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2.
Bull Entomol Res ; 110(1): 68-76, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31190650

RESUMO

In the Mediterranean and temperate regions, an increase in the frequency and intensity of drought events has been recorded, probably due to climate change. In consequence, trees will more frequently experience hydric stress, a condition that can be expected to affect insect-tree interactions, while adaptation mechanisms may be further in course. The effect of tree water stress on the performance of two allochronic populations of Thaumetopoea pityocampa was here studied. Namely, we compared a unique population of this insect, in which the larvae develop in the summer (SP), with the typical population having winter larval development (WP), to test the adaptation hypothesis to host plant status. Larvae of each population were fed on needles of young potted Pinus pinaster plants under two water supply regimes: (i) well-watered (control) and (ii) subjected to 3 months of drought stress. Compared to control, stressed plants had higher amounts of soluble sugars, phenols, and higher C/N ratio, whereas water content and chlorophylls concentrations were lower. In general, T. pityocampa larvae had lower performances on water-stressed plants, as shown by lower survival rates, lower needle consumption, and longer development times. Yet, the detrimental effects of tree stress were only significant for the WP larvae, while SP larvae were able to overcome such conditions. Results demonstrate that tree water stress can negatively affect T. pityocampa populations. Furthermore, the evidence is also provided that responses to the physiological condition of the host trees may occur at the population level, as a result of adaptation mechanisms driven by climate change.


Assuntos
Adaptação Biológica , Herbivoria , Mariposas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Pinus/fisiologia , Água/fisiologia , Animais , Larva/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Masculino , Pressão Osmótica
3.
Bull Entomol Res ; 110(1): 96-105, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Italiano | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31190656

RESUMO

Diamides have been used worldwide to manage the diamondback moth (DBM), Plutella xylostella L. (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae), however some strains showed resistance to these molecules. Also, pheromone traps could be used to manage this pest, hence reducing the use of insecticides in the field. Resistant DBM strains may have biological disadvantages in comparison to susceptible strains in areas without sprays, including reduction in fitness or behavioral changes. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate whether DBM strains resistant to chlorantraniliprole showed adaptive costs that could alter male attraction to the sex pheromone, in comparison to susceptible strains in the laboratory and semi-field conditions. First, the LC1, LC10, LC25, and LC50 of DBM to chlorantraniliprole were established, which were 0.003, 0.005, 0.007, and 0.011 mg a.i. liter-1, and 5.88, 24.80, 57.22, and 144.87 mg a.i. liter-1 for the susceptible and resistant strains, respectively. Development and reproduction of DBM strains subjected to those concentrations were compared. Later, male response to the sex pheromone was investigated in a Y-tube in the laboratory and in a greenhouse to pheromone traps. Resistant DBM strain showed an adaptive cost in comparison to the susceptible strain that can result in a delay in population growth in the field when selection pressure is absent. Conversely, resistant males have no olfactory response alteration in comparison to susceptible males, consistently at 3 (P = 0.6848) and 7 days (P = 0.9140) after release, suggesting that pheromone traps continue to be a viable alternative to manage DBM in an IPM system.


Assuntos
Adaptação Biológica , Inseticidas , Mariposas/fisiologia , Comportamento Sexual Animal/fisiologia , ortoaminobenzoatos , Animais , Resistência a Inseticidas/fisiologia , Masculino , Atrativos Sexuais , Olfato
4.
BJOG ; 127(2): 129-137, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31325209

RESUMO

The hologenome concept of evolution is discussed, with special emphasis placed upon the microbiome of women. The microbiome is dynamic, changing under different conditions, and differs between women and men. Genetic variation occurs not only in the host, but also in the microbiome by the acquisition of novel microbes, the amplification of specific microbes, and horizontal gene transfer. The majority of unique genes in human holobionts are found in microbiomes, and mothers are responsible for transferring most of these to their offspring during birth, breastfeeding, and physical contact. Thus, mothers are likely to be the primary providers of the majority of genetic information to offspring via mitochondria and the microbiome. TWEETABLE ABSTRACT: Microbiomes differ between women and men. Most genes in humans are in the microbiome. Mothers transfer most of these genes to offspring.


Assuntos
Adaptação Biológica/fisiologia , Adaptação Fisiológica/fisiologia , Transferência Genética Horizontal/genética , Interações entre Hospedeiro e Microrganismos/fisiologia , Microbiota/fisiologia , Mães , Adaptação Biológica/genética , Adaptação Fisiológica/genética , Adulto , Animais , Evolução Biológica , Evolução Molecular , Feminino , Especiação Genética , Variação Genética , Hereditariedade , Humanos , Masculino , Microbiota/genética , Plantas , Gravidez
5.
World J Microbiol Biotechnol ; 35(12): 192, 2019 Nov 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31773365

RESUMO

Corynebacterium glutamicum is generally regarded as a safe microorganism, and widely used in the large-scale production of various amino acids and organic acids, such as L-glutamate, L-lysine and succinic acid. During the process of industrial fermentation, C. glutamicum is usually exposed to varying environmental stresses, such as variations in pH, salinity, temperature, and osmolality. Among them, pH fluctuations are regarded as one of the most frequent environmental stresses in microbial fermentation. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge of pH homeostasis mechanisms adopted by C. glutamicum for coping with low acidic pH and high alkaline pH stresses. Facing with low pH environments, C. glutamicum develops a variety of strategies to maintain intracellular pH homeostasis, such as lowering intracellular reactive oxygen species, the improvement of potassium transport, the regulation of mycothiol-related pathways, as well as the repression of sulfur assimilation. While during alkaline pH stresses, the Mrp-type Na+/H+ antiporters are shown to play a dominant role in conferring C. glutamicum cells resistance to alkaline pH. Furthermore, we also discuss the general strategies and prospects on metabolic engineering of C. glutamicum to improve alkaline or acid resistance.


Assuntos
Corynebacterium glutamicum/metabolismo , Homeostase , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Ácidos/metabolismo , Adaptação Biológica , Álcalis/metabolismo , Carboxiliases/metabolismo , Membrana Celular/metabolismo , Resistência a Medicamentos , Ácido Glutâmico/metabolismo , Lisina/metabolismo , Engenharia Metabólica , Redes e Vias Metabólicas , Prótons , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Estresse Fisiológico , Ácido Succínico/metabolismo , Enxofre/metabolismo
6.
BMC Evol Biol ; 19(1): 201, 2019 11 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31684861

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Experimental evolution of microbes often involves a serial transfer protocol, where microbes are repeatedly diluted by transfer to a fresh medium, starting a new growth cycle. This has revealed that evolution can be remarkably reproducible, where microbes show parallel adaptations both on the level of the phenotype as well as the genotype. However, these studies also reveal a strong potential for divergent evolution, leading to diversity both between and within replicate populations. We here study how in silico evolved Virtual Microbe "wild types" (WTs) adapt to a serial transfer protocol to investigate generic evolutionary adaptations, and how these adaptations can be manifested by a variety of different mechanisms. RESULTS: We show that all WTs evolve to anticipate the regularity of the serial transfer protocol by adopting a fine-tuned balance of growth and survival. This anticipation is done by evolving either a high yield mode, or a high growth rate mode. We find that both modes of anticipation can be achieved by individual lineages and by collectives of microbes. Moreover, these different outcomes can be achieved with or without regulation, although the individual-based anticipation without regulation is less well adapted in the high growth rate mode. CONCLUSIONS: All our in silico WTs evolve to trust the hand that feeds by evolving to anticipate the periodicity of a serial transfer protocol, but can do so by evolving two distinct growth strategies. Furthermore, both these growth strategies can be accomplished by gene regulation, a variety of different polymorphisms, and combinations thereof. Our work reveals that, even under controlled conditions like those in the lab, it may not be possible to predict individual evolutionary trajectories, but repeated experiments may well result in only a limited number of possible outcomes.


Assuntos
Bactérias/genética , Simulação por Computador , Modelos Biológicos , Adaptação Biológica , Bactérias/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Evolução Molecular , Genótipo , Fenótipo
7.
Dev Genes Evol ; 229(5-6): 197-206, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31734771

RESUMO

The Chinese giant salamander Andrias davidianus is regarded as an ideal model for studying local adaptations, such as longevity, tolerance to starvation, and cutaneous respiration. Transcriptome analysis is useful for studying the large and complex genomes of amphibians. Based on the coding gene set of adult A. davidianus, dozens of A. davidianus-specific genes were identified and three signaling pathway (JAK-STAT, HIF-1, and FoxO) genes were expanded as compared with other amphibians. The results of the pathway analysis of A. davidianus-specific genes indicated that the molecular adaptation of A. davidianus may have required a more rapid evolution of the immune system. Additionally, for the first time, the gene expressions in different parts of the skin tissue were compared. The results of the comparison analysis demonstrated that lateral skin could be more focused on mucus secretion, dorsal skin on immunity and melanogenesis, and abdominal skin on water and salt metabolism. This study provides the first insight into studying longevity and starvation tolerance in A. davidianus, and offers a basis for further investigation of the molecular mechanisms of adaptations in amphibians.


Assuntos
Urodelos/genética , Urodelos/fisiologia , Adaptação Biológica , Animais , Evolução Biológica , China , Longevidade , Especificidade de Órgãos , Pele/metabolismo
8.
Genome Biol Evol ; 11(11): 3283-3290, 2019 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31688900

RESUMO

Population bottlenecks leading to a drastic reduction of the population size are common in the evolutionary dynamics of natural populations; their occurrence is known to have implications for genome evolution due to genetic drift, the consequent reduction in genetic diversity, and the rate of adaptation. Nevertheless, an empirical characterization of the effect of population bottleneck size on evolutionary dynamics of bacteria is currently lacking. In this study, we show that selective conditions have a stronger effect on the evolutionary history of bacteria in comparison to population bottlenecks. We evolved Escherichia coli populations under three different population bottleneck sizes (small, medium, and large) in two temperature regimes (37 °C and 20 °C). We find a high genetic diversity in the large in comparison to the small bottleneck size. Nonetheless, the cold temperature led to reduced genetic diversity regardless the bottleneck size; hence, the temperature has a stronger effect on the genetic diversity in comparison to the bottleneck size. A comparison of the fitness gain among the evolved populations reveals a similar pattern where the temperature has a significant effect on the fitness. Our study demonstrates that population bottlenecks are an important determinant of bacterial evolvability; their consequences depend on the selective conditions and are best understood via their effect on the standing genetic variation.


Assuntos
Escherichia coli/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Escherichia coli/genética , Deriva Genética , Adaptação Biológica , Evolução Biológica , Escherichia coli/fisiologia , Aptidão Genética , Variação Genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Seleção Genética , Temperatura Ambiente
9.
Stud Hist Philos Biol Biomed Sci ; 78: 101224, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31615737

RESUMO

A nonmathematical exposition of the current status of the formal darwinism project is presented, linking it to the fundamental theorem of natural selection, which is regarded as Fisher's own 'formal darwinism project'. The purpose is to found organism-level thinking about design and adaptation, in short Darwinism, on what is known about the mechanics of genetic inheritance, in short Mendelism, and the project is to do so in as general a biological setting as possible. This view also makes sense of the name 'fundamental theorem of natural selection'.


Assuntos
Adaptação Biológica , Evolução Biológica , Hereditariedade , Modelos Biológicos , Seleção Genética , Modelos Genéticos , Filosofia
10.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 145: 278-286, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31590788

RESUMO

Microplastics have emerged as new pollutants in oceans. Nevertheless, information of the long-term variations in the composition of plastic-associated microbial communities in coastal waters remains limited. This study applied high-throughput sequencing to investigate the successional stages of microbial communities attached to polypropylene and polyvinyl chloride microplastics exposed for one year in the coastal seawater of China. The composition of plastisphere microbial communities varied remarkably across geographical locations and exposure times. The dominant bacteria in the plastisphere were affiliated with the Alphaproteobacteria class, particularly Rhodobacteraceae, followed by the Gammaproteobacteria class. Scanning electron microscopy analysis revealed that the microplastics showed signs of degradation. Microbial communities showed adaptations to plastisphere including more diverse microbial community and greater "xenobiotics biodegradation and metabolism" in metabolic pathway analysis. The findings elucidate the long-term changes in the community composition of microorganisms that colonize microplastics and expand the understanding of plastisphere microbial communities present in the marine environment.


Assuntos
Microbiota/fisiologia , Plásticos , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Adaptação Biológica , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Biodegradação Ambiental , China , Polipropilenos , Cloreto de Polivinila , Água do Mar/microbiologia , Análise Espaço-Temporal , Microbiologia da Água
11.
Int J Oral Sci ; 11(3): 29, 2019 10 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31578319

RESUMO

Cas1-and-Cas2-mediated new spacer acquisition is an essential process for bacterial adaptive immunity. The process is critical for the ecology of the oral microflora and oral health. Although molecular mechanisms for spacer acquisition are known, it has never been established if this process is associated with the morphological changes of bacteria. In this study, we demonstrated a novel Cas2-induced filamentation phenotype in E. coli that was regulated by co-expression of the Cas1 protein. A 30 amino acid motif at the carboxyl terminus of Cas2 is necessary for this function. By imaging analysis, we provided evidence to argue that Cas-induced filamentation is a step coupled with new spacer acquisition during which filaments are characterised by polyploidy with asymmetric cell division. This work may open new opportunities to investigate the adaptive immune response and microbial balance for oral health.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Sistemas CRISPR-Cas/genética , Sistemas CRISPR-Cas/imunologia , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Escherichia coli/imunologia , Saúde Bucal , Adaptação Biológica/genética , Imunidade Adaptativa , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Sistemas CRISPR-Cas/fisiologia , Endonucleases , Escherichia coli/genética , Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Proteínas de Escherichia coli , Humanos , Imunidade/genética
12.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1200: 71-89, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31471795

RESUMO

The ability to adapt to changing environmental conditions is critical for any species to survive. Many environmental changes occur too rapidly for an organism's genome to adapt in time. Accordingly, being able to modify either its own phenotype, or the phenotype of its offspring to better suit future anticipated environmental conditions could afford an organism a significant advantage. However, a range of animal models and human epidemiological data sets are now showing that environmental factors such as changes in the quality or quantity of an individual's diet, temperature, stress or exposure to pollutants can all adversely affect the quality of parental gametes, the development of the preimplantation embryo and the health and wellbeing of offspring over multiple generations. This chapter will examine transgenerational effects of both maternal and paternal environmental factors on offspring development and wellbeing in both human and animal model studies. Changes in the epigenetic status of either parental or grand-parental gametes provide one candidate mechanism through which the impacts of environmental experience can be passed from one generation to another. This chapter will therefore also focus on the impact of parental and grand-parental diet on epigenetic transgenerational inheritance and offspring phenotype.


Assuntos
Adaptação Biológica/genética , Dieta , Meio Ambiente , Epigênese Genética , Animais , Humanos , Modelos Animais , Fenótipo
13.
Evol Anthropol ; 28(5): 249-266, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31498945

RESUMO

Adverse ecological and social conditions during early life are known to influence development, with rippling effects that may explain variation in adult health and fitness. The adaptive function of such developmental plasticity, however, remains relatively untested in long-lived animals, resulting in much debate over which evolutionary models are most applicable. Furthermore, despite the promise of clinical interventions that might alleviate the health consequences of early-life adversity, research on the proximate mechanisms governing phenotypic responses to adversity have been largely limited to studies on glucocorticoids. Here, we synthesize the current state of research on developmental plasticity, discussing both ultimate and proximate mechanisms. First, we evaluate the utility of adaptive models proposed to explain developmental responses to early-life adversity, particularly for long-lived mammals such as humans. In doing so, we highlight how parent-offspring conflict complicates our understanding of whether mothers or offspring benefit from these responses. Second, we discuss the role of glucocorticoids and a second physiological system-the gut microbiome-that has emerged as an additional, clinically relevant mechanism by which early-life adversity can influence development. Finally, we suggest ways in which nonhuman primates can serve as models to study the effects of early-life adversity, both from evolutionary and clinical perspectives.


Assuntos
Adaptação Biológica , Evolução Biológica , Crescimento e Desenvolvimento , Modelos Biológicos , Animais , Antropologia Física , Aves , Feminino , Glucocorticoides , Humanos , Masculino , Mamíferos , Saúde Materna , Microbiota , Estresse Fisiológico
14.
BMC Plant Biol ; 19(1): 375, 2019 Aug 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31455268

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Gynodioecy, a sexual system with hermaphrodite and female individuals in a population, raises the question how the two sexual morphs are maintained. Salvia pratensis is a gynodioecious species featured by its modified stamens that act as a lever mechanism in pollination. Given sexual dimorphism in floral traits of the species, it is predictable that two sexual morphs differ in their interplay with pollinators and thus in their fitness. In this study, we investigated sex-specific reproduction success and floral adaptation in a population of S. pratensis. RESULTS: We found that two sexual morphs in S. pratensis distinctly differed in their floral proportions. Female flowers fitted better to the pollinators than hermaphrodites in terms of touching the stigmas when being probed, and hence were more efficient in pollen deposition. Floral traits overall underwent stronger selection in the population, with stigma position and corolla length subject to disruptive selection mediated by different body-sized bumble bees; some selections on floral traits were significantly different in the strength, even opposite in the direction between two morphs. Flower production tended to be under correlational selection with floral structural traits, implying that a large plant with many flowers did not show an advantage in fitness unless its flower construction mechanically matched the pollinators well. CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, the pollinator-mediated selection likely played an important role in the evolution and maintenance of sexual dimorphism in the gynodioecious S. pratensis; and sex-divergent mechanical interaction with pollinators served as a critical mechanism by which female individuals were maintained in the population with a female advantage in pollen deposition efficiency (i.e. receiving pollen).


Assuntos
Adaptação Biológica , Flores/genética , Salvia/fisiologia , Seleção Genética/fisiologia , Flores/fisiologia , Reprodução , Salvia/genética
15.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(16)2019 Aug 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31412539

RESUMO

Sesame is a source of a healthy vegetable oil, attracting a growing interest worldwide. Abiotic stresses have devastating effects on sesame yield; hence, studies have been performed to understand sesame molecular responses to abiotic stresses, but the core abiotic stress-responsive genes (CARG) that the plant reuses in response to an array of environmental stresses are unknown. We performed a meta-analysis of 72 RNA-Seq datasets from drought, waterlogging, salt and osmotic stresses and identified 543 genes constantly and differentially expressed in response to all stresses, representing the sesame CARG. Weighted gene co-expression network analysis of the CARG revealed three functional modules controlled by key transcription factors. Except for salt stress, the modules were positively correlated with the abiotic stresses. Network topology of the modules showed several hub genes predicted to play prominent functions. As proof of concept, we generated over-expressing Arabidopsis lines with hub and non-hub genes. Transgenic plants performed better under drought, waterlogging, and osmotic stresses than the wild-type plants but did not tolerate the salt treatment. As expected, the hub gene was significantly more potent than the non-hub gene. Overall, we discovered several novel candidate genes, which will fuel investigations on plant responses to multiple abiotic stresses.


Assuntos
Adaptação Biológica/genética , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Sesamum/genética , Estresse Fisiológico/genética , Transcriptoma , Biologia Computacional/métodos , Redes Reguladoras de Genes , Modelos Biológicos
16.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(17)2019 Aug 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31443572

RESUMO

In this work, the effect of drought on K+ uptake in root and its translocation from root to shoot was investigated using six barley genotypes contrasting in drought tolerance. Results showed that drought conditions caused significant changes in K+ uptake and translocation in a time- and genotype-specific manner, which consequently resulted in a significant difference in tissue K+ contents and drought tolerance levels between the contrasting barley genotypes. The role of K+ transporters and channels and plasma membrane (PM) H+-ATPase in barley's adaptive response to drought stress was further investigated at the transcript level. The expression of genes conferring K+ uptake (HvHAK1, HvHAK5, HvKUP1, HvKUP2 and HvAKT1) and xylem loading (HvSKOR) in roots were all affected by drought stress in a time- and genotype-specific manner, indicating that the regulation of these K+ transporters and channels is critical for root K+ uptake and root to shoot K+ translocation in barley under drought stress. Furthermore, the barley genotypes showed a strong correlation between H+ efflux and K+ influx under drought stress, which was further confirmed by the significant up-regulation of HvHA1 and HvHA2. These results suggested an important role of plasma membrane H+-ATPase activity and/or expression in regulating the activity of K+ transporters and channels under drought stress. Taken together, it may be concluded that the genotypic difference in drought stress tolerance in barley is conferred by the difference in the ability to regulate K+ transporters and channels in root epidermis and stele.


Assuntos
Adaptação Biológica , Membrana Celular/metabolismo , Secas , Hordeum/fisiologia , Raízes de Plantas/genética , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Potássio/metabolismo , Estresse Fisiológico , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Genótipo , Transporte de Íons , Concentração Osmolar , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , ATPases Translocadoras de Prótons/genética
17.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(15)2019 Jul 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31362376

RESUMO

The aquaporins (AQPs) are a family of integral membrane proteins involved in the transcellular membrane transport of water and other small molecules. A scan of the apple (Malus domestica) genome revealed the presence of 42 genes encoding putative AQPs. Based on a phylogenetic analysis of the deduced peptide sequences of the AQPs generated by Arabidopsis thaliana, poplar (Populus trichocarpa), and rubber (Hevea brasiliensis), the apple AQPs were each assigned membership of the five established AQP subfamilies, namely the PIPs (eleven members), the TIPs (thirteen members), the NIPs (eleven members), the SIPs (five members), and the XIPs (two members). The apple AQPs included asparagine-proline-alanine (NPA) motifs, an aromatic/arginine (ar/R) selectivity filter, and the Froger's positions. The heterologous expression of MpPIP2;1 in A. thaliana was shown to enhance the level of tolerance exhibited against both drought and salinity.


Assuntos
Adaptação Biológica/genética , Aquaporinas/genética , Arabidopsis/fisiologia , Secas , Expressão Ectópica do Gene , Malus/genética , Família Multigênica , Tolerância ao Sal/genética , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Sequência Conservada , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Genes de Plantas , Genoma de Planta , Malus/classificação , Filogenia
18.
Stud Hist Philos Biol Biomed Sci ; 76: 101185, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31324581

RESUMO

There is a 'Neo-Paleyan' tradition in British evolutionary theorising, which began with Darwin and continues to the present day. This tradition conceives of adaptation in terms of design, and it often puts natural selection in the role of an ersatz designer. There are significant disanalogies between Paleyan conceptions of design and modern conceptions of adaptation and selection, which help to explain why the neo-Paleyan programme is sometimes treated with hostility. These general disanalogies do not suffice to dismiss the most interesting forms of recent neo-Paleyanism, which draw on theoretical principles such as Fisher's Fundamental Theorem to ground a general approach to what we can call (following Grafen) the 'criterion' of evolutionary design. It is important to distinguish between justifications of this 'criterion' and justifications of approaches to nature which presuppose that natural selection produces good designs.


Assuntos
Adaptação Biológica , Evolução Biológica , Biologia/métodos , Seleção Genética
19.
Gene ; 714: 143984, 2019 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31330237

RESUMO

Intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs) are highly abundant in eukaryotic proteomes and involved in key biological and cellular processes. Although some resources of disordered protein predictions are available from animal and plant proteomes, those related to cereals are largely unknown. Here, we present an overview of IDPomes from Oryza sativa, Zea mays, Sorghum bicolor and Brachypodium distachyon. The work includes a comparative analysis with the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. The data show that the intrinsic disorder content increases with the proteome size. Gene Ontology analysis reveals that IDPs in the studied species are involved mainly in regulation of cellular and metabolic processes and responses to stimulus. Our findings strongly suggest that higher plants may use common cellular and regulatory mechanisms for adaptation to various environmental constraints.


Assuntos
Grão Comestível/genética , Proteínas Intrinsicamente Desordenadas/genética , Adaptação Biológica/genética , Arabidopsis/genética , Brachypodium/genética , Ontologia Genética , Genômica/métodos , Oryza/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteoma/genética , Sorghum/genética , Zea mays/genética
20.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(15)2019 Jul 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31349586

RESUMO

Uridine diphosphate (UDP)-glycosyltransferases (UGTs) are major phase II detoxification enzymes involved in glycosylation of lipophilic endobiotics and xenobiotics, including phytoalexins. Nicotine, one of the most abundant secondary plant metabolites in tobacco, is highly toxic to herbivorous insects. Plant-herbivore competition is the major impetus for the evolution of large superfamilies of UGTs and other detoxification enzymes. However, UGT functions in green peach aphid (Myzus persicae) adaptation are unknown. In this study, we show that UGT inhibitors (sulfinpyrazone and 5-nitrouracil) significantly increased nicotine toxicity in M. persicae nicotianae, suggesting that UGTs may be involved in nicotine tolerance. In total, 101 UGT transcripts identified in the M. persicae genome/transcriptome were renamed according to the UGT Nomenclature Committee guidelines and grouped into 11 families, UGT329, UGT330, UGT339, UGT341-UGT345, and UGT348-UGT350, with UGT344 containing the most (57). Ten UGTs (UGT330A3, UGT339A2, UGT341A6, UGT342B3, UGT343C3, UGT344D5, UGT344D8, UGT348A3, UGT349A3, and UGT350A3) were highly expressed in M. persicae nicotianae compared to M. persicae sensu stricto. Knockdown of four UGTs (UGT330A3, UGT344D5, UGT348A3, and UGT349A3) significantly increased M. persicae nicotianae sensitivity to nicotine, suggesting that UGT expression in this subspecies may be associated with nicotine tolerance and thus host adaptation. This study reveals possible UGTs relevant to nicotine adaptation in tobacco-consuming M. persicae nicotianae, and the findings will facilitate further validation of the roles of these UGTs in nicotine tolerance.


Assuntos
Adaptação Biológica , Afídeos/fisiologia , Glucuronosiltransferase/metabolismo , Nicotina/metabolismo , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Afídeos/classificação , Afídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Sequência Conservada , Resistência a Medicamentos/genética , Expressão Gênica , Técnicas de Silenciamento de Genes , Glucuronosiltransferase/antagonistas & inibidores , Glucuronosiltransferase/química , Glucuronosiltransferase/genética , Família Multigênica , Nicotina/farmacologia , Filogenia , Domínios Proteicos
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