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1.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1232: 113-119, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31893402

RESUMO

The prefrontal cortex (PFC) is sensitive to the stress exposure and involved in stress coping. And the effects of gum chewing on the stress have been studied using NIRS. However, when measuring NIRS on PFC during gum chewing, blood flows in shallow tissues (scalp, skin, muscle) might be affected. A NIRS used in the present study first, which has a short distance (1 cm) and the usual (3 cm) source-detector (S-D) regression, can allow eliminating shallow tissues effect of gum chewing. The aim of this study was to investigate the hypothesis that gum chewing activates the right prefrontal cortex (PFC) in stress coping against negative sounds (NS) from the International Affective Digitized Sounds-2 (IADS) as a mental stress task. NS showed activation in the right PFC. There was a significant difference between NS, and NS with Gum, where NS with Gum showed an increased PFC activity, increased alpha wave appearance rate, a higher value in heart rate level, and a higher VAS score indicating 'pleasant'. Gum chewing activated right PFC activity while exposed to negative sounds from IADS as a mental stress task.


Assuntos
Goma de Mascar , Mastigação , Som , Estresse Psicológico , Adaptação Psicológica , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Córtex Pré-Frontal/fisiologia , Córtex Pré-Frontal/efeitos da radiação , Som/efeitos adversos , Estresse Psicológico/terapia , Adulto Jovem
2.
BMJ ; 367: l6446, 2019 Dec 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31852676

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine the validity of the superstition that utterance of the word "quiet" in a clinical setting increases workload. DESIGN: Prospective randomised controlled non-inferiority study. SETTING: Microbiology department of a large teaching hospital in Lancashire, UK. PARTICIPANTS: Two members of the medical microbiology team carried out the duty work on any given week day and an on-call team member on any weekend day. 29 days were assigned in which staff were to say "Today will be a quiet day" and 32 days were assigned in which staff were to refrain from saying the word "quiet" in any context. INTERVENTIONS: Each day was randomly allocated to either saying "Today will be a quiet day" (intervention group) or refraining from saying the word "quiet" (control group) in any context. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The primary outcome was mean overall workload: a composite of number of clinically related telephone calls, clinically significant results, or validated results processed by the duty medical microbiology team during a 24 hour period referred to collectively as "clinical episodes." A difference of 30 clinical episodes was considered as the margin of non-inferiority. Secondary outcomes included the individual components of the primary outcome. RESULTS: Workload was measured each day over a 61 day period (1 May to 30 June 2019). A mean 139.0 clinical episodes occurred on control days compared with 144.9 on days when the experimental intervention was uttered, a difference of 5.9 (95% confidence interval-12.9 to 24.7). The upper bound was less than the specified margin of 30, providing evidence for non-inferiority. No evidence of a difference in workload was found between interventions with any of the four components, whether considering unadjusted or adjusted analyses, or looking at the subgroups of week days or weekends. CONCLUSIONS: The study findings refute the long held superstition that utterance of the word "quiet" impacts on clinical workload, and therefore it should not be avoided. In the era of considerable staff shortages and increased work related stress, doctors should look to other methods to increase resilience and protect their wellbeing and mental health. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Lancashire Teaching Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust's research department SE-259.


Assuntos
Pessoal de Saúde/psicologia , Superstições/psicologia , Carga de Trabalho/psicologia , Local de Trabalho/psicologia , Adaptação Psicológica , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Linguagem , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos
3.
Enferm. intensiva (Ed. impr.) ; 30(4): 163-169, oct.-dic. 2019. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-184480

RESUMO

La muerte de un niño en la Unidad de Cuidado Intensivo Pediátrico (UCIP) es difícil, la pérdida genera sentimientos de tristeza y dolor; en este estudio se destacan las diferentes estrategias de afrontamiento utilizadas por las enfermeras para manejar esta situación y poder fortalecerse para brindar cuidado al final de la vida. Objetivo Explorar las estrategias de afrontamiento utilizadas por las enfermeras en la UCIP frente a la muerte. Métodos: Estudio realizado en la ciudad de Manizales, Colombia, durante los meses de octubre, noviembre y diciembre. Se utilizó un enfoque cualitativo, fenomenológico hermenéutico. El método de muestreo fue intencional para la selección de las enfermeras participantes (n = 10) que trabajan en la UCIP; se realizaron entrevistas en profundidad para la construcción de la información y los datos se analizaron según los procedimientos propuestos por Cohen, Kahn y Steeves. Resultados: Las enfermeras utilizan estrategias de afrontamiento centradas en las emociones: inhiben los sentimientos frente al paciente y la familia, usan la comunicación y oración con el paciente, así como el acompañamiento para aliviar el sufrimiento de la familia. Conclusión: Las enfermeras de la UCIP desarrollan estrategias de afrontamiento frente a los cuidados al final de la vida utilizando recursos espirituales y de comunicación con la familia que necesita apoyo permanente, reflexionando ante la muerte y el acompañamiento del niño en su trascendencia


The death of a child in the Paediatric Intensive Care Unit (PICU) is difficult, the loss generates feelings of sadness and pain; this study highlights the different coping strategies used by nurses to manage this situation and find the strength to provide care at the end of life. Objective: Explore the strategies used by nurses in the PICU in coping with death. Methods: Study conducted in the city of Manizales, Colombia, during the months of October, November and December. A qualitative, hermeneutical phenomenological approach was used. The method of intentional sampling for the selection of participating nurses (n = 10) working in PICU, in-depth interviews were conducted for the construction of the information and the data were analyzed according to the procedures proposed by Cohen, Kahn and Steeves. Results: Nurses use coping strategies focused on emotions: they inhibit their feelings towards the patient and their family; they use communication and prayer with the patient, as well as accompaniment to alleviate the suffering of the family. Conclusion: UCIP nurses develop coping strategies for end-of-life care using spiritual resources and communication with the family who require ongoing support, reflecting on death and accompanying the child in its transcendence


Assuntos
Humanos , Criança , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva Pediátrica , Adaptação Psicológica/fisiologia , Cuidados Críticos/psicologia , Enfermagem de Cuidados Paliativos na Terminalidade da Vida/métodos , Cuidados Paliativos na Terminalidade da Vida/psicologia , Comunicação
4.
J Dent Hyg ; 93(6): 35-41, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31882559

RESUMO

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is associated with maldevelopment of the brain that leads to impaired communication and social interaction skills, possible cognitive decline, and an inability to cope with environmental stimuli. Affected individuals may also exhibit a myriad of stereotypic and maladaptive behaviors. With the increasing prevalence of ASD in the United States, oral healthcare professionals (OHCP) will encounter greater opportunities for patient interactions. There is limited information in the literature regarding ASD and dental radiography. The task of taking diagnostically acceptable radiographs on ASD-affected patients may be hindered by a lack of cooperative behavior, communication difficulties, and an incapacity to understand instructions. This report will review various ASD-related characteristics, comorbidities, and an assortment of general behavior guidance techniques (Picture Exchange Communication System, visual scheduling, social stories, first-then board, voice control, tell-show-do, electronic media devices, nonverbal communication, and desensitization). Guidelines for applying basic and advanced techniques for dental radiographic examinations will be discussed with the goal of improved patient interactions and positive outcomes.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista , Adaptação Psicológica , Assistência Odontológica , Humanos , Comunicação não Verbal , Estados Unidos
5.
Prax Kinderpsychol Kinderpsychiatr ; 68(7): 575-591, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31711395

RESUMO

Early Life Stress Stress and daily hassles are a normal part of day-to day-life. The amount of control that is experienced strongly contributes to resilience and coping. Children very frequently do not experience control over the stressors within their lives. Starting from pregnancy, they are subjected - via the maternal endocrine system - to a variety of stressors ranging from normal stress regarding the transition to parenthood to maternal abuse or torture. This article collects research of the last two decades regarding the influence of stress on the developing brain. Both, animal and human studies will shed light on the effect of pre- and postnatal stress demonstrating an influence of early life stressors reaching far into adulthood. A direct influence of stress on multiple developmental characteristics has been postulated and shown. The results of this review will underline the necessity of early life programs focusing stress reduction and resilience in children and their parents. Also, a need for programs targeting stress reduction in pregnancy will be demonstrated and emphasized.


Assuntos
Estresse Psicológico/fisiopatologia , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Adaptação Psicológica , Adulto , Animais , Encéfalo/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Encéfalo/patologia , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Pais/psicologia , Gravidez , Estresse Psicológico/prevenção & controle
6.
Prax Kinderpsychol Kinderpsychiatr ; 68(7): 606-622, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31711400

RESUMO

What Causes Future-Related Stress in Immigrant and German Adolescents and how do they Cope with these Stressors? In the present study, the stress perception and coping of German and immigrant adolescents with regard to future stress were compared. The 1,789 adolescents (164 immigrated, 1,625 German adolescents) at the age of fifteen completed questionnaires on the assessment of stress and coping with regard to future stress. Immigrated youth show a higher stress burden in the domain future than German adolescents. The fear of becoming unemployed was a major stressor in both groups, and both groups were also very active in tackling future-related problems. However, German youths show an even more active approach to coping with future stress and involve parents or friends more often. Migrant youth have higher levels of the coping style withdrawal, especially in emotion regulation and resignative withdrawal. The ability to reflect on the solution of future-related stressors is quite high in both groups. Worries about the increasing destruction of the environment are more important for German youth, while migrant youth care more about how they should reconcile work and family life later.


Assuntos
Adaptação Psicológica , Comportamento do Adolescente , Emigrantes e Imigrantes/psicologia , Estresse Psicológico , Adolescente , Emoções , Alemanha , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos
7.
Prax Kinderpsychol Kinderpsychiatr ; 68(7): 592-605, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31711402

RESUMO

Coping with Stress During Childhood and Adolescence Humans already start to show stress responses on a physical and mental level in early childhood. Numerous studies have demonstrated age- and gender-related differences in experiencing and managing stress. During the transitional period of adolescence young people often experience higher stress-levels. This might lead to a higher vulnerability for maladaptive stress responses. In other words, adolescents who do not have adequate coping strategies to deal with the developmental challenges of puberty might be at risk for later physical and mental symptoms. On the other hand, adequate coping strategies represent a protective factor. Therefore, education and prevention in home and school settings are of particular relevance for adolescent age groups.


Assuntos
Adaptação Psicológica , Comportamento do Adolescente , Comportamento Infantil , Estresse Psicológico/fisiopatologia , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Transtornos Mentais/etiologia , Transtornos Mentais/psicologia
8.
Nurs Res ; 68(6): 494-500, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31693556

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Recognizing the effects of acculturation on quality of life and emotional health, especially during pregnancy, we developed an intervention that would target these factors in order to improve maternal well-being during the prenatal period and potentially improve infant outcomes, particularly preterm birth for Mexican-American women (Latinas). OBJECTIVE: The purpose of these pilot studies was to test the acceptability, feasibility, and preliminary efficacy of the mastery lifestyle intervention (MLI) to decrease depressive and anxiety symptoms and improve coping as implemented in prenatal clinics with culturally homogenous groups of Latinas. METHODS: The MLI was tested in three small pilot studies (n = 15), one in El Paso, Texas (an urban area), and two in Bastrop, Texas (a rural area outside Austin), for acceptability and feasibility. A pretest/posttest, quasi-experimental design was used with pregnant self-identified Mexican-American Latinas at 14-20 weeks' gestation. Measures of anxiety, depressive symptoms, and positive and negative coping were used. RESULTS: Feasibility was a success in terms of implementation of the MLI in an active prenatal clinic setting and the use of electronic tablets for data collection and entry of data into REDcap. Satisfaction was high, with the location of the MLI being at their primary OB/GYN clinic. Participants reported that six intervention sessions appear to be ideal as was the class length of 1.5 to 2 hours. On Cohen's d, there were medium to large effect size decreases in depressive and anxiety symptoms and small to medium effect size decreases in the use of negative coping strategies and small effect sizes for increases in positive coping strategies. DISCUSSION: Pilot testing of the MLI indicated that it was well accepted from the participants and feasible as a culturally tailored behavioral therapy administered in a group setting by nurse practitioners. Our initial pilot results also suggest preliminary efficacy as indicated by moderate to large Cohen's d effect sizes for depression and anxiety.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/prevenção & controle , Depressão/prevenção & controle , Estilo de Vida/etnologia , Americanos Mexicanos/psicologia , Complicações na Gravidez/prevenção & controle , Cuidado Pré-Natal , Aculturação , Adaptação Psicológica , Adulto , Ansiedade/etnologia , Depressão/etnologia , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Humanos , Projetos Piloto , Gravidez , Complicações na Gravidez/etnologia , Qualidade de Vida , Texas
9.
Am J Dent ; 32(5): 255-259, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31675195

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To evaluate the effects of different coping designs on maximum principal stresses in the veneering material using a finite element analysis method. METHODS: A maxillary first premolar tooth model was prepared. The primary and prepared tooth model were scanned with a 3D (three dimensional) scanner. Four different coping and veneer models were designed with 3D computer-aided design software: conventional design (DC); design with 3 mm palatal shoulder (DP); design with 1 mm buccal shoulder and 3 mm palatal shoulder (DB); and design with buccal facet (DF). After the models were designed, they were transferred to the finite element analysis (FEA) software for analyses. The middle points of the buccal, mesial, distal and palatal surfaces were determined in the cervical region. For all models, the maximum principal stress distributions and values of porcelain veneer were evaluated under centric occlusion loading and laterotrusive loading conditions with a FEA. RESULTS: The maximum principal stress area decreased gradually from model DC to model DB on the buccal cervical region under centric occlusion loading. However, models DF and DP showed similar stress distribution. The maximum principal stress at the distal point decreased from DC (14.7 MPa) to DP (13.5 MPa) and DB (9.6 MPa), whereas increased in model DF (33 MPa). Under laterotrusive loading, both the palatal maximum principal stress area and the stress value at the palatal point (model DC: 13.1 MPa, model DP: 3 MPa, model DB: 4MPa) decreased with the palatal shoulder. CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE: Increasing the height of the palatal shoulder may be a practical and efficient approach to reduce the maximum principal stress in all-ceramic crowns. Thus, the clinical failure as chipping in the all-ceramic crowns may be reduced.


Assuntos
Cerâmica , Coroas , Adaptação Psicológica , Dente Pré-Molar , Porcelana Dentária , Análise do Estresse Dentário , Análise de Elementos Finitos , Estresse Mecânico , Zircônio
10.
Zhonghua Shao Shang Za Zhi ; 35(11): 804-810, 2019 Nov 20.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31775469

RESUMO

Objective: To explore the development trajectories of quality of life and acceptance of disability of burn patients in the rehabilitation treatment stage and the influencing factors. Methods: Totally 207 burn patients, including 157 males and 50 females, aged (40±13) years, who were in the rehabilitation treatment stage were selected by convenient sampling method from October 2016 to July 2017 in the Department of Burns of Fujian Medical University Union Hospital for this longitudinal study. At discharge and 1, 3, and 6 months after discharge, the patient's quality of life and acceptance of disability were scored using the Burn Specific Health Scale-Brief and Chinese Version of Acceptance of Disability Scale-Revised respectively. Taking the intercept, the slope, and the curve slope as latent variables, the latent second growth curve model was constructed for the quality of life and the acceptance of disability. The robust maximum likelihood estimation (MLR) method was used to estimate the mean, the variance, and the covariance, so as to analyze the discharge level, the growth rate, the acceleration, and the correlation among them. Taking the acceptance of disability, the gender, the cause of burn, the severity of burn, the existence of complications, the payment way, and the education level as covariates, the latent second growth curve model was constructed for the quality of life. The MLR method was used to estimate the influence of covariates on the discharge level, the growth rate, and the acceleration of the quality of life. Results: At discharge and 1, 3, and 6 months after discharge, the quality of life scores of patients were (102±36), (111±36), (118±37), and (122±37) points respectively, and the acceptance of disability scores were (73±17), (75±17), (77±17), and (78±18) points respectively. The estimated mean intercept of the quality of life and the acceptance of disability were 101.680 and 72.993 respectively at discharge, both of which showed a curve increasing trend in 1, 3, and 6 months after discharge (estimated mean slope=11.024, 3.086, t=15.376, 7.476, P<0.01), and the increasing rate (acceleration) gradually slowed down (estimated mean curve slope=-1.393, -0.426, t=-13.339, -4.776, P<0.01). There were significant individual differences in the discharge level and the acceleration of quality of life of patients (estimated intercept variance=1 174.527, t=9.332; estimated curve slope variance=2.379, t=6.402; P<0.01). There were significant individual differences in the discharge level, the growth rate, and the acceleration of patients' acceptance of disability (estimated intercept variance=267.017, t=9.262; estimated slope variance=32.264, t=2.356; estimated curve slope variance=0.882, t=2.939; P<0.05 or P<0.01). There was no significant correlation among the discharge level, the growth rate, and the acceleration of the quality of life and those of the acceptance of disability of patients (estimated intercept and slope=37.273, -1.457, t=0.859, -0.131; estimated intercept and curve slope=-6.712, -0.573, t=-1.089, -0.248; estimated slope and curve slope=-5.494, -5.988, t=-0.930, -2.512; P>0.05). Among the time-constant covariates, only the severity of burn and the presence of complications had a significant impact on the quality of life of patients at discharge (estimated intercept=-10.721, 5.522, t=-6.229, 1.977, P<0.05 or P<0.01). At discharge and 1, 3, and 6 months after discharge, the level of acceptance of disability had a positive impact on the quality of life of patients (standardized regression coefficient=0.616, 0.669, 0.681, 0.678, t=18.874, 21.660, 22.824, 22.123, P<0.01). Conclusions: The initial levels of quality of life and acceptance of disability of burn patients in the rehabilitation treatment stage are relatively low, both with a curve increasing trend over time, and the increasing rate gradually slows down. Patients with complications and serious burns have poor quality of life at discharge, while the acceptance of disability has a positive impact on the quality of life.


Assuntos
Queimaduras/psicologia , Queimaduras/reabilitação , Qualidade de Vida , Adaptação Psicológica , Adulto , Queimaduras/fisiopatologia , Pessoas com Deficiência/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
11.
J Music Ther ; 56(4): 348-380, 2019 Nov 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31605612

RESUMO

Music therapy research with youth who are grieving often reports on a combination of interventions, such as lyric analysis, improvisation, and/or songwriting. Unfortunately, the lack of theoretical transparency in how and why these interventions affect targeted outcomes limits interpretation and application of this important research. In this exploratory study, the authors evaluated the impact of an 8-session, theory-driven group songwriting program on protective factors in adolescent bereavement, and also sought to better understand adolescents' experiences of the program. Using a single-group, pretest-posttest convergent mixed methods design, participants were enrolled from three study sites and included 10 adolescents (five girls and five boys), ages 11-17 years, who self-identified as grieving a loss. Outcomes measured included grief, coping, emotional expression, self-esteem, and meaning making. Qualitative data were captured through in-session journaling and semi-structured interviews. There were no statistically significant improvements for grief, self-esteem, coping, and meaning making. Individual score trends suggested improvements in grief. The majority of the participants reported greater inhibition of emotional expression, and this was statistically significant. Thematic findings revealed that the program offered adolescents a sense of togetherness, a way to safely express grief-related emotions and experiences verbally and nonverbally, and opportunities for strengthening music and coping skills. These findings suggest that engaging in collaborative therapeutic songwriting with grieving peers may decrease levels of grief, enhance creative expression, and provide social support. More research is needed on measuring self-esteem, emotional expression, coping, and meaning making outcomes in ways that are meaningful to adolescents.


Assuntos
Adaptação Psicológica , Luto , Emoções , Musicoterapia/métodos , Redação , Adolescente , Criança , Feminino , Pesar , Humanos , Masculino , Música , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Autoimagem , Apoio Social
12.
Dev Neuropsychol ; 44(7): 495-512, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31608666

RESUMO

We examined the visuomotor adaptation of children and adults with and without explicit aiming strategies. Younger children were slower and less smooth in visuomotor adaption than adults. Specifically, in the course of adaptation and re-adaptation, older children had better movement accuracy than adults, while their movement speed and smoothness were similar to those of the adults. Explicit aiming improved movement accuracy for all participants, but also facilitated movement smoothness for younger children. The contribution of explicit adjustment was greater for older children than for younger children. These results show the ongoing development of cognitive functions and movement experiences in children.


Assuntos
Adaptação Fisiológica/fisiologia , Atividade Motora/fisiologia , Desempenho Psicomotor/fisiologia , Percepção Visual/fisiologia , Adaptação Psicológica/fisiologia , Adulto , Criança , Cognição , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Movimento
13.
Sci Total Environ ; 693: 133648, 2019 Nov 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31634990

RESUMO

Streamflow is a main driver of fish population dynamics and is projected to decrease in much of the northern hemisphere, especially in the Mediterranean region, due to climate change. However, predictions of future climate effects on cold-water freshwater fish populations have typically focused only on the ecological consequences of increasing temperatures, overlooking the concurrent and interacting effects of climate-driven changes in streamflow regimes. Here, we present simulations that contrasted the consequences of changes in thermal regime alone versus the combined effects of changes in thermal regime and streamflow for resident trout populations in distinct river types with different sensitivities to climatic change (low-altitude main river vs. high-altitude headwaters). We additionally assessed the buffering effect of increased food production that may be linked to warming. We used an eco-genetic individual-based model that integrates the behavioural and physiological effects of extrinsic environmental drivers -temperature and flow- with intrinsic dynamics -density-dependence, phenotypic plasticity and evolutionary responses - across the entire trout life cycle, with Mediterranean brown trout Salmo trutta as the model species. Our simulations indicated that: (1) Hydrological change is a critical dimension of climate change for the persistence of trout populations, in that neither river type supported viable populations under strong rates of flow change, even under scenarios of increased food production. (2) Climate-change-related environmental change most affects the largest, oldest trout via increased metabolic costs and decreased energy inputs. In both river types, populations persisted under extreme warming alone but became dominated by younger, smaller fish. (3) Density-dependent, plastic and evolutionary changes in phenology and life-history traits provide trout populations with important resilience to warming, but strong concurrent shifts in streamflow could exceed the buffering conferred by such intrinsic dynamics.


Assuntos
Adaptação Psicológica , Mudança Climática , Temperatura Ambiente , Truta/fisiologia , Adaptação Fisiológica , Animais , Água Doce , Hidrologia , Dinâmica Populacional , Rios , Movimentos da Água
14.
Zhong Nan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban ; 44(8): 924-930, 2019 Aug 28.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31570681

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the cognitive ability and coping strategy to mental disorders among medical workers in ear-nose-throat departments and its impact on doctor-patient relationship.
 Methods: A total of 78 medical workers (including doctors, nurses, and technicians) in ear-nose-throat departments from 10 general hospitals in Hunan Province were investigated by self-compiled questionnaire on the perspective and coping strategy to mental disorders among medical workers.
 Results: Mental disorders except depression and schizophrenia were poorly understood in respondents, and many of their coping strategies were inappropriate. Furthermore, subjects tend to avoid too much contact with psychiatric patients for being afraid of the mental disorders. The poorer understanding of mental disorders, the more inappropriate coping strategies in dealing with mental disorders (P<0.001). Moreover, there was a significant difference in inappropriate coping strategies to mental disorders between patients being abused and patients not being abused (P=0.017). Factors such as education background (P=0.031) and the hospital level (P=0.038) also impacted the coping strategies to mental disorders.
 Conclusion: Among all mental disorders, only depression and schizophrenia are coped with the right way in medical workers of ear-nose-throat departments. In addition, obviously negative attitude and avoidance are found in dealing with mental disorders by medical workers. Importantly, poor cognitive ability to mental disorders is the main reason for hurting doctor-patient relationship in the ear-nose-throat departments.


Assuntos
Faringe , Relações Médico-Paciente , Adaptação Psicológica , Cognição , Humanos , Nariz
15.
Rev Prat ; 69(6): 641-645, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31626425

RESUMO

Family recomposition complicates parental separation and, even when it goes well, requires a clarification of the issues, roles and conflicts of loyalty; the noisy manifestation of the problems is not negative in itself but sometimes requires a psychotherapeutic support of the child, and guidance from all adults surrounding the child. This is an area where reflection, dialogue, questioning, psychic work is better than advice (which I still give as a precaution) because the passionate nature of the situations sometimes defies all reason and the experience of the past. The child may be forgotten when he becomes the stake or the instrument of this passion.


Assuntos
Divórcio , Núcleo Familiar , Relações Pais-Filho , Psicologia da Criança , Adaptação Psicológica , Adulto , Criança , Humanos , Masculino , Pais
16.
Rev Lat Am Enfermagem ; 27: e3200, 2019 Oct 14.
Artigo em Português, Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31618393

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: to describe the level of uncertainty in illness in family caregivers of palliative care patients and detect associations between the profile of the caregiver and the levels of uncertainty. METHOD: descriptive correlational study conducted with 300 family caregivers of hospitalized patients. The sociodemographic characterization of caregiver and patient was used to assess the caregiver profile, as well as the Uncertainty in Illness scale for family caregivers. Spearman's Rho correlation test was applied to detect associations. RESULTS: the average score of illness uncertainty was 91.7 points. The analysis showed significant correlations between the level of uncertainty and patient dependence (r=0.18, p=0.001), symptom assessment (r=0.312, p<0.001), length of service as a caregiver (r=0.131, p=0.023), perception of support from health professionals (r=-0.16, p=0.048), family (r=-0.145, p=0.012) and religious support (r=-0.131, p=0.050). CONCLUSIONS: there were high levels of uncertainty in caregivers about their patient's illness. These levels are associated with the health condition and symptoms of the patient who is cared for, the length of service as a caregiver and the perceived support from health professionals, family and religion.


Assuntos
Cuidadores/psicologia , Cuidados Paliativos/psicologia , Incerteza , Adaptação Psicológica , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Cuidadores/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Cuidados Paliativos/estatística & dados numéricos , Percepção , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Espiritualidade , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
18.
Z Psychosom Med Psychother ; 65(3): 239-256, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31476991

RESUMO

Development and validation of a questionnaire for patient competence in coping with cancer (PCQ) Objectives: The aim of the study was the development and evaluation of the psychometric properties of a self-assessment questionnaire for resource-orientated coping with cancer (Patient Competence Questionnaire, PCQ). Methods: In 420 patients and members of cancer support-groups item selection and evaluation of item properties, reliability (Cronbach's Alpha), validity (convergent and divergent) and factorial structure were performed in two studies. Results: The final version of the PCQ (18 items) demonstrated a Cronbach's Alpha between 0.71 and 0.91 for five subscales identified with exploratory factor analysis (religious/spiritual coping, coping competence, healthy lifestyle, information seeking, adaptability) and 0.85 for the total score. The PCQ shows a high convergent validity (r = 0.46) with the Freiburg Questionnaire on Coping with Illness (FKV) and significant correlations with depression (r = -0.23), posttraumatic growth (r = 0.65) and religiosity (r = 0.59). Conclusions: First analyses underline that the PCQ can be regarded as a valid and reliable instrument for assessing patients' resources in dealing with cancer.


Assuntos
Adaptação Psicológica , Neoplasias/psicologia , Pacientes/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários/normas , Humanos , Psicometria , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
19.
Prax Kinderpsychol Kinderpsychiatr ; 68(6): 540-554, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31480949

RESUMO

German Military Families: A Qualitative Inquiry of Strategies of Coping with the Fathers' Absence Military families with experiences of deployment are subject to multiple stressors. In this research an explorative qualitative design was used to identify specific challenges, resources and strategies of coping within the families, focusing on the children's perspective. Results show that the fathers' absence causes vital changes in the family system, which demand specific strategies to deal with the abrupt emotional and social challenges. Four of these coping strategies will be presented in this article. Furthermore, resources embedded in the social environment as well as supportive structures provided by the German military will be discussed. Two hypotheses were formulated to outline the findings that the preparation for a deployment as well as patterns of communication about the father's absence are the most crucial factors for the children's resilience in the case of military families.


Assuntos
Adaptação Psicológica , Pai , Família Militar/psicologia , Criança , Emoções , Humanos , Masculino , Pesquisa Qualitativa
20.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31495109

RESUMO

Objective: To investigate the situation and influential factors of the job burnout among the nurses in Guangzhou, China. Methods: In April 2017, 166 nurses from 8 hospitals in Guangzhou were surveyed by applying the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI) to investigate their Emotion Exhaustion (EE) , Depersonalization (DP) and Personal Accomplishment (PA) , and applying Simplified Coping Style Questionnaire (SCSQ) to examine negative coping style and positive coping style based on group random sampling. Results: The nurses exhibited moderate burnout on both EE and DP, as well as severe burnout on PA. Compared with the nurses in the general hospitals, the nurses in the occupational disease hospital had lower scores on both EE and DP (t=-7.305, -3.442, P<0.01) , and they had higher scores on PA (t=2.597, P<0.05) . The married nurses had higher scores on EE (t=2.988, P<0.01) . The nurses in the disinfection supply department had higher scores on EE and lower scores on PA than the nurses in other departments (t=3.788, -3.990, P<0.01) . There was a significant difference on EE between different working age groups (F=3.225, P<0.01) . 6-10 years and 21-25 years of working age had higher scores on EE. Positive coping was negatively correlated with DP (r=-0.190) , and it positively correlated with PA (r=0.323) . Negative coping was positively correlated with both EE and DP (r=0.389, 0.293) .Hospitals types, negative coping style and positive coping style both entered the regression equation for EE (R(2)=0.368, P<0.01) and the regression equation for DP (R(2)=0.199, P<0.01) . Positive coping style and department types entered the regression equation for PA (R(2)=0.201, P<0.01) . Conclusion: Nurses in Guangzhou got moderate level on both EE and DP, lower level on PA. Hospitals types, department types, marital status, working ages and coping style are all the influential factors of job burnout.


Assuntos
Adaptação Psicológica , Esgotamento Profissional , Enfermeiras e Enfermeiros/psicologia , China , Despersonalização , Emoções , Humanos , Inquéritos e Questionários
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