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1.
Food Chem ; 329: 127086, 2020 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32516706

RESUMO

Principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least squares (PLS) regression were applied to investigate the effect of glutathione-enriched inactive dry yeast (g-IDY) on the amino acids and volatile components of kiwi wine. Results indicated that the addition of g-IDY had positive effect on most amino acids of kiwi wine, especially glutamine and glycine. In case of pure juice fermentation, the concentrations of ethyl decanoate, 2-methylbutyric acid, trans-2-nonenal and hexyl butyrate had notably positive correlation with the addition of g-IDY. PLS regression indicated that the amino acids were highly interrelated to the volatile compositions, and glycine had the strongest positive impact on the concentrations of esters and total volatile components. This might explain the similar effect of g-IDY on the amino acids and volatile components of kiwi wine. Besides, PLS regression showed that E-nose was a good method to predict volatile compositions of kiwi wine, especially esters.


Assuntos
Actinidia/química , Aminoácidos/análise , Glutationa/metabolismo , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/química , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise , Vinho/análise , Actinidia/metabolismo , Nariz Eletrônico , Ésteres/análise , Fermentação , Análise Multivariada , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo
3.
J Environ Sci Health B ; 55(7): 613-619, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32308122

RESUMO

Field trials in six agricultural sites were carried out to investigate the dissipation and residue levels of pyridaben in kiwifruit. Each sample was extracted with acetonitrile, purified with octadecylsilane and analyzed with high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The method had good linearity (R2 > 0.99), accuracy (recoveries of 78.53-98.00%) and precision (relative standard deviation of 0.86-6.11%). The dissipation of pyrdaben in kiwifruit followed first-order kinetics with a half-life < 8 d, and terminal residues in kiwifruit were lower than 0.5 mg/kg after 14 d of application. Risk assessment indicated that both chronic and acute dietary intake risk values were far below 100%, suggesting that pyridaben residues in kiwifruit were relatively safe to humans. Moreover, the effects of traditional household processes on kiwifruit were investigated. The processing factors (PFs) indicated that peeling and peeling-juicing processes could remove pyridaben residues from kiwifruit, and the former was more effective than the latter (PF at 0.15 vs. 0.51). Nevertheless, drying kiwifruit with an oven increased the amount of pyridaben (PF at 1.05). These results could provide guidance for the safe and reasonable use of pyridaben in agriculture and may be helpful for the Chinese government to determine maximum residue limit of pyridaben in kiwifruit.


Assuntos
Actinidia/química , Piridazinas/análise , Piridazinas/farmacocinética , Agricultura , China , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Culinária , Exposição Dietética/efeitos adversos , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Frutas/química , Meia-Vida , Humanos , Resíduos de Praguicidas/análise , Resíduos de Praguicidas/farmacocinética , Medição de Risco
4.
Food Chem ; 324: 126891, 2020 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32339790

RESUMO

We determined whether heat and chemical treatments could reduce the decay of kiwifruit caused by Botrytis cinerea during postharvest storage. Kiwifruits were treated with 5 g/L (w/v) potassium sorbate (PS), with a 48 °C hot water treatment (HT), and with a combined treatment (HT + PS). Mycelial growth of B. cinerea and the postharvest quality of 'XuXiang' kiwifruits were evaluated. HT + PS significantly inhibited mycelial growth, germ tube growth, and spore germination of B. cinerea. This treatment also reduced the incidence of gray mold in kiwifruit postharvest, and enhanced activities of defense-related enzymes in kiwifruit tissues. Compared with the control, all treatments resulted in lower malondialdehyde (MDA) contents and higher total phenolic contents in kiwifruits. HT + PS also increased the activities of chitinase and ß-1,3-glucanase and the transcript levels of their encoding genes. HT + PS can improve kiwifruit quality and reduce decay during postharvest storage.


Assuntos
Actinidia/microbiologia , Botrytis/efeitos dos fármacos , Ácido Sórbico/farmacologia , Actinidia/química , Actinidia/enzimologia , Botrytis/genética , Quitinases/genética , Quitinases/metabolismo , DNA Fúngico/metabolismo , Qualidade dos Alimentos , Frutas/química , Frutas/enzimologia , Frutas/microbiologia , Glucana 1,3-beta-Glucosidase/genética , Glucana 1,3-beta-Glucosidase/metabolismo , Temperatura Alta , Malondialdeído/metabolismo , Fenóis/metabolismo
5.
Food Chem ; 316: 126340, 2020 Jun 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32036183

RESUMO

Volatile organic compounds, quality and sensory parameters of four yellow- ('Dorì', 'G3', 'Jintao' and 'Soreli') and two green-fleshed ('Hayward' and 'Summer') kiwifruit cultivars were assessed. Statistical analysis was performed on volatiles, quality and sensory data for the identification of biomarkers of different kiwifruit cultivars. Principal component analysis showed that for all six samples a very good discrimination based on the cultivar was achieved. In particular, 2-pentylfuran can be used to distinguish between the green- and yellow-fleshed kiwifruit cultivars, while seven volatiles, can be identified as biomarkers of 'Dorì'. These findings are in agreement with the sensory analysis, which revealed that 'Dorì', the richest cultivar in esters, showed very high values of both ripe fruit smell and sweet sensory traits. Altogether, these results could offer recommendations for future breeding efforts for the production of kiwifruit cultivars with improved nutritional and aroma quality.


Assuntos
Actinidia/metabolismo , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/metabolismo , Actinidia/química , Cor , Ésteres/análise , Ésteres/metabolismo , Frutas/química , Frutas/metabolismo , Odorantes/análise , Olfato
6.
J Photochem Photobiol B ; 202: 111682, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31731077

RESUMO

Development of highly robust and solar-light-responsive photocatalysts for the disposal of organic dyes from wastewater is a matter of great significance in order to solve the problems of water pollution. Solar-driven photocatalytic degradation of dyes is considered as a quite efficient, sustainable and cost-effective approach as it involved the inexhaustible and renewable source of energy. In photocatalytic processes, the generation of electron-hole pairs at the surface of the photocatalyst is accomplished by harvesting solar energy. The electron-hole pairs are converted into •OH radicals that are responsible for the degradation of dyes. Herein, we reported the synthesis of nanosized iron (FeNPs) using the aqueous fruit extract of Actinidia chinensis as a reducing as well as the stabilizing agent. The structure and morphology of synthesized nanoparticles were characterized using various advanced techniques. The TEM micrographs showed that the synthesized FeNPs was predominantly cubic and rod-shaped having the size in the range of 91.78-107 nm. The as-prepared FeNPs were acted as effective photocatalysts and their photocatalytic activity evaluated against alizarin yellow R (AYR) dye. The effect of different reaction conditions such as temperature, pH, time and catalyst loading on photocatalytic degradation of AYR dye was investigated under sunlight irradiation. The FeNPs showed promising photocatalytic activity and up to 93.7% of the dye was degraded in 42 h. The kinetics parameter of the reaction was also evaluated which showed that the photocatalytic degradation of AYR dye followed the pseudo-first-order reaction. In terms of better degradation, the role of FeNPs might be extended for the treatment of different organic dyes from wastewater.


Assuntos
Compostos Azo/química , Ferro/química , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Águas Residuárias/química , Actinidia/química , Actinidia/metabolismo , Catálise , Corantes/química , Frutas/química , Frutas/metabolismo , Química Verde , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Fotólise/efeitos da radiação , Extratos Vegetais/química , Luz Solar , Temperatura , Fatores de Tempo , Poluentes Químicos da Água/química
7.
J Sci Food Agric ; 100(3): 961-968, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31591725

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Among the challenges for postharvest researchers is that of understanding the physiological and biochemical pathways associated with postharvest fruit decay. Fruit senescence directly affects sensorial and nutritional quality during postharvest life. It has been clarified that reactive oxygen species and oxidative damage are responsible for fruit senescence. Some cultivars of yellow-fleshed kiwifruit can be stored for a short period compared with green-fleshed kiwifruit. Postharvest performance is affected by the physiological state of the fruit at harvest, associated with its postharvest management. Among several postharvest applications, ozone treatment is considered as a cost-effective and eco-friendly food-processing technology to preserve the fruits' quality during cold storage. In this study, we investigated the influence of ozone, after gradual cooling treatment, on the antioxidant defense system in Actinidia chinensis, 'Soreli'. RESULTS: Bioactive compound content decreased during cold storage, and ozone treatment enhanced the activities of superoxide dismutase and catalase during cold storage. This treatment preserved membrane integrity by inhibiting lipoxygenase activity and malondialdehyde accumulation. A multivariate statistical approach, using principal component analysis, provided the global response to the effect of ozone postharvest treatment during cold storage in kiwifruit 'Soreli'. CONCLUSION: Ozone treatment improves the efficiency of antioxidative system and storability of 'Soreli' kiwifruits. © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Actinidia/química , Antioxidantes/análise , Conservação de Alimentos/métodos , Frutas/efeitos dos fármacos , Ozônio/farmacologia , Actinidia/efeitos dos fármacos , Actinidia/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Actinidia/metabolismo , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Cor , Conservação de Alimentos/instrumentação , Frutas/química , Frutas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Frutas/metabolismo , Malondialdeído/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo
8.
Food Chem ; 308: 125666, 2020 Mar 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31655481

RESUMO

Nine new compounds, argutinosides A-I (1-9) together with 20 known compounds (10-29), were isolated from the fruits of Actinidia arguta. Using spectral analysis, the structures of the isolated compounds were identified as 10 succinic acid derivatives, 11 quinic acid derivatives, two shikimic acid derivatives and six citric acid derivatives. The NF-κB transcriptional inhibitory activity of the compounds was evaluated using RAW 264.7 macrophages cells induced by lipopolysaccharide. Among four groups of different organic acid derivatives, the quinic acid derivatives inhibited NF-κB transcriptional activity with an IC50 value of 4.0 µM. Fruit is rich in organic acid and secondary metabolites, which differ depending on the type of fruit. Our present study showed the presence of various organic acids conjugates including nine new 2-methylsuccinic acid phenolic conjugates in kiwiberry and compared their biological activities. This will contribute to application of kiwiberry and also the diversity of different fruits.


Assuntos
Actinidia/química , NF-kappa B/antagonistas & inibidores , Fenóis/farmacologia , Ácido Quínico/química , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Frutas/química , Lipopolissacarídeos/farmacologia , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Camundongos , Fenóis/química
9.
Food Chem ; 305: 125483, 2020 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31610420

RESUMO

Kiwifruit (Actinidia deliciosa cv. Jinkui) were treated with 0.1 mmol/L methyl jasmonate (MeJA) to investigate the effects on disease resistance to soft rot caused by Botryosphaeria dothidea. The results showed that MeJA treatment significantly reduced the diameter of lesions after inoculation with B. dothidea. This treatment significantly enhanced the activities of related antioxidant protective enzymes, defence-related enzymes including catalase (CAT), peroxidase (POD), superoxide dismutase (SOD), polyphenol oxidase (PPO), chitinase (CHI), ß-1,3 glucanase (GLU) and increased the accumulation of total phenolic content, while the degree of membrane lipid peroxidation was reduced. MeJA treatment effectively enhanced gene expression of AcPOD, AcSOD, AcCHI and AcGLU. The results from this research suggest that MeJA treatment is a promising and safe strategy for controlling postharvest rot soft of kiwifruit.


Assuntos
Acetatos/farmacologia , Actinidia/microbiologia , Ascomicetos/efeitos dos fármacos , Ciclopentanos/farmacologia , Resistência à Doença/efeitos dos fármacos , Oxilipinas/farmacologia , Actinidia/química , Actinidia/metabolismo , Ascomicetos/fisiologia , Quitinases/genética , Quitinases/metabolismo , Frutas/química , Frutas/metabolismo , Frutas/microbiologia , Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Peroxidação de Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Peroxidase/genética , Peroxidase/metabolismo , Fenóis/análise , Superóxido Dismutase/genética , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo
10.
Molecules ; 24(21)2019 Oct 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31652679

RESUMO

Kiwifruit is rich in vitamins, minerals, dietary fiber and other functional components, and it has long been used as a functional food to treat intestinal ailments such as constipation. The current research made full use of the kiwifruit, the juice was prepared by microencapsulation, and the dietary fiber in kiwifruit pomace was modified by enzymatic hydrolysis and grinding, then, the two were mixed to obtain an ultra-micro kiwifruit powder (UKP). In addition, the laxative effect of the UKP was verified by a diphenoxylate induced constipated mice model. The results demonstrated that compared with the raw samples, the retention rate of vitamin C, lutein and catechin in UKP were 83.3%, 81.9% and 88.3%, respectively, thus effectively avoiding the loss of functional components during the processing of kiwifruit. Moreover, α-amylase, protease and the ball milling process effectively reduced the size of dietary fiber in kiwifruit pomace, and its water-holding capacity (WHC), oil-holding capacity (OHC) and swelling capacity (SWC) were enhanced by 1.26, 1.65 and 1.10 times, respectively. Furthermore, to analyze the laxative effect of the UKP, a constipation mice model was established by diphenoxylate treatment (5 mg·kg-1, i.g.) for the last week, with or without UKP supplementation (2.4 g·kg-1 B.W. per day) for 4 weeks. The results demonstrated that UKP significantly increased feces condition (fecal output and dejecta moisture content, gut transit (the intestinal propulsion rates) and substance P (SP) levels in portal vein plasma, and it decreased the whole gut transit time and mucinogen granules secreted by goblet cell in constipated mice.


Assuntos
Actinidia/química , Fibras na Dieta , Frutas/química , Laxantes , Extratos Vegetais/química , Animais , Constipação Intestinal/tratamento farmacológico , Constipação Intestinal/metabolismo , Constipação Intestinal/patologia , Laxantes/química , Laxantes/farmacologia , Masculino , Camundongos
11.
Food Funct ; 10(9): 5768-5778, 2019 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31454000

RESUMO

In this study, we aimed at investigating the antiinflammatory activity of the freeze-dried fruit powder of Actinidia arguta (FAA) on dextran sulphate sodium (DSS)-induced ulcerative colitis (UC) in mice and the effect of its extract on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages. For pharmacodynamic studies, the oral administration of FAA (300 or 600 mg kg-1) could decrease the disease activity index (DAI), reduce the incidence of colon and spleen edemas (caused by inflammation), and alleviate the pathological changes in UC. For research involving biochemical indicators, FAA could decrease the expression of inflammatory markers (such as myeloperoxidase (MPO)) and attenuate the oxidative stress levels. ELISA results revealed that the expressions of proinflammatory cytokines (IL-1ß, IL-6, and TNF-α) were downregulated by FAA. Furthermore, the expression levels of the inflammation-induced activation of p38, JNK, and ERK were decreased by FAA. Hence, it was concluded that FAA could alleviate the UC symptoms in mice and the inflammatory response of macrophages via the MAPK signal pathway. Overall, FAA might have the potential to treat UC when used as a dietary supplement.


Assuntos
Actinidia/química , Anti-Inflamatórios/metabolismo , Colite Ulcerativa/dietoterapia , Colite Ulcerativa/metabolismo , Quinases de Proteína Quinase Ativadas por Mitógeno/imunologia , Preparações de Plantas/metabolismo , Actinidia/metabolismo , Animais , Colite Ulcerativa/induzido quimicamente , Colite Ulcerativa/imunologia , Sulfato de Dextrana/efeitos adversos , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Frutas/química , Frutas/metabolismo , Humanos , Interleucina-6/genética , Interleucina-6/imunologia , Macrófagos/imunologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Quinases de Proteína Quinase Ativadas por Mitógeno/genética , Preparações de Plantas/química , Pós/química , Pós/metabolismo , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/genética , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/imunologia
12.
J Chem Ecol ; 45(7): 626-637, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31257561

RESUMO

Since the first reports of damage by Drosophila suzukii, the spotted-wing Drosophila (SWD), over a decade ago in Europe, widespread efforts have been made to understand both the ecology and the evolution of this insect pest, especially due to its phylogenetic proximity to one of the original model organisms, D. melanogaster. In addition, researchers have sought to find economically viable solutions for the monitoring and management of this agricultural pest, which has now swept across much of Europe, North America and Asia. In a new direction of study, we present an investigation of plant-based chemistry, where we search for natural compounds that are structurally similar to known olfactory cues from parasitoid wasps that in turn are well-described ovipositional avoidance cues for many Drosophila species. Here we test 11 plant species across two plant genera, Nepeta and Actinidia, and while we find iridoid compounds in both, only those odorants from Actinidia are noted to be detected by the insect antenna, and in addition, found to be behaviorally active. Moreover, the Actinidia extracts resulted in oviposition avoidance when they were added to fruit samples in the laboratory. Thus we propose the possible efficacy of these plants or their extracted chemistry as a novel means for establishing a cost-effective integrated pest management strategy towards the control of this pest fly.


Assuntos
Actinidia/química , Produtos Biológicos/química , Drosophila/fisiologia , Controle de Insetos/métodos , Nepeta/química , Actinidia/metabolismo , Actinidia/parasitologia , Animais , Produtos Biológicos/farmacologia , Produtos Agrícolas , Drosophila/efeitos dos fármacos , Drosophila/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Nepeta/metabolismo , Nepeta/parasitologia , Oviposição/efeitos dos fármacos , Folhas de Planta/química , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/parasitologia
13.
J Sci Food Agric ; 99(14): 6234-6240, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31250461

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The application of exogenous plant growth regulator, for example forchlorfenuron (CPPU), on kiwifruits has become an important factor that influences kiwifruit economic efficiency and the health development of the kiwifruit industry. Owing to the slight difference in calyx shape between the kiwifruits treated with CPPU (CPPU-treated kiwifruits) and the kiwifruits without CPPU treatment (CPPU-untreated kiwifruits), this study aims to provide a cheap, quick, convenient, and non-destructive method for identifying CPPU-treated kiwifruits based on the images of kiwifruits captured at visible lights. RESULTS: The identification method includes three steps. Firstly, the kiwifruit was extracted from the background by using Otsu algorithm, hole filling operation and 'bwareaopen' function. Secondly, the calyx was extracted by using corrosion, image enhancement, hole filling and closing operations. Finally, the length/width ratio of the minimum enclosing rectangle of calyx region was calculated. The kiwifruit was regarded as a CPPU-treated kiwifruit if the length/width ratio of the rectangle was higher than 1.6. Otherwise, the kiwifruit was regarded as a CPPU-untreated one. The method had the total identification accuracy rate of 90.0% when the kiwifruit images were captured either by utilizing a smartphone at normal lighting condition or by using an image acquisition system. CONCLUSION: The programs run on computer and smartphone were developed, and they could realize kiwifruit identification in 0.6 s and 2 s, respectively. The study makes identifying CPPU-treated kiwifruits in online processing be realizable, and offers a convenient method for kiwifruit consumers. © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Actinidia/efeitos dos fármacos , Resíduos de Drogas/análise , Frutas/química , Fotografação/métodos , Reguladores de Crescimento de Planta/análise , Polietilenoglicóis/análise , Poliuretanos/análise , Actinidia/química , Resíduos de Drogas/farmacologia , Frutas/efeitos dos fármacos , Reguladores de Crescimento de Planta/farmacologia , Polietilenoglicóis/farmacologia , Poliuretanos/farmacologia , Smartphone
14.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 136: 891-900, 2019 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31229540

RESUMO

Non-starch polysaccharides are considered the main bioactive ingredients in kiwifruits. In order to well understand the chemical structures and antioxidant activities of non-starch polysaccharides from different varieties of kiwifruits (KPSs), the physicochemical characteristics and antioxidant activities of KPSs extracted by hot water extraction from Actinidia deliciosa cv. Hayward, A. chinensis cv. Hort16A, A. chinensis cv. Jinshi, A. chinensis cv. Hongshi, A. polygama, A. macrosperma, and A. arguta were investigated and compared. Results showed that extraction yields and contents of total uronic acids in KPSs ranged from 2.60% to 5.52%, and from 35.07% to 42.20%, respectively. Molecular weights and intrinsic viscosities of KPSs ranged from 1.405 × 105 to 1.620 × 106 Da, and from 0.34 dL/g to 1.24 dL/g, respectively. The dominant constituent monosaccharides of KPSs were galacturonic acid, arabinose, and galactose. Furthermore, KPSs from kiwifruits, especially KPSs extracted from A. arguta, exerted remarkable 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid and nitric oxide radical scavenging activities, which might be partially attributed to their high content of unmethylated galacturonic acids. Results are helpful for better understanding of the chemical structures and antioxidant activities of KPSs, and KPSs had potential to be further explored as natural antioxidants for the application in the functional food industry.


Assuntos
Actinidia/química , Antioxidantes/química , Fenômenos Químicos , Polissacarídeos/química , Antioxidantes/isolamento & purificação , Benzotiazóis/química , Peso Molecular , Monossacarídeos/análise , Óxido Nítrico/química , Polissacarídeos/isolamento & purificação , Especificidade da Espécie , Ácidos Sulfônicos/química , Viscosidade
15.
Nutrients ; 11(6)2019 Jun 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31216667

RESUMO

With a complex etiology involving multiple factors, the condition known as itch is a primary symptom of many skin diseases. Current treatment methods are ineffective for addressing itches caused by dry skin, for example. We developed a botanical extract, ACTPER, made from a mixture of Actinidia arguta and Perilla frutescens, which have traditionally been used to treat itch. The quality of ACTPER as a research agent was controlled in our experiment by cell-based bioassays, as well as by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), using two chemical markers. In the acetone-induced dry skin mice model, the oral administration of ACTPER alleviated dry skin-related skin properties and itching behavior. The RNA and protein expression of the filament aggregating protein (filaggrin) gene, a key factor involved in the regulation of skin barrier function, was significantly increased, as measured by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and immunofluorescence assay. To understand the underlying mechanism(s) at the molecular level, HaCaT cells, a human keratinocyte-derived cell line, were treated with various concentrations of ACTPER. We found that the protein expression of filaggrin was indeed upregulated by ACTPER in a dose dependent manner. Data from experiments involving the reporter plasmid containing the xenobiotic response element (XRE), and the chemical antagonist for the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), indicated that the ACTPER-mediated upregulation of filaggrin was controlled through the activation of the AhR signaling pathway. The molecular docking simulation study predicted that ACTPER might contain chemical compounds that bind directly to AhR. Taken together, our results suggest that ACTPER may provide the platform, based upon which a variety of safe and effective therapeutic agents can be developed to treat itch.


Assuntos
Actinidia/química , Proteínas de Filamentos Intermediários/metabolismo , Perilla frutescens/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Prurido/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Humanos , Queratinócitos , Camundongos , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Prurido/metabolismo , Receptores de Hidrocarboneto Arílico/efeitos dos fármacos , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Pele/metabolismo , Regulação para Cima/efeitos dos fármacos , Água
16.
J Sci Food Agric ; 99(13): 5918-5925, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31206684

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Artificial intelligence systems have been employed for the development of predictive models that estimate many agricultural processes. RESULTS: In present study, the predictive capabilities of artificial neural networks (ANNs) were evaluated with respect to assessing fruit firmness as a postharvest life index, with determinations made at four stages of storage: 1, 60, 120 and 180 days after harvesting. Single concentrations of nitrogen (N), potassium (K), calcium (Ca) and magnesium (Mg) on fruit (D1 ), all of these nutrient concentrations (D2 ), the ratios of the nutrient concentrations alone (D3 ), and a combination of nutrient concentrations and their ratios (D4 ), were considered. CONCLUSION: The results obtained showed that fruit firmness at 1 and 60 days after harvesting was not influenced by nutrients. However, the ANN model estimated fruit firmness of 120 and 180 days, respectively, for D1 and D3 more accurately than for the D2 and D4 datasets. Application of D3 (nitrogen/calcium ratio) as the input dataset improved predictions of fruit firmness, with a correlation coefficient of 0.85 between the measured and estimated data. © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Actinidia/química , Frutas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Magnésio/análise , Redes Neurais de Computação , Actinidia/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Cálcio/análise , Frutas/química , Nitrogênio/análise , Potássio/análise
17.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 136: 980-993, 2019 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31220493

RESUMO

The polysaccharide from the roots of Actinidia eriantha (AEPS) is a potent antitumor agent and immunological adjuvant. The recent evidences indicate that long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) play essential roles in regulating the activation and function of immune cells. The objective of this study was to investigate the expression profiles of lncRNAs and mRNAs and explore the role of lncRNAs in AEPS-activated RAW264.7 cells using whole gene expression microarray. AEPS induced the differential expression of 1,807 mRNAs and 506 lncRNAs in RAW264.7 cells. The mRNA expression levels of both M1 and M2 specific cytokines and chemokines were significantly upregulated in RAW264.7 cells by AEPS. NF-κB inhibitors and shRNA-NF-κB p65 significantly decreased the up-regulation of IL-1ß expression in RAW264.7 cells induced by AEPS. Five AEPS-induced lncRNAs (D730047E02Rik, Gm14047, A_30_P01020139, A_30_P01026293 and A_30_P01032196) were identified and predicted to locally regulate mRNA expressions of immune response genes in RAW264.7 cells through the specific interaction with NF-κB p65. The inhibition of NF-κB could significantly suppress the expression of these lncRNAs induced by AEPS. These results indicated that AEPS induced the activation of macrophages via lncRNAs/NF-κB networks. This study further expanded current knowledge on the mechanisms of plant polysaccharides.


Assuntos
Actinidia/química , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Polissacarídeos/farmacologia , RNA Longo não Codificante/genética , Transcriptoma/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Ontologia Genética , Camundongos , Análise de Sequência com Séries de Oligonucleotídeos , Células RAW 264.7 , RNA Mensageiro/genética
18.
J Sci Food Agric ; 99(13): 5654-5661, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31141163

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ozone has been used for improving the postharvest life of fruits and vegetables. Ozonation, an alternative decontamination method, can be applied effectively to perishable commodities immediately after harvest. Kiwifruit is a subtropical climacteric fruit that is less able to acclimate and is susceptible to low temperatures. In this study, we investigated the influence of ozone and different storage temperatures on the physico-chemical and qualitative features in Actinidia chinensis 'Soreli'. The fruits were treated with a continuous flow of ozone in air (300 ppb), stored at 2 and 4 °C for 60 days, and sampled every 15 days. RESULTS: It was found that ozone treatment induced the ripening process; this was evident at the end of the storage, with higher soluble solids content for ozone-treated fruits at 2 and 4 °C. Storage temperatures and gaseous ozone treatment influenced in a different manner the bioactive compounds, such as polyphenols, flavonoids, ascorbic acid, and carotenoids. Additionally, under gaseous ozone storage, microbial growth was delayed, improving the microbial quality index when the fruits were stored at the lowest storage temperature (2 °C). Principal component analysis highlighted that the effects of storage temperature on physico-chemical and bioactive compounds were greater than the postharvest treatment. CONCLUSION: Storage temperature influenced the postharvest life of 'Soreli'. Storage at 2 °C and under 300 ppb gaseous ozone improved the yellow-fleshed fruit storage life. However, storage at 4 °C under 300 ppb gaseous ozone did not show advantages in preserving the fruit quality. © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Actinidia/química , Conservação de Alimentos/métodos , Conservantes de Alimentos/farmacologia , Ozônio/farmacologia , Actinidia/efeitos dos fármacos , Ácido Ascórbico/análise , Carotenoides/análise , Temperatura Baixa , Cor , Armazenamento de Alimentos , Frutas/química , Frutas/efeitos dos fármacos , Controle de Qualidade
19.
PLoS One ; 14(5): e0217480, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31120996

RESUMO

As important regulators, miRNAs could play pivotal roles in regulation of fruit coloring. Actinidia arguta is a newly emerged fruit tree with extensively application prospects. However, miRNAs involved in A. arguta fruit coloring are unknown. In this study, A. arguta fruit were investigated at three developmental stages by small RNAs high-throughput sequencing. A total of 482 conserved miRNAs corresponding to 526 pre-miRNAs and 581 novel miRNAs corresponding to 619 pre-miRNAs were grouped into 46 miRNA families. Target gene prediction and analysis revealed that miR858, a strongly candidate miRNA, was involved in anthocyanin biosynthesis in which contributes to fruit coloring. The anthocyanin level was determined in three A. arguta cultivars by UPLC-MS/MS (ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry). In addition, qPCR (quantitative real-time PCR), cluster analysis were conducted as well as correlation analysis. All results were combined to propose a model in which describes an association of miRNA and anthocyanin biosynthesis in A. arguta. The data presented herein is the first report on miRNA profile analysis in A. arguta, which can provide valuable information for further research into the regulation of the miRNAs in anthocyanin biosynthesis and fruit coloring.


Assuntos
Actinidia/genética , Antocianinas/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , MicroRNAs/genética , RNA de Plantas/genética , Actinidia/química , Antocianinas/análise , Vias Biossintéticas , Frutas/química , Frutas/genética , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala
20.
Carbohydr Polym ; 217: 90-97, 2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31079689

RESUMO

Pectin oligosaccharides (POSs) have prebiotic and antiglycation activities in vitro, but the specific structure-activity relationship is unclear. In this study, POSs were obtained by enzymatic and ultrasound-assisted enzymatic degradation of pectin polysaccharide (PPS), respectively. Based on the chemical characterization, the antiglycation in vitro and prebiotic activities of POSs were compared and the structure-activity relationship was studied. The results showed that the antiglycation activity of POSs in vitro was proportional to the galacturonic acid content and GalA:Rha molar ratios except for the low molecular weight POSs (LM-POSs), and inversely proportional to its branching degree, such as Ara:Rha and Gal:Rha molar ratios. In addition, it was also found that the prebiotic activity of POSs was positively correlated with Ara:Rha and Gal:Rha molar ratios in molecule composition and the neutral sugar content, especially galactose and arabinose. The degree of esterification (DE) was less important for both antiglycation and prebiotic activity of POSs. These results provided an important theoretical basis for POSs application in food.


Assuntos
Actinidia/química , Frutas/química , Produtos Finais de Glicação Avançada/antagonistas & inibidores , Oligossacarídeos/metabolismo , Pectinas/metabolismo , Prebióticos , Adulto , Fezes/microbiologia , Feminino , Fermentação , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Humanos , Hidrólise , Masculino , Estrutura Molecular , Peso Molecular , Oligossacarídeos/química , Oligossacarídeos/isolamento & purificação , Pectinas/química , Pectinas/isolamento & purificação , Poligalacturonase/química , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
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