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1.
Mar Environ Res ; 160: 105048, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32907741

RESUMO

The thermal response of the amphipod Sunamphitoe parmerong was contrasted between unacclimated 'wild' and acclimated populations. Brooding females were allocated to 17 °C or 23 °C treatments and their progeny developed to adulthood at the same temperature. Tolerance to acute thermal challenge (26-36 °C) was determined. The 17 °C and 23 °C acclimated S. parmerong had a 0.45 and 0.64 risk of death compared to the unacclimated individuals. The upper lethal temperature (LT50) was 27.4 °C for the unacclimated group and 29.6 °C and 30.4 °C for the 17 °C and 23 °C acclimated groups, respectively. Acclimation shifted their LT50 by 2.2 °C and 3 °C, respectively. The wild population exhibited high variability in thermal tolerance, potentially due to their environmental history and greater diversity of genotypes. After acclimation S. parmerong had decreased variability in thermal tolerance and that of the 23 °C group shifted by 1 °C compared with the 17 °C group. These results indicate developmental phenotypic plasticity or differential survival of resilient progeny as potential mechanisms to facilitate persistence in a warming ocean.


Assuntos
Aclimatação , Adaptação Fisiológica , Anfípodes , Aquecimento Global , Anfípodes/fisiologia , Animais , Feminino , Temperatura
2.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4408, 2020 09 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32879311

RESUMO

Understanding extreme weather impacts on staple crops such as wheat is vital for creating adaptation strategies and increasing food security, especially in dryland cropping systems across Southern Africa. This study analyses heat impacts on wheat using daily weather information and a dryland wheat dataset for 71 cultivars across 17 locations in South Africa from 1998 to 2014. We estimate temperature impacts on yields in extensive regression models, finding that extreme heat drives wheat yield losses, with an additional 24 h of exposure to temperatures above 30 °C associated with a 12.5% yield reduction. Results from a uniform warming scenario of +1 °C show an average wheat yield reduction of 8.5%, which increases to 18.4% and 28.5% under +2 and +3 °C scenarios. We also find evidence of differences in heat effects across cultivars, which suggests warming impacts may be reduced through the sharing of gene pools amongst wheat breeding programs.


Assuntos
Adaptação Fisiológica , Produtos Agrícolas , Triticum , Cruzamento/métodos , Mudança Climática , Produtos Agrícolas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Produtos Agrícolas/fisiologia , Genótipo , Aquecimento Global , Temperatura Alta , África do Sul , Triticum/genética , Triticum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Triticum/fisiologia
3.
J Cardiovasc Magn Reson ; 22(1): 62, 2020 09 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32878630

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Intensive endurance exercise may induce a broad spectrum of right ventricular (RV) adaptation/remodelling patterns. Late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) has also been described in cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) of some endurance athletes and its clinical meaning remains controversial. Our aim was to characterize the features of contrast CMR and the observed patterns of the LGE distribution in a cohort of highly trained endurance athletes. METHODS: Ninety-three highly trained endurance athletes (> 12 h training/week at least during the last 5 years; 36 ± 6 years old; 53% male) and 72 age and gender-matched controls underwent a resting contrast CMR. In a subgroup of 28 athletes, T1 mapping was also performed. RESULTS: High endurance training load was associated with larger bi-ventricular and bi-atrial sizes and a slight reduction of biventricular ejection fraction, as compared to controls in both genders (p < 0.05). Focal LGE was significantly more prevalent in athletes than in healthy subjects (37.6% vs 2.8%; p < 0.001), with a typical pattern in the RV insertion points. In T1 mapping, those athletes who had focal LGE had higher extracellular volume (ECV) at the remote myocardium than those without (27 ± 2.2% vs 25.2 ± 2.1%; p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Highly trained endurance athletes showed a ten-fold increase in the prevalence of focal LGE as compared to control subjects, always confined to the hinge points. Additionally, those athletes with focal LGE demonstrated globally higher myocardial ECV values. This matrix remodelling and potential presence of myocardial fibrosis may be another feature of the athlete's heart, of which the clinical and prognostic significance remains to be determined.


Assuntos
Atletas , Cardiomegalia Induzida por Exercícios , Meios de Contraste/administração & dosagem , Coração/diagnóstico por imagem , Imagem Cinética por Ressonância Magnética , Compostos Organometálicos/administração & dosagem , Resistência Física , Função Ventricular Direita , Remodelação Ventricular , Adaptação Fisiológica , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Fibrose , Coração/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Miocárdio/patologia , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Volume Sistólico , Função Ventricular Esquerda , Adulto Jovem
4.
Sci Total Environ ; 741: 140459, 2020 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32887020

RESUMO

Climatic extreme events such as droughts (unpredictable), dry periods (predictable) or even flush floods, threaten freshwater ecosystems worldwide. The filtering mechanisms of these events and their strength on communities, however, can be different among regions. While time-for-adaptation theory defines whether or not water scarcity can be considered as disturbance, the stress-dominance theory predicts an increase in importance of environmental filtering and a decrease in the role of biotic interactions in communities with increasing environmental stress. Here, we tested whether environmental filtering (leading to trait convergence) or limiting similarity (leading to trait divergence) is the main assembly rule shaping the structure and trait composition of benthic diatom assemblages in Mediterranean (Portuguese) and continental (Hungarian) temporary and perennial streams. We assumed that the trait composition of diatom assemblages in the two stream types would be less different in the Mediterranean than in the continental region (addressed to time-for-adaptation theory). We also hypothesized that trait composition would be shaped by environmental filtering in the Hungarian streams while by biotic interactions in Portuguese streams (addressed to stress-dominance theory). Our results supported our first hypothesis since traits, which associated primarily to temporary streams were found only in the continental region. Our findings, however, only partially proved the stress-dominance hypothesis. In the continental region, where drying up of streams were induced by unpredictable droughts, biotic interactions were the main assembly rules shaping community structure. In contrast, environmental filtering was nearly as important as limiting similarity in structuring trait composition in the Mediterranean region during the predictable dry phase with no superficial flow. These analyses also highlighted that drought events (both predictable and unpredictable ones) have a complex and strong influence on benthic diatom assemblages resulting even in irreversible changes in trait composition and thereby in ecosystem functioning.


Assuntos
Diatomáceas , Adaptação Fisiológica , Ecossistema , Água Doce , Região do Mediterrâneo
6.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 204: 111005, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32738624

RESUMO

Freezing temperatures is an important stressor in the arctic regions and has a significant influence on the population dynamics and geographic distribution of terrestrial invertebrates. Toxic metals in the environment can interfere with protective cold-acclimation responses of organisms. It is therefore important to evaluate the combined effects of cold stress and environmental contaminants. Here, we aimed to investigate the effects of Hg (HgCl2) on various physiological aspects of freeze-tolerance in the earthworm (Enchytraeus albidus). We measured the levels of the cryoprotectant glucose, the glycogen content (source of glucose molecules for cryoprotection and fuel for metabolism), and changes in the composition of membrane phospholipid fatty acids (PLFA) as an indicator of lipid peroxidation. Freezing at -6 °C had no effect on survival in uncontaminated soil, however, survival of freezing in Hg contaminated soil was clearly reduced, especially at extended exposure times. Thus, the LC50 value in frozen soil decreased from 8.3 mg Hg kg-1 (when exposed for 17 days) to only 4.2 mg Hg kg-1 after 36 days' exposure indicating that combined effects of Hg and freezing became larger at prolonged exposure times. Hg caused a depletion of glycogen reserves (almost 50% at 12 mg kg-1 dry soil), but despite this effect worms were able to maintain a constant cryoprotectant level (about 0.12 mg glucose mg-1 dry weight) at all Hg concentrations. Hg had clear negative effects on the proportion of unsaturated PLFAs, which could be an indication of lipid peroxidation. Since a high proportion of unsaturated fatty acids in the membrane is important for invertebrate freeze-tolerance, our results suggest that the negative effect of Hg on freeze-tolerance in E. albidus is related to degraded membrane functionality at low temperature.


Assuntos
Adaptação Fisiológica/efeitos dos fármacos , Congelamento , Cloreto de Mercúrio/efeitos adversos , Oligoquetos/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Crioprotetores/farmacologia , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Glucose/farmacologia , Glicogênio/metabolismo , Peroxidação de Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Mercúrio/efeitos adversos
7.
Am J Hum Genet ; 107(3): 473-486, 2020 09 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32781046

RESUMO

Africa contains more human genetic variation than any other continent, but the majority of the population-scale analyses of the African peoples have focused on just two of the four major linguistic groups, the Niger-Congo and Afro-Asiatic, leaving the Nilo-Saharan and Khoisan populations under-represented. In order to assess genetic variation and signatures of selection within a Nilo-Saharan population and between the Nilo-Saharan and Niger-Congo and Afro-Asiatic, we sequenced 50 genomes from the Nilo-Saharan Lugbara population of North-West Uganda and 250 genomes from 6 previously unsequenced Niger-Congo populations. We compared these data to data from a further 16 Eurasian and African populations including the Gumuz, another putative Nilo-Saharan population from Ethiopia. Of the 21 million variants identified in the Nilo-Saharan population, 3.57 million (17%) were not represented in dbSNP and included predicted non-synonymous mutations with possible phenotypic effects. We found greater genetic differentiation between the Nilo-Saharan Lugbara and Gumuz populations than between any two Afro-Asiatic or Niger-Congo populations. F3 tests showed that Gumuz contributed a genetic component to most Niger-Congo B populations whereas Lugabara did not. We scanned the genomes of the Lugbara for evidence of selective sweeps. We found selective sweeps at four loci (SLC24A5, SNX13, TYRP1, and UVRAG) associated with skin pigmentation, three of which already have been reported to be under selection. These selective sweeps point toward adaptations to the intense UV radiation of the Sahel.


Assuntos
Adaptação Fisiológica/genética , Variação Genética/genética , Seleção Genética/genética , Pigmentação da Pele/genética , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano/genética , Antiporters/genética , Gerenciamento de Dados , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Genética Populacional , Genoma Humano/genética , Haplótipos/genética , Humanos , Masculino , Glicoproteínas de Membrana/genética , Oxirredutases/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Nexinas de Classificação/genética , Proteínas Supressoras de Tumor/genética , Uganda/epidemiologia
9.
Wiad Lek ; 73(4): 679-683, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32731696

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim: To determine the dynamics of adaptation resources and the level of psychological safety of the personality in service members of the National Guard of Ukraine who participated in combat operations in the East of Ukraine. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Materials and methods: To determine the peculiarities of military personnel adaptation to the combat activity, the "Adaptability-200" and "Disdaptability-45" methodologies were used. To determine the level of psychological safety of combatants we used "Diagnosis of psychological safety personality" and "Express diagnosis of psychological safety personality" Methodologies. The study was carried out during 2017, with 163 military participating. RESULTS: Results: Being 2-3 weeks in combat conditions, 54% service members revealed high, 32% - average level of adaptability, and in 14% of them signs of non-adaptability were detected. The data of adaptation resources of combatants correlates with the results of diagnostics of psychological safety of personality: in 43% of them high level, 42% - average and 15% - low level of psychological safety were revealed. CONCLUSION: Conclusions: The data obtained in the absolute majority of service members (86%) shows a good adaptability to combat conditions, and allows predicting adequate response to extreme conditions, high probability of preserving of the mental health and disability after the influence of vital factors.


Assuntos
Militares , Adaptação Fisiológica , Humanos , Saúde Mental , Personalidade , Ucrânia
10.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237636, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32813715

RESUMO

We report the discovery of two very early, basal-amniote fossil trackways on the same bedding plane in eolian sandstone of the Pennsylvanian Manakacha Formation in Grand Canyon, Arizona. Trackway 1, which is Chelichnus-like, we interpret to be a shallow undertrackway. It displays a distinctive, sideways-drifting, footprint pattern not previously documented in a tetrapod trackway. We interpret this pattern to record the trackmaker employing a lateral-sequence gait while diagonally ascending a slope of about 20°, thereby reducing the steepness of the ascent. Trackway 2 consists only of aligned sets of claw marks. We interpret this trackway to be a deeper undertrackway, made some hours or days later, possibly by an animal that was conspecific with Trackmaker 1, while walking directly up the slope at a speed of approximately 0.1 m/sec. These trackways are the first tetrapod tracks reported from the Manakacha Formation and the oldest in the Grand Canyon region. The narrow width of both trackways indicates that both trackmakers had relatively small femoral abduction angles and correspondingly relatively erect postures. They represent the earliest known occurrence of dunefield-dwelling amniotes-either basal reptiles or basal synapsids-thereby extending the known utilization of the desert biome by amniotes, as well as the presence of the Chelichnus ichnofacies, by at least eight million years, into the Atokan/Moscovian Age of the Pennsylvanian Epoch. The depositional setting was a coastal-plain, eolian dunefield in which tidal or wadi flooding episodically interrupted eolian processes and buried the dunes in mud.


Assuntos
Adaptação Fisiológica , Marcha/fisiologia , Paleontologia/métodos , Vertebrados/fisiologia , Caminhada , Animais , Arizona , Meio Ambiente , Fósseis , Locomoção , Modelos Biológicos , Vertebrados/classificação
11.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237594, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32817631

RESUMO

Traits of chemically-defended animals can change as an individual grows and matures, and both theoretical and empirical evidence favour a direction of change from crypsis to aposematism. This study examines the suite of traits involved in an unusual opposite shift from aposematism to crypsis in a neotropical toxic-plant-feeding Romaleid grasshopper, Chromacris psittacus (Gerstaecker, 1873). Field surveys, behavioural observations and a rearing experiment compare host plant choice, aggregation, locomotion and thermoregulation between life history stages. Results showed that both nymphs and adults fed exclusively on a narrow range of Solanaceae plants, suggesting that the shift in defensive syndrome is not due to a change in chemical defense. Instead, nymphal aposematism appears linked to aggregation in response to plant-based selection pressures. Slow nymphal development suggests a cost to feeding on toxic plant compounds, and grouping could mitigate this cost. Grouping also increases conspicuousness, and hence can favour warning colourating in chemically-defended insects. The role of diet breadth in aposematism is poorly understood, and these results suggest how constraints imposed by feeding on toxic plants can generate bottom-up selection pressures shaping the adaptive suites of traits of chemically-defended animals.


Assuntos
Adaptação Fisiológica , Evolução Biológica , Mimetismo Biológico , Comportamento Alimentar , Gafanhotos/fisiologia , Solanaceae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Animais , Comportamento Animal , Modelos Biológicos , Comportamento Predatório
12.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 3925, 2020 08 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32764538

RESUMO

Adaptation is a ubiquitous property of sensory systems. It is typically considered that neurons adapt to dominant energy in the ambient environment to function optimally. However, perceptual representation of the stimulus, often modulated by feedback signals, sometimes do not correspond to the input state of the stimulus, which tends to be more linked with feedforward signals. Here we investigated the relative contributions to cortical adaptation from feedforward and feedback signals, taking advantage of a visual illusion, the Flash-Grab Effect, to disassociate the feedforward and feedback representation of an adaptor. Results reveal that orientation adaptation is exclusively dependent on the perceived rather than the retinal orientation of the adaptor. Combined fMRI and EEG measurements demonstrate that the perceived orientation of the Flash-Grab Effect is indeed supported by feedback signals in the cortex. These findings highlight the important contribution of feedback signals for cortical neurons to recalibrate their sensitivity.


Assuntos
Adaptação Fisiológica , Ilusões/fisiologia , Orientação Espacial/fisiologia , Adulto , Eletroencefalografia , Potenciais Evocados Visuais , Retroalimentação Fisiológica , Feminino , Neuroimagem Funcional , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Ilusões Ópticas/fisiologia , Estimulação Luminosa , Psicofísica , Retina/fisiologia , Córtex Visual/fisiologia , Percepção Visual/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
13.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0236702, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32735602

RESUMO

When humans are administered continuous and predictable perturbations of stance, an adaptation period precedes the steady state of balancing behaviour. Little information is available on the modulation of adaptation by vision and perturbation frequency. Moreover, performance of supra-postural tasks may modulate adaptation in as yet unidentified ways. Our purpose was to identify differences in adaptation associated to distinct visual tasks and perturbation frequencies. Twenty non-disabled adult volunteers stood on a platform translating 10 cm in antero-posterior (AP) direction at low (LF, 0.18 Hz) and high frequency (HF, 0.56 Hz) with eyes open (EO) and closed (EC). Additional conditions were reading a text fixed to platform (EO-TP) and reading a text stationary on ground (EO-TG). Peak-to-peak (PP) displacement amplitude and AP position of head and pelvis markers were computed for each of 27 continuous perturbation cycles. The time constant and extent of head and pelvis adaptation and the cross-correlation coefficients between head and pelvis were compared across visual conditions and frequencies. Head and pelvis mean positions in space varied little across conditions and perturbation cycles but the mean head PP displacements changed over time. On average, at LF, the PP displacement of the head and pelvis increased progressively. Adaptation was rapid or ineffective with EO, but slower with EO-TG, EO-TP, EC. At HF, the head PP displacement amplitude decreased progressively with fast adaptation rates, while the pelvis adaptation was not apparent. The results show that visual tasks can modulate the adaptation rate, highlight the effect of the perturbation frequency on adaptation and provide evidence of priority assigned to pelvis stabilization over visual tasks at HF. The effects of perturbation frequency and optic flow and their interaction with other sensory inputs and cognitive tasks on the adaptation strategies should be investigated in impaired individuals and considered in the design of rehabilitation protocols.


Assuntos
Adaptação Fisiológica/fisiologia , Equilíbrio Postural/fisiologia , Percepção Visual/fisiologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pelve/fisiologia
14.
Oecologia ; 193(4): 867-877, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32809053

RESUMO

Bryophytes are a diverse plant group and are functionally different from vascular plants. Yet, their peculiarities are rarely considered in the theoretical frameworks for plants. Currently, we lack information about the magnitude and the importance of intraspecific variability in the ecophysiology of bryophytes and how these might translate to local adaptation-a prerequisite for adaptive evolution. Capitalizing on two ecologically distinct (hummock and hollow) phenotypes of Sphagnum magellanicum, we explored the magnitude and pattern of intraspecific variability in this species and asked whether the environmental-mediated changes in shoot and physiological traits are due to phenotypic plasticity or local adaptation. Size, pigmentation, and habitat type that distinguished the phenotypes in the field did not influence the trait responses under a transplant and factorial experiment. In addition, the magnitude and pattern of trait variability (e.g., branch, stem and capitulum mass) changed with the treatments, which suggest that trait responses were due largely to phenotypic plasticity. The trait responses also suggest that the ecophysiological needs for mosses to grow in clumps, where they maintain a uniform growth may have an overriding effect over the potential for a fixed adaptive response to environmental heterogeneity, which would constrain local adaptation. We conclude that extending the trait-based framework to mosses or making comparisons between mosses and vascular plants under any theoretical framework would only be meaningful to the extent that growth form and dispersal strategies are considered.


Assuntos
Sphagnopsida , Aclimatação , Adaptação Fisiológica , Ecossistema , Fenótipo
15.
Proc Biol Sci ; 287(1932): 20201144, 2020 08 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32752990

RESUMO

Substantial environmental change can force a population onto a path towards extinction, but under some conditions, adaptation by natural selection can rescue the population and allow it to persist. This process, known as evolutionary rescue, is believed to be less likely to occur with greater magnitudes of random environmental fluctuations because environmental variation decreases expected population size, increases variance in population size and increases evolutionary lag. However, previous studies of evolutionary rescue in fluctuating environments have only considered scenarios in which evolutionary rescue was likely to occur. We extend these studies to assess how baseline extinction risk (which we manipulated via changes in the initial population size, degree of environmental change or mutation rate) influences the effects of environmental variation on evolutionary rescue following an abrupt environmental change. Using a combination of analytical models and stochastic simulations, we show that autocorrelated environmental variation hinders evolutionary rescue in low-extinction-risk scenarios but facilitates rescue in high-risk scenarios. In these high-risk cases, the chance of a run of good years counteracts the otherwise negative effects of environmental variation on evolutionary demography. These findings can inform the development of effective conservation practices that consider evolutionary responses to abrupt environmental changes.


Assuntos
Evolução Biológica , Extinção Biológica , Adaptação Fisiológica , Meio Ambiente , Densidade Demográfica , Seleção Genética
16.
J Environ Radioact ; 222: 106375, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32791372

RESUMO

The purpose of this work is to highlight the effects of ionizing radiation on the genetic material in higher plants by assessing both adaptive processes as well as the evolution of plant species. The effects that the ionizing radiation has on greenery following a nuclear accident, was examined by taking the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant disaster as a case study. The genetic and evolutionary effects that ionizing radiation had on plants after the Chernobyl accident were highlighted. The response of biota to Chernobyl irradiation was a complex interaction among radiation dose, dose rate, temporal and spatial variation, varying radiation sensitivities of the different plants' species, and indirect effects from other events. Ionizing radiation causes water radiolysis, generating highly reactive oxygen species (ROS). ROS induce the rapid activation of detoxifying enzymes. DeoxyriboNucleic Acid (DNA) is the object of an attack by both, the hydroxyl ions and the radiation itself, thus triggering a mechanism both direct and indirect. The effects on DNA are harmful to the organism and the long-term development of the species. Dose-dependent aberrations in chromosomes are often observed after irradiation. Although multiple DNA repair mechanisms exist, double-strand breaks (DSBs or DNA-DSBs) are often subject to errors. Plants DSBs repair mechanisms mainly involve homologous and non-homologous dependent systems, the latter especially causing a loss of genetic information. Repeated ionizing radiation (acute or chronic) ensures that plants adapt, demonstrating radioresistance. An adaptive response has been suggested for this phenomenon. As a result, ionizing radiation influences the genetic structure, especially during chronic irradiation, reducing genetic variability. This reduction may be associated with the fact that particular plant species are more subject to chronic stress, confirming the adaptive theory. Therefore, the genomic effects of ionizing radiation demonstrate their likely involvement in the evolution of plant species.


Assuntos
Adaptação Fisiológica , Acidente Nuclear de Chernobyl , Desastres , Fenômenos Fisiológicos Vegetais , Monitoramento de Radiação , Radioatividade , Plantas , Radiação Ionizante
17.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4157, 2020 08 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32814767

RESUMO

Swarming is a form of collective bacterial motion enabled by flagella on the surface of semi-solid media. Swarming populations exhibit non-genetic or adaptive resistance to antibiotics, despite sustaining considerable cell death. Here, we show that antibiotic-induced death of a sub-population benefits the swarm by enhancing adaptive resistance in the surviving cells. Killed cells release a resistance-enhancing factor that we identify as AcrA, a periplasmic component of RND efflux pumps. The released AcrA interacts on the surface of live cells with an outer membrane component of the efflux pump, TolC, stimulating drug efflux and inducing expression of other efflux pumps. This phenomenon, which we call 'necrosignaling', exists in other Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria and displays species-specificity. Given that adaptive resistance is a known incubator for evolving genetic resistance, our findings might be clinically relevant to the rise of multidrug resistance.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/metabolismo , Bactérias/metabolismo , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Resistência Microbiana a Medicamentos/fisiologia , Transdução de Sinais/fisiologia , Adaptação Fisiológica/fisiologia , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Bactérias/classificação , Proteínas da Membrana Bacteriana Externa/metabolismo , Bactérias Gram-Negativas/classificação , Bactérias Gram-Negativas/metabolismo , Bactérias Gram-Positivas/classificação , Bactérias Gram-Positivas/metabolismo , Viabilidade Microbiana/efeitos dos fármacos , Periplasma/metabolismo , Especificidade da Espécie
18.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0236794, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32790703

RESUMO

The similarities, differences, and contradictions regarding climate change adaptation and resilience by academics and practitioners have already been documented. It is the need of time to set new precedence by observing the adaptations and resilience as tools to respond to the climate variations. This study analyzed the influence of climate change adaptations and synergy between resilience from livelihood vulnerability and adaptations. A field survey of 489 farming households is conducted with the help of a well-structured questionnaire from four districts of the south part of Punjab province of Pakistan. This study uses the Endogenous Switching Regression model for the sake of analysis. The outcomes of the study reveal that age, education, family size, total land, and seed price have significant linkage with the adoption of adaptations. The synergistic effects of adaptation and resilience are also visible here as the adaptations factors are significantly contributing towards yield, per capita income, poverty, and poverty gap of the respondents. This study suggests the provision of proper education and smart technology to help in enhancing the adaptive capacity of farmers. More imperatively, adaptations to climate variations can be concluded as a remedial tool for resilient livelihood. It is believed that the present study can be considered as a guide for future research on other regions of Pakistan and neighboring countries.


Assuntos
Adaptação Fisiológica , Mudança Climática , Fazendeiros/psicologia , Aclimatação , Agricultura , Características da Família , Humanos , Renda , Paquistão , Pobreza , Inquéritos e Questionários
19.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0226235, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32797046

RESUMO

Plant-derived fuels and chemicals from renewable biomass have significant potential to replace reliance on petroleum and improve global carbon balance. However, plant biomass contains significant fractions of oligosaccharides that are not usable natively by many industrial microorganisms, including Escherichia coli, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and Zymomonas mobilis. Even after chemical or enzymatic hydrolysis, some carbohydrate remains as non-metabolizable oligosaccharides (e.g., cellobiose or longer cellulose-derived oligomers), thus reducing the efficiency of conversion to useful products. To begin to address this problem for Z. mobilis, we engineered a strain (Z. mobilis GH3) that expresses a glycosyl hydrolase (GH) with ß-glucosidase activity from a related α-proteobacterial species, Caulobacter crescentus, and subjected it to an adaptation in cellobiose medium. Growth on cellobiose was achieved after a prolonged lag phase in cellobiose medium that induced changes in gene expression and cell composition, including increased expression and extracellular release of GH. These changes were reversible upon growth in glucose-containing medium, meaning they did not result from genetic mutation but could be retained upon transfer of cells to fresh cellobiose medium. After adaptation to cellobiose, our GH-expressing strain was able to convert about 50% of cellobiose to glucose within 24 h and use it for growth and ethanol production. Alternatively, pre-growth of Z. mobilis GH3 in sucrose medium enabled immediate growth on cellobiose. Proteomic analysis of cellobiose- and sucrose-adapted strains revealed upregulation of secretion-, transport-, and outer membrane-related proteins, which may aid release or surface display of GHs, entry of cellobiose into the periplasm, or both. Our two key findings are that Z. mobilis can be reprogrammed to grow on cellobiose as a sole carbon source and that this reprogramming is related to a natural response of Z. mobilis to sucrose that promotes sucrase production.


Assuntos
Celobiose/metabolismo , Zymomonas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Zymomonas/metabolismo , Adaptação Fisiológica/fisiologia , Biomassa , Reprogramação Celular/genética , Reprogramação Celular/fisiologia , Celulose/metabolismo , Expressão Gênica/genética , Glucose/metabolismo , Hidrolases/metabolismo , Proteômica , Sacarase/metabolismo , Sacarose/metabolismo , Zymomonas/genética , beta-Glucosidase/metabolismo
20.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0236824, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32735569

RESUMO

In our daily life, we often interact with objects using both hands raising the question the question to what extent information between the hands is shared. It has, for instance, been shown that curvature adaptation aftereffects can transfer from the adapted hand to the non-adapted hand. However, this transfer only occurred for dynamic exploration, e.g. by moving a single finger over a surface, but not for static exploration when keeping static contact with the surface and combining the information from different parts of the hand. This raises the question to what extent adaptation to object shape is shared between the hands when both hands are used in static fashion simultaneously and the object shape estimates require information from both hands. Here we addressed this question in three experiments using a slant adaptation paradigm. In Experiment 1 we investigated whether an aftereffect of static bimanual adaptation occurs at all and whether it transfers to conditions in which one hand was moving. In Experiment 2 participants adapted either to a felt slanted surface or simply be holding their hands in mid-air at similar positions, to investigate to what extent the effects of static bimanual adaptation are posture-based rather than object based. Experiment 3 further explored the idea that bimanual adaptation is largely posture based. We found that bimanual adaptation using static touch did lead to aftereffects when using the same static exploration mode for testing. However, the aftereffect did not transfer to any exploration mode that included a dynamic component. Moreover, we found similar aftereffects both with and without a haptic surface. Thus, we conclude that static bimanual adaptation is of proprioceptive nature and does not occur at the level at which the object is represented.


Assuntos
Mãos/fisiologia , Desempenho Psicomotor , Percepção do Tato/fisiologia , Adaptação Fisiológica , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Equilíbrio Postural/fisiologia , Tato , Adulto Jovem
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