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1.
Klin Monbl Augenheilkd ; 237(11): 1306-1311, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês, Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33202463

RESUMO

Pituitary tumours are a common cause of functional impairment and degeneration of the anterior visual pathway. Depending on localization and size, they clinically manifest as initially reversible visual field defects. As part of interdisciplinary tumour management, ophthalmologic examinations are of particular importance concerning diagnostics, indication for tumour resection and documentation of functional surgical results. Based on the relationship between clinical dysfunction and manifest atrophy, together with the patient's age and the duration of symptoms, the ophthalmologist can provide insights into the postoperative visual prognosis. Under good conditions, surgical tumour resection often results in significant improvements to visual fields and acuity. Long-term ophthalmological controls are required in cases of persistent visual loss, radiotherapy or tumour remnants abutting the visual pathway.


Assuntos
Adenoma , Neoplasias Hipofisárias , Adenoma/complicações , Adenoma/diagnóstico , Adenoma/cirurgia , Humanos , Neoplasias Hipofisárias/complicações , Neoplasias Hipofisárias/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Hipofisárias/cirurgia , Transtornos da Visão/diagnóstico , Transtornos da Visão/etiologia , Transtornos da Visão/terapia , Testes de Campo Visual , Campos Visuais
2.
Mymensingh Med J ; 29(4): 1015-1020, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33116111

RESUMO

Hypopituitarism is a rare entity with reported incidence, 4 per 100,000 and about 50% of such patients present with three to five pituitary hormone deficits. A slow onset of symptoms is typical. But, diversified presentations from absence of symptoms to vague clinical features to lethal effects leading to mortality are not uncommon in such disorder. In adults, in such cases symptoms of hypogonadism may be the first noticeable illness for reporting to physicians, but it is often under evaluated or even ignored. Here, we present a case of 40-year-old adult male with panhypopituitarism, who presented with loss of generalized body hair and loss of libido for about last five years but the problem was not evaluated adequately. Later, he developed lethargy, generalized weakness, weight loss and then the underneath cause detected was panhypopituitarism due to pituitary macro adenoma. So, suspicion and hormonal evaluation for hypogonadism would help in early detection and management of progressive hypopituitarism in symptomatic adult patients. Cases of panhypopituitarism need lifelong hormone replacement and follow-up and if pituitary adenoma is present, surgical removal by trans-sphenoidal approach is preferable.


Assuntos
Adenoma , Hipogonadismo , Hipopituitarismo , Neoplasias Hipofisárias , Adenoma/complicações , Adenoma/diagnóstico , Adenoma/cirurgia , Adulto , Humanos , Hipogonadismo/diagnóstico , Hipogonadismo/etiologia , Hipopituitarismo/diagnóstico , Hipopituitarismo/etiologia , Hipopituitarismo/terapia , Masculino , Neoplasias Hipofisárias/complicações , Neoplasias Hipofisárias/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Hipofisárias/cirurgia
3.
Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 54(8): 834-838, 2020 Aug 06.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32842311

RESUMO

Objective: To investigate the colonscopy screening interval among patients with negative colonscopy. Methods: We selected 14 606 participants who completed the baseline and 3-year or 5-year colonoscopy examinations in the American Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian (PLCO) dataset as the target population. Sociodemographic characteristics (i.e., sex, age, marital status, race, and smoking), lifestyle, family history of cancer, and family history of colorectal cancer were collected. Cochran-Armitage trend analysis was used to examine whether the rate of positive cases (colorectal cancer, advanced adenoma, adenoma, and hyperplastic polyp) was increased with the length of screening interval. We compared the differences in number of detected cases, positive rates, and proportions of 3-year and 5-year screening interval strategies using internal standardization method. Results: The age of the population was (61.9±5.2) years and over half of them were males (54.4%) and 46.2% had family cancer history. The mean screening interval between the first and second endoscopies was (1 639.1±320.9) days. A total of 1 716 cases had positive endoscopic findings. With the screening interval extended, rate of the screened positive cases was also increased (P for trend<0.001). After standardized by the internal standardized population (14 606), 17.99 and 11.57 colorectal cancer cases and 177.37 and 240.35 advanced adenoma cases were detected by 3-year and 5-year screening interval strategies, respectively. Conclusion: Based on the initial screening negative population of colonoscopy in the United States, the 3-year screening interval strategy could detect a relatively large number of colorectal cancer cases, but its health and economic evaluation needs to be further explored.


Assuntos
Adenoma/diagnóstico , Neoplasias do Colo , Neoplasias Colorretais/diagnóstico , Colonoscopia , Detecção Precoce de Câncer , Humanos , Masculino , Programas de Rastreamento , Estados Unidos
4.
Eur J Endocrinol ; 183(4): D1-D13, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32698136

RESUMO

The literature on an association between acromegaly and cancer is particularly abundant on either colorectal cancer or thyroid cancer, and an endless debate is ongoing whether patients with acromegaly should be submitted to specific oncology screening and surveillance protocols. The aim of the present work is to review the most recent data on the risk of either colorectal cancer or thyroid cancer in acromegaly and discuss the opportunity for specific screening in relation to the accepted procedures in the general population.


Assuntos
Acromegalia/complicações , Neoplasias Colorretais/diagnóstico , Detecção Precoce de Câncer , Programas de Rastreamento , Monitorização Fisiológica , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/diagnóstico , Acromegalia/diagnóstico , Acromegalia/epidemiologia , Acromegalia/terapia , Adenoma/complicações , Adenoma/diagnóstico , Adenoma/epidemiologia , Adenoma/terapia , Neoplasias Colorretais/complicações , Neoplasias Colorretais/epidemiologia , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/métodos , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/normas , Endocrinologia/métodos , Endocrinologia/normas , Adenoma Hipofisário Secretor de Hormônio do Crescimento/complicações , Adenoma Hipofisário Secretor de Hormônio do Crescimento/diagnóstico , Adenoma Hipofisário Secretor de Hormônio do Crescimento/epidemiologia , Adenoma Hipofisário Secretor de Hormônio do Crescimento/terapia , Humanos , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Programas de Rastreamento/normas , Oncologia/métodos , Oncologia/normas , Monitorização Fisiológica/métodos , Monitorização Fisiológica/normas , Vigilância da População/métodos , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto/normas , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/complicações , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/epidemiologia
5.
Intern Med ; 59(12): 1481-1488, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32536675

RESUMO

Objective This study aims to elucidate the association between the clinical characteristics of post-colonoscopy colorectal cancer (PCCRC) and quality indicators (QIs) of colonoscopy. Methods Patients with PCCRC who underwent total colonoscopy (TCS) and were histologically diagnosed with adenocarcinoma within six months to five years of the last examination were included in this study. PCCRC and normally detected cancer (NDC) identified within the same period were compared in terms of their clinicopathological characteristics. Furthermore, the QIs at PCCRC detection were compared to those at the last examination. Results Patients with PCCRC had a significantly higher rate of colon surgery history than those with NDC (PCCRC: 25/76, 32.9%; NDC: 31/1,437, 2.2%; p<0.001), but the invasion depth in these patients was significantly shallower (PCCRC: ≤Tis/≥T1, 37/39; NDC: ≤Tis/≥T1, 416/1,021; p<0.001). Among patients with PCCRC, the T1b group had significantly more non-polypoid growth (NPG)-type cases than PG-type CRC cases (p=0.018). The adenoma detection rate (ADR) of colonoscopists performing TCS was 30.2-52.8%. Furthermore, the ADR of colonoscopists at the time of PCCRC detection (36.7%±5.9%) was significantly higher than that of colonoscopists who performed the last examination (34.9%±4.4%; p=0.034). The withdrawal time for negative colonoscopy (WT-NC) at detection was significantly longer than that at the last examination (at detection: 494.3±253.8 s; at last examination: 579.5±243.6 s; p=0.010). Conclusion Given that these PCCRC cases were post-colon surgery cases, had a long WT-NC, and were detected by colonoscopists with a high ADR, most cases showed lesions that were missed during the previous colonoscopy. Caution should be practiced in order to avoid missing flat, NPG-type tumors.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma/diagnóstico , Adenoma/diagnóstico , Colonoscopia , Neoplasias Colorretais/diagnóstico , Indicadores de Qualidade em Assistência à Saúde , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Detecção Precoce de Câncer , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Fatores de Risco
6.
Am J Gastroenterol ; 115(8): 1275-1282, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32483010

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Limited data inform the current postpolypectomy surveillance guidelines, which suggest a shortened interval to third colonoscopy after a negative second examination if high-risk adenomas (HRA) were present on the initial screening colonoscopy. Therefore, we examined the risk of HRA at third colonoscopy stratified by findings on 2 previous examinations in a prospective screening colonoscopy cohort of US veterans. METHODS: We identified participants who had 3 or more colonoscopies from CSP#380. We examined the risk of HRA on the third examination based on findings from the previous 2 examinations. Multivariate logistic regression was used to adjust for multiple covariates. RESULTS: HRA were found at the third examination in 114 (12.8%) of 891 participants. Those with HRA on both previous examinations had the greatest incidence of HRA at third examination (14/56, 25.0%). Compared with those with no adenomas on both previous examinations, participants with HRA on the first examination remained at significantly increased risk for HRA at the third examination at 3 years after a negative second examination (odds ratio [OR] 3.41, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.28-9.08), 5 years (OR 3.14, 95% CI 1.49-6.61), and 7 years (OR 2.89, 95% CI 1.08-7.74). DISCUSSION: In a screening population, HRA on the first examination identified individuals who remained at increased risk for HRA at the third examination, even after a negative second examination. This finding supports current colorectal cancer surveillance guidelines, which suggest a shortened, 5-year time interval to third colonoscopy after a negative second examination if high-risk findings were present on the baseline examination.


Assuntos
Adenoma/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/epidemiologia , Adenoma/diagnóstico , Adenoma/diagnóstico por imagem , Adenoma/patologia , Idoso , Colonoscopia , Neoplasias Colorretais/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Colorretais/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , United States Department of Veterans Affairs , Veteranos
7.
Eur J Endocrinol ; 183(1): G17-G23, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-205229

RESUMO

Patients with pituitary tumours, ensuing hormonal abnormalities and mass effects are usually followed in multidisciplinary pituitary clinics and can represent a management challenge even during the times of non-pandemic. The COVID-19 pandemic has put on hold routine medical care for hundreds of millions of patients around the globe, while many pituitary patients' evaluations cannot be delayed for too long. Furthermore, the majority of patients with pituitary tumours have co-morbidities potentially impacting the course and management of COVID-19 (e.g. hypopituitarism, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, obesity and cardiovascular disease). Here, we summarize some of the diagnostic and management dilemmas encountered, and provide guidance on safe and as effective as possible delivery of care in the COVID-19 era. We also attempt to address how pituitary services should be remodelled in the event of similar crises, while maintaining or even improving patient outcomes. Regular review of these recommendations and further adjustments are needed, depending on the evolution of the COVID-19 pandemic status. We consider that the utilization of successful models of pituitary multidisciplinary care implemented during the COVID-19 pandemic should continue after the crisis is over by using the valuable and exceptional experience gained during these challenging times.


Assuntos
Adenoma/terapia , Antineoplásicos Hormonais/uso terapêutico , Infecções por Coronavirus , Agonistas de Dopamina/uso terapêutico , Procedimentos Neurocirúrgicos , Pandemias , Apoplexia Hipofisária/terapia , Neoplasias Hipofisárias/terapia , Pneumonia Viral , Adenoma/diagnóstico , Cabergolina/uso terapêutico , Gerenciamento Clínico , Terapia de Reposição Hormonal , Hormônio do Crescimento Humano/análogos & derivados , Hormônio do Crescimento Humano/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Octreotida/uso terapêutico , Peptídeos Cíclicos/uso terapêutico , Apoplexia Hipofisária/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Hipofisárias/diagnóstico , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Radioterapia , Somatostatina/análogos & derivados , Somatostatina/uso terapêutico , Telemedicina , Fatores de Tempo , Testes de Campo Visual
8.
Eur J Endocrinol ; 183(1): G1-G7, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-256412

RESUMO

Clinical evaluation should guide those needing immediate investigation. Strict adherence to COVID-19 protection measures is necessary. Alternative ways of consultations (telephone, video) should be used. Early discussion with regional/national experts about investigation and management of potential and existing patients is strongly encouraged. Patients with moderate or severe clinical features need urgent investigation and management. Patients with active Cushing's syndrome, especially when severe, are immunocompromised and vigorous adherence to the principles of social isolation is recommended. In patients with mild features or in whom a diagnosis is less likely, clinical re-evaluation should be repeated at 3 and 6 months or deferred until the prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 has significantly decreased; however, those individuals should be encouraged to maintain social distancing. Diagnostic pathways may need to be very different from usual recommendations in order to reduce possible exposure to SARS-CoV-2. When extensive differential diagnostic testing and/or surgery is not feasible, it should be deferred and medical treatment should be initiated. Transsphenoidal pituitary surgery should be delayed during high SARS-CoV-2 viral prevalence. Medical management rather than surgery will be the used for most patients, since the short- to mid-term prognosis depends in most cases on hypercortisolism rather than its cause; it should be initiated promptly to minimize the risk of infection in these immunosuppressed patients. The risk/benefit ratio of these recommendations will need re-evaluation every 2-3 months from April 2020 in each country (and possibly local areas) and will depend on the local health care structure and phase of pandemic.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Síndrome de Cushing/terapia , Inibidores Enzimáticos/uso terapêutico , Glucocorticoides/uso terapêutico , Controle de Infecções/métodos , Procedimentos Neurocirúrgicos/métodos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Telemedicina , Inibidores de 14-alfa Desmetilase/uso terapêutico , Adenoma Hipofisário Secretor de ACT/complicações , Adenoma Hipofisário Secretor de ACT/diagnóstico , Adenoma Hipofisário Secretor de ACT/terapia , Adenoma/complicações , Adenoma/diagnóstico , Adenoma/terapia , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Síndrome de Cushing/diagnóstico , Síndrome de Cushing/etiologia , Síndrome de Cushing/imunologia , Gerenciamento Clínico , Humanos , Hidrocortisona/sangue , Hospedeiro Imunocomprometido , Cetoconazol/uso terapêutico , Metirapona/uso terapêutico , Educação de Pacientes como Assunto , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Fatores de Tempo
9.
Pathologe ; 41(5): 515-522, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32458047

RESUMO

The nipple-areola complex is the origin of various morphologically distinct tumors and tumor-like lesions, which can be delineated from the special structures of the nipple, in particular the intramammary ducts, skin-appendages, and the intramammary stroma. Benign tumors are most frequent and this includes epithelial tumors such as mammary adenoma and syringomatous tumor of the nipple. Less commonly observed are benign mesenchymal tumors such as leiomyoma of the nipple, or tumor-like lesions like pseudo-lymphoma. With excess formations of the nipple, the different forms of polythelia and polymastia have to be considered.


Assuntos
Adenoma , Neoplasias da Mama , Leiomioma , Mamilos , Adenoma/diagnóstico , Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico , Humanos , Leiomioma/diagnóstico , Mamilos/patologia , Pele
11.
Zh Vopr Neirokhir Im N N Burdenko ; 84(2): 110-120, 2020.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32412200

RESUMO

According to previously accepted criteria, pituitary microadenoma is characterized by a diameter of less than 10 mm. Improvement and widespread use of MRI are accompanied by increased incidence of diagnosis of these neoplasms. Pituitary microadenomas is an extremely heterogeneous group of tumors with different biological behavior, endocrine secretion and clinical symptoms despite the common MR characteristics. Treatment is mainly determined by endocrine secretion. Endocrine-active microadenoma requires medication (in case of microprolactinoma) and surgical treatment (in case of microsomatotropinoma and ACTH-releasing tumor). Follow-up is advisable for endocrine-inactive microadenoma (microincidentaloma). Modern data on the incidence, clinical and endocrine features, diagnosis and treatment of various pituitary microadenomas are discussed in the article.


Assuntos
Adenoma/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Hipofisárias/diagnóstico por imagem , Prolactinoma/terapia , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética
12.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(20): e20243, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32443361

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Previous studies have reported that cuff-assisted colonoscopy (CAC) can be used for detection of adenoma (DA). However, there are inconsistent results regarding the CAC for DA. Thus, this study will systematically explore the impact of CAC for DA. METHODS: In order to retrieve potential eligible articles, this study will identify the following electronic databases from their inceptions to present: MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, PSYCINFO, Web of Science, Chinese Biomedical Literature Database, and China National Knowledge Infrastructure. All electronic databases will be searched without any language limitation. We will consider case-controlled studies that focused on exploring the impacts of CAC for DA. Two authors will perform study selection, information collection and risk of bias assessment, respectively. Any discrepancies between 2 authors will be resolved through discussion with a third author. RESULTS: This study will summarize the most recent evidence to assess the impact of CAC for DA. CONCLUSION: The findings of this study will provide evidence of CAC for DA in clinical practice. SYSTEMATIC REVIEW REGISTRATION: INPLASY202040042.


Assuntos
Adenoma/diagnóstico , Colonoscopia/métodos , Adenoma/fisiopatologia , Protocolos Clínicos , Colonoscopia/normas , Colonoscopia/tendências , Neoplasias Colorretais/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Colorretais/fisiopatologia , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/métodos , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/normas , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/tendências , Humanos , Metanálise como Assunto
13.
Eur J Endocrinol ; 183(1): G17-G23, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32369770

RESUMO

Patients with pituitary tumours, ensuing hormonal abnormalities and mass effects are usually followed in multidisciplinary pituitary clinics and can represent a management challenge even during the times of non-pandemic. The COVID-19 pandemic has put on hold routine medical care for hundreds of millions of patients around the globe, while many pituitary patients' evaluations cannot be delayed for too long. Furthermore, the majority of patients with pituitary tumours have co-morbidities potentially impacting the course and management of COVID-19 (e.g. hypopituitarism, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, obesity and cardiovascular disease). Here, we summarize some of the diagnostic and management dilemmas encountered, and provide guidance on safe and as effective as possible delivery of care in the COVID-19 era. We also attempt to address how pituitary services should be remodelled in the event of similar crises, while maintaining or even improving patient outcomes. Regular review of these recommendations and further adjustments are needed, depending on the evolution of the COVID-19 pandemic status. We consider that the utilization of successful models of pituitary multidisciplinary care implemented during the COVID-19 pandemic should continue after the crisis is over by using the valuable and exceptional experience gained during these challenging times.


Assuntos
Adenoma/terapia , Antineoplásicos Hormonais/uso terapêutico , Infecções por Coronavirus , Agonistas de Dopamina/uso terapêutico , Procedimentos Neurocirúrgicos , Pandemias , Apoplexia Hipofisária/terapia , Neoplasias Hipofisárias/terapia , Pneumonia Viral , Adenoma/diagnóstico , Cabergolina/uso terapêutico , Gerenciamento Clínico , Terapia de Reposição Hormonal , Hormônio do Crescimento Humano/análogos & derivados , Hormônio do Crescimento Humano/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Octreotida/uso terapêutico , Peptídeos Cíclicos/uso terapêutico , Apoplexia Hipofisária/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Hipofisárias/diagnóstico , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Radioterapia , Somatostatina/análogos & derivados , Somatostatina/uso terapêutico , Telemedicina , Fatores de Tempo , Testes de Campo Visual
14.
Eur J Endocrinol ; 183(1): G1-G7, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32380475

RESUMO

Clinical evaluation should guide those needing immediate investigation. Strict adherence to COVID-19 protection measures is necessary. Alternative ways of consultations (telephone, video) should be used. Early discussion with regional/national experts about investigation and management of potential and existing patients is strongly encouraged. Patients with moderate or severe clinical features need urgent investigation and management. Patients with active Cushing's syndrome, especially when severe, are immunocompromised and vigorous adherence to the principles of social isolation is recommended. In patients with mild features or in whom a diagnosis is less likely, clinical re-evaluation should be repeated at 3 and 6 months or deferred until the prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 has significantly decreased; however, those individuals should be encouraged to maintain social distancing. Diagnostic pathways may need to be very different from usual recommendations in order to reduce possible exposure to SARS-CoV-2. When extensive differential diagnostic testing and/or surgery is not feasible, it should be deferred and medical treatment should be initiated. Transsphenoidal pituitary surgery should be delayed during high SARS-CoV-2 viral prevalence. Medical management rather than surgery will be the used for most patients, since the short- to mid-term prognosis depends in most cases on hypercortisolism rather than its cause; it should be initiated promptly to minimize the risk of infection in these immunosuppressed patients. The risk/benefit ratio of these recommendations will need re-evaluation every 2-3 months from April 2020 in each country (and possibly local areas) and will depend on the local health care structure and phase of pandemic.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Síndrome de Cushing/terapia , Inibidores Enzimáticos/uso terapêutico , Glucocorticoides/uso terapêutico , Controle de Infecções/métodos , Procedimentos Neurocirúrgicos/métodos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Telemedicina , Inibidores de 14-alfa Desmetilase/uso terapêutico , Adenoma Hipofisário Secretor de ACT/complicações , Adenoma Hipofisário Secretor de ACT/diagnóstico , Adenoma Hipofisário Secretor de ACT/terapia , Adenoma/complicações , Adenoma/diagnóstico , Adenoma/terapia , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Síndrome de Cushing/diagnóstico , Síndrome de Cushing/etiologia , Síndrome de Cushing/imunologia , Gerenciamento Clínico , Humanos , Hidrocortisona/sangue , Hospedeiro Imunocomprometido , Cetoconazol/uso terapêutico , Metirapona/uso terapêutico , Educação de Pacientes como Assunto , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Fatores de Tempo
15.
J Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 35(10): 1676-1683, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32267558

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIM: The utility of artificial intelligence (AI) in colonoscopy has gained popularity in current times. Recent trials have evaluated the efficacy of deep convolutional neural network (DCNN)-based AI system in colonoscopy for improving adenoma detection rate (ADR) and polyp detection rate (PDR). We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of the available studies to assess the impact of DCNN-based AI-assisted colonoscopy in improving the ADR and PDR. METHODS: We queried the following database for this study: PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library, Web of Sciences, and Computers and Applied Sciences. We only included randomized controlled trials that compared AI colonoscopy to standard colonoscopy (SC). Our outcomes included ADR and PDR. Risk ratios (RR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) were calculated using random effects model and DerSimonian-Laird approach for each outcome. RESULTS: A total of three studies with 2815 patients (1415 in SC group and 1400 in AI group) were included. AI colonoscopy resulted in significantly improved ADR (32.9% vs 20.8%, RR: 1.58, 95% CI 1.39-1.80, P = < 0.001) and PDR (43.0% vs 27.8%, RR: 1.55, 95% CI 1.39-1.72, P = < 0.001) compared with SC. CONCLUSION: Given the results and limitations, the utility of AI colonoscopy holds promise and should be evaluated in more randomized controlled trials across different population, especially in patients solely undergoing colonoscopy for screening purpose as improved ADR will ultimately help in reducing incident colorectal cancer.


Assuntos
Adenoma/diagnóstico , Inteligência Artificial , Neoplasias do Colo/diagnóstico , Pólipos do Colo/diagnóstico , Colonoscopia/métodos , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Redes Neurais de Computação , Humanos
16.
J Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 35(10): 1746-1752, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32267568

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIM: Generally, colonoscopy is less effective for detecting colorectal adenomas in the right-sided colon compared with the distal colon. Repeat forward-view (RF) examination of the right-sided colon has been suggested to increase the adenoma detection rate (ADR). However, studies investigating the efficacy of RF examination are lacking. Thus, the aim of this study was to determine whether RF examination in the right-sided colon enhances right-sided ADR. METHODS: We performed a prospective, randomized controlled trial, including asymptomatic subjects who underwent screening colonoscopy. Subjects were randomized to the RF group, in which the right-sided colon was examined twice in the forward view, or to the standard forward-view (SF) group, in which the right-sided colon was examined once in the forward view. The primary outcome was the right-sided ADR on RF examination of the right-sided colon. RESULTS: A total of 640 subjects completed the study protocol (RF group, n = 320; SF group, n = 320). The right-sided ADR in the RF group was significantly higher than that in the SF group (17.5% vs 11.9%, respectively; P = 0.044). In the RF group, an additional 31 adenomas were found, resulting in an increased detection rate of adenomas of 38.3% compared with the first forward view. The ADR of the whole colon was similar between the groups. CONCLUSIONS: In our prospective randomized controlled trial, RF examination of the right-sided colon, which can be easily performed in clinical practice, was associated with an increased rate of detection of right-sided ADR.


Assuntos
Adenoma/diagnóstico , Adenoma/patologia , Colo/patologia , Colonoscopia/métodos , Neoplasias Colorretais/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/métodos , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos
17.
Am J Surg Pathol ; 44(7): 881-892, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32282345

RESUMO

In follicular thyroid neoplasms without invasion, a diagnosis of atypical adenoma (AA) (follicular tumor of uncertain malignant potential) may be rendered if atypical features (indefinite capsular/vascular invasion, necrosis, solid growth, increased mitoses) are present. This study compares clinical, histologic, and molecular features of patients with AAs (n=31), nonmetastatic follicular thyroid carcinoma (nmFTC) (n=18), and metastatic follicular thyroid carcinoma (mFTC) (n=38). Patients with mFTC were older. Mitotic activity in areas of solid growth was greatest in mFTC (P=0.05). Oncocytic tumors tended to show solid growth (P=0.04). The presence or frequency of capsular and/or vascular invasion was not different between nmFTC and mFTC. TERT promoter mutations were higher in patients with mFTC (50%) than nmFTC (25%) and AA (10%) (P=0.02). TERT promoter mutation was associated with necrosis (P=0.01) and solid growth plus increased mitoses (P=0.03). Necrosis and TERT promoter mutations were identified in all groups, most frequently in mFTC. The combination of solid growth with increased mitoses, necrosis, and TERT promoter mutation was only seen in follicular carcinomas. Poorly differentiated features, vascular invasion, and TERT promoter mutation correlated with metastasis in FTC. Given the low frequency of necrosis and TERT promoter mutation in AAs, close clinical follow-up is recommended in patients with these findings, especially if additional atypical features (such as solid growth plus mitoses) are present.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma Folicular/diagnóstico , Adenoma/diagnóstico , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Telomerase/genética , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/diagnóstico , Adenocarcinoma Folicular/genética , Adenocarcinoma Folicular/patologia , Adenoma/genética , Adenoma/patologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , Metástase Neoplásica , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/genética , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/patologia , Adulto Jovem
18.
Georgian Med News ; (299): 106-110, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32242855

RESUMO

We report a case of a woman, who had an elevated levels of naturally-occurring autoantibodies to human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) ß core fragment ( hCGßcf) one year prior to the development of thyroid follicular lesion. The patient underwent surgery and the histology report demonstrated that the lesion was a follicular adenoma. Further investigations of the role of naturally-occurring autoantibodies (NAAbs) to anti-hCGßcf in the pathogenesis of various tumours of thyroid gland might be useful in the development of novel diagnostic methods, using anti-hCGßcf NAAbs as a marker for the detection of unsuspected thyroid tumour.


Assuntos
Adenoma/diagnóstico , Autoanticorpos/sangue , Gonadotropina Coriônica Humana Subunidade beta/sangue , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/diagnóstico , Adenoma/sangue , Gonadotropina Coriônica , Feminino , Humanos , Fragmentos de Peptídeos , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/sangue
19.
Ann R Coll Surg Engl ; 102(6): e111-e114, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32233855

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Bilateral giant parathyroid adenoma in the absence of multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) type 1 is extremely rare and literature on this subject is limited. CASE HISTORY: A 79-year-old man presented with acute kidney injury secondary to hypercalcaemia. Blood test results indicated primary hyperparathyroidism. Ultrasonography revealed bilateral parathyroid adenomas measuring 19.4mm x 19.5mm x 18.8mm (left) and 15.2mm x 18.3mm x 19.6mm (left) whereas on computed tomography, the measurements were 31mm x 20mm (left) and 30mm x 14mm (right). Intraoperatively, giant adenomas measuring 50mm x 25mm x 12mm (left, weighing 8.101g) and 48mm x 22mm x 10mm (right, weighing 7.339g) were identified and excised. Parathyroid hormone level dropped from 44.6pmol/l preoperatively to 8.9pmol/l postoperatively (normal range 1.3-7.6pmol/l). The patient was discharged with no complications. CONCLUSIONS: We report a rare phenomenon where bilateral giant parathyroid adenoma occurred in the absence of MEN type 1. It highlights the importance of cross-sectional imaging in delineating the anatomy of adenomas as their size can be grossly underestimated by ultrasonography alone.


Assuntos
Adenoma/diagnóstico , Hiperparatireoidismo Primário/diagnóstico , Glândulas Paratireoides/patologia , Neoplasias das Paratireoides/diagnóstico , Paratireoidectomia , Lesão Renal Aguda/sangue , Lesão Renal Aguda/etiologia , Adenoma/complicações , Adenoma/patologia , Adenoma/cirurgia , Idoso , Cálcio/sangue , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Humanos , Hipercalcemia/sangue , Hipercalcemia/etiologia , Hiperparatireoidismo Primário/sangue , Hiperparatireoidismo Primário/etiologia , Hiperparatireoidismo Primário/cirurgia , Masculino , Neoplasia Endócrina Múltipla Tipo 1/diagnóstico , Glândulas Paratireoides/diagnóstico por imagem , Glândulas Paratireoides/cirurgia , Hormônio Paratireóideo/sangue , Neoplasias das Paratireoides/complicações , Neoplasias das Paratireoides/patologia , Neoplasias das Paratireoides/cirurgia , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Resultado do Tratamento , Carga Tumoral , Ultrassonografia
20.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0231880, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32315365

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Evidence has shown that deep learning computer aided detection (CADe) system achieved high overall detection accuracy for polyp detection during colonoscopy. AIM: The detection performance of CADe system on non-polypoid laterally spreading tumors (LSTs) and sessile serrated adenomas/polyps (SSA/Ps), with higher risk for malignancy transformation and miss rate, has not been exclusively investigated. METHODS: A previously validated deep learning CADe system for polyp detection was tested exclusively on LSTs and SSA/Ps. 1451 LST images from 184 patients were collected between July 2015 and January 2019, 82 SSA/Ps videos from 26 patients were collected between September 2018 and January 2019. The per-frame sensitivity and per-lesion sensitivity were calculated. RESULTS: (1) For LSTs image dataset, the system achieved an overall per-image sensitivity and per-lesion sensitivity of 94.07% (1365/1451) and 98.99% (197/199) respectively. The per-frame sensitivity for LST-G(H), LST-G(M), LST-NG(F), LST-NG(PD) was 93.97% (343/365), 98.72% (692/701), 85.71% (324/378) and 85.71% (6/7) respectively. The per-lesion sensitivity of each subgroup was 100.00% (71/71), 100.00% (64/64), 98.31% (58/59) and 80.00% (4/5). (2) For SSA/Ps video dataset, the system achieved an overall per-frame sensitivity and per-lesion sensitivity of 84.10% (15883/18885) and 100.00% (42/42), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrated that a local-feature-prioritized automatic CADe system could detect LSTs and SSA/Ps with high sensitivity. The per-frame sensitivity for non-granular LSTs and small SSA/Ps should be further improved.


Assuntos
Adenoma/diagnóstico , Colonoscopia , Neoplasias Colorretais/diagnóstico , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador/métodos , Adenoma/patologia , Pólipos do Colo/patologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Aprendizado Profundo , Humanos
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