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1.
Science ; 370(6513): 247-250, 2020 10 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33033222

RESUMO

Neural networks display the ability to transform forward-ordered activity patterns into reverse-ordered, retrospective sequences. The mechanisms underlying this transformation remain unknown. We discovered that, during active navigation, rat hippocampal CA1 place cell ensembles are inherently organized to produce independent forward- and reverse-ordered sequences within individual theta oscillations. This finding may provide a circuit-level basis for retrospective evaluation and storage during ongoing behavior. Theta phase procession arose in a minority of place cells, many of which displayed two preferred firing phases in theta oscillations and preferentially participated in reverse replay during subsequent rest. These findings reveal an unexpected aspect of theta-based hippocampal encoding and provide a biological mechanism to support the expression of reverse-ordered sequences.


Assuntos
Adaptação Psicológica/fisiologia , Região CA1 Hipocampal/fisiologia , Ritmo Teta , Animais , Masculino , Ratos , Ratos Endogâmicos LEC
2.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(43): e22888, 2020 Oct 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33120834

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to explore the relationship between social support, self-efficacy, coping style, and psychological stress in children with malignant tumors during the treatment, and to clarify the mediating effects.From May 2019 to August 2019, selected by convenience sampling method, 141 children with malignant tumors in the treatment period were evaluated using the Social Support Questionnaire, General Self-efficacy Scale, Simplified Coping Style Questionnaire, and Depression-Anxiety-Stress Scale.The results of correlation analysis showed that depression was negatively correlated with coping style, self-efficacy, affirmation and support, satisfaction, company, and intimacy, but positively correlated with conflict and punishment; both anxiety and stress were significantly negatively correlated with coping style, self-efficacy, affirmation and support, company, and intimacy. The results of the model indicated that gender, social support, self-efficacy, and coping style could directly predict the psychological stress of children with malignant tumors in the treatment period, social support and self-efficacy could indirectly predict the psychological stress of children with malignant tumors, and the total effect of self-efficacy on the psychological stress of children was the largest. Through 2000 bootstrap tests of mediating effect, it not only confirmed the mediating effect of self-efficacy and coping style but also had a chain-mediating effect.Appropriate social support can improve the self-efficacy of children with malignant tumors in the treatment period and encourage them to take a positive response to the disease, thereby effectively preventing or reducing the occurrence of psychological stress.


Assuntos
Adaptação Psicológica/fisiologia , Neoplasias/psicologia , Estresse Psicológico/prevenção & controle , Adolescente , Ansiedade/psicologia , Criança , China/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Depressão/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Neoplasias/complicações , Reconhecimento Psicológico/fisiologia , Autoeficácia , Apoio Social , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários/estatística & dados numéricos
3.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0239032, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32925937

RESUMO

Knowing where our limbs are in space is essential for moving and for adapting movements to various changes in our environments and bodies. The ability to adapt movements declines with age, and age-related cognitive decline can explain a decreased ability to adopt and deploy explicit, cognitive strategies in motor learning. Age-related sensory decline could also lead to a reduced fidelity of sensory position signals and error signals, each of which can affect implicit motor adaptation. Here we investigate two estimates of limb position; one based on proprioception, the other on predicted sensory consequences of movements. Each is considered a measure of an implicit adaptation process and may be affected by both age and cognitive strategies. Both older (n = 38) and younger (n = 42) adults adapted to a 30° visuomotor rotation in a centre-out reaching task. We make an explicit, cognitive strategy available to half of participants in each age group with a detailed instruction. After training, we first quantify the explicit learning elicited by instruction. Instructed older adults initially use the provided strategy slightly less than younger adults but show a similar ability to evoke it after training. This indicates that cognitive explanations for age-related decline in motor learning are limited. In contrast, training induced much larger shifts of state estimates of hand location in older adults compared to younger adults. This is not modulated by strategy instructions, and appears driven by recalibrated proprioception, which is almost twice as large in older adults, while predictions might not be updated in older adults. This means that in healthy aging, some implicit processes may be compensating for other changes to maintain motor capabilities, while others also show age-related decline (data: https://osf.io/qzhmy).


Assuntos
Fatores Etários , Atividade Motora/fisiologia , Desempenho Psicomotor/fisiologia , Adaptação Fisiológica/fisiologia , Adaptação Psicológica/fisiologia , Idoso , Feminino , Mãos/fisiologia , Humanos , Aprendizagem/fisiologia , Masculino , Movimento , Propriocepção , Rotação , Adulto Jovem
4.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0238221, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32866181

RESUMO

After perceiving cognitive conflicts or errors, children as well as adults adjust their performance in terms of reaction time slowing on subsequent actions, resulting in the so called post-conflict slowing and post-error slowing, respectively. The development of these phenomena has been studied separately and with different methods yielding inconsistent findings. We aimed to assess the temporal dynamics of these two slowing phenomena within a single behavioral task. To do so, 9-13-year-old children and young adults performed a Simon task in which every fifth trial was incongruent and thus induced cognitive conflict and, frequently, also errors. We compared the reaction times on four trials following a conflict or an error. Both age groups slowed down after conflicts and did so even more strongly after errors. Disproportionally high reaction times on the first post-error trial were followed by a steady flattening of the slowing. Generally, children slowed down more than adults. In addition to highlighting the phenomenal and developmental robustness of post-conflict and post-error slowing these findings strongly suggest increasingly efficient performance adjustment through fine-tuning of cognitive control in the course of development.


Assuntos
Cognição/fisiologia , Desempenho Psicomotor/fisiologia , Adaptação Psicológica/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Conflito Psicológico , Eletroencefalografia/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Tempo de Reação/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
5.
J Pain Symptom Manage ; 60(5): e15-e20, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32889042

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has impacted most elements of daily life, including the provision of support after a child's death and the experience of parental bereavement. OBJECTIVES: This study aims to examine ways in which COVID-19 has affected the bereavement experiences of parents whose children died of cancer before the pandemic. METHODS: Parents who participated in a survey-based study examining the early grief experience were invited to complete a semistructured interview. During the interview, which focused on examining the current support for parents and other family members within the first several years after the child's death, participants were asked how COVID-19 has impacted their life and bereavement. RESULTS: Fifteen of 33 eligible parents completed the interview; 14 were white and non-Hispanic, five were males. Parents participated an average of 19 (range 12-34) months after their child's death. COVID-19 was addressed in 13 interviews. Eleven codes were used to describe interview segments; the most commonly used codes were change in support, no effect, familiarity with uncertainty/ability to cope, and change in contact with care/research team. CONCLUSION: Parents identified multiple and variable ways-both positive, negative, and neutral-how COVID-19 has affected their bereavement. Many parents commented on feeling more isolated because of the inability to connect with family or attend in-person support groups, whereas others acknowledged their experience has made them uniquely positioned to cope with the uncertainty of the current situation. Clinicians must find innovative ways to connect with and support bereaved parents during this unique time.


Assuntos
Atitude Frente a Morte , Luto , Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Neoplasias , Pais/psicologia , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Adaptação Psicológica/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pandemias
6.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0239469, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32941547

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Diagnosis and treatment of prostate cancer can generate many challenges which impact on adjustment, so understanding the psychosocial factors which contribute to individual vulnerability to poor adaptation warrants further investigation. This study investigates stress and masculine identity threat as predictors of quality of life and emotional adjustment in men with localized prostate cancer and the role of resilience as a potential protective psychological factor. METHODS: Participants were invited to complete a survey study via online prostate cancer forums. Participants were 204 men ranging in age from 44-88 years (M = 65.24±7.51) and who were diagnosed with early localized prostate cancer within the previous five years. Measures used included the Perceived Stress Scale, Cancer-Related Masculine Threat Scale and the Conor-Davidson Resilience Scale. Using a cross-sectional online survey design, the extent to which perceived stress, masculine threat and psychological resilience are associated with quality of life, positive and negative affect and distress was assessed. RESULTS: Hierarchical regression analysis demonstrated that perceived stress accounted for 26%-44% of variance on quality of life and adjustment indices, with high stress associated with low mood and poor quality of life. Low masculine threat and high resilience predicted better quality of life and emotional adjustment accounting for between 1-7% of the variance. Resilience moderated the relationship between stress and distress and mediated the association between masculine threat and distress and negative affect. CONCLUSION: Perceived stress was the most powerful predictor in the model and findings suggest it contributes significantly to functional and affective status in survivors of prostate cancer. Psychological resilience is a protective factor which buffers the negative effect of stress and masculine identity threat on emotional adjustment. Findings indicate that men should be screened as part of the diagnostic and treatment process for high perceived stress and low resilience to identify those at risk for poor adjustment during survivorship.


Assuntos
Depressão/psicologia , Neoplasias da Próstata/psicologia , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Adaptação Psicológica/fisiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Próstata/patologia , Fatores de Proteção , Resiliência Psicológica , Inquéritos e Questionários , Sobreviventes/psicologia
7.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0238321, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32853261

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Psychological treatments improve depressive symptoms in people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA). Adaptation of treatments should be based on explanatory models of depression and other elements within the given context. AIM: This study aimed to examine explanatory models of depression and acceptable approaches for implementation of group IPT in Northwest Ethiopia. METHODS: Qualitative data were collected from April to May 2019 from case managers, adherence supporters and service users using focus group discussion and analysed thematically. RESULTS: PLWHA attributed depression to psychosocial problems, spiritual factors and biological factors. Depression had several impacts at individual and family level. Group-based interpersonal therapy (IPT) was acceptable if provided by trained peer counselors. CONCLUSION: The current study findings informed how to conduct feasibility and acceptability trials of group IPT in the HIV population in Ethiopia.


Assuntos
Adaptação Psicológica/fisiologia , Infecções por HIV/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Depressão/psicologia , Etiópia , Feminino , Grupos Focais , Humanos , Masculino , Adesão à Medicação/psicologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Psicoterapia de Grupo/métodos , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Organização Mundial da Saúde , Adulto Jovem
8.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0236333, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32776943

RESUMO

Research on the songbird zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata) has advanced our behavioral, hormonal, neuronal, and genetic understanding of vocal learning. However, little is known about the impact of typical experimental manipulations on the welfare of these birds. Here we explore whether the undirected singing rate can be used as an indicator of welfare. We tested this idea by performing a post hoc analysis of singing behavior in isolated male zebra finches subjected to interactive white noise, to surgery, or to tethering. We find that the latter two experimental manipulations transiently but reliably decreased singing rates. By contraposition, we infer that a high-sustained singing rate is suggestive of successful coping or improved welfare in these experiments. Our analysis across more than 300 days of song data suggests that a singing rate above a threshold of several hundred song motifs per day implies an absence of an acute stressor or a successful coping with stress. Because singing rate can be measured in a completely automatic fashion, its observation can help to reduce experimenter bias in welfare monitoring. Because singing rate measurements are non-invasive, we expect this study to contribute to the refinement of the current welfare monitoring tools in zebra finches.


Assuntos
Adaptação Psicológica/fisiologia , Bem-Estar do Animal , Monitorização de Parâmetros Ecológicos/métodos , Tentilhões/fisiologia , Vocalização Animal/fisiologia , Acústica , Animais , Masculino , Isolamento Social
9.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237008, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32776950

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Psychological distress in medical students is a global issue and poses a risk to their health, academic performance, and ability to care for patients as clinicians. There has been limited research on psychological distress levels in students prior to starting medicine and no direct comparison between undergraduate and graduate-entry students. METHODS: Psychological distress was assessed using the 21-item Depression Anxiety and Stress Scale in 168 undergraduate-entry and 84 graduate-entry medical students at two separated campuses of the same university in the orientation week prior to starting classes. Mean scores and severity proportions were compared between the two cohorts of students. Demographic data was also collected and compared to distress scores using subgroup analysis. RESULTS: The response rate for the study was 60.9%. The majority of undergraduate and graduate-entry medical students were within the normal limits for depression (67.2% versus 70.2%, p = 0.63), anxiety (56.5% versus 44.0%, p = 0.06), and stress scores (74.4% versus 64.2%, p = 0.10). There was no significant difference between severity groups except for severe stress (2.3% versus 9.5%, p = 0.01). The mean scores of the clinically distressed groups indicated moderate levels of depression, moderate anxiety, and moderate stress scores. There were no significant differences between undergraduate or graduate-entry students for depressive ([Formula: see text] = 17.02 versus 15.76, p = 0.43), anxiety ([Formula: see text] = 14.22 versus 13.28, p = 0.39), and stress scores ([Formula: see text] = 20.83 versus 22.46, p = 0.24). Female gender and self-believed financial concerns were found be associated with higher levels stress in graduate entry students. CONCLUSIONS: The majority of medical students enter medical school with normal levels of psychological distress. However, a large number of undergraduate and graduate-entry medical students have significant levels of depressive, anxiety, and stress levels, without a significant difference between undergraduate or graduate-entry students. There are several limitation of this study but the results suggest that education and intervention may be required to support students from the earliest weeks of medical school.


Assuntos
Angústia Psicológica , Estudantes de Medicina/psicologia , Adaptação Psicológica/fisiologia , Adolescente , Ansiedade/psicologia , Depressão/psicologia , Educação de Pós-Graduação em Medicina/métodos , Educação de Graduação em Medicina/métodos , Avaliação Educacional , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Faculdades de Medicina , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Adulto Jovem
10.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237038, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32776953

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We conducted three studies to validate the Polish version of the BRS. Our objectives are as follows: first, to explore the dimensional structure of the scale and to determine the internal consistency (study 1: n = 1022); second, to determine the congruent and divergent validity of the BRS (study 2: n = 242); and third, to examine sensitivity of the BRS scale to detect high-risk population (study 3: n = 602). METHODS: To explore the dimensional structure of the scale, we tested a two-factor model with one factor for positively worded items and one factor for negatively worded items. To determine the congruent and divergent validity of the BRS, we analysed correlations among BRS and resilience, positive mental health, and with positive and negative religious coping. We used Student's t-test to examine sensitivity of the BRS scale to detect a high-risk population. RESULTS: Based on the CFA, a bivariate model was confirmed for items positively and negatively formulated with a higher order factor, which indicates the homogeneity of the scale, similar to the analyses carried out for their language versions confirming this type of homogeneity of the scale. The internal compatibility assessment based on Cronbach's Alpha and McDonald's Omega is good (0.88). Our analyses intended to test convergent and divergent validity, and showed that the BRS results are significantly related to a questionnaire measuring similar constructions. Our validation studies also provided important diagnoses regarding BRS "sensitivity", indicating that groups with higher stress levels achieved lower BRS resilience results. CONCLUSION: The results of our research indicate that the Polish version of the BRS should be considered to be a reliable and valid research tool. The Polish version of BRS is a reliable and accurate way of measuring resilience as the ability to bounce back from adversity and overcome various challenges or stressors. This scale may be used for both research and intervention purposes.


Assuntos
Testes Neuropsicológicos/normas , Psicometria/métodos , Adaptação Psicológica/fisiologia , Adulto , Análise Fatorial , Feminino , Humanos , Idioma , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polônia , Psicometria/normas , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Resiliência Psicológica , Inquéritos e Questionários
11.
Cyberpsychol Behav Soc Netw ; 23(11): 782-788, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32640852

RESUMO

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is a global health emergency requiring clinicians to be prepared to cope with the increase in the future incidence of trauma and stress-related psychopathological symptoms. The early detection of psychological distress and timely intervention are strongly recommended. Clinicians should also consider integrating new technologies such as virtual reality (VR) in the treatment of these trauma and stress-related psychopathological symptoms. Here we provide a brief overview of how VR can help to cope with the potential short-term and long-term mental health consequences related to this global emergency.


Assuntos
Adaptação Psicológica/fisiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Realidade Virtual , Humanos , Saúde Mental , Pandemias
12.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0236873, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32726368

RESUMO

Individual differences in dispositional coping might influence how ambiguous situations involving interactions of men and women are interpreted and remembered. Specifically, we hypothesized that women with a sensitive coping style actively maintain ambiguously threatening stimuli in their memory, showing so-called sensitive maintenance. As a prerequisite to investigate this hypothesis, two surveys (Studies 1 and 2; N = 151 and N = 252) were conducted to answer the questions whether fear of sexual assault is of relevance for young women in Germany and whether ambiguous (rather than only unambiguously threatening) situations are experienced to a significant extent. After confirming this for our target population, our main hypothesis was tested in Study 3 (N = 192) by combining tasks assessing the appraisal and the forgetting of nonthreatening, threatening, and ambiguous pictures showing interactions of men and women, and by varying the cognitive load during the retention interval. Whereas fear of rape predicted the appraisal of pictures, coping dispositions predicted forgetting of ambiguously and unambiguously threatening pictures in the hypothesized way. Results are discussed from the perspective of adaptivity and functionality of memory.


Assuntos
Rememoração Mental , Delitos Sexuais/psicologia , Adaptação Psicológica/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
14.
J Pediatr Urol ; 16(4): 492.e1-492.e9, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32680626

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The COVID-19 pandemic has led to an unprecedented need to re-organise and re-align priorities for all surgical specialties. Despite the current declining numbers globally, the direct effects of the pandemic on institutional practices and on personal stress and coping mechanisms remains unknown. The aims of this study were to assess the effect of the pandemic on daily scheduling and work balances, its effects on stress, and to determine compliance with guidelines and to assess whether quarantining has led to other areas of increased productivity. METHODS: A trans-Atlantic convenience sample of paediatric urologists was created in which panellists (Zoom) discussed the direct effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on individual units, as well as creating a questionnaire using a mini-Delphi method to provide current semi-quantitative data regarding practice, and adherence levels to recently published risk stratification guidelines. They also filled out a Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) questionnaire to assess contemporary pandemic stress levels. RESULTS: There was an 86% response rate from paediatric urologists. The majority of respondents reported near complete disruption to planned operations (70%), and trainee education (70%). They were also worried about the effects of altered home-lives on productivity (≤90%), as well as a lack of personal protective equipment (57%). The baseline stress rate was measured at a very high level (PSS) during the pandemic. Adherence to recent operative guidelines for urgent cases was 100%. CONCLUSION: This study represents a panel discussion of a number of practical implications for paediatric urologists, and is one of the few papers to assess more pragmatic effects and combines opinions from both sides of the Atlantic. The impact of the pandemic has been very significant for paediatric urologists and includes a decrease in the number of patients seen and operated on, decreased salary, increased self-reported stress levels, substantially increased telemedicine usage, increased free time for various activities, and good compliance with guidelines and hospital management decisions.


Assuntos
Adaptação Psicológica/fisiologia , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Fidelidade a Diretrizes/estatística & dados numéricos , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Estresse Psicológico/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Urologistas/psicologia , Adulto , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia
15.
JAMA Netw Open ; 3(6): e206696, 2020 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32543698

RESUMO

Importance: The associations of spiritual and religious factors with patient-reported outcomes among adolescents with cancer are unknown. Objective: To model the association of spiritual and religious constructs with patient-reported outcomes of anxiety, depressive symptoms, fatigue, and pain interference. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cross-sectional study used baseline data, collected from 2016 to 2019, from an ongoing 5-year randomized clinical trial being conducted at 4 tertiary-referral pediatric medical centers in the US. A total of 366 adolescents were eligible for the clinical trial, and 126 were randomized; participants had to be aged 14 to 21 years at enrollment and be diagnosed with any form of cancer. Exclusion criteria included developmental delay, scoring greater than 26 on the Beck Depression Inventory II, non-English speaking, or unaware of cancer diagnosis. Exposures: Spiritual experiences, values, and beliefs; religious practices; and overall self-ranking of spirituality's importance. Main Outcomes and Measures: Variables were taken from the Brief Multidimensional Measurement of Religiousness/Spirituality (ie, feeling God's presence, daily prayer, religious service attendance, being very religious, and being very spiritual) and the spiritual well-being subscales of the Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy (meaning/peace and faith). Predefined outcome variables were anxiety, depressive symptoms, fatigue, and pain interference from Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System pediatric measures. Results: A total of 126 individuals participated (72 [57.1%] female participants; 100 [79.4%] white participants; mean [SD] age, 16.9 [1.9] years). Structural equation modeling showed that meaning and peace were inversely associated with anxiety (ß = -7.94; 95% CI, -12.88 to -4.12), depressive symptoms (ß = -10.49; 95% CI, -15.92 to -6.50), and fatigue (ß = -8.90; 95% CI, -15.34 to -3.61). Feeling God's presence daily was indirectly associated with anxiety (ß = -3.37; 95% CI, -6.82 to -0.95), depressive symptoms (ß = -4.50; 95% CI, -8.51 to -1.40), and fatigue (ß = -3.73; 95% CI, -8.03 to -0.90) through meaning and peace. Considering oneself very religious was indirectly associated with anxiety (ß = -2.81; 95% CI, -6.06 to -0.45), depressive symptoms (ß = -3.787; 95% CI, -7.68 to -0.61), and fatigue (ß = -3.11, 95% CI, -7.31 to -0.40) through meaning and peace. Considering oneself very spiritual was indirectly associated with anxiety (ß = 2.11; 95% CI, 0.05 to 4.95) and depression (ß = 2.8, 95% CI, 0.07 to 6.29) through meaning and peace. No associations were found between spiritual scales and pain interference. Conclusions and Relevance: In this study, multiple facets of spirituality and religiousness were associated with anxiety, depression, and fatigue, all of which were indirectly associated with the participant's sense of meaning and peace, which is a modifiable process. Although these results do not establish a causal direction, they do suggest palliative interventions addressing meaning-making, possibly including a spiritual or religious dimension, as a novel focus for intervention development.


Assuntos
Adaptação Psicológica/fisiologia , Ansiedade/psicologia , Depressão/psicologia , Neoplasias/psicologia , Adolescente , Ansiedade/etiologia , Doença Crônica/terapia , Estudos Transversais , Depressão/etiologia , Fadiga/etiologia , Fadiga/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Neoplasias/complicações , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Dor/etiologia , Dor/psicologia , Medidas de Resultados Relatados pelo Paciente , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Religião , Espiritualidade , Adulto Jovem
16.
Psychopharmacology (Berl) ; 237(8): 2555-2568, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32533210

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) antidepressants are increasingly prescribed during pregnancy. Changes in serotonergic signaling during human fetal development have been associated with changes in brain development and with changes in affective behavior in adulthood. The suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) is known to be modulated by serotonin and it is therefore assumed that SSRIs may affect circadian rhythms. However, effects of perinatal SSRI treatment on circadian system functioning in the offspring are largely unknown. OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to investigate the effects of perinatal exposure to the SSRI fluoxetine (FLX) on circadian behavior, affective behavior, and 5-HT1A receptor sensitivity in female rats. In addition, we studied the expression of clock genes and the 5-HT1A receptor in the SCN, as they are potentially involved in underlying mechanisms contributing to changes in circadian rhythms. RESULTS: Perinatal FLX exposure shortened the free-running tau in response to the 5-HT1A/7 agonist 8-OH-DPAT. However, FLX exposure did not alter anxiety, stress coping, and 5-HT1A receptor sensitivity. No differences were found in 5-HT1A receptor and clock genes Per1, Per2, Cry1, and Cry2 SCN gene expression. CONCLUSIONS: Perinatal FLX exposure altered the response to a phase-shifting challenge in female rats, whether this may pose health risks remains to be investigated.


Assuntos
Adaptação Psicológica/efeitos dos fármacos , Ritmo Circadiano/efeitos dos fármacos , Fluoxetina/farmacologia , Inibidores de Captação de Serotonina/farmacologia , 8-Hidroxi-2-(di-n-propilamino)tetralina/farmacologia , Adaptação Psicológica/fisiologia , Animais , Antidepressivos/farmacologia , Ritmo Circadiano/fisiologia , Feminino , Ratos , Ratos Transgênicos , Ratos Wistar , Serotonina/metabolismo , Núcleo Supraquiasmático/efeitos dos fármacos , Núcleo Supraquiasmático/fisiologia
18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32560522

RESUMO

Women experience more stress in middle age than in other life stages, and health in middle age is vital, because it influences the quality of life in old age. In this study, the effects of a forest therapy program on physiological changes in 53 middle-aged women (divided into two groups) who lived in the city were examined. One group participated in a three-day program in the forest, followed by three days in the city; the other group participated in a three-day program in the city, followed by three days in the forest. Forest experiments were conducted in a "healing forest," and urban experiments were conducted near a university campus. Blood tests were performed to evaluate the physiological effects of forest therapy. Differences in serotonin levels and vitamin D levels were verified before and after the forest (experimental group) and urban (control group) programs through paired t-tests. Statistically significant increases in serotonin levels were noted for participants in the forest program; vitamin D levels also increased, but not by statistically significant values. The findings of this study verify that forest therapy programs promote health among middle-aged women, and may prevent disease and improve quality of life.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/fisiologia , Envelhecimento/psicologia , Florestas , Fadiga Mental , Terapias Mente-Corpo/métodos , Terapia de Relaxamento/métodos , Adaptação Psicológica/fisiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Envelhecimento/sangue , Cidades , Feminino , Promoção da Saúde/métodos , Envelhecimento Saudável/sangue , Envelhecimento Saudável/fisiologia , Envelhecimento Saudável/psicologia , Humanos , Massagem/psicologia , Meditação/psicologia , Fadiga Mental/sangue , Fadiga Mental/fisiopatologia , Fadiga Mental/psicologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Terapias Mente-Corpo/psicologia , Angústia Psicológica , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Terapia de Relaxamento/psicologia , República da Coreia , Serotonina/sangue , Estresse Fisiológico/fisiologia , Saúde da População Urbana , População Urbana , Vitamina D/sangue , Caminhada/fisiologia , Caminhada/psicologia , Ioga/psicologia
19.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0234325, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32542020

RESUMO

Mechanisms underlying the manifestation of relatives' expressed emotion (EE) in the early stages of psychosis are still not properly understood. The present study aimed to examine whether relatives' psychological distress and subjective appraisals of the illness predicted EE dimensions over-and-above patients' poor clinical and functional status. Baseline patient-related variables and relatives attributes comprising criticism, emotional over-involvement (EOI), psychological distress, and illness attributions were assessed in 91 early psychosis patients and their respective relatives. Relatives were reassessed regarding EE dimensions at a 6-month follow-up. Relatives' psychological distress and illness attributions predicted criticism and EOI over-and-above patients' illness characteristics at both time points. Relatives' increased levels of anxiety, attributions of blame toward the patients, an emotional negative representation about the disorder, and decreased levels of self-blame attributions predicted EE-criticism at baseline. Relatives' anxiety and negative emotional representation of the disorder were the only significant predictors of EE-criticism at follow-up, whereas anxiety, attributions of control by the relative and an emotional negative representation about the disorder predicted EE-EOI both at baseline and follow-up assessments. Understanding the components that comprise and maintain EE attitudes should guide early psychosis caregivers in family interventions, enhancing proper management of psychological distress and reduction of negative appraisals about the illness. The prevention of high-EE attitudes over time in a sensitive period such as early psychosis might be critical in shaping the health of caregivers and the outcome of the affected relatives.


Assuntos
Cuidadores/psicologia , Emoções Manifestas/fisiologia , Família/psicologia , Adaptação Psicológica/fisiologia , Adulto , Ansiedade/psicologia , Atitude , Emoções/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Transtornos Psicóticos/psicologia , Percepção Social
20.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0234473, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32525947

RESUMO

Creativity is pivotal to solving complex problems of many kinds, yet how cognitive flexibility dynamically supports creative processes is largely unexplored. Despite being a crucial multi-faceted contributor in creative thinking, cognitive flexibility, as typically assessed, does not fully capture how people adaptively shift between varying or persisting in their current problem-solving efforts. To fill this theoretical and methodological gap, we introduce a new operationalization of cognitive flexibility: the process-based Self-Guided Transition (SGT) measures, which assess when participants autonomously choose to continue working on one of two concurrently presented items (dwell length) and how often they choose to switch between the two items (shift count). We examine how these measures correlate with three diverse creativity tasks, and with creative performance on a more complex "garden design" task. Analyses of the relations between these new cognitive flexibility measures in 66 young adults revealed that SGT dwell length positively correlated with creative performance across several tasks. The SGT shift count positively correlated with within-task performance for a two-item choice task tapping divergent thinking (Alternative Uses Task) but not for a two-item choice task calling on convergent thinking (Anagram task). Multiple regression analyses revealed that, taken together, both the shift count and dwell length measures from the Alternative Uses Task explained a significant proportion of variance in measures of fluency, and originality, on a composite measure of the three independently-assessed creative tasks. Relations of SGTs to the Garden Design task were weaker, though shift count on the Alternative Uses Task was predictive of a composite measure of overall Garden Design quality. Taken together, these results highlight the promise of our new process-based measures to better chart the dynamically flexible processes supporting creative thinking and action.


Assuntos
Adaptação Psicológica/fisiologia , Cognição/fisiologia , Criatividade , Resolução de Problemas/fisiologia , Adolescente , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
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