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1.
Endocr Pract ; 27(1): 51-55, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33475501

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Acromegaly is characterized by increased serum concentrations of growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1). Although animal studies have demonstrated a relationship between these hormones and cancer risk, the results of human studies evaluating cancer prevalence in acromegaly are inconsistent. We aimed to investigate the prevalence of malignant neoplasms in patients with acromegaly. METHODS: Cancer risk was evaluated in a cohort of 280 patients (male/female: 120/160; mean age: 50.93 ± 12.07 years) with acromegaly. Patients were categorized into 2 groups according to the presence or absence of cancer. Standard incidence ratios were calculated as compared to the general population. RESULTS: From 280 patients, cancer was diagnosed in 19 (6.8%) patients; 9 (47%) of them had thyroid cancer, which was the most common cancer type. Standard incidence ratios of all cancers were 0.8 (95% CI, 0.5-1.1) and 1.0 (95% CI, 0.8-1.3) in men and women, respectively. Compared to patients without cancer, the current age was higher in patients with cancer (59 [49-65] to 51 [42-59], P = .027). In contrast, the age at diagnosis was similar in both groups. Not only was the time to diagnosis and disease duration similar in both groups but also the basal and current GH and IGF-1 levels. The prevalence of active disease was also similar between the groups (32% to 23%, P = .394). CONCLUSION: Our findings were not consistent with the studies suggesting that patients with acromegaly encounter an increased cancer risk. Furthermore, there were similar basal and current GH and IGF-1 levels in patients with acromegaly, both with and without cancer.


Assuntos
Acromegalia , Hormônio do Crescimento Humano , Neoplasias , Acromegalia/complicações , Acromegalia/epidemiologia , Adulto , Feminino , Hormônio do Crescimento , Humanos , Fator de Crescimento Insulin-Like I , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Prevalência
2.
Ter Arkh ; 92(10): 70-77, 2020 Nov 24.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33346482

RESUMO

Cardiovascular complications including arrhythmias and cardiac conduction disorders are one of the main reasons of high mortality rate in acromegaly, while they have not been well explored. AIM: To estimate arrhythmias frequency in acromegaly, identify risk factors leading to the development of arrhythmia and cardiac conduction disorder, to determine the role of cardiac MRI in detecting structural and functional changes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A single-center prospective cohort study, which included 461 patients (151 men and 310 women) with acromegaly, was conducted. All the patients underwent a standard medical examination, including hormonal blood test, electrocardiogram, echocardiography, electrocardiogram daily monitoring. 18 patients with arrhythmias (11 men and 7 women) had cardiac MRI with gadolinium-based contrast. RESULTS: The results of our research show high frequency of arrhythmias and cardiac conduction disorders in patients with acromegaly 42%. Most frequent kinds of arrhythmias and cardiac conduction disorders were sinus bradycardia 19.1% of the cases and conduction disorders of bundle branch blocks 14.5%. Men were more likely to suffer from arrhythmias and cardiac conduction disorders than women (54.2% and 37.4%, respectively,p=0.0005). Not acromegaly activity but duration of the disease was a main risk factor of arrhythmias and cardiac conduction disorders. Patients with arrhythmias had a long anamnesis of acromegaly (10 and 7 years, respectively, p=0.04). Meanwhile, cardiac conduction disorders were commonly observed in the patients who were treated with somatostatin analogs comparing to the patients who didnt undergo this therapy (50% and 38.6% respectively,p=0.004). We showed that 61% of patients with acromegaly and cardiac conduction disorders who underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) had the signs of myocardial fibrosis. The value of the ejection fraction of the left ventricle according to MRI was higher than with echocardiography (p=0.04). CONCLUSION: Arrhythmias and cardiac conduction disorders are often observed in patients with acromegaly even with remission of the disease. High risk group need careful diagnostic and monitoring approaches. Cardiac MRI is the gold standard for visualization of structural and morphological changes in the heart. Use of cardiac MRI in acromegalic patients expands our understanding of arrhythmias and cardiac conduction disorders in this disease. There are no specific laboratory markers of diffuse myocardial fibrosis, and the role of myocardial fibrosis in the occurrence of cardiac arrhythmias and conduction disorders needs further studying.


Assuntos
Acromegalia , Acromegalia/complicações , Acromegalia/diagnóstico por imagem , Acromegalia/epidemiologia , Arritmias Cardíacas/diagnóstico por imagem , Arritmias Cardíacas/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Miocárdio , Estudos Prospectivos
3.
Ann Endocrinol (Paris) ; 81(5): 482-486, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32822652

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In acromegaly, chronic growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) exacerbate comorbidities in multiple organs. Differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC) has been reported as being a comorbid condition in acromegaly. Acromegaly is usuallysporadic, but 5% of cases may be genetic. The most frequent inheritable form of acromegaly is related to germline mutations in the aryl hydrocarbon receptor interacting protein (AIP) gene. Epidemiological data on the relationship between active acromegaly, its familial forms and DTC are sparse. We present the investigation of a FIPA family (familial isolated pituitary adenoma) with homogeneous acromegaly and 6 sporadic acromegaly patients with DTC. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A study of 59 acromegaly patients assessed thyroid nodules on ultrasound and fine-needle aspiration biopsy following the ATA 2015 criteria. We diagnosed 7 differentiated thyroid carcinomas. Resected thyroid carcinoma tissues were stained using an anti-AIP antibody. Analysis of germline and tumor-derived DNA for variants in the AIP and MEN1 genes were performed in the FIPA kindred. RESULTS: We describe one FIPA patient and 6 sporadic acromegaly cases with DTC. The FIPA family (AIP mutation negative) consisted of two sisters, one of whom had a DTC with intermediate risk and incomplete structural response to therapy. In our study, DTC in sporadic acromegaly had a low recurrence rate (6/6), and excellent response to therapy (6/6). Immunohistochemistry for AIP showed similar or increased staining intensity in DTC versus normal thyroid tissue. CONCLUSION: In our cohort of sporadic and familial forms of acromegaly with DTC, AIP did not appear to influence thyroid cancer progression.


Assuntos
Acromegalia/epidemiologia , Adenocarcinoma/epidemiologia , Adenoma/epidemiologia , Adenoma Hipofisário Secretor de Hormônio do Crescimento/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/epidemiologia , Acromegalia/diagnóstico por imagem , Acromegalia/etiologia , Acromegalia/patologia , Adenocarcinoma/complicações , Adenocarcinoma/diagnóstico , Adenocarcinoma/patologia , Adenoma/complicações , Adenoma/diagnóstico por imagem , Adenoma/patologia , Adulto , Idoso , Argentina/epidemiologia , Biópsia por Agulha Fina , Estudos de Coortes , Comorbidade , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Adenoma Hipofisário Secretor de Hormônio do Crescimento/complicações , Adenoma Hipofisário Secretor de Hormônio do Crescimento/diagnóstico por imagem , Adenoma Hipofisário Secretor de Hormônio do Crescimento/patologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/complicações , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/diagnóstico , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/patologia , Ultrassonografia
4.
Expert Opin Pharmacother ; 21(15): 1883-1895, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32633582

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Acromegaly is a rare disease due to oversecretion of growth hormone (GH). Even though the disease is often portrayed by its most apparent clinical features, given the abundance of GH receptors throughout the body, it truly is a systemic disease leading to numerous complications and comorbidities. A distinct medical issue in the context of acromegaly is diabetes: It can be a complication as a consequence of GH excess and its mediators, but it can also result from treatment of acromegaly. AREAS COVERED: This review provides an overview of the effects of acromegaly pathophysiology on glucose homeostasis. Furthermore, it devotes an extensive section on the influence that acromegaly treatment has on glucose metabolism, including approved as well as currently investigated drugs. It also summarizes observations from the use of anti-diabetic medication in patients with acromegaly. EXPERT OPINION: Glucose imbalance is an important aspect of acromegaly comorbidity and deserves more attention. Even though numerous studies have investigated glucose homeostasis in acromegaly, there is still a clear need for more basic, translational, and also clinical research to advance the understanding of the underlying mechanisms and how to best address them.


Assuntos
Acromegalia/tratamento farmacológico , Diabetes Mellitus/tratamento farmacológico , Glucose/metabolismo , Somatostatina/uso terapêutico , Acromegalia/complicações , Acromegalia/epidemiologia , Acromegalia/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus/etiologia , Diabetes Mellitus/metabolismo , Hormônio do Crescimento Humano/metabolismo , Humanos , Resistência à Insulina , Fator de Crescimento Insulin-Like I/metabolismo , Prevalência , Somatostatina/análogos & derivados
5.
Eur J Endocrinol ; 183(4): D1-D13, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32698136

RESUMO

The literature on an association between acromegaly and cancer is particularly abundant on either colorectal cancer or thyroid cancer, and an endless debate is ongoing whether patients with acromegaly should be submitted to specific oncology screening and surveillance protocols. The aim of the present work is to review the most recent data on the risk of either colorectal cancer or thyroid cancer in acromegaly and discuss the opportunity for specific screening in relation to the accepted procedures in the general population.


Assuntos
Acromegalia/complicações , Neoplasias Colorretais/diagnóstico , Detecção Precoce de Câncer , Programas de Rastreamento , Monitorização Fisiológica , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/diagnóstico , Acromegalia/diagnóstico , Acromegalia/epidemiologia , Acromegalia/terapia , Adenoma/complicações , Adenoma/diagnóstico , Adenoma/epidemiologia , Adenoma/terapia , Neoplasias Colorretais/complicações , Neoplasias Colorretais/epidemiologia , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/métodos , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/normas , Endocrinologia/métodos , Endocrinologia/normas , Adenoma Hipofisário Secretor de Hormônio do Crescimento/complicações , Adenoma Hipofisário Secretor de Hormônio do Crescimento/diagnóstico , Adenoma Hipofisário Secretor de Hormônio do Crescimento/epidemiologia , Adenoma Hipofisário Secretor de Hormônio do Crescimento/terapia , Humanos , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Programas de Rastreamento/normas , Oncologia/métodos , Oncologia/normas , Monitorização Fisiológica/métodos , Monitorização Fisiológica/normas , Vigilância da População/métodos , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto/normas , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/complicações , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/epidemiologia
6.
Eur J Endocrinol ; 183(4): 427-437, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32688336

RESUMO

Objective: Growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) excess results in both reversible and irreversible musculoskeletal damage, including increased vertebral fracture (VF) risk. The prevalence of VFs is approximately 60% in controlled acromegaly patients, and these VFs can progress in time. We aimed to identify the course of VFs in a cohort of acromegaly patients in long-term remission and their associated risk factors during prolonged follow-up. Methods: Thirty-one patients with acromegaly (49% female, median age 60 years (IQR 53-66)), who were in remission for ≥2 years, were included in this longitudinal, prospective, follow-up study. Spine radiographs of vertebrae Th4 to L4 were assessed for VFs using the Genant score, at baseline, after 2.6 years and 9.1 years. Progression was defined as either a new fracture or a ≥1-point increase in Genant score. Results: The prevalence of VF at baseline was 87% (27/31 patients). Progression of VFs was observed in eleven patients (35.5%) during the 9.1-year follow-up period, with a total incidence rate of 65.5 per 1000 person years (males 59.8 per 1000 person years vs females 71.6 per 1000 person years). Patients treated with surgery or radiotherapy had a higher risk of VF progression in this cohort (P = 0.030). Conclusions: In this cohort of long-term, well-controlled acromegalic patients, the prevalence and progression of VFs was high, showing that the deleterious effects of GH and IGF-1 excess on bone persist despite achievement of longstanding remission.


Assuntos
Acromegalia/epidemiologia , Fraturas da Coluna Vertebral/epidemiologia , Fraturas da Coluna Vertebral/patologia , Acromegalia/etiologia , Acromegalia/terapia , Adenoma/complicações , Adenoma/epidemiologia , Adenoma/terapia , Adulto , Idoso , Densidade Óssea , Sobreviventes de Câncer/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos de Coortes , Estudos Transversais , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Seguimentos , Adenoma Hipofisário Secretor de Hormônio do Crescimento/complicações , Adenoma Hipofisário Secretor de Hormônio do Crescimento/epidemiologia , Adenoma Hipofisário Secretor de Hormônio do Crescimento/terapia , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Fraturas da Coluna Vertebral/etiologia
7.
Eur J Endocrinol ; 183(1): C1-C4, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32487776

RESUMO

Acromegaly is a debilitating and disfiguring chronic disease, which occurs in both sexes at any age, associated with multiple comorbidities and increased mortality. It is typically caused by a GH-secreting pituitary adenoma that promotes exposure of body tissues to increased concentrations of GH and IGF-I. The diagnosis of acromegaly is still made very late in a substantial number of patients when the disease is already in advanced stages. An epidemiological study from Sweden has elegantly demonstrated that the longer the diagnostic delay in acromegaly, the higher the number of comorbidities. Moreover, about 25% of the Swedish patients had 10 years or more of diagnostic delay and in this group mortality rate was significantly increased. These results reinforce the importance of shortening the latency period between disease onset, diagnosis and treatment to improve patient outcomes. This commentary article discusses strategies to be embraced by the endocrine community to allow early identification of acromegaly among public and health professionals, as internists, primary care clinicians, different specialists and dentists are the first point of contact for most of the patients. We emphasize that acromegaly should be presented as a sporadic, rather than rare, insidious disease, meaning that there is a considerable chance for health professionals to see a patient with acromegaly throughout their careers. The motto 'you must know it to think of it' is advocated in awareness efforts to reduce time to diagnosis, which results in lower rates of morbidity and mortality and might positively impact healthcare costs.


Assuntos
Acromegalia/diagnóstico , Acromegalia/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Hipofisárias/complicações , Acromegalia/etiologia , Diagnóstico Tardio , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Neoplasias Hipofisárias/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Hipofisárias/epidemiologia
8.
Eur J Endocrinol ; 182(5): 511-521, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32197236

RESUMO

Objective: There remains increased cardiovascular mortality in patients with acromegaly. This study aims to evaluate whether GH/IGF-1 excess increases vascular disease by adversely affecting fibrin network characteristics. Design: Cross-sectional study in 40 patients with acromegaly (21 males, age 53 ± 13 years) and 40 age/gender-matched controls. Methods: Clot structure was analysed using a validated turbidimetric assay and fibrin networks were visualised by laser scanning confocal microscopy (LSCM). Metabolic profile parameters, body composition, plasma fibrinogen and PAI-1 were also assessed. Results: Twenty-two patients had active acromegaly and 18 were in remission. There was no difference in qualitative patient characteristics between the two groups. Both groups had less favourable body composition and cardiovascular risk profile compared with controls. Despite no difference in clot formation and lysis parameters between the two patient groups, active disease patients had higher fibrinogen and clot maximum absorbance compared with controls, after adjusting for BMI (3.8 ± 0.2 vs 2.6 ± 0.2 mg/mL, P < 0.001; and 0.39 ± 0.02 vs 0.33 ± 0.01 arbitrary units, P = 0.03, respectively). Patients in remission had higher fibrinogen compared with controls following adjustment for BMI (3.3 ± 0.2 vs 2.6 ± 0.2 mg/mL, P = 0.02) but not clot maximum absorbance (0.35 ± 0.03 vs 0.33 ± 0.02 arbitrary units, P = 0.6). LSCM showed increased fibrin network density only in active disease patients, consistent with turbidimetric analysis. In addition to active disease, BMI, fat mass and skinfold thickness were associated with higher clot density and longer lysis time. Conclusions: Patients with active acromegaly have more compact clots, thus conferring increased thrombosis risk. Prothrombotic fibrin networks may represent one mechanism for enhanced vascular risk in active acromegaly.


Assuntos
Acromegalia/sangue , Doenças Cardiovasculares/sangue , Fibrina/metabolismo , Fibrinogênio/metabolismo , Acromegalia/diagnóstico , Acromegalia/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Testes de Coagulação Sanguínea/métodos , Doenças Cardiovasculares/diagnóstico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Projetos Piloto , Trombose/sangue , Trombose/diagnóstico , Trombose/epidemiologia
9.
Eur J Endocrinol ; 182(6): 523-531, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32213651

RESUMO

Context: Clinical features of acromegaly develop insidiously. Its diagnosis may therefore be delayed. Objective: Our aim was to study diagnostic delay and its impact on morbidity and mortality in a nationwide cohort of patients with acromegaly. Design: Adult patients diagnosed with acromegaly between 2001 and 2013 were identified in the Swedish National Patient Registry. Diagnostic codes for predefined comorbidities associated with acromegaly were recorded between 1987 and 2013. Diagnostic delay was calculated as the time between the first registered comorbidity and the diagnosis of acromegaly. Results: A total of 603 patients (280 men, 323 women) with acromegaly were included. Mean (s.d.) diagnostic delay was 5.5 (6.2) years (median (minimum, maximum) 3.3 (0.0-25.9)) Diagnostic delay was 1-<5 years in 23% patients; 5-<10 years in 17%; and ≥10 years in 24%. No delay was recorded in 36% of patients. Overall, mean (s.d.) number of comorbidities was 4.1 (2.5) and was higher in patients with longer diagnostic delay (P < 0.0001). Overall, observed number of deaths was 61 (expected 42.2), resulting in a standardized mortality ratio (SMR) of 1.45 (95% CI: 1.11-1.86). Increased mortality was only found in patients with the longest diagnostic delay (1.76, 95% CI: 1.12-2.65). In the other groups, no statistically significant increase in mortality was recorded, with the numerically lowest SMR observed in patients without diagnostic delay (1.18; 95% CI: 0.68-1.92). Conclusions: The diagnosis of acromegaly is delayed in most patients. Prolonged diagnostic delay is associated with increased morbidity and mortality.


Assuntos
Acromegalia/diagnóstico , Acromegalia/mortalidade , Diagnóstico Tardio/estatística & dados numéricos , Acromegalia/epidemiologia , Comorbidade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Morbidade
10.
Eur J Endocrinol ; 182(3): 313-318, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31940279

RESUMO

Objective: Patients with acromegaly are at increased risk of colorectal polyps. However, their risk of colorectal cancer remains unclear. This study aimed to identify the histopathological features of colorectal polyps in patients with acromegaly and compare their risk of colorectal cancer with that in healthy controls. Methods: The study participants were 178 patients who underwent Hardy's operation and perioperative colonoscopy at our hospital between April 2008 and September 2016. For the control group, we randomly selected 356 age- and sex-matched patients who underwent colonoscopy at our hospital during the same period. The incidence, size, location, and histology of the colorectal polyps detected were compared between the groups. Results: Colorectal polyps were detected in 66.8% of the acromegaly group and 24.2% of the control group (P < 0.001). The average number and size of the polyps were 2.44 and 4.74 mm, respectively, in the acromegaly group and 1.77 and 3.89 mm in the control group (P = 0.001). Polyps in the acromegaly group were more likely to be in the rectosigmoid region (P = 0.006). In the acromegaly group, the frequency of polyps ≥5 mm was 34.3% and that for polyps ≥10 mm was 15.2%; the respective values were 7.6% and 2.2% in the control group (P < 0.001). We found no evidence of between-group histopathological differences in the polyp specimens resected by endoscopy. Conclusions: Patients with acromegaly are at an increased risk of colorectal polyps, especially in the rectosigmoid region. However, there is no pathological evidence that they are at greater risk of colorectal cancer than the general population.


Assuntos
Acromegalia/epidemiologia , Adenocarcinoma/epidemiologia , Pólipos Adenomatosos/epidemiologia , Pólipos do Colo/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/epidemiologia , Adenocarcinoma/patologia , Adenocarcinoma/cirurgia , Adenoma/epidemiologia , Adenoma/patologia , Adenoma/cirurgia , Pólipos Adenomatosos/patologia , Pólipos Adenomatosos/cirurgia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Pólipos do Colo/patologia , Pólipos do Colo/cirurgia , Colonoscopia , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/cirurgia , Ressecção Endoscópica de Mucosa , Feminino , Humanos , Pólipos Intestinais/epidemiologia , Pólipos Intestinais/patologia , Pólipos Intestinais/cirurgia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doenças Retais/epidemiologia , Doenças Retais/patologia , Doenças Retais/cirurgia , Fatores de Risco , Carga Tumoral , Adulto Jovem
11.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 105(1)2020 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31612224

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) is common in active acromegaly and negatively influences quality of life, morbidity, and mortality. This prospective study with 3 predetermined timepoints and a standardized treatment protocol investigates changes in sleep parameters during the first 2.5 years of acromegaly treatment. METHODS: Before initiation of acromegaly treatment (medical pretreatment followed by surgery), polysomnography (PSG) was performed in 27 consecutive patients with treatment-naive acromegaly. PSG was repeated after 1 year (N = 24) and 2.5 years (N = 23), and anthropometric and biochemical parameters were obtained. RESULTS: At baseline, 74.1% of the patients was diagnosed with OSAS. The respiratory disturbance index (RDI; P = 0.001), oxygen desaturation index (ODI; P = 0.001), lowest oxygen saturation (LSaO2; P = 0.007) and the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS; P < 0.001) improved significantly during treatment, with the greatest improvement in the first year. After 2.5 years of treatment, all patients had controlled acromegaly. Of the 16 patients with repeated PSG and OSAS at baseline, 11 (68.8%) were cured of OSAS. Changes in RDI, ODI, LSaO2, and ESS correlated with insulin-like growth factor 1 levels. CONCLUSION: OSAS has a high prevalence in active acromegaly. There is a substantial decrease in prevalence and severity of OSAS following acromegaly treatment, with the largest improvement during the first year. Most patients recover from OSAS following surgical or biochemical control of the acromegaly. Therefore, a PSG is advised after diagnosis of acromegaly. When OSAS is present, it should be treated and PSG should be repeated during acromegaly treatment.


Assuntos
Acromegalia/complicações , Acromegalia/epidemiologia , Acromegalia/terapia , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono/complicações , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono/epidemiologia , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono/patologia , Acromegalia/diagnóstico , Adenoma/complicações , Adenoma/epidemiologia , Adenoma/terapia , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Progressão da Doença , Agonistas de Dopamina/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Adenoma Hipofisário Secretor de Hormônio do Crescimento/complicações , Adenoma Hipofisário Secretor de Hormônio do Crescimento/epidemiologia , Adenoma Hipofisário Secretor de Hormônio do Crescimento/terapia , Hormônio do Crescimento Humano/análogos & derivados , Hormônio do Crescimento Humano/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Procedimentos Neurocirúrgicos , Polissonografia , Prevalência , Prognóstico , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono/diagnóstico , Sonolência , Resultado do Tratamento
12.
Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes ; 128(2): 104-110, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30332686

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although diabetes is a common complication of acromegaly or Cushing´s disease, there are only few detailed studies with a focus on cardiovascular risk, metabolic control or diabetes therapy. Here, we provide a comprehensive characterization from the longitudinal DPV (Diabetes Patienten Verlaufsdokumentation) registry. METHODS: Patients from the registry≥18 years of age with diabetes and acromegaly or Cushing´s disease were compared to patients with type 1 diabetes or type 2 diabetes using the statistical software SAS 9.4. RESULTS: Patients with diabetes and acromegaly (n=52) or Cushing's disease (n=15) were significantly younger at diabetes onset (median age 50.1 and 45.0 vs. 59.0 years in type 2 diabetes; both p<0.05). Dyslipidemia was common in both diseases (71.0% and 88.9% vs. 71.8% in type 2 diabetes; n.s.), while hypertension was most frequent in acromegaly (56.8% vs. 20.9% in type 1 diabetes, p<0.00001). 36.5% of patients with acromegaly and 46.7% with Cushing´s disease receive insulin, compared to 50.4% with type 2 diabetes. Oral antidiabetic drugs were used in 36.5% of patients with acromegaly and 40% with Cushing´s disease, with a predominance of biguanides and dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors. HbA1c was well controlled in both groups (median 7.0% and 6.5%; vs. 7.2% in type 2 diabetes). CONCLUSION: Patients with acromegaly are at a high risk for cardiovascular disease, reflected by dyslipidemia and hypertension. A high proportion of patients with diabetes in acromegaly or Cushing´s disease receives insulin. Based on a multicenter register, a sufficient number of patients with rare forms of diabetes can be analyzed.


Assuntos
Acromegalia/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Dislipidemias/epidemiologia , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Insulina/uso terapêutico , Hipersecreção Hipofisária de ACTH/epidemiologia , Sistema de Registros , Acromegalia/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Idoso , Comorbidade , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/tratamento farmacológico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Dislipidemias/tratamento farmacológico , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão/tratamento farmacológico , Hipoglicemiantes/administração & dosagem , Insulina/administração & dosagem , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Hipersecreção Hipofisária de ACTH/tratamento farmacológico , Risco , Adulto Jovem
13.
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 63(6): 638-645, Nov.-Dec. 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1055023

RESUMO

ABSTRACT Acromegaly is an insidious disease, usually resulting from growth hormone hypersecretion by a pituitary adenoma. It is most often diagnosed during the 3rd to 4th decade of life. However, recent studies have shown an increase in the incidence and prevalence of acromegaly in the elderly, probably due to increasing life expectancy. As in the younger population with acromegaly, there is a delay in diagnosis, aggravated by the similarities of the aging process with some of the characteristics of the disease. As can be expected elderly patients with acromegaly have a higher prevalence of comorbidities than younger ones. The diagnostic criteria are the same as for younger patients. Surgical treatment of the pituitary adenoma is the primary therapy of choice unless contraindicated. Somatostatin receptor ligands are generally effective as both primary and postoperative treatment. The prognosis correlates inversely with the patient's age, disease duration and last GH level. Arch Endocrinol Metab. 2019;63(6):638-45


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Acromegalia/diagnóstico , Acromegalia/fisiopatologia , Acromegalia/terapia , Acromegalia/epidemiologia , Prognóstico
14.
Ann Endocrinol (Paris) ; 80 Suppl 1: S10-S18, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31606057

RESUMO

Acromegaly is characterized by increased release of growth hormone (GH) and, consequently, Insulin-Like Growth Factor I (IGF-I), most often by a pituitary adenoma. Prolonged exposure to excess hormone leads to progressive somatic disfigurement and a wide range of systemic manifestations that are associated with increased mortality. Transsphenoidal adenomectomy is the treatment of choice of GH-secreting pituitary tumors but surgical cure is not achieved in around 50% of patients, then adjuvant treatment is necessary. Mortality in acromegaly is normalized with biochemical control and has decreased in the last decade with the increased use of adjuvant therapy. Both GH and IGF-I are currently biomarkers for assessing disease activity in patients with acromegaly. However, discordance between GH and IGF-I results is encountered in a quarter of treated patients. The impacts of such a discrepancy over mortality and morbidity and the risk of biochemical and/or clinical recurrence are unclear. Moreover, despite a good biochemical control, some symptoms persist, leading to a decreased quality of life. Back pain due to vertebral fractures seem to be frequent in these patients and underdiagnosed. In patients with acromegaly, bone mineral density is not a reliable predictor of fracture risk. A more accurate evaluation of bone microstructural alterations associated with GH hypersecretion and vertebral fractures may be provided by new radiological devices analyzing alteration of trabecular microarchitecture, leading to a better prevention. © 2019 Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved. Cet article fait partie du numéro supplément Les Must de l'Endocrinologie 2019 réalisé avec le soutien institutionnel de Ipsen-Pharma.


Assuntos
Acromegalia/terapia , Garantia da Qualidade dos Cuidados de Saúde , Melhoria de Qualidade , Acromegalia/diagnóstico , Acromegalia/epidemiologia , Acromegalia/etiologia , Adenoma/complicações , Adenoma/epidemiologia , Adenoma/metabolismo , Adenoma/terapia , Técnicas de Diagnóstico Endócrino/tendências , Adenoma Hipofisário Secretor de Hormônio do Crescimento/complicações , Adenoma Hipofisário Secretor de Hormônio do Crescimento/epidemiologia , Adenoma Hipofisário Secretor de Hormônio do Crescimento/metabolismo , Adenoma Hipofisário Secretor de Hormônio do Crescimento/terapia , Hormônio do Crescimento Humano/metabolismo , Humanos , Garantia da Qualidade dos Cuidados de Saúde/métodos , Garantia da Qualidade dos Cuidados de Saúde/tendências
15.
Best Pract Res Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 33(2): 101309, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31405752

RESUMO

Pituitary diseases are rare conditions with severe chronic multiorgan and multisystemic morbidity requiring complex multidisciplinary treatment and usually life-long drug treatment. Most cases are caused by functioning or non-functioning pituitary adenoma. From the patient's perspective, the burden of disease is caused by the tumour itself and associated compression symptoms, interventions, hormone excess and deficiencies, systemic manifestations of these endocrine abnormalities and general psychosocial issues that can manifest in patients with a chronic condition. In this review, patient burden is classified according to classic endocrine syndromes, with burden at diagnosis and after long-term remission, and also within the framework of value-based health care and the conceptual model of wellbeing. The recently developed patient-reported outcome measurement tool that helps to evaluate burden of patients is also discussed.


Assuntos
Adenoma , Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença , Neoplasias Hipofisárias , Acromegalia/epidemiologia , Acromegalia/etiologia , Acromegalia/psicologia , Acromegalia/terapia , Adenoma/diagnóstico , Adenoma/epidemiologia , Adenoma/psicologia , Adenoma/terapia , Humanos , Neoplasias Hipofisárias/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Hipofisárias/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Hipofisárias/psicologia , Neoplasias Hipofisárias/terapia , Qualidade de Vida
16.
Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am ; 48(3): 569-581, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31345524

RESUMO

Pituitary adenomas are common. The impact of pituitary tumors on fertility are mainly caused by oversecretion and/or undersecretion of pituitary hormones or compression of pituitary stalk and normal pituitary tissue by the tumor. Diagnosing and managing pituitary tumors during pregnancy involve many challenges, including the effect of hormone excess or deficiency on pregnancy outcome, changes in the pituitary or pituitary-related hormones, changes in tumor size, and the impact of various treatments of pituitary tumors on maternal and fetal outcomes. This article discusses the diagnosis and treatment of patients with prolactinomas, acromegaly, Cushing disease, and other pituitary tumors during pregnancy.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Hipofisárias/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Hipofisárias/terapia , Prolactinoma/diagnóstico , Prolactinoma/terapia , Acromegalia/diagnóstico , Acromegalia/epidemiologia , Acromegalia/etiologia , Acromegalia/terapia , Feminino , Humanos , Neoplasias Hipofisárias/complicações , Neoplasias Hipofisárias/epidemiologia , Gravidez , Prolactinoma/complicações , Prolactinoma/epidemiologia
17.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 104(10): 4879-4888, 2019 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31188431

RESUMO

CONTEXT: The most frequent cause of central hypothyroidism (CeH) is pituitary adenomas, but the mechanisms remain unclear. OBJECTIVE: We investigated serum thyroid levels and GH/IGF-1 in central hypothyroidism in untreated patients with pituitary nonfunctioning and GH-secreting adenomas. DESIGN: This was a retrospective cross-sectional study of cases collected from Gunma University and Toranomon Hospitals between 2007 and 2016. PATIENTS: One-hundred thirty-nine cases of nonfunctioning pituitary adenoma (NFPA) and 150 cases of GH-secreting pituitary adenoma (GHPA) were analyzed. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The correlations between thyroid levels, several clinicopathological parameters, and GH/IGF-1 were examined. RESULTS: Twenty-four percent of NFPA patients had CeH. The severity did not correlate with tumor size, age, or sex, and all cases had normal TSH levels. In contrast, only 8.7% of GHPA patients had CeH; approximately half had normal TSH levels and approximately half had low TSH levels. Serum TSH levels in GHPA patients were significantly lower and free T4 (FT4) and free T3 levels were higher than those in patients with NFPA. Furthermore, approximately one-fourth of GHPA patients had normal FT4 and low TSH levels. In addition, serum FT4 levels and serum TSH levels were positively and negatively correlated, respectively, with serum IGF-1 levels. Furthermore, IGF-1 levels in patients with GHPA decreased with age. CONCLUSIONS: (i) NFPA patients with CeH had TSH levels within a normal range. (ii) GHPA patients had a low incidence of CeH, which may be a result of stimulated thyroid function by GH/IGF-1. (iii) We found an age-dependent decrease in serum IGF-1 levels in patients with GHPA.


Assuntos
Acromegalia/epidemiologia , Adenoma/complicações , Adenoma/epidemiologia , Adenoma Hipofisário Secretor de Hormônio do Crescimento/complicações , Adenoma Hipofisário Secretor de Hormônio do Crescimento/epidemiologia , Hipotireoidismo/epidemiologia , Hipotireoidismo/etiologia , Acromegalia/etiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Testes de Função Tireóidea
18.
Ann Endocrinol (Paris) ; 80(4): 196-201, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31227172

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Acromegaly causes multiple comorbidities, including gastrointestinal disorders. The present study evaluated the frequency of hiatal hernia and other upper gastrointestinal pathologies in patients with acromegaly, given that visceromegaly and reduced nitric oxide levels in acromegaly may impact diaphragm and lower esophageal sphincter function and thus possibly the development of hiatal hernia. METHODS: Thirty-nine acromegaly patients followed our center for the previous 6months were recruited. Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy was performed once in all patients to evaluate hiatal hernia, esophagitis, gastroduodenitis and ulcer. RESULTS: Twenty-three patients were male and 16 female. Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy found hiatal hernia, esophagitis and gastroduodenitis or gastric ulcer in 3 (7.6%), 2 (1.7%) and 31 (79.4%) patients, respectively. Pathologic examination of gastric antrum biopsy found intestinal metaplasia in 12 (30.7%) patients, and Helicobacter pylori was positive in 13 (33.3%). There were no significant correlations between age, gender, disease duration or preoperative adenoma size on the one hand and hiatal hernia or other endoscopic findings on the other. Similarly, neither surgical success nor recurrence was associated with endoscopic findings. CONCLUSIONS: The study showed that prevalence of gastritis, duodenitis, peptic ulcer and intestinal metaplasia is higher and prevalence of hiatal hernia lower in acromegaly patients than in the healthy population. Various unknown disease-related pathophysiological conditions may play a role; there is a need for further studies.


Assuntos
Acromegalia/complicações , Acromegalia/epidemiologia , Gastroenteropatias/epidemiologia , Trato Gastrointestinal Superior/patologia , Acromegalia/patologia , Adulto , Endoscopia Gastrointestinal , Esofagite/complicações , Esofagite/diagnóstico , Esofagite/epidemiologia , Feminino , Gastrite/complicações , Gastrite/diagnóstico , Gastrite/epidemiologia , Gastroenteropatias/complicações , Gastroenteropatias/diagnóstico , Hérnia Hiatal/complicações , Hérnia Hiatal/diagnóstico , Hérnia Hiatal/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Úlcera Péptica/complicações , Úlcera Péptica/diagnóstico , Úlcera Péptica/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Trato Gastrointestinal Superior/diagnóstico por imagem
19.
Heart Fail Clin ; 15(3): 399-408, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31079698

RESUMO

In patients with acromegaly, chronic GH and IGF-I excess commonly causes a specific cardiomyopathy characterized by a concentric cardiac hypertrophy associated with diastolic dysfunction and, in later stages, with systolic dysfunction ending in heart failure in untreated and uncontrolled patients. Additional relevant cardiovascular complications are represented by arterial hypertension, valvulopathies, arrhythmias, and vascular endothelial dysfunction, which, together with the respiratory and metabolic complications, contribute to the development of cardiac disease and the increase cardiovascular risk in acromegaly. Disease duration plays a pivotal role in the determination of acromegalic cardiomyopathy. The main functional disturbance in acromegalic cardiomyopathy is the diastolic dysfunction, observed in 11% to 58% of patients, it is usually mild, without clinical consequence, and the progression to systolic dysfunction is generally uncommon, not seen or observed in less than 3% of the patients. Consequently, the presence of overt CHF is rare in acromegaly, ranging between 1 and 4%, in patients with untreated and uncontrolled disease. Control of acromegaly, induced by either pituitary surgery or medical therapy improves cardiac structure and performance, limiting the progression of acromegaly cardiomyopathy to CHF. However, when CHF is associated with dilative cardiomyopathy, it is generally not reversible, despite the treatment of the acromegaly.


Assuntos
Acromegalia/epidemiologia , Insuficiência Cardíaca/epidemiologia , Fator de Crescimento Insulin-Like I/metabolismo , Acromegalia/sangue , Biomarcadores/sangue , Comorbidade , Saúde Global , Insuficiência Cardíaca/sangue , Humanos , Morbidade/tendências , Taxa de Sobrevida/tendências
20.
Best Pract Res Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 33(2): 101264, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30894298

RESUMO

Acromegaly is a rare disease, associated with multiple organs and systems damage. Thanks to implementation of registries, systematic data gathering, knowledge sharing and standardizing medical practices for optimal care greatly improved. Data concerning 19 national acromegaly registries are available, involving more than 16,000 patients. The weighted mean age of diagnosis is 45.2 years and seems stable over time. A macroadenoma is found in 75% of the cases. The proportion of patients operated (>80%) did not change along time. By contrast, use of radiotherapy has decreased while use of medical therapy increased. If judged on IGF-I levels, acromegaly is controlled in 61.3% of the patients. The disease control rate has improved over time. This is likely due to the development of medical treatment strategies. The collection of data about comorbidities in national registries is much less comprehensive than those about epidemiology, disease control or treatment strategies. The most reported comorbidities are arterial hypertension and diabetes. Data concerning mortality trends are controversial. It seems that cancer has become a leading cause of death in acromegaly patients in the last decade, period in which life expectancy improved, while cardiovascular mortality decreased. In conclusion, acromegaly registries offer a global view of the disease with no "a priori" assumptions. This is of outmost importance, because of the large amount of data and the huge number of associated comorbidities. This will help to establish guidelines for management of this rare disease.


Assuntos
Acromegalia/epidemiologia , Sistema de Registros , Acromegalia/sangue , Comorbidade , Humanos , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Fator de Crescimento Insulin-Like I/metabolismo , Expectativa de Vida , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
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