, we explored the transcriptomic changes in the roots of low-temperature-treated M. falcata plants by combining SMRT sequencing and NGS technologies. A total of 115,153 nonredundant sequences were obtained, and 8849 AS events, 73,149 SSRs, and 4189 lncRNAs were predicted. A total of 111,587 genes from SMRT sequencing were annotated, and 11,369 DEGs involved in plant hormone signal transduction, protein processing in endoplasmic reticulum, carbon metabolism, glycolysis/gluconeogenesis, starch and sucrose metabolism, and endocytosis pathways were identified. We characterized 1538 TF genes into 45 TF gene families, and the most abundant TF family was the WRKY family, followed by the ERF, MYB, bHLH and NAC families. A total of 134 genes, including 101 whose expression was upregulated and 33 whose expression was downregulated, were differentially coexpressed at all five temperature points. PB40804, PB75011, PB110405 and PB108808 were found to play crucial roles in the tolerance of M. falcata to low temperature. WGCNA revealed that the MEbrown module was significantly correlated with low-temperature stress in M. falcata. Electrolyte leakage was correlated with most genetic modules and verified that electrolyte leakage can be used as a direct stress marker in physiological assays to indicate cell membrane damage from low-temperature stress. The consistency between the qRT-PCR results and RNA-seq analyses confirmed the validity of the RNA-seq data and the analysis of the regulatory mechanism of low-temperature stress on the basis of the transcriptome. CONCLUSIONS: The full-length transcripts generated in this study provide a full characterization of the transcriptome of M. falcata and may be useful for mining new low-temperature stress-related genes specific to M. falcata. These new findings could facilitate the understanding of the low-temperature-tolerance mechanism of M. falcata.


Assuntos
Aclimatação/genética , Temperatura Baixa , Medicago/fisiologia , Raízes de Plantas/fisiologia , Transcriptoma , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Medicago/genética , Raízes de Plantas/genética
15.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 5818, 2019 12 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31862875

RESUMO

Polyploidization is frequently associated with increased transposable element (TE) content. However, what drives TE dynamics following whole genome duplication (WGD) and the evolutionary implications remain unclear. Here, we leverage whole-genome resequencing data available for ~300 individuals of Arabidopsis arenosa, a well characterized natural diploid-autotetraploid plant species, to address these questions. Based on 43,176 TE insertions we detect in these genomes, we demonstrate that relaxed purifying selection rather than transposition bursts is the main driver of TE over-accumulation after WGD. Furthermore, the increased pool of TE insertions in tetraploids is especially enriched within or near environmentally responsive genes. Notably, we show that the major flowering-time repressor gene FLC is disrupted by a TE insertion specifically in the rapid-cycling tetraploid lineage that colonized mainland railways. Together, our findings indicate that tetrasomy leads to an enhanced accumulation of genic TE insertions, some of which likely contribute to local adaptation.


Assuntos
Aclimatação/genética , Arabidopsis/genética , Elementos de DNA Transponíveis/genética , Evolução Molecular , Seleção Genética , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/genética , Conjuntos de Dados como Assunto , Diploide , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Genoma de Planta/genética , Proteínas de Domínio MADS/genética , RNA-Seq , Tetraploidia , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma
16.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 5821, 2019 12 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31862880

RESUMO

Global climate change has intensified the need to assess the capacity for natural populations to adapt to abrupt shifts in the environment. Reductions in seawater pH constitute a conspicuous global change stressor that is affecting marine ecosystems globally. Here, we quantify the phenotypic and genetic modifications associated with rapid adaptation to reduced seawater pH in the Mediterranean mussel, Mytilus galloprovincialis. We reared a genetically diverse larval population in two pH treatments (pHT 8.1 and 7.4) and tracked changes in the shell-size distribution and genetic variation through settlement. Additionally, we identified differences in the signatures of selection on shell growth in each pH environment. Both phenotypic and genetic data show that standing variation can facilitate adaptation to declines in seawater pH. This work provides insight into the processes underpinning rapid evolution, and demonstrates the importance of maintaining variation within natural populations to bolster species' adaptive capacity as global change progresses.


Assuntos
Aclimatação/genética , Bivalves/fisiologia , Evolução Molecular , Água do Mar/química , Animais , Mudança Climática , Variação Genética , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Larva , Mar Mediterrâneo , Herança Multifatorial/fisiologia , Fenótipo
17.
BMC Plant Biol ; 19(1): 462, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31675987

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Flowering time is one of the most important agronomic characteristics that ultimately determine yield potential and eco-geographical adaptation in crops. Ghd8 and Ghd7, two major flowering genes, have similar functions and large pleiotropic effects in controlling the heading date, plant height and grain yield of rice. However, these gene interactions at the genetic and molecular levels have not been determined to date. RESULTS: In this study, we investigated the genetic interaction between Ghd8 and Ghd7 by using a set of near-isogenic lines and a panel of natural germplasm accessions in rice. We found that Ghd8 affected multiple agronomic traits in a functional Ghd7-dependent manner. Both functional Ghd8 and Ghd7 are pivotal for rice photoperiod sensitivity controlled by Hd1 and Hd3a. GHD8 could form a heterotrimeric complex with HD1 and OsHAP5b to activate the transcription of Ghd7 by binding directly to the promoter region of Ghd7, which contains the CCAAT-box motif. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study help to elucidate the genetic and molecular bases of Ghd8 and Ghd7 interactions, indicating that Ghd8 acts upstream of Ghd7 to activate its transcription, which inhibits Hd3a expression and thus affects flowering time and rice adaptation.


Assuntos
Flores/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Oryza/genética , Fotoperíodo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Aclimatação/genética , Adaptação Biológica , Flores/genética , Flores/efeitos da radiação , Oryza/efeitos da radiação , Fenótipo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo
18.
Nature ; 575(7781): 109-118, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31695205

RESUMO

The current trajectory for crop yields is insufficient to nourish the world's population by 20501. Greater and more consistent crop production must be achieved against a backdrop of climatic stress that limits yields, owing to shifts in pests and pathogens, precipitation, heat-waves and other weather extremes. Here we consider the potential of plant sciences to address post-Green Revolution challenges in agriculture and explore emerging strategies for enhancing sustainable crop production and resilience in a changing climate. Accelerated crop improvement must leverage naturally evolved traits and transformative engineering driven by mechanistic understanding, to yield the resilient production systems that are needed to ensure future harvests.


Assuntos
Produção Agrícola/métodos , Produção Agrícola/estatística & dados numéricos , Produtos Agrícolas/genética , Abastecimento de Alimentos/métodos , Abastecimento de Alimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Aquecimento Global/estatística & dados numéricos , Desenvolvimento Sustentável/tendências , Aclimatação/genética , Aclimatação/fisiologia , Animais , Produtos Agrícolas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Produtos Agrícolas/microbiologia , Produtos Agrícolas/virologia , Fertilizantes , Humanos , Doenças das Plantas/genética , Doenças das Plantas/prevenção & controle , Doenças das Plantas/estatística & dados numéricos , Chuva
19.
Plant Sci ; 289: 110215, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31623776

RESUMO

14-3-3 proteins are a family of conserved proteins present in eukaryotes as several isoforms, playing a regulatory role in many cellular and physiological processes. In plants, 14-3-3 proteins have been reported to be involved in the response to stress conditions, such as drought, salt and cold. In the present study, 14-3-3ε and 14-3-3ω isoforms, which were representative of ε and non-ε phylogenetic groups, were overexpressed in Arabidopsis thaliana plants; the effect of their overexpression was investigated on H+-ATPase activation and plant response to cold stress. Results demonstrated that H+-ATPase activity was increased in 14-3-3ω-overexpressing plants, whereas overexpression of both 14-3-3 isoforms brought about cold stress tolerance, which was evaluated through ion leakage, lipid peroxidation, osmolyte synthesis, and ROS production assays. A dedicated tandem mass tag (TMT)-based proteomic analysis demonstrated that different proteins involved in the plant response to cold or oxidative stress were over-represented in 14-3-3ε-overexpressing plants.


Assuntos
Proteínas 14-3-3/genética , Arabidopsis/genética , Temperatura Baixa , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/fisiologia , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Estresse Fisiológico/genética , Proteínas 14-3-3/metabolismo , Aclimatação/genética , Arabidopsis/enzimologia , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Isoformas de Proteínas/genética , Isoformas de Proteínas/metabolismo , ATPases Vacuolares Próton-Translocadoras/genética , ATPases Vacuolares Próton-Translocadoras/metabolismo
20.
Plant Sci ; 289: 110246, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31623784

RESUMO

Adverse environmental conditions, such as cold and drought, can inhibit plant growth, development, and productivity. The isolation and characterization of stress response genes from stress-tolerant plants can provide a better understanding of the underlying adaptive mechanisms. In this study, a novel cold-regulated gene, SikCOR413PM1, was isolated from Saussurea involucrata Kar. et Kir., which is a plant that survives at the high altitudes and in the low temperatures of alpine slopes in northwestern China. SikCOR413PM1 was induced in response to cold and drought in S. involucrata, and phylogenetic analysis revealed that the gene groups with a COR gene encoding a COR413PM protein family member. Subcellular localization of a SikCOR413PM1-green fluorescent fusion protein showed that SikCOR413PM1 was localized to the plasma membrane. A transgenic tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) system was employed to investigate the possible role of SikCOR413PM1 in cold and drought tolerance. Analyses of growth, germination and survival rates, relative water content, malondialdehyde content, relative electrolyte leakage, and maximal photochemical efficiency of photosystem II showed that transgenic tobacco plants expressing SikCOR413PM1 were more tolerant to cold and drought stresses than WT plants. SikCOR413PM1 overexpression was also accompanied by constitutive activation of NtDREB1 and NtDREB3, two cold-responsive transcription factor genes, and NtERD10A and NtERD10B, two cold-induced genes. The expression levels of downstream transcription factor genes NtDREB3, NtERD10C, NtERD10D, and NtLEA5 were also induced in SikCOR413PM1-expressing transgenic plants under drought conditions. Our results suggest that the overexpression of SikCOR413PM1 induces changes in tobacco plants, and facilitates enhanced tolerance to cold and drought stresses.


Assuntos
Aclimatação/genética , Temperatura Baixa , Secas , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Saussurea/genética , Tabaco/fisiologia , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Filogenia , Proteínas de Plantas/química , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/genética , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/metabolismo , Saussurea/metabolismo , Alinhamento de Sequência , Tabaco/genética
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