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1.
BMC Res Notes ; 12(1): 408, 2019 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31307543

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Aconitum plants (Ranunculaceae) exhibit toxicity, and accidental ingestion of the plants has been reported in Japan. Identifying the cause of poisoning is important for emergency medical treatment, and a rapid and simple detection technique is required for the identification of poisoning cause. In the present study, we developed a rapid and simple method for detecting Aconitum plant DNA using a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay. RESULTS: Specific LAMP primers for Aconitum plants were designed based on the trnL-trnF intergenic spacer region. Using the LAMP primers, the LAMP assay included an initiation reaction of 10 min followed by amplification for 20 min at the isothermal reaction temperature of 65 °C. The LAMP reaction was demonstrated to be specific and highly sensitive to Aconitum plants, given that the assay can be used for 1 pg of purified DNA. Using raw extracted DNA as template, the entire detection procedure from DNA extraction to final detection required only 30 min. Moreover, the protocol identified samples containing approximately 5 mg of Aconitum plants cooked and digested with artificial gastric juice. The currently proposed protocol exhibits good potential as a screening method of Aconitum plant poisoning for emergency medical care.


Assuntos
Aconitum/genética , Aconitum/envenenamento , DNA de Plantas/genética , Técnicas de Amplificação de Ácido Nucleico/métodos , Intoxicação por Plantas/diagnóstico , Animais , Humanos , Extratos Vegetais/genética , Extratos Vegetais/envenenamento , Coelhos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
2.
Toxicol Lett ; 305: 10-18, 2019 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30639578

RESUMO

Aconitine (AC) and mesaconitine (MA) are major bioactive diterpenoid alkaloids derived from herbal aconitum plants. Emerging evidence indicates that AC plays a pivotal role in the cardiotoxicity for aconite poisoning. However, the cardiotoxicity data of MA, especially those on the difference between AC and MA are quite limited. Zebrafish embryos were used in this study for toxicological screening, and the cardiac morphology and function were observed. Embryos were analyzed by means of high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) after exposure and pharmacokinetic behaviors were also investigated. Results showed that 1.5% of the aconitum alkaloids penetrated into the zebrafish embryos. 2.5 µg/L AC and 20 µg/L MA caused a deficient cardiovascular system with yolk sac hemorrhage and early cardiac dysfunctions were observed in 96 h post-fertilization. AC showed greater cardiotoxicity than MA by comparing the EC50 of pericardium edema. Aconitum alkaloids exposure also resulted in a significant decrease in the expression of cardiac genes (Tbx5, Gata4, and Nkx2.5) from an early stage (12-24 hpf), which may partly explained that the death caused by aconitum is most likely to occur within the first 24 h. In addition, a high percentage of apoptotic cells was observed in the brain region, which identified another potential target of the DDA action in zebrafish embryos.


Assuntos
Aconitum/química , Alcaloides/toxicidade , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Embrião não Mamífero/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento/efeitos dos fármacos , Coração/efeitos dos fármacos , Aconitina/análogos & derivados , Aconitina/toxicidade , Aconitum/envenenamento , Alcaloides/química , Animais , Coração/embriologia , Estrutura Molecular , Peixe-Zebra/embriologia
4.
Med Klin Intensivmed Notfmed ; 113(7): 574-576, 2018 10.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29236129

RESUMO

The unintentional poisoning with aconite in a 32-year-old healthy woman led to life-threatening neurological and cardiovascular effects with cardiac arrest and need for resuscitation. The combined administration of magnesium and amiodarone was able to stabilize heart rhythm and circulation. Organ damage was not recognized in the follow-up.


Assuntos
Aconitum , Parada Cardíaca , Envenenamento , Aconitum/química , Aconitum/envenenamento , Adulto , Amiodarona/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Parada Cardíaca/induzido quimicamente , Humanos , Envenenamento/etiologia , Envenenamento/terapia , Bloqueadores dos Canais de Potássio/uso terapêutico , Ressuscitação
5.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28886613

RESUMO

We report about an acute monkshood intoxication requiring acute resuscitation in suicidal intent in a 56-year-old patient. The Blue Monkshood (Aconitum napellus) is considered to be the most toxic plant in Europe. All plant parts contain the highly toxic alkonoid aconitin. The lethal dose in adults is 2 - 6 mg. Intoxications are often fatal. Asymptomatic patients with suspected monkshood intoxication should also be monitored on an ICU. First signs of intoxication are paraesthesia in the mouth and throat area, abdominal cramps, nausea, vomiting and severe pain in skeletal muscle. Affected patients die within hours after ingestion due to respiratory distress and/or cardiac arrhythmia.The most important measure after oral ingestion is to achieve a rapid primary poison elimination clearance (in the case of awareness clear patients, trigger vomiting, otherwise gastric lavage under protective intubation) and the subsequent carbonation. A specific antidote is not available. The management of an intoxication consists primarily of the therapy of the rhythm disturbances in the form of magnesium and amiodarone.Strict adherence to protective measures (gloves, masks) must be strictly observed. A direct skin contact with plant parts is to be avoided as well as the potential contact with vomit or aspirate.


Assuntos
Aconitina/envenenamento , Aconitum/envenenamento , Intoxicação por Plantas/tratamento farmacológico , Ressuscitação/métodos , Amiodarona/uso terapêutico , Antiarrítmicos/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Escala de Coma de Glasgow , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Tentativa de Suicídio , Taquicardia/induzido quimicamente , Taquicardia/tratamento farmacológico , Irrigação Terapêutica
6.
J Ethnobiol Ethnomed ; 13(1): 45, 2017 Aug 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28789666

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Aconitum species are poisonous plants that have been used in Western medicine for centuries. In the nineteenth century, these plants were part of official and folk medicine in the Slovenian territory. According to current ethnobotanical studies, folk use of Aconitum species is rarely reported in Europe. The purpose of this study was to research the folk medicinal use of Aconitum species in Solcavsko, Slovenia; to collect recipes for the preparation of Aconitum spp., indications for use, and dosing; and to investigate whether the folk use of aconite was connected to poisoning incidents. METHODS: In Solcavsko, a remote alpine area in northern Slovenia, we performed semi-structured interviews with 19 informants in Solcavsko, 3 informants in Luce, and two retired physicians who worked in that area. Three samples of homemade ethanolic extracts were obtained from informants, and the concentration of aconitine was measured. In addition, four extracts were prepared according to reported recipes. RESULTS: All 22 informants knew of Aconitum spp. and their therapeutic use, and 5 of them provided a detailed description of the preparation and use of "voukuc", an ethanolic extract made from aconite roots. Seven informants were unable to describe the preparation in detail, since they knew of the extract only from the narration of others or they remembered it from childhood. Most likely, the roots of Aconitum tauricum and Aconitum napellus were used for the preparation of the extract, and the solvent was homemade spirits. Four informants kept the extract at home; two extracts were prepared recently (1998 and 2015). Three extracts were analyzed, and 2 contained aconitine. Informants reported many indications for the use of the extract; it was used internally and, in some cases, externally as well. The extract was also used in animals. The extract was measured in drops, but the number of drops differed among the informants. The informants reported nine poisonings with Aconitum spp., but none of them occurred as a result of medicinal use of the extract. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, we determined that folk knowledge of the medicinal use of Aconitum spp. is still present in Solcavsko, but Aconitum preparations are used only infrequently.


Assuntos
Aconitum , Medicina Tradicional , Fitoterapia/métodos , Aconitum/envenenamento , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Medicina Tradicional/métodos , Extratos Vegetais/envenenamento , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Raízes de Plantas , Eslovênia
7.
Clin Toxicol (Phila) ; 55(5): 313-321, 2017 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28421842

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Aconite poisoning is relatively rare but is frequently complicated by ventricular dysrhythmias, which may be fatal. Molecular basis of aconite alkaloid ventricular arrhythmogenicity: Aconite exerts its toxic effects due to the presence of an admixture of alkaloids present in all parts of the plant. The major target of these aconite alkaloids is the fast voltage-gates sodium channel, where they cause persistent activation. This blockade of the channel in the activated state promotes automaticity within the ventricular myocardium and the generation of ventricular arrhythmias. Aconitine-induced arrhythmias: Aconite alkaloids are known to cause many different types of disturbance of heart rhythm. However, this focused review specifically looks at ventricular rhythm disturbances, namely ventricular ectopy, ventricular tachycardia, torsades des pointes and ventricular fibrillation. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this review was to identify the outcome of anti-dysrhythmic strategies from animal studies and case reports in humans in order to guide the management of ventricular dysrhythmias in aconite poisoning in humans. METHODS: A review of the literature in English was conducted in PubMed and Google Scholar from 1966 to July 2016 using the search terms "aconite/aconitine"; "aconite/aconitine + poisoning" and "aconite/aconitine + dysrhythmia". 168 human case-reports and case-series were identified by these searches, of which 103 were rejected if exposure to aconite did not result in ventricular dysrhythmias, if it was uncertain as to whether aconite had been ingested, if other agents were co-ingested, if there was insufficient information to determine the type of treatments administered or if there was insufficient information to determine outcome. Thus, 65 case reports of probable aconite poisoning that resulted in ventricular dysrhythmias were identified. Toxicokinetic data in aconite poisoning: Data were only available in three papers; the presence of ventricular rhythm disturbances directly correlated with the concentration of aconite alkaloids in the plasma. MANAGEMENT: 54 of 65 cases developed ventricular tachycardia, six developed torsades des pointes, 15 patients developed ventricular fibrillation, 10 developed ventricular ectopics and one developed a broad complex tachycardia not otherwise specified; each dysrhythmia was regarded as separate and patients may have had more than one dysrhythmia. 10 patients died, giving a mortality of 15%. In total, 147 treatments were administered to 65 patients. 46 of the interventions were assessed by the authors as having been associated with successful restoration of sinus rhythm. Flecainide administration was accompanied by dysrhythmia termination in six of seven cases. Mexiletine was connected with correcting dysrhythmias in 3 of 3 cases. Procainamide administration was associated with return to sinus rhythm in 2 of 2 cases. Prolonged cardio-pulmonary resuscitation was administered to 15 patients where it was associated with a return to sinus rhythm in nine of these. Amiodarone was linked to success in correcting dysrhythmias in 11 of 20 cases. Cardiopulmonary bypass use was associated with a return to sinus rhythm in four out of six cases. Epinephrine was documented as being employed on four occasions, and was associated with a restoration of sinus rhythm on two of these. Magnesium sulphate administration was accompanied by dysrhythmia termination in two of nine cases. Direct cardioversion was associated with a return of sinus rhythm in 5 of 30 cases. However, it is not certain whether the drug treatment influenced the course of the dysrhythmia. CONCLUSIONS: Based on the evidence available from human case reports, flecainaide or amiodarone appear to be more associated with a return to sinus rhythm than lidocaine and/or cardioversion, although it is not established whether the administration of treatment caused reversion to normal sinus rhythm. The potential beneficial effects of amiodarone were not observed in animal studies. This may be due to intra-species differences between ion channels or relate to the wider cardiovascular toxicity of aconite that extends beyond arrhythmias. Prolonged cardiopulmonary resuscitation and cardiopulmonary bypass should be considered as an integral part of good clinical care as "time-buying" strategies to allow the body to excrete the toxic alkaloids. There may also be a role for mexiletine, procainamide and magnesium sulphate.


Assuntos
Aconitum/envenenamento , Arritmias Cardíacas/fisiopatologia , Sistema de Condução Cardíaco/efeitos dos fármacos , Envenenamento/fisiopatologia , Aconitum/química , Animais , Antiarrítmicos/uso terapêutico , Arritmias Cardíacas/induzido quimicamente , Arritmias Cardíacas/tratamento farmacológico , Cálcio/metabolismo , Ponte Cardiopulmonar , Reanimação Cardiopulmonar , Bases de Dados Factuais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Cardioversão Elétrica , Sistema de Condução Cardíaco/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Neurônios/efeitos dos fármacos , Neurônios/metabolismo , Envenenamento/etiologia , Sódio/metabolismo , Canais de Sódio/efeitos dos fármacos , Canais de Sódio/metabolismo , Toxicocinética , Fibrilação Ventricular/induzido quimicamente , Fibrilação Ventricular/tratamento farmacológico , Fibrilação Ventricular/fisiopatologia
8.
Indian Heart J ; 68 Suppl 2: S207-S209, 2016 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27751290

RESUMO

A 55-year-old male presented with history of nausea, vomiting, palpitation paresthesis and profuse sweating in emergency department 2h after ingestion of "Bachnaag" (Aconite) root. Examination revealed shock with irregular pulses. Initial ECG showed frequent multifocal ventricular ectopics (VE), which later turned to short runs of ventricular tachycardia (VT). Immediate gastric lavage was done and activated charcoal given. Patient was treated with fluid resuscitation without any improvement in blood pressure. Patient was started on nor-adrenaline infusion with gradual recovery from hypotension over a period of 6h, but support was continued for 48h. Amiodarone was started to control ventricular excitability, which persisted over 72h with gradual decrease in frequency of VT and VE. Patient was discharged with normal sinus rhythm on oral amiodarone on 5th day of hospitalization. On follow-up after 2 weeks patient was totally asymptomatic and amiodarone was stopped.


Assuntos
Aconitum/envenenamento , Amiodarona/administração & dosagem , Eletrocardiografia , Choque/induzido quimicamente , Taquicardia Ventricular/induzido quimicamente , Antiarrítmicos/administração & dosagem , Hidratação , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Raízes de Plantas/envenenamento , Choque/diagnóstico , Choque/terapia , Taquicardia Ventricular/diagnóstico , Taquicardia Ventricular/terapia
9.
J Forensic Leg Med ; 42: 68-73, 2016 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27266651

RESUMO

Aconitum species have long been used in key traditional medicines in China, but cases of fatal aconite poisoning have also been reported. This paper presents a review of 40 single and multi-person cases of fatal aconite poisoning. The cases involved 53 victims in mainland China described in 27 case reports published between January 2004 and September 2015. We summarize the details of the case reports in order to highlight the features of fatal aconite-poisoning cases in China, including victims' sex and age, route of intoxication, clinical symptoms, medicolegal autopsy findings, and results of toxicological analysis. Our results indicate a need for legal medical experts encountering cases of fatal aconite poisoning to pay increased attention to the methods used for collecting biological samples. In addition, prevention strategies should focus on increasing public awareness regarding the potential toxicity of Aconitum, harm caused by medicinal liquors containing aconitine, and possibility of Aconitum alkaloids accumulating in the body.


Assuntos
Aconitum/envenenamento , Adolescente , Adulto , Distribuição por Idade , Idoso , Criança , Pré-Escolar , China/epidemiologia , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/envenenamento , Feminino , Alimentos , Toxicologia Forense , Humanos , Masculino , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Envenenamento/mortalidade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Distribuição por Sexo , Adulto Jovem
10.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 179: 27-37, 2016 Feb 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26719282

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Aconitum brachypodum Diels (Family Ranunculaceae) is well known for both its good therapy and high toxicity in Yunnan and Sichuan provinces in China. Noticeably, Veratrilla baillonii Franch (Family Gentianaceae), an ethnodrug used by Naxi and Lisu nationalities in Yunnan Province, has been widely considered to possess antitoxic effects on Aconitum plants in herbal therapy and folklore medicines. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The present study was conducted to determine the detoxic activities of the water decoction of Veratrilla baillonii Franch (WVBF) on the the chloroform fraction of Aconitum brachypodum Diels (CFA) induced acute toxicity in mice. The physiological (symptoms, body weight, etc.) as well as pathological and clinical biochemistry parameters were assessed and used as the markers for the toxicity. (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) based metabolic approach was adopted to further discuss the mechanism. RESULTS: The acute poisoning effects of CFA on mice were observed at doses of 20-62.5mgkg(-1), resulting in an oral median lethal dose (LD50) of 41.3mgkg(-1). Histologically, distinct degenerative changes of the heart, liver and kidney were observed. The biochemistry parameters in the serum as well as metabolites in heart and brain were also altered. However, WVBF (25-200mg/kg) attenuated all the acute toxicity and pathological changes, properly regulated the biochemistry parameters, and reversed the concentration alterations for some metabolites in the heart and brain of mice induced by 40mg/kg of CFA to a certain extent. CONCLUSIONS: WVBF significantly reduced the onset of the CFA toxicity. This study may contribute to further understanding of the toxicological and pharmacological profiles of Aconitum brachypodum and the detoxic property of Veratrilla baillonii.


Assuntos
Aconitum/envenenamento , Gentianaceae/química , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Intoxicação por Plantas/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Peso Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Encéfalo/patologia , Química Encefálica/efeitos dos fármacos , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Dose Letal Mediana , Fígado/metabolismo , Fígado/patologia , Camundongos , Miocárdio/metabolismo , Miocárdio/patologia , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Intoxicação por Plantas/patologia , Raízes de Plantas/química
11.
Heart ; 102(10): e3, 2016 05 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26715569

RESUMO

CLINICAL INTRODUCTION: An 88-year-old man, admitted to the emergency room (ER) after three episodes of syncope within 1 day, reported a precursory of syndrome of light-headedness with rapid palpitations that led to an abrupt loss of consciousness. After undergoing percutaneous and surgical revascularisation, he started complaining of chest and back discomfort for the past 20 years and searching for help from Chinese medicine, Fuzi. He had history of chronic renal failure and heart failure, but denied neither taking digitalis nor having family history related to sudden death.On arrival, heart rate was 150 bpm and blood pressure (BP) by cuff was 91/81 mm Hg (non-invasive BP could not be accurately obtained during tachycardia) plus oedema on both lower extremities. There were diffuse crackles and indistinct heart sounds on auscultation.The admission ECG was performed in the ER (figure 1). His serum creatinine was 139.7 mmol/L, serum K(+) was 4.7 mmol/L, N-terminal of the prohormone brain natriuretic peptide was highly elevated (12 000 pg/mL) and troponin I was negative. QUESTION: What is the most likely diagnosis suggested based on the patient's ECG and history? Aconite poisoningDigitalis toxicityCatecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia (CPVT)Andersen-Tawil syndrome (ATS).


Assuntos
Aconitum/envenenamento , Diterpenos/envenenamento , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/envenenamento , Sistema de Condução Cardíaco/efeitos dos fármacos , Síncope/induzido quimicamente , Taquicardia/induzido quimicamente , Potenciais de Ação/efeitos dos fármacos , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Eletrocardiografia , Sistema de Condução Cardíaco/fisiopatologia , Frequência Cardíaca/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Masculino , Síncope/diagnóstico , Síncope/fisiopatologia , Taquicardia/diagnóstico , Taquicardia/fisiopatologia
12.
Phytother Res ; 30(1): 3-8, 2016 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26481590

RESUMO

Aconitum alkaloid poisoning can occur after drinking decoction and soup made from non-toxic herbs contaminated by aconite roots. In the present review, the main objective is to describe the clinical features, investigations and possible sources of contamination. A combination of neurological, gastrointestinal and cardiovascular signs and symptoms was seen. Ventricular tachyarrhythmias could occur in 18% of subjects. Yunaconitine and crassicauline A, mainly found in certain aconite roots from Southwest China, are most commonly involved. Herbal residues and unused herbs should first be inspected for gross contamination. On-site inspection at the retailer should exclude accidental mix-up or cross-contamination when handling aconite roots. Samples of prescribed herbs are examined for gross contamination and analysed for the presence of Aconitum alkaloids. Samples of the implicated herb are also collected from the wholesaler for investigation. If post-import contamination is unlikely, the regulatory authorities of the exporting countries should be notified for follow-up actions. It is a challenging task to work out how non-toxic herbs become contaminated by aconite roots. The source control with good agricultural and collection practices and quality assurance must be enhanced.


Assuntos
Aconitum/envenenamento , Alcaloides/envenenamento , Contaminação de Medicamentos , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/envenenamento , Raízes de Plantas/envenenamento , Aconitina/análogos & derivados , Aconitina/envenenamento , Aconitum/química , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Alcaloides/química , China , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/química , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
13.
Phytother Res ; 29(8): 1107-11, 2015 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25974837

RESUMO

Aconite roots contain Aconitum alkaloids, which are highly toxic cardiotoxins and neurotoxins. In this review, the main objective was to determine the incidence and causes of Aconitum alkaloid poisoning in Hong Kong between 1989 and 2010, based on six published reports from the territory-wide poison control units. In the New Territories East of Hong Kong, the incidence of aconite poisoning showed a sudden and sustained decrease from 0.60 (1989-1991) to 0.16 (1992-1993) and 0.17 (1996-1998) per 100 000 population, after publicity measures in late 1991 to promote awareness of the toxicity of aconite roots. In the whole of Hong Kong, the incidence of aconite poisoning was even lower in January 2000-June 2004 (0.03 per 100 000 population). However, aconite poisoning became more common again in April 2004-July 2009 and 2008-2010 (0.15 and 0.28 per 100 000 population). Overdoses and use of inadequately processed aconite roots were important causes. As from 2004 to 2009, 'hidden' aconite poisoning (toxicity caused by contaminants in other dispensed herbs) emerged as an important cause. It is important to continue the safety monitoring of potent herbs and the networking of poison control units. Further systematic studies would be required to identify the likely sources of contamination of herbs.


Assuntos
Aconitum/envenenamento , Contaminação de Medicamentos , Alcaloides/envenenamento , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/envenenamento , Hong Kong/epidemiologia , Humanos , Incidência , Neurotoxinas , Raízes de Plantas/envenenamento
14.
Anaesthesist ; 64(5): 381-4, 2015 May.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25812545

RESUMO

This article reports the case of a 62-year-old male patient who ingested the roots of Monkshood (Aconitum napellus) and white hellebore (Veratrum album) dissolved in alcohol with a suicidal intention and suffered cardiotoxic and neurotoxic symptoms. After contacting the Poison Information Centre ventricular arrhythmia was treated with high-dose magnesium sulphate as the only antiarrhythmic agent and subsequently a stable sinus rhythm could be established after approximately 3 h. Aconitum napellus is considered the most poisonous plant in Europe and it is found in gardens, the Alps and the Highlands. Poisoning is mainly caused by the alkaloid aconite that leads to persistent opening and activation of voltage-dependent sodium channels resulting in severe cardiac and neurological toxicity. As no specific antidote is known so far, poisoning is associated with a high mortality. The therapy with high-dose magnesium sulphate is based on in vitro and animal experiments as well as limited clinical case reports.


Assuntos
Aconitum/envenenamento , Antiarrítmicos/uso terapêutico , Sulfato de Magnésio/uso terapêutico , Veratrum/envenenamento , Alcaloides/envenenamento , Antiarrítmicos/administração & dosagem , Arritmias Cardíacas/induzido quimicamente , Arritmias Cardíacas/tratamento farmacológico , Eletrocardiografia , Cardiopatias/induzido quimicamente , Cardiopatias/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Sulfato de Magnésio/administração & dosagem , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Síndromes Neurotóxicas/tratamento farmacológico , Agonistas de Canais de Sódio/envenenamento , Canais de Sódio/efeitos dos fármacos , Tentativa de Suicídio , Taquicardia/induzido quimicamente , Taquicardia/tratamento farmacológico
15.
Toxins (Basel) ; 6(9): 2605-11, 2014 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25184557

RESUMO

Aconite roots (roots or root tubers of the Aconitum species) are eaten as root vegetables and used to prepare herbal soups and meals, mainly for their purported health benefits. Aconite roots contain aconitine and other Aconitum alkaloids, which are well known cardiotoxins and neurotoxins. To better understand why Aconitum alkaloid poisoning related to the culinary uses of aconite roots can occur and characterize the risks posed by these "food supplements", relevant published reports were reviewed. From 1995 to 2013, there were eight reports of aconite poisoning after consumption of these herbal soups and meals, including two reports of large clusters of cases (n = 19-45) and two reports of cases (n = 15-156) managed by two hospitals over a period of 4.5 to 5 years. The herbal formulae used did not adhere to the suggested guidelines, with regarding to the doses (50-500 g instead of 3-30 g per person) and types (raw instead of processed) of aconite roots used. The quantities of Aconitum alkaloids involved were huge, taking into consideration the doses of aconite roots used to prepare herbal soups/meals and the amounts of aconite roots and herbal soups/meals consumed. In a large cluster of cases, despite simmering raw "caowu" (the root tuber of A. kusnezoffii) in pork broth for 24 h, all 19 family members who consumed this soup and boiled "caowu" developed poisoning. Severe or even fatal aconite poisoning can occur after consumption of herbal soups and foods prepared from aconite roots. Even prolonged boiling may not be protective if raw preparations and large quantities of aconite roots are used. The public should be warned of the risk of severe poisoning related to the culinary and traditional medicinal uses of aconite roots.


Assuntos
Aconitina/envenenamento , Aconitum/envenenamento , Verduras/envenenamento , Culinária , Alimentos , Humanos , Raízes de Plantas/envenenamento
16.
Hong Kong Med J ; 20(4): 343-6, 2014 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25104008

RESUMO

Traditional Chinese medicine is commonly used locally, not only for disease treatment but also for improving health. Many people prepare soups containing herbs or herbal decoctions according to recipes and general herbal formulae commonly available in books, magazines, and newspapers without consulting Chinese medicine practitioners. However, such practice can be dangerous. We report five cases of poisoning from 2007 to 2012 occurring as a result of inappropriate use of herbs in recipes or general herbal formulae acquired from books. Aconite poisoning due to overdose or inadequate processing accounted for three cases. The other two cases involved the use of herbs containing Strychnos alkaloids and Sophora alkaloids. These cases demonstrated that inappropriate use of Chinese medicine can result in major morbidity, and herbal formulae and recipes containing herbs available in general publications are not always safe.


Assuntos
Aconitum/envenenamento , Alcaloides/envenenamento , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/envenenamento , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Idoso , Alcaloides/isolamento & purificação , Livros , Overdose de Drogas , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/administração & dosagem , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/química , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sophora/química , Strychnos/química
18.
Shokuhin Eiseigaku Zasshi ; 55(1): 55-63, 2014.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24598227

RESUMO

In the present study, we reviewed food poisoning data published by the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare of Japan from 1961 to 2010 in Japan to analyze the trends of plant toxin food poisonings (PTFPs). The annual number of incidents of PTFPs has gradually increased since 1995. PTFPs were predominantly caused by Datura spp., Veratrum spp. and Aconitum spp. Although PTFPs frequently occurred in April and May, poisonings caused by some plants occurred in all seasons, e.g. Datura spp. The major location of PTFPs was "at home", and most of the patients had accidentally harvested poisonous plants. During the past decade, the numbers of incidents of PTFPs caused by Veratrum spp., Narcissus spp., Solanum tuberosum and Alocasia odora were especially increased. Consumer advice to prevent PTFPs associated with certain plants that are cultivated in gardens and contain toxic substances is needed, because PTFPs caused by such plants are increasing. In addition, education of elementary school teachers and children about the potential risks of natural toxins in plants, particularly Solanum tuberosum, is desirable.


Assuntos
Intoxicação por Plantas/epidemiologia , Aconitum/envenenamento , Alocasia/envenenamento , Datura/envenenamento , Humanos , Japão/epidemiologia , Narcissus/envenenamento , Intoxicação por Plantas/mortalidade , Estações do Ano , Solanum tuberosum/envenenamento , Fatores de Tempo , Veratrum/envenenamento
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