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1.
J Subst Abuse Treat ; 120: 108163, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33298301

RESUMO

Historically, federal and state policies have narrowly defined treatment models that have resulted in limited access to and engagement in counseling for individuals receiving medications for opioid use disorder (MOUD; e.g., methadone and buprenorphine). In response to the coronavirus pandemic, outpatient MOUD treatment providers rapidly transitioned from traditional, in-person care delivery models to revised COVID-19 protocols that prioritized telehealth counseling to protect the health of patients and staff and ensure continuity in MOUD care. These telehealth innovations appear to mitigate many of the longstanding barriers to counseling in the traditional system and have the potential to forever alter MOUD care delivery. Drawing on data from a Rhode Island-based clinic, we argue that MOUD counseling is achievable via telehealth and outline the need for, and anticipated benefits of, hybrid telehealth/in-person MOUD treatment models moving forward.


Assuntos
Aconselhamento/métodos , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/tratamento farmacológico , Telemedicina/organização & administração , Buprenorfina/administração & dosagem , Continuidade da Assistência ao Paciente/organização & administração , Assistência à Saúde/organização & administração , Humanos , Metadona/administração & dosagem , Tratamento de Substituição de Opiáceos/métodos , Rhode Island
2.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(46): e23228, 2020 Nov 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33181708

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The increasing prevalence of obesity worldwide necessitates the provision of support for many patients. Patients with obesity appreciate receiving advice from doctors. Previous studies have qualitatively explored clinicians' counseling for weight loss; however, this is limited to primary physicians or general practitioners working in community health centers. In contrast, Korean Medicine Doctors (KMDs) have treated patients with obesity using a holistic approach with a multicomponent approach on counseling. However, there is currently no data regarding KMDs' consulting practices for weight loss. Therefore, the present study will explore KMDs' experience in counseling for weight loss and describe the constituents of counseling for weight loss in Korean medicine practice. METHODS: This qualitative study utilizes a phenomenological framework. The KMDs who have worked >1 year as practitioners in treating patients with obesity will be invited to describe their lived experiences of counseling patients for weight loss. Purposive and snowball sampling will be undertaken to ensure that the sample provides information-rich cases that are representative of KMDs' experiences of counseling for weight loss. Face-to-face, individual, and semi-structured interviews will be conducted with the participants, which will be analyzed using a phenomenological method. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Ethical approval was granted by the Human Research Ethics Committee of the Korea Institute of Oriental Medicine (I-1908/006-001). The results will be disseminated via journal articles and conference presentations. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: Korean Clinical Trial Registry, KCT0004985.


Assuntos
Aconselhamento/métodos , Obesidade/complicações , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto/métodos , Obesidade/psicologia , Padrões de Prática Médica/normas , Pesquisa Qualitativa , República da Coreia , Programas de Redução de Peso/normas
3.
JAMA ; 324(14): 1406-1418, 2020 10 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33048154

RESUMO

Importance: Persistent smoking may cause adverse outcomes among patients with cancer. Many cancer centers have not fully implemented evidence-based tobacco treatment into routine care. Objective: To determine the effectiveness of sustained telephone counseling and medication (intensive treatment) compared with shorter-term telephone counseling and medication advice (standard treatment) to assist patients recently diagnosed with cancer to quit smoking. Design, Setting, and Participants: This unblinded randomized clinical trial was conducted at Massachusetts General Hospital/Dana-Farber/Harvard Cancer Center and Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center. Adults who had smoked 1 cigarette or more within 30 days, spoke English or Spanish, and had recently diagnosed breast, gastrointestinal, genitourinary, gynecological, head and neck, lung, lymphoma, or melanoma cancers were eligible. Enrollment occurred between November 2013 and July 2017; assessments were completed by the end of February 2018. Interventions: Participants randomized to the intensive treatment (n = 153) and the standard treatment (n = 150) received 4 weekly telephone counseling sessions and medication advice. The intensive treatment group also received 4 biweekly and 3 monthly telephone counseling sessions and choice of Food and Drug Administration-approved cessation medication (nicotine replacement therapy, bupropion, or varenicline). Main Outcome and Measures: The primary outcome was biochemically confirmed 7-day point prevalence tobacco abstinence at 6-month follow-up. Secondary outcomes were treatment utilization rates. Results: Among 303 patients who were randomized (mean age, 58.3 years; 170 women [56.1%]), 221 (78.1%) completed the trial. Six-month biochemically confirmed quit rates were 34.5% (n = 51 in the intensive treatment group) vs 21.5% (n = 29 in the standard treatment group) (difference, 13.0% [95% CI, 3.0%-23.3%]; odds ratio, 1.92 [95% CI, 1.13-3.27]; P < .02). The median number of counseling sessions completed was 8 (interquartile range, 4-11) in the intensive treatment group. A total of 97 intensive treatment participants (77.0%) vs 68 standard treatment participants (59.1%) reported cessation medication use (difference, 17.9% [95% CI, 6.3%-29.5%]; odds ratio, 2.31 [95% CI, 1.32-4.04]; P = .003). The most common adverse events in the intensive treatment and standard treatment groups, respectively, were nausea (n = 13 and n = 6), rash (n = 4 and n = 1), hiccups (n = 4 and n = 1), mouth irritation (n = 4 and n = 0), difficulty sleeping (n = 3 and n = 2), and vivid dreams (n = 3 and n = 2). Conclusions and Relevance: Among smokers recently diagnosed with cancer in 2 National Cancer Institute-designated Comprehensive Cancer Centers, sustained counseling and provision of free cessation medication compared with 4-week counseling and medication advice resulted in higher 6-month biochemically confirmed quit rates. However, the generalizability of the study findings is uncertain and requires further research. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01871506.


Assuntos
Aconselhamento/métodos , Neoplasias/diagnóstico , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar/psicologia , Temperança/psicologia , Dispositivos para o Abandono do Uso de Tabaco , Idoso , Bupropiona/efeitos adversos , Bupropiona/uso terapêutico , Cotinina/análise , Aconselhamento/estatística & dados numéricos , Técnicas de Apoio para a Decisão , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Entrevista Motivacional , Satisfação do Paciente , Seleção de Pacientes , Saliva/química , Fumar/tratamento farmacológico , Fumar/epidemiologia , Fumar/psicologia , Agentes de Cessação do Hábito de Fumar/efeitos adversos , Agentes de Cessação do Hábito de Fumar/uso terapêutico , Telefone , Dispositivos para o Abandono do Uso de Tabaco/efeitos adversos , Vareniclina/efeitos adversos , Vareniclina/uso terapêutico
4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32867309

RESUMO

The study portrays the social and health care master's students' (N = 19) perceptions on the changes in work practices due to digitalisation, with a special focus on online counselling. Furthermore, the data include thoughts on the impact digitalised interaction, i.e., online counselling, has on their work and professional identities. The students studied how the motivational interviewing method combined with a solution-focused counselling approach is applicable in online settings by using simulation pedagogy. The data consisted of students' learning diaries. Furthermore, the data were analysed using inductive content analysis. The results show that the digitalisation of work practices demands blended professionalism, which allows the professional to work both face-to-face and online with clients. In addition, the education of social and health care professionals needs to address the lack of competences and skills in digitalised work practices and provide a conceptual and practical understanding of blended professionalism in the sector.


Assuntos
Aconselhamento/métodos , Setor de Assistência à Saúde , Qualidade da Assistência à Saúde , Estudantes/psicologia , Telemedicina , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Aprendizagem , Masculino
5.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(33): e21484, 2020 Aug 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32871994

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The objective of this study is to investigate the effects of humanistic care and psychological counseling (HCPC) on psychological disorders (PD) in medical students after coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak. METHODS: We will search randomized controlled trials or case-controlled studies of HCPC on PD in medical students after COVID-19 outbreak in the following electronic databases: PUBMED/MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, CINAHL, AMED, WANGFANG, and CNKI. The time is restricted from the construction of each database to the present. All process of study selection, data collection, and study quality evaluation will be carried out by two independent authors. Any different opinions will be solved by a third author through discussion. We will employ RevMan 5.3 software to conduct statistical analysis. RESULTS: This study will provide a better understanding of HCPC on PD in medical students after COVID-19 outbreak. CONCLUSIONS: This study may offer strong evidence for clinical practice to treat PD in medical students after COVID-19 outbreak. STUDY REGISTRATION: CRD42020193199.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Aconselhamento/métodos , Transtornos Mentais/terapia , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Psicoterapia/métodos , Estudantes de Medicina/psicologia , Adulto , Betacoronavirus , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanismo , Humanos , Masculino , Transtornos Mentais/psicologia , Pandemias , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Projetos de Pesquisa , Revisões Sistemáticas como Assunto , Adulto Jovem
6.
Am J Perinatol ; 37(13): 1377-1384, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32898920

RESUMO

The novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has resulted in changes to perinatal and neonatal care, concentrating on minimizing risks of transmission to the newborn and health care staff while ensuring medical care is not compromised for both mother and infant. Current recommendations on infant care and feeding when mother has COVID-19 ranges from mother-infant separation and avoidance of human milk feeding, to initiation of early skin-to-skin contact and direct breastfeeding. Health care providers fearing risks of severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) maternal-infant transmission may veer toward restricted breastfeeding practices. We reviewed guidelines and published literature and propose three options for infant feeding depending on various scenarios. Option A involves direct breastfeeding with the infant being cared for by the mother or caregiver. In option B, the infant is cared for by another caregiver and receives mother's expressed milk. In the third option, the infant is not breastfed directly and does not receive mother's expressed milk. We recommend joint decision making by parents and the health care team. This decision is also flexible as situation changes. We also provide a framework for counseling mothers on these options using a visual aid and a corresponding structured training program for health care providers. Future research questions are also proposed. We conclude that evidence and knowledge about COVID-19 and breastfeeding are still evolving. Our options can provide a quick and flexible reference guide that can be adapted to local needs. KEY POINTS: · SARS-CoV-2 is unlikely transmitted via human milk.. · A shared decision making on infant feeding is the preferred approach.. · Mothers can safely breastfeed with appropriate infection control measures..


Assuntos
Aleitamento Materno/métodos , Infecções por Coronavirus , Controle de Infecções/métodos , Transmissão Vertical de Doença Infecciosa/prevenção & controle , Leite Humano/virologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Aconselhamento/métodos , Tomada de Decisões , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Comportamento Materno , Mães/psicologia , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Gravidez , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/prevenção & controle , Risco Ajustado/métodos
7.
Syst Rev ; 9(1): 217, 2020 09 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32967717

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 has resulted in an increased demand for eHealth services globally. There is emerging evidence for the efficacy for group eHealth interventions that support population-based mental health and wellbeing, but a systematic review is lacking. The primary objective of this systematic review is to summarize the evidence for eHealth group counseling and coaching programs for adults. A second objective is to assess, within studies selected for our primary objective, the impact of programs that encourage PA on outcomes compared to those that do not. METHODS: Randomized controlled trials that assess the impact of eHealth group counseling or coaching programs on mental health, health behavior, or physical health activity among community-dwelling adults will be included. We will search the following electronic databases (from January 2005 onwards): MEDLINE, PsycINFO, CINHAL, and the Central Register of Controlled Trials. The primary outcomes will be changes in mental health conditions (e.g., depression, anxiety, stress, quality of life), behavioral health conditions (e.g., substance use, smoking, sexual behavior, eating behavior, medication adherence), and physical health conditions (e.g., coping with cancer, menopausal symptoms, arthritis pain). Secondary outcomes will be changes in physical activity. Two reviewers will independently screen all citations, full-text articles, and abstract data. Potential conflicts will be resolved through discussion with a third reviewer. A narrative synthesis without meta-analysis will be conducted. The strength of the body of evidence will be assessed using GRADE. The risk of bias in individual studies will be appraised using the Cochrane Risk of Bias 2.0 tool. Potential sources of gender bias in included studies will be considered at all stages of the planned review. DISCUSSION: This review will contribute to the literature by providing evidence on the effectiveness of eHealth counseling and coaching programs delivered to adults in a group format. SYSTEMATIC REVIEW REGISTRATION: The protocol has been registered at the International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews (PROSPERO: CRD42020187551 ).


Assuntos
Assistência à Saúde , Exercício Físico , Nível de Saúde , Saúde Mental , Telemedicina/métodos , Adulto , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus , Aconselhamento/métodos , Humanos , Tutoria/métodos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Psicoterapia de Grupo/métodos
8.
Obstet Gynecol ; 136(4): 859-867, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32976375

RESUMO

Prenatal testing for chromosomal abnormalities is designed to provide an accurate assessment of a patient's risk of carrying a fetus with a chromosomal disorder. A wide variety of prenatal screening and diagnostic tests are available; each offers varying levels of information and performance, and each has relative advantages and limitations. When considering screening test characteristics, no one test is superior in all circumstances, which results in the need for nuanced, patient-centered counseling from the obstetric care professional and complex decision making by the patient. Each patient should be counseled in each pregnancy about options for testing for fetal chromosomal abnormalities. It is important that obstetric care professionals be prepared to discuss not only the risk of fetal chromosomal abnormalities but also the relative benefits and limitations of the available screening and diagnostic tests. Testing for chromosomal abnormalities should be an informed patient choice based on provision of adequate and accurate information, the patient's clinical context, accessible health care resources, values, interests, and goals. All patients should be offered both screening and diagnostic tests, and all patients have the right to accept or decline testing after counseling.The purpose of this Practice Bulletin is to provide current information regarding the available screening test options available for fetal chromosomal abnormalities and to review their benefits, performance characteristics, and limitations. For information regarding prenatal diagnostic testing for genetic disorders, refer to Practice Bulletin No. 162, Prenatal Diagnostic Testing for Genetic Disorders. For additional information regarding counseling about genetic testing and communicating test results, refer to Committee Opinion No. 693, Counseling About Genetic Testing and Communication of Genetic Test Results. For information regarding carrier screening for genetic conditions, refer to Committee Opinion No. 690, Carrier Screening in the Age of Genomic Medicine, and Committee Opinion No. 691, Carrier Screening for Genetic Conditions. This Practice Bulletin has been revised to further clarify methods of screening for fetal chromosomal abnormalities, including expanded information regarding the use of cell-free DNA in all patients regardless of maternal age or baseline risk, and to add guidance related to patient counseling.


Assuntos
Aberrações Cromossômicas , Transtornos Cromossômicos , Aconselhamento , Doenças Fetais , Testes Genéticos/métodos , Diagnóstico Pré-Natal/métodos , Transtornos Cromossômicos/diagnóstico , Transtornos Cromossômicos/genética , Aconselhamento/métodos , Aconselhamento/normas , Aconselhamento/provisão & distribução , Feminino , Doenças Fetais/diagnóstico , Doenças Fetais/genética , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/normas , Humanos , Assistência Centrada no Paciente/métodos , Assistência Centrada no Paciente/normas , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Gravidez , Estados Unidos
9.
Rev. chil. enferm. respir ; 36(3): 169-175, set. 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-1138551

RESUMO

INTRODUCCIÓN: La cantidad de pacientes asmáticos que asisten al sistema público de salud es cada vez mayor, no obstante, la tasa de adherencia al tratamiento es muy baja, siendo los adolescentes quienes presentan mayor porcentaje de abandono al tratamiento, inasistencia a sus controles y gran conflicto decisional (CD). El OBJETIVO de este estudio fue evaluar el efecto de la aplicación de consejerías sobre el CD en relación al tratamiento del asma y el nivel de control de su enfermedad. MATERIALES Y MÉTODOS: Estudio pre-experimental que reclutó a 32 niños asmáticos entre 10 a 14 años de edad del policlínico respiratorio infantil del hospital Carlos Van Buren de Valparaíso. Solo 15 niños estuvieron dispuestos a participar en el estudio quienes completaron la totalidad de las sesiones de consejería. Para determinar el grado de CD de su patología, se aplicó la Escala de Conflicto Decisional de Ottawa; y para el nivel del control del asma, se usó la Escala Global Initiative for Asthma (GINA). RESULTADOS: La edad media del grupo de niños fue de 12,06 ± 1,16 años. Finalizada la intervención, el nivel de control de asma se mantuvo y la media del CD disminuyó de 34,05 ± 4,59 a 18,02 ± 3,01 puntos (p < 0,05; t de Student para muestras pareadas). Un 73,3% de los pacientes disminuyó su nivel de conflicto decisional. CONCLUSIÓN: Las consejerías de apoyo decisional demostraron tener efectos positivos en la población estudiada.


INTRODUCTION: The number of asthmatic patients attending the public health system is increasing. However, the rate of adherence to treatment is very low. Adolescents have the largest percentage of abandonment to treatment, lack of control and a great decisional conflict (DC). The OBJECTIVE of this study was to evaluate the effect of the application of counseling on the DC in relation to asthma treatment and the level of control of their disease. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Pre-experimental study that recruited 32 asthmatic children from 10 to 14 years-old, from the children's respiratory outpatients clinic of Carlos Van Buren hospital in Valparaíso, Chile. Only 15 children were willing to participate in the study and completed all of the counseling sessions. To determine the degree of DC of its pathology, the Ottawa Decision Conflict Scale was applied; and for the Asthma Control level, the Global Initiative for Asthma Scale (GINA) was used. RESULTS: Mean children age was 12.06 ± 1.16 years-old. After the intervention, the level of Asthma Control was maintained and the mean of the DC decrease from 34.05 ± 4.59 to 18.02 ± 3.01 points (p < 0.05; paired Student's t-test). 73.3% of the patients lowered their level of decisional conflict. CONCLUSION: The counseling of decision support proved to have positive effects on the population studied.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Criança , Adolescente , Asma/psicologia , Conflito Psicológico , Aconselhamento/métodos , Tomada de Decisões , Pacientes Ambulatoriais , Participação do Paciente/psicologia , Asma/terapia , Cooperação e Adesão ao Tratamento
10.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0238232, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32853233

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Despite the broad success of Prevention of Mother-to-Child Transmission of HIV (PMTCT) programs, HIV care engagement during the pregnancy and postpartum periods is suboptimal. This study explored the perspectives of women who experienced challenges engaging in PMTCT care, in order to better understand factors that contribute to poor retention and to identify opportunities to improve PMTCT services. METHODS: We conducted in-depth interviews with 12 postpartum women to discuss their experiences with PMTCT care. We used data from a larger longitudinal cohort study conducted in five PMTCT clinics in Moshi, Tanzania to identify women with indicators of poor care engagement (i.e., medication non-adherence, inconsistent clinic attendance, or high viral load). Women who met one of these criteria were contacted by telephone and invited to complete an interview. Data were analyzed using applied thematic analysis. RESULTS: We observed a common pathway that fear of stigma contributed to a lack of HIV disclosure and reduced social support for seeking HIV care. Women commonly distrusted the results of their initial HIV test and reported medication side effects after care initiation. Women also reported barriers in the health system, including difficult-to-navigate clinic transfer policies and a lack of privacy and confidentiality in service provision. When asked how care might be improved, women felt that improved counseling and follow-up, affirming patient-provider interactions, and peer treatment supporters would have a positive effect on care engagement. CONCLUSION: In order to improve the impact of PMTCT programs, there is a need to implement active tracking and follow-up of patients, targeting individuals with evidence of poor care engagement. Tailored supportive intervention approaches may help patients to cope with both the perceived and actual impacts of HIV stigma, including navigating disclosures to loved ones and accessing social support. Fostering HIV acceptance is likely to facilitate commitment to long-term treatment.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Infecções por HIV/psicologia , Transmissão Vertical de Doença Infecciosa/prevenção & controle , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , Aconselhamento/métodos , Revelação , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Mães/psicologia , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/psicologia , Período Pós-Parto/fisiologia , Período Pós-Parto/psicologia , Gravidez , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/prevenção & controle , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/psicologia , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Estigma Social , Apoio Social , Tanzânia , Carga Viral/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
11.
Obstet Gynecol ; 136(4): e48-e69, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32804883

RESUMO

Prenatal testing for chromosomal abnormalities is designed to provide an accurate assessment of a patient's risk of carrying a fetus with a chromosomal disorder. A wide variety of prenatal screening and diagnostic tests are available; each offers varying levels of information and performance, and each has relative advantages and limitations. When considering screening test characteristics, no one test is superior in all circumstances, which results in the need for nuanced, patient-centered counseling from the obstetric care professional and complex decision making by the patient. Each patient should be counseled in each pregnancy about options for testing for fetal chromosomal abnormalities. It is important that obstetric care professionals be prepared to discuss not only the risk of fetal chromosomal abnormalities but also the relative benefits and limitations of the available screening and diagnostic tests. Testing for chromosomal abnormalities should be an informed patient choice based on provision of adequate and accurate information, the patient's clinical context, accessible health care resources, values, interests, and goals. All patients should be offered both screening and diagnostic tests, and all patients have the right to accept or decline testing after counseling.The purpose of this Practice Bulletin is to provide current information regarding the available screening test options available for fetal chromosomal abnormalities and to review their benefits, performance characteristics, and limitations. For information regarding prenatal diagnostic testing for genetic disorders, refer to Practice Bulletin No. 162, Prenatal Diagnostic Testing for Genetic Disorders. For additional information regarding counseling about genetic testing and communicating test results, refer to Committee Opinion No. 693, Counseling About Genetic Testing and Communication of Genetic Test Results. For information regarding carrier screening for genetic conditions, refer to Committee Opinion No. 690, Carrier Screening in the Age of Genomic Medicine and Committee Opinion No. 691, Carrier Screening for Genetic Conditions. This Practice Bulletin has been revised to further clarify methods of screening for fetal chromosomal abnormalities, including expanded information regarding the use of cell-free DNA in all patients regardless of maternal age or baseline risk, and to add guidance related to patient counseling.


Assuntos
Aberrações Cromossômicas , Transtornos Cromossômicos , Aconselhamento , Doenças Fetais , Testes Genéticos/métodos , Diagnóstico Pré-Natal/métodos , Transtornos Cromossômicos/diagnóstico , Transtornos Cromossômicos/genética , Aconselhamento/métodos , Aconselhamento/normas , Aconselhamento/provisão & distribução , Feminino , Doenças Fetais/diagnóstico , Doenças Fetais/genética , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/normas , Humanos , Assistência Centrada no Paciente/métodos , Assistência Centrada no Paciente/normas , Gravidez , Estados Unidos
12.
JAMA ; 324(7): 682-699, 2020 08 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32809007

RESUMO

Importance: Increasing rates of preventable sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in the US pose substantial burdens to health and well-being. Objective: To update evidence for the US Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) on effectiveness of behavioral counseling interventions for preventing STIs. Data Sources: Studies from the previous USPSTF review (2014); literature published January 2013 through May 31, 2019, in MEDLINE, PubMed (for publisher-supplied records only), PsycINFO, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials. Ongoing surveillance through May 22, 2020. Study Selection: Good- and fair-quality randomized and nonrandomized controlled intervention studies of behavioral counseling interventions for adolescents and adults conducted in primary care settings were included. Studies with active comparators only or limited to individuals requiring specialist care for STI risk-related comorbidities were excluded. Data Extraction and Synthesis: Dual risk of bias assessment, with inconsistent ratings adjudicated by a third team member. Study data were abstracted into prespecified forms. Pooled odds ratios (ORs) were estimated using the DerSimonian and Laird method or the restricted maximum likelihood method with Knapp-Hartung adjustment. Main Outcomes and Measures: Differences in STI diagnoses, self-reported condom use, and self-reported unprotected sex at 3 months or more after baseline. Results: The review included 37 randomized trials and 2 nonrandomized controlled intervention studies (N = 65 888; 13 good-quality, 26 fair-quality) recruited from primary care settings in the US. Study populations were composed predominantly of heterosexual adolescents and young adults (12 to 25 years), females, and racial and ethnic minorities at increased risk for STIs. Nineteen trials (n = 52 072) reported STI diagnoses as outcomes (3 to 17 months' follow-up); intervention was associated with reduced STI incidence (OR, 0.66 [95% CI, 0.54-0.81; I2 = 74%]). Absolute differences in STI acquisition between groups varied widely depending on baseline population STI risk and intervention effectiveness, ranging from 19% fewer to 4% more people acquiring STI. Thirty-four trials (n = 21 417) reported behavioral change outcomes. Interventions were associated with self-reported behavioral change (eg, increased condom use) that reduce STI risk (OR, 1.31 [95% CI, 1.10-1.56; I2 = 40%, n = 5253). There was limited evidence on persistence of intervention effects beyond 1 year. No harms were identified in 7 studies (n = 3458) reporting adverse outcomes. Conclusions and Relevance: Behavioral counseling interventions for individuals seeking primary health care were associated with reduced incidence of STIs. Group or individual counseling sessions lasting more than 2 hours were associated with larger reductions in STI incidence, and interventions of shorter duration also were associated with STI prevention, although evidence was limited on whether the STI reductions associated with these interventions persisted beyond 1 year.


Assuntos
Terapia Comportamental , Aconselhamento , Comportamento Sexual , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/prevenção & controle , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Terapia Comportamental/métodos , Aconselhamento/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Razão de Chances , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Gravidez , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Comportamento de Redução do Risco , Adulto Jovem
13.
JAMA ; 324(7): 674-681, 2020 08 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32809008

RESUMO

Importance: Approximately 20 million new cases of bacterial or viral sexually transmitted infections (STIs) occur each year in the US, and about one-half of these cases occur in persons aged 15 to 24 years. Rates of chlamydial, gonococcal, and syphilis infection continue to increase in all regions. Sexually transmitted infections are frequently asymptomatic, which may delay diagnosis and treatment and lead persons to unknowingly transmit STIs to others. Serious consequences of STIs include pelvic inflammatory disease, infertility, cancer, and AIDS. Objective: To update its 2014 recommendation, the US Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) commissioned a review of the evidence on the benefits and harms of behavioral counseling interventions for preventing STI acquisition. Population: This recommendation statement applies to all sexually active adolescents and to adults at increased risk for STIs. Evidence Assessment: The USPSTF concludes with moderate certainty that behavioral counseling interventions reduce the likelihood of acquiring STIs in sexually active adolescents and in adults at increased risk, including for example, those who have a current STI, do not use condoms, or have multiple partners, resulting in a moderate net benefit. Recommendation: The USPSTF recommends behavioral counseling for all sexually active adolescents and for adults at increased risk for STIs. (B recommendation).


Assuntos
Terapia Comportamental , Aconselhamento , Comportamento Sexual , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/prevenção & controle , Adolescente , Adulto , Terapia Comportamental/métodos , Aconselhamento/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Comportamento de Redução do Risco
17.
Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol ; 125(4): 468-474.e4, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32650046

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The use of oral immunotherapy (OIT) for food allergies has been expanding in North America. Although families are interested in this therapeutic approach, misconceptions are common; therefore, education of these families is essential before obtaining informed consent. OBJECTIVE: To improve parent and patient knowledge about OIT by investigating the use of a counseling video (CV) and checklist. METHODS: This retrospective review was conducted in a pediatric outpatient clinic. After consultation and review of the information package, 467 parents and patients (>12 years old) performed pre- and posttests in conjunction with a CV during a checklist-based 2-hour counseling session for OIT. RESULTS: The evaluation of pre- and posttest performance suggested an improvement in the ability of patients to answer relevant questions pertaining to OIT. This was statistically significant for all groups, including mothers, fathers, and children (P < .001). Mothers performed better than fathers and patients in mean number of correct responses in both pre- and posttest scores and in posttest scores after adjustment for pretest scores. Fathers performed better than patients in both pre- and posttest scores but not on posttest scores after adjustment for pretest scores. A checklist-based format resulted in 100% of all major topics being discussed in a 1-hour discussion. Reported satisfaction was high among the participants. CONCLUSION: This is the first study to evaluate the use of a CV in conjunction with pre- and posttesting to educate families about the key principles of OIT. We suggest that as part of extensive counseling for OIT, an educational video is beneficial in a pediatric outpatient clinic.


Assuntos
Lista de Checagem , Dessensibilização Imunológica , Hipersensibilidade Alimentar/prevenção & controle , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Educação de Pacientes como Assunto/métodos , Adolescente , Criança , Aconselhamento/métodos , Dessensibilização Imunológica/métodos , Humanos , Pais , Estudos Retrospectivos , Gravação em Vídeo
18.
AIDS Patient Care STDS ; 34(7): 303-315, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32639210

RESUMO

Despite successful implementation of anonymous voluntary human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) counseling and testing (aVCT) in Taiwan, the trend of late HIV presentation in sexually active populations has remained unchanged in Taiwan over the past decade. We evaluated the effect and acceptance of an aVCT cascade program among Taiwanese individuals by surveying 572 participants (mean age: 29.6 years; 99.3% men; and 79.5% same-sex sexual contact) diagnosed with HIV/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) from 2015 to 2019. We designed a five-stage continuum based on acceptance of the program before HIV diagnosis: at high risk of HIV infection (Stage 1), heard of aVCT (Stage 2), wants to receive aVCT (Stage 3), has received aVCT (Stage 4), and regularly receives aVCT (Stage 5). Four domains established from exploratory factor analysis described reasons for inability to reach the next aVCT stage: low perceived HIV risk, fear of testing positive because of discrimination/stigmatization, and structural barriers to aVCT. Regular aVCT (vs. never receiving aVCT) protected against AIDS on diagnosis (p < 0.001). There were no significant differences in program acceptance across 2015-2019. However, uptake reduced markedly across the program; the largest reduction (37.4.0-61.0%) occurred from Stage 4 to Stage 5. Fear of testing positive because of discrimination/stigmatization was the main reason for not proceeding to the next aVCT stage. Although the findings indicate the benefits of regular aVCT for early HIV diagnosis, additional strategies to reduce fear of negative social consequences of HIV infection are prioritized to optimize aVCT in Taiwan.


Assuntos
Aconselhamento/métodos , Diagnóstico Tardio/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Estigma Social , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida , Adulto , Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Aconselhamento/estatística & dados numéricos , Discriminação Psicológica , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Masculino , Comportamento Sexual , Taiwan/epidemiologia
19.
J Couns Psychol ; 67(4): 409-419, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32614223

RESUMO

In recent years, innovative approaches have been implemented in counseling and psychotherapy research, creating new and exciting interdisciplinary subfields. The findings that emerged from the implementation of these approaches demonstrate their potential to deepen our understanding of therapeutic change. This article serves as an introduction to the "Innovative Approaches to Exploring Processes of Change in Counseling Psychology" special issue. The special issue includes articles representing several of the most promising approaches. Each article seeks to serve as a sourcebook for implementing a given approach in counseling research, in such areas as the assessment of coregulation processes, language processing, physiology, motion synchrony, event-related potentials, hormonal measures, and sociometric signals captured by a badge. The studies included in this special issue represent some of the most promising pathways for future studies and provide valuable resources for researchers, as well as clinicians interested in implementing such approaches and/or being educated consumers of empirical findings based on such approaches. This introduction synthesizes the articles in the special issue and proposes a list of guidelines for conducting and consuming research that implements new approaches for studying the process of therapeutic change. We believe that we are not far from the day when these approaches will be instrumental in everyday counseling practice, where they can assist therapists and patients in their collaborative efforts to reduce suffering and increase thriving. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Pesquisa Biomédica/tendências , Aconselhamento/tendências , Psicoterapia/tendências , Pesquisa Biomédica/métodos , Compreensão , Aconselhamento/métodos , Previsões , Humanos , Psicoterapia/métodos , Terapias em Estudo/métodos , Terapias em Estudo/tendências
20.
J Couns Psychol ; 67(4): 438-448, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32614225

RESUMO

Artificial intelligence generally and machine learning specifically have become deeply woven into the lives and technologies of modern life. Machine learning is dramatically changing scientific research and industry and may also hold promise for addressing limitations encountered in mental health care and psychotherapy. The current paper introduces machine learning and natural language processing as related methodologies that may prove valuable for automating the assessment of meaningful aspects of treatment. Prediction of therapeutic alliance from session recordings is used as a case in point. Recordings from 1,235 sessions of 386 clients seen by 40 therapists at a university counseling center were processed using automatic speech recognition software. Machine learning algorithms learned associations between client ratings of therapeutic alliance exclusively from session linguistic content. Using a portion of the data to train the model, machine learning algorithms modestly predicted alliance ratings from session content in an independent test set (Spearman's ρ = .15, p < .001). These results highlight the potential to harness natural language processing and machine learning to predict a key psychotherapy process variable that is relatively distal from linguistic content. Six practical suggestions for conducting psychotherapy research using machine learning are presented along with several directions for future research. Questions of dissemination and implementation may be particularly important to explore as machine learning improves in its ability to automate assessment of psychotherapy process and outcome. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Pesquisa Biomédica/métodos , Aprendizado de Máquina , Transtornos Mentais/terapia , Processamento de Linguagem Natural , Psicoterapia/métodos , Aliança Terapêutica , Adolescente , Adulto , Pesquisa Biomédica/tendências , Aconselhamento/métodos , Aconselhamento/tendências , Feminino , Humanos , Aprendizado de Máquina/tendências , Masculino , Transtornos Mentais/psicologia , Relações Profissional-Paciente , Processos Psicoterapêuticos , Psicoterapia/tendências , Universidades/tendências , Adulto Jovem
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