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1.
Niger J Clin Pract ; 23(9): 1243-1247, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32913163

RESUMO

Aim: This study aimed to determine the effects of strabismus surgery on choroidal thickness in paediatric patients with Spectral Domain-Optical Coherence Tomography (SD-OCT). Material and Methods: Sixty eyes of 60 children with esotropia were included. The mean age was 9.5 ± 3.1 years. The choroidal thickness was measured using SD-OCT, which was performed before the surgery and 1 week, 1 month and 3 months postoperatively. At the same time, the patients' visual acuity was evaluated. Results: There were no statistically significant differences between the preoperative and postoperative values in terms of the visual acuity (P > 0.05). When compared to the preoperative values, decreases were found in the choroidal thicknesses in all of the areas measured during the first week evaluation (P < 0.05). In the postoperative first month, significant decreases were also found in the choroidal thicknesses in all the areas measured (P < 0.05); however, in the postoperative third month, there were no changes in any of the areas (P > 0.05). Conclusions: We observed that there was a significant decrease in the choroidal thickness during the early postoperative period and no significant change in the late postoperative period in paediatric patients of double horizontal muscle surgery. Moreover, these early changes in the choroid in paediatric patients show that it does not cause a functional loss.


Assuntos
Corioide/diagnóstico por imagem , Corioide/patologia , Músculos Oculomotores/cirurgia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Oftalmológicos/efeitos adversos , Estrabismo/cirurgia , Tomografia de Coerência Óptica/instrumentação , Adolescente , Criança , Corioide/anatomia & histologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Tamanho do Órgão , Período Pós-Operatório , Tomografia de Coerência Óptica/métodos , Resultado do Tratamento , Acuidade Visual/fisiologia
2.
Exp Psychol ; 67(3): 186-193, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32900295

RESUMO

Previous research on inattentional blindness (IB) has focused almost entirely on the visual modality. This study extends the paradigm by pairing visual with auditory stimuli. New visual and auditory stimuli were created to investigate the phenomenon of inattention in visual, auditory, and paired modality. The goal of the study was to assess to what extent the pairing of visual and auditory modality fosters the detection of change. Participants watched a video sequence and counted predetermined words in a spoken text. IB and inattentional deafness occurred in about 40% of participants when attention was engaged by this difficult (auditory) counting task. Most importantly, participants detected the changes considerably more often (88%) when the change occurred in both modalities rather than just one. One possible reason for the drastic reduction of IB or deafness in a multimodal context is that discrepancy between expected and encountered course of events proportionally increases across sensory modalities.


Assuntos
Atenção/fisiologia , Audição/fisiologia , Acuidade Visual/fisiologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
3.
Middle East Afr J Ophthalmol ; 27(2): 100-104, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32874042

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The aim of this study is to evaluate the short anatomical and visual outcomes of scleral buckling surgery in relation to the pattern of presentation of rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RRD) in the presence of different situations and risk factors. METHODS: A total of 206 eyes of 203 patients who underwent scleral buckling surgery for RRD were evaluated in this retrospective study. Information retrieved included patient demographics, duration of symptoms, and presenting vision, lens status, site of a retinal break, extent of retinal detachment, the involvement of the fellow eye, macular involvement, presence of lattice degeneration, and associated refractive errors. Postoperative retinal reattachment, postoperative visual acuity, the need for further surgical intervention, intraoperative, and postoperative complications were also evaluated. Proportions and percentages were used to analyze data. RESULTS: Primary anatomical reattachment was seen in 172 eyes (83.5%) after the complete resolution of the tamponade used. The mean best-corrected visual acuity improved from 2.81 logarithms of the minimum angle of resolution (LogMar) preoperatively to 1.21 LogMar postoperatively, the most important factors that appeared statistically significantly affecting the anatomic and visual outcome were the duration of macular detachment (P = 0.036), the status of the lens; phakic eyes gave better visual outcome than aphakic and pseudophakic eyes (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Scleral buckling procedure showed high structural and visual success rates, improvement of visual acuity was found to correlate well with the shorter duration of macular detachment and pseudophakic eyes. We believe that scleral buckling, when done appropriately in the appropriate cases, gives the maximum visual outcome with the least cost and need for consecutive procedures.


Assuntos
Retina/anatomia & histologia , Descolamento Retiniano/cirurgia , Recurvamento da Esclera/métodos , Acuidade Visual/fisiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Tamponamento Interno , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Descolamento Retiniano/fisiopatologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento , Vitrectomia/métodos
4.
Middle East Afr J Ophthalmol ; 27(2): 123-127, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32874046

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate predictive factors for intermittent exotropia (XT) recurrence after bilateral lateral rectus (BLR) recession. METHODS: This is a retrospective chart review of patients with XT who underwent BLR recession surgery between January 2007 and March 2017 with at least one postsurgical follow-up. Forty-one medical records were reviewed. Information collected included age, gender, systemic diseases, history of prematurity, family history of eye diseases, visual acuity, refraction, ocular alignment and control, stereoacuity, slit-lamp examination, fundoscopy, and amount of BLR recession. Successful alignment was defined as ≤8 prism diopters of esotropia or exotropia postoperatively. RESULTS: The mean age of patients at the time of surgery and follow-up time was 9.2 ± 12.3 years (y) and 23.6 ± 36.5 months (m), respectively. The mean amount of BLR recession was 6.5 ± 1.0 mm. Recurrence rate was 43.9% on the last follow-up. Age at surgery and at the time of last follow-up were significantly higher in the recurring group (P = 0.04 and P = 0.05, respectively). Postoperative angle of misalignment during the first 3 months was correlated with exotropia recurrence. No statistical significance was found among the remaining factors studied. CONCLUSIONS: The recurrence rate of XT in our study was 43.9%; it was increased in patients operated at older age and amid those with significant exotropia detected in the early postoperative period (within 3 months of surgery).


Assuntos
Exotropia/diagnóstico , Músculos Oculomotores/cirurgia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Oftalmológicos , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Doença Crônica , Exotropia/fisiopatologia , Exotropia/cirurgia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Oftalmoscopia , Período Pós-Operatório , Recidiva , Refração Ocular , Estudos Retrospectivos , Microscopia com Lâmpada de Fenda , Resultado do Tratamento , Visão Binocular/fisiologia , Acuidade Visual/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
5.
Middle East Afr J Ophthalmol ; 27(2): 128-130, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32874047

RESUMO

We report two cases with foveal congenital simple hamartoma of the retinal pigment epithelium (CSHRPE), as both patients presented to our retina services complaining of a unilateral decreased vision. Full ophthalmic examination and multimodal imaging were performed including fundus photography, fundus autofluorescence, optical coherence tomography, fluorescein angiography, and electrophysiological testing. Both patients presented with 20/80 vision in the affected eyes. Foveal CSHRPE was found in both eyes, along with parapapillary hyperpigmented rim, multiple pinpoint macular lesions, and few posterior pole hyperpigmented lesions. Multifocal electroretinogram showed diminished central amplitude in both eyes, with three-dimensional topography map showing blunted foveal peaks in one eye and the absence of a central peak in the other patient. Both patients had a stable vision and clinical examination of the CSHRPE during 5 and 6 years follow up, respectively. Foveal CSHRPE is usually symptomatic and results in a decline in visual acuity. Follow-up of these patients showed stable vision and clinical examination.


Assuntos
Hamartoma/congênito , Doenças Retinianas/congênito , Epitélio Pigmentado da Retina/anormalidades , Adulto , Técnicas de Diagnóstico Oftalmológico , Eletrorretinografia , Angiofluoresceinografia , Fóvea Central/patologia , Fundo de Olho , Hamartoma/diagnóstico , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Imagem Multimodal , Doenças Retinianas/diagnóstico , Epitélio Pigmentado da Retina/patologia , Tomografia de Coerência Óptica/métodos , Acuidade Visual/fisiologia
6.
Middle East Afr J Ophthalmol ; 27(2): 131-133, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32874048

RESUMO

The aim was to report a case of central retinal vein prethrombosis (CRVP), responsive to systemic steroids. An 18-year-old male presented with right sudden blurred vision and central scotoma for 2 days. Right best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) measured 6/36, and fundoscopy revealed vascular congestion and blurred disc margins. Fluorescein angiography (FA) showed CRVP secondary to retinal vasculitis. Systemic oral prednisone was started. Six months later, right BCVA was 6/6, FA showed reduced vascular congestion, and retinal vasculitis and residual optic disc hyperfluorescence resolved. CRVP should be considered in young patients with sudden central scotoma. Early systemic steroids might be effective in the treatment of "active" retinal vasculitis.


Assuntos
Vasculite Retiniana , Oclusão da Veia Retiniana , Administração Oral , Adolescente , Diagnóstico Precoce , Angiofluoresceinografia , Glucocorticoides/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Masculino , Oftalmoscopia , Prednisona/uso terapêutico , Vasculite Retiniana/complicações , Vasculite Retiniana/diagnóstico , Vasculite Retiniana/tratamento farmacológico , Oclusão da Veia Retiniana/diagnóstico , Oclusão da Veia Retiniana/tratamento farmacológico , Oclusão da Veia Retiniana/etiologia , Acuidade Visual/fisiologia
7.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0238246, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32866203

RESUMO

Young children exhibit poorer visual performance than adults due to immaturity of the fovea and of the fundamental processing of visual functions such as masking and crowding. Recent studies suggest that masking and crowding are closely related to the size of the fundamental processing unit-the perceptive field (PF). However, while it is known that the retina and basic visual functions develop throughout childhood, it is not clear whether and how changes in the size of the PF affect masking and crowding. Furthermore, no retinal and perceptual development data have been collected from the same cohort and time. Here we explored the developmental process of the PF and the basic visual functions. Psychophysical and imaging methods were used to test visual functions and foveal changes in participants ranging from 3-17 years old. Lateral masking, crowding and contrast sensitivity were tested using computerized tasks. Foveal measurements were obtained from spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (OCT). The children patterns below 6 years exhibited high crowding, while the expected facilitation was found only at a larger target-flanker distance than required for children above 6 years, who exhibited the typical adult. Foveal thickness and macular volume for the children below 6 years were significantly lower than for the older group. Significant correlation was found for contrast sensitivity, foveal thickness and macular volume with age and between contrast sensitivity and foveal thickness. Our data suggest that the developmental processes at the retina and visual cortex occur in the same age range. Thus, in parallel to maturation of the PF, which enables reduction in crowding, foveal development contributes to increasing contrast sensitivity.


Assuntos
Retina/fisiologia , Acuidade Visual/fisiologia , Córtex Visual/fisiologia , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Sensibilidades de Contraste/fisiologia , Aglomeração , Feminino , Fóvea Central/fisiologia , Humanos , Edema Macular/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Tomografia de Coerência Óptica/métodos
8.
Med Sci (Paris) ; 36(8-9): 753-762, 2020.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32821052

RESUMO

Macular edema is an increase in volume of the central area of the retina, responsible for visual acuity. Visual symptoms handicap the lives of millions of patients with macular edema secondary to chronic and sometimes acute retinal disease. Proteins that neutralize the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) pathway or glucocorticoids, at the cost of repeated intraocular injections over years, limit visual symptoms. A better understanding of why and how edema forms and how therapeutic molecules exert an anti-edematous effect will help prevent this disabling and blinding retinal complication from occurring.


Assuntos
Edema Macular/etiologia , Edema Macular/terapia , Inibidores da Angiogênese/uso terapêutico , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/uso terapêutico , Glucocorticoides/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Transdução de Sinais/fisiologia , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/antagonistas & inibidores , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/imunologia , Acuidade Visual/efeitos dos fármacos , Acuidade Visual/fisiologia
9.
Geriatr Gerontol Int ; 20(10): 911-916, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32820857

RESUMO

The present study aimed to examine the prevalence of dual sensory impairment, and to identify its risk factors among community-dwelling older adults in Selangor. METHODS: Secondary analysis was carried out on data collected by the Grand Challenge Project among older adults aged ≥65 years from Selangor. Data on sociodemographic information, medical history, cognitive function and functional performance were obtained through face-to-face interviews using standardized questionnaires. Visual acuity was measured using the Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study (ETDRS) chart while hearing was assessed using pure-tone audiometry. Descriptive analysis was used to measure the prevalence of the impairments, and logistic regression analysis was used to identify the risk factors. RESULTS: The prevalence of dual sensory impairment and hearing impairment were at 10.5% and 76.2% respectively. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that participants with lower cognitive scores were associated with dual sensory impairment (odds ratio, 0.90; 95% confidence interval, 0.83-0.98), while smoking was found associated with hearing impairment (odds ratio, 6.58; 95% confidence interval, 1.51-28.65). CONCLUSION: Dual sensory impairment is common among older adults in Selangor. The association between dual sensory impairment and cognitive function suggests the need to have visual and hearing screening on older adults for early detection particularly those at risk of cognitive impairment. The prevalence of hearing impairment was reported high among older adults and smokers appeared to be at higher risk of the impairment. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2020; 20: 911-916.


Assuntos
Perda Auditiva/epidemiologia , Pessoas com Deficiência Auditiva/estatística & dados numéricos , Transtornos da Visão/epidemiologia , Pessoas com Deficiência Visual/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Cognição/fisiologia , Disfunção Cognitiva/epidemiologia , Análise de Dados , Feminino , Humanos , Vida Independente , Malásia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários , Acuidade Visual/fisiologia
10.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0238135, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32841287

RESUMO

The prospective comparative case series aimed to evaluate the binocular uncorrected visual acuities (BUCVAs) after staged implantations of extended-depth-of-focus intraocular lenses (EDOF IOLs) targeting emmetropia and -0.5 diopter (D). Diffractive EDOF IOLs with an add power of +1.75 D were implanted in the first eyes targeting emmetropia or -0.5 D according to the patients' preferences, then the targets for the second eyes were determined 1 week or longer after the implantation. IOL powers were determined with the SRK/T formula. Consequently, the subjects were divided into 3 groups: those with emmetropia targeted bilaterally (group EE, 22 patients), those with -0.5 D targeted bilaterally (group MM, 21 patients), and those with monovision of emmetropia and -0.5 D (group EM, 21 patients). Manifest refraction spherical equivalent (MRSE), BUCVA from 0.3 to 5 meters, spectacle use, and questionnaire regarding photic symptoms and patient satisfaction were assessed 3 months postoperatively. No significant differences were seen in the mean BUCVAs at any distance (P > 0.23), spectacle use (P = 0.13), or photic symptoms and patient satisfaction (P>0.65). When the EE and MM groups were assigned based on the MRSE, the EE group was better at 5 m (P = 0.005) while the MM group at 0.5 m (P = 0.031). The effect of different targeted refractions was not identified due to insufficient accuracy in the use of the SRK/T power calculation.


Assuntos
Emetropia/fisiologia , Implante de Lente Intraocular/métodos , Lentes Intraoculares Multifocais , Visão Binocular/fisiologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Astigmatismo/fisiopatologia , Astigmatismo/cirurgia , Extração de Catarata , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Preferência do Paciente , Satisfação do Paciente , Presbiopia/fisiopatologia , Presbiopia/cirurgia , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Tempo , Acuidade Visual/fisiologia
11.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237807, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32817713

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Beery-Buktenica Test of Visual-Motor Integration (Beery VMI) is a commonly used standardized test of visual-motor integration. Performance on the test is related to academic achievement, but the effect of reduced visual acuity on test results is unknown. This study determined the visual acuity demand and the spacing of the test forms for the Beery VMI and its supplemental tests and investigated the effect of induced optical blur on test results in both adults and children. METHODS: The overall size and critical detail size of each form and the distance between the center of each form and its adjacent crowding source were measured. The visual acuity demand and angular separation of forms were calculated. Two groups of participants (adults aged ≥18 years [n = 19] and children aged 7-12 years [n = 20]) completed four sessions in which they performed the Beery VMI and the supplemental tests under different blur conditions (habitual near correction, monocular spherical blur, binocular spherical blur and binocular astigmatic blur) in a randomized order. RESULTS: Stroke width, overall form size and box size remained constant throughout the Beery VMI, whereas these reduced with increasing difficulty for the supplemental tests. Reduced near visual acuity from simulated blur resulted in reduced mean scores for the Beery VMI and its supplemental tests, compared with habitual near vision in both adults and children. Binocular spherical blur had the most detrimental effect (p<0.001), followed by binocular astigmatic blur (p<0.001) then monocular spherical blur (p = 0.022). CONCLUSIONS: In individuals with uncorrected spherical or astigmatic ametropia, reduced scores on the Beery VMI and its supplemental tests may be due to impaired near visual acuity and not reflect reduced visual-motor abilities. This highlights the importance of excluding reduced near visual acuity as a cause of reduced performance before diagnosing impairment and initiating treatment strategies for visual-motor integration.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Infantil/fisiologia , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Desempenho Psicomotor/fisiologia , Percepção Visual/fisiologia , Adulto , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Erros de Refração/diagnóstico , Erros de Refração/fisiopatologia , Acuidade Visual/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
13.
PLoS Comput Biol ; 16(7): e1007857, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32667921

RESUMO

In many cases of inherited retinal degenerations, ganglion cells are spared despite photoreceptor cell death, making it possible to stimulate them to restore visual function. Several studies have shown that it is possible to express an optogenetic protein in ganglion cells and make them light sensitive, a promising strategy to restore vision. However the spatial resolution of optogenetically-reactivated retinas has rarely been measured, especially in the primate. Since the optogenetic protein is also expressed in axons, it is unclear if these neurons will only be sensitive to the stimulation of a small region covering their somas and dendrites, or if they will also respond to any stimulation overlapping with their axon, dramatically impairing spatial resolution. Here we recorded responses of mouse and macaque retinas to random checkerboard patterns following an in vivo optogenetic therapy. We show that optogenetically activated ganglion cells are each sensitive to a small region of visual space. A simple model based on this small receptive field predicted accurately their responses to complex stimuli. From this model, we simulated how the entire population of light sensitive ganglion cells would respond to letters of different sizes. We then estimated the maximal acuity expected by a patient, assuming it could make an optimal use of the information delivered by this reactivated retina. The obtained acuity is above the limit of legal blindness. Our model also makes interesting predictions on how acuity might vary upon changing the therapeutic strategy, assuming an optimal use of the information present in the retinal activity. Optogenetic therapy could thus potentially lead to high resolution vision, under conditions that our model helps to determinine.


Assuntos
Cegueira , Optogenética/métodos , Células Ganglionares da Retina/fisiologia , Animais , Cegueira/fisiopatologia , Cegueira/terapia , Terapia Genética , Macaca , Camundongos , Modelos Biológicos , Retina/fisiologia , Acuidade Visual/fisiologia
14.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0232796, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32479506

RESUMO

AIMS: To determine the cost and quality of life impact imposed by glaucoma in Tanzania, East Africa. METHODS: An expert panel of eye health professionals was convened to agree current glaucoma practice in Tanzania. In addition a structured patient survey was developed and administered. Supplemental cost and quality of life information was collected using cost questionnaires and validated quality of life measures, including the EQ5D and VFQ-25. RESULTS: Key findings include following. Non-adherence is a major issue, especially in rural settings where over 50% of the patients may fail to return for review. Whilst medical therapy is overwhelmingly the first line treatment, the cost of maintaining this represents up to 25% of a patient's income. There is an impact of glaucoma on patients general well-being as determined by the EQ-5D and more tellingly on visual function with particular impact on role limitations as determined by the VF25. Despite our sample being taken in a private clinic and thus containing a much larger proportion of professionals than the general population, one third of the population earned Tanzanian Shillings (TZS) 170,000 per month which is below the minimum wage. CONCLUSION: These findings are of great importance for health care planners seeking to determine cost-effective, acceptable methods of both identifying and treating this major cause of preventable blindness.


Assuntos
Glaucoma/economia , Glaucoma/epidemiologia , Glaucoma/fisiopatologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Análise Custo-Benefício/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Tanzânia/epidemiologia , Visão Ocular/fisiologia , Acuidade Visual/fisiologia , Campos Visuais/fisiologia
15.
Ann Afr Med ; 19(2): 119-123, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32499468

RESUMO

Purpose: The cornea is the most significant refractive medium in the eye. Pathologies affecting the cornea usually have a great impact on vision. The etiology of corneal disorder varies from one geographical location to another. The objective of this study was to determine the pattern of corneal disorders at Ekiti State University Teaching Hospital, Ado-Ekiti. Materials and Methods: A retrospective study of case records of patients with cornea disorders over a 5-year period was carried out. Demographic characteristics, presenting visual acuity, and risk factor for cornea disorders were retrieved. Data were entered into the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 20, and statistical significance was inferred at P < 0.05. Results: Corneal disorders accounted for 3.3% of the eye disorders seen during the period of study. The median age was 37 years. Males outnumbered females giving a ratio of 1.9:1 and the age range from 0.25 to 92 years. There were more females than males in the 11-20 years' age group. Students (84, 25.4%) and artisans (62, 18.8%) were the two leading occupational groups. Infectious cases constituted 27.2% of the cases. Visual acuity at presentation was <3/60 in 131 (39.7%) cases. Foreign body entry was the leading etiologic agent in 101 (30.6%) cases. Conclusion: Half of the patients were blind at presentation, and many of them presented after more than 1 week of the onset of symptoms. Corneal foreign body, trauma, and vernal keratoconjunctivitis were the leading known predisposing factors. There will be need to emphasize more on the role of protective eye devices among our people, especially those who engage in outdoor activities.


Assuntos
Córnea/patologia , Doenças da Córnea/epidemiologia , Acuidade Visual/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Distribuição por Idade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Distribuição por Sexo , Adulto Jovem
16.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0235290, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32598392

RESUMO

This study evaluated the reproducibility of the Teller Acuity Cards (TAC) test, its correlation with the optotype test, and its usefulness for detecting amblyopia in preliterate children. We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 64 children who had undergone the TAC test more than once and were later followed up with the optotype test. The mean corrected visual acuities (logMAR) of the first and last TAC tests were 0.86 (mean 19.9 months) and 0.69 (27.7 months), respectively. The first optotype acuity was 0.18 (33.7 months). The first TAC acuity result was positively correlated with the age of the child, but it was not statistically significant (r = -0.077, p > 0.05). The first and last TAC test acuities were significantly correlated (r = 0.382, p < 0.01). There was a significant but small correlation between the final TAC and the first optotype acuities (r = 0.193, p < 0.05). Interocular differences in visual acuity were significantly correlated between the last TAC and first optotype tests (r = 0.395, p < 0.05). TAC acuity might be a valid predictor of optotype acuity later on although it was underestimated compared to that in the optotype test. The TAC test can be used to detect unilateral amblyopia in preliterate children.


Assuntos
Ambliopia/diagnóstico , Testes Visuais/métodos , Acuidade Visual/fisiologia , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Estudos Retrospectivos , Testes Visuais/classificação , Testes Visuais/instrumentação
17.
Curr Opin Ophthalmol ; 31(4): 284-287, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32487810

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Intraocular lens (IOL) calculations in patients with keratoconus and other keratoectatic disorders continues to be a challenge for today's cataract surgeon. In this article, we review data published over the past 18 months (June 2018 to January 2020). RECENT FINDINGS: Cataract surgery in keratoconus patients has the potential to greatly improve patients' vision. However, keratoconic eyes are notorious for unpredictable outcomes because of difficulty in obtaining proper preoperative biometry and lack of data and consensus on IOL calculation formulas that can reliable in providing the desired outcome. Recent studies suggest the Barrett II Universal calculation is the most accurate in mild-to-moderate keratoconic eyes. All studies note the level of predictability decreases with the steepness of keratometric readings. Historically, the SRK/T has been shown to provide the most reliable calculations. SUMMARY: There is still no consensus on which formula is best for IOL calculation in keratoconic eyes. On the basis of the most recent literature, we recommend using the Barrett II Universal in conjunction with the SRK/T formula for mild-to-moderate eyes. Preoperative counseling of expectations with the patient is the key to achieving a satisfied patient and avoiding an unpleasant situation in the result of refractive surprise.


Assuntos
Biometria/métodos , Extração de Catarata , Ceratocone/complicações , Lentes Intraoculares , Óptica e Fotônica , Humanos , Ceratocone/fisiopatologia , Acuidade Visual/fisiologia
18.
Curr Opin Ophthalmol ; 31(4): 261-267, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32487813

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: As keratoconus is a chronic disease affecting young people, vision-related quality of life is often significantly impaired in patients with this disease. However, successful management of keratoconus, including visual rehabilitation strategies, can improve quality of life in these patients. This review will describe clinical approaches that improve vision-related quality of life in patients with stable keratoconus. RECENT FINDINGS: Several types of contact lenses including scleral lenses have been used successfully to manage keratoconus. Eyes with severe keratoconus, even those in which fitting with other types of lenses is challenging, can be successfully fitted with scleral lenses. Although laser ablative procedures, such as photorefractive keratectomy (PRK) have been traditionally contraindicated in patients diagnosed with or suspected of having keratoconus, PRK has been attempted to partially correct refractive errors in keratoconus. Although phototherapeutic keratectomy and radial keratotomy have been reported to be used in eyes with keratoconus, effectiveness and safety results have varied. Implantation of phakic intraocular lenses and intraocular lenses, including toric intraocular lenses, which primarily correct regular astigmatism, with cataract extraction or refractive lens exchange can improve vision-related quality of life in patients with keratoconus by significantly reducing cylinder while improving uncorrected visual acuity. SUMMARY: Appropriate selection and application of treatment options based on consideration of multiple factors will help patients with keratoconus, improving their vision-related quality of life and delaying or avoiding keratoplasty.


Assuntos
Ceratocone/terapia , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Transtornos da Visão/reabilitação , Extração de Catarata , Lentes de Contato , Cirurgia da Córnea a Laser , Humanos , Ceratocone/psicologia , Implante de Lente Intraocular , Lentes Intraoculares Fácicas , Transtornos da Visão/psicologia , Acuidade Visual/fisiologia
19.
Rev Assoc Med Bras (1992) ; 66(3): 296-299, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32520148

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of our study is to explore the relationship between physical performance and visual acuity in university students in China. METHODS: tests of standing long jump, 50-meter dash and pull-ups sit-ups were conducted. The visual acuity was measured using a logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution (logMAR) chart. Pearson correlation was used to test the correlation of physical performance with visual acuity in university students. RESULTS: The number of pull-ups was negatively associated with visual acuity in the left eye for male students, while a negative correlation was found between the time of the 50-meter dash and visual acuity in the right eye for female students. CONCLUSIONS: Our study identified that physical exercise might help improve visual acuity. University students should practice strength exercises to improve physical performance.


Assuntos
Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Desempenho Físico Funcional , Acuidade Visual/fisiologia , Adulto , China , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores Sexuais , Estudantes , Universidades , Testes Visuais/métodos , Adulto Jovem
20.
Middle East Afr J Ophthalmol ; 27(1): 28-33, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32549721

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to asses ocular findings' prevalence in children with primary congenital heart disease (CHD). PATIENTS AND METHODS: This is a prospective cross-sectional study of children with CHD treated at a specialized center in the South of Brazil between 2013 and 2015. They underwent a complete ocular examination, including measurement of visual acuity, refraction test, external motility, anterior and posterior biomicroscopy, and binocular indirect fundoscopy with retinal photographs. Two experienced examiners independently assessed fundus findings: one at the time of examination and image capture, while the other assessed only the captured images. RESULTS: Of a total of 146 children examined, 124 were included in this analysis (16% loss). Seventy children were male (55.5%). The average age was 9.3 years (minimum 1 month and maximum 15 years). Caucasians race were 81.2%, African Descendants race were 11.1%, and others were 7.7%. About 57.1% had already had heart surgery. About 14.8% had visual acuity below 0.6 and 2.8% below 0.1. Strabismus was found in 7.4% and cataracts in 1.7%. Retinal alterations were recognized in 13.5%, of which 4.8% were related to vascular narrowing or dilation and/or abnormal arteriovenous crossing; 7.14% were related to increased vascular tortuosity, while 1.6% were related to active toxoplasmic chorioretinitis lesions. Concomitant abnormalities in ocular motility, biomicroscopy, or ophthalmoscopy were detected in 24% of the cases. CONCLUSION: Children under the age of 15 years old with primary CHD have a high prevalence of ocular alterations, with external ocular and retinal manifestations, with higher occurrence rate among cyanotic cases. This leads us to strongly recommend the performance of a complete ophthalmological examination in such cases.


Assuntos
Catarata/etiologia , Cardiopatias Congênitas/complicações , Transtornos da Motilidade Ocular/etiologia , Doenças Retinianas/etiologia , Estrabismo/etiologia , Adolescente , Catarata/diagnóstico , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Fundo de Olho , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Transtornos da Motilidade Ocular/diagnóstico , Oftalmoscopia , Estudos Prospectivos , Refração Ocular/fisiologia , Doenças Retinianas/diagnóstico , Estrabismo/diagnóstico , Acuidade Visual/fisiologia
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