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1.
J Urol ; 205(1): 52-59, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32856984

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Adrenal incidentalomas are being discovered with increasing frequency, and their discovery poses a challenge to clinicians. Despite the 2002 National Institutes of Health consensus statement, there are still discrepancies in the most recent guidelines from organizations representing endocrinology, endocrine surgery, urology and radiology. We review recent guidelines across the specialties involved in diagnosing and treating adrenal incidentalomas, and discuss points of agreement as well as controversy among guidelines. MATERIALS AND METHODS: PubMed®, Scopus®, Embase™ and Web of Science™ databases were searched systematically in November 2019 in accordance with the PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses) statement to identify the most recently updated committee produced clinical guidelines in each of the 4 specialties. Five articles met the inclusion criteria. RESULTS: There is little debate among the reviewed guidelines as to the initial evaluation of an adrenal incidentaloma. All patients with a newly discovered adrenal incidentaloma should receive an unenhanced computerized tomogram and hormone screen. The most significant points of divergence among the guidelines regard reimaging an initially benign appearing mass, repeat hormone testing and management of an adrenal incidentaloma that is not easily characterized as benign or malignant on computerized tomography. The guidelines range from actively recommending against any repeat imaging and hormone screening to recommending a repeat scan as early as in 3 to 6 months and annual hormonal screening for several years. CONCLUSIONS: After reviewing the guidelines and the evidence used to support them we posit that best practices lie at their convergence and have presented our management recommendations on how to navigate the guidelines when they are discrepant.


Assuntos
Adenoma/terapia , Neoplasias das Glândulas Suprarrenais/terapia , Oncologia/normas , Feocromocitoma/terapia , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Adenoma/sangue , Adenoma/diagnóstico , Adenoma/patologia , Corticosteroides/sangue , Neoplasias das Glândulas Suprarrenais/sangue , Neoplasias das Glândulas Suprarrenais/diagnóstico , Neoplasias das Glândulas Suprarrenais/patologia , Glândulas Suprarrenais/diagnóstico por imagem , Glândulas Suprarrenais/patologia , Adrenalectomia/normas , Antagonistas Adrenérgicos alfa/uso terapêutico , Biópsia , Endocrinologia/métodos , Endocrinologia/normas , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Oncologia/métodos , Preferência do Paciente , Feocromocitoma/sangue , Feocromocitoma/diagnóstico , Feocromocitoma/patologia , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons , Radiologia/métodos , Radiologia/normas , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Urologia/métodos , Urologia/normas , Conduta Expectante/normas
2.
Endocrinol. diabetes nutr. (Ed. impr.) ; 67(7): 469-485, ago.-sept. 2020. ilus, tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-194704

RESUMO

The concept of aggressive pituitary tumor (APT) has been precisely defined in recent years. These tumors are characterized by morphological (radiological or histopathological) data of invasion, proliferative activity superior to that of typical adenomas and a clinical behavior characterized by resistance to standard therapies and frequent recurrences. The absence of cerebrospinal or distant metastases differentiates them from the pituitary carcinoma. APTs account for about 10% of all pituitary neoplasm. Proper diagnostic implies participation not only of radiological and hormonal investigation but also a thorough pathological assessment including proliferation markers and immunohistochemistry for hormones and transcription factors. Surgical resection, aiming gross total resection or tumor debulking, is the mainstay initial therapy in most patients. Most patients with APTs need more than one surgical intervention, pituitary radiation, sometimes on more than one occasion, and multiple sequential or combined medical treatments, to finally be doomed to unusual treatments, such as alkylating agents (temozolomide alone or in combination), molecular targeted therapies, or peptide receptor radionuclide therapy. Multimodal therapy, implemented by experts, preferably in specialized centers with high volume caseload, is the only way to improve the prognosis of patients with these uncommon tumors. The research needs in this area are multiple and include a greater knowledge of the molecular biology of these tumors, establishment of protocols for monitoring and sequencing of treatments, development of multicenter studies and international registries


El concepto de tumor hipofisario agresivo (THA) se ha definido con más precisión en los últimos años. Son tumores caracterizados por signos morfológicos (radiológicos o histopatológicos) de invasión, actividad proliferativa superior a la de los adenomas típicos y un comportamiento clínico caracterizado por resistencia a los tratamientos habituales y recidivas frecuentes. La ausencia de metástasis cefalorraquídeas o a distancia los diferencia del carcinoma hipofisario. Los THA suponen alrededor del 10% de todas las neoplasias hipofisarias. Un diagnóstico apropiado exige no solo investigación radiológica y hormonal, sino también una valoración histopatológica detenida que incluya marcadores de proliferación e inmunohistoquímica para hormonas y factores de transcripción. La resección quirúrgica encaminada a la resección total o la reducción del volumen tumoral es el tratamiento inicial clave en la mayoría de los pacientes. La mayoría de los pacientes con THA necesitan más de una intervención quirúrgica, irradiación hipofisaria, a veces en más de una ocasión, y diversos tratamientos médicos consecutivos o combinados, y están predestinados a terminar recibiendo tratamiento inhabituales como fármacos alquilantes (temozolomida sola o en combinación), tratamientos multidiana o tratamientos con péptidos radiomarcados. El tratamiento multimodal aplicado por expertos, preferiblemente en centros especializados con gran volume de pacientes, es el único modo de mejorar el pronóstico de los pacientes con estos tumores poco frecuentes. Las necesidades de investigación en este campo son enormes, e incluyen la de un mayor conocimiento de la biología molecular de estos tumores, el establecimiento de protocolos de vigilancia y secuenciación de los tratamientos, el desarrollo de estudios multicéntricos y registros internacionales


Assuntos
Humanos , Neoplasias Hipofisárias/terapia , Terapia Combinada/métodos , Adenoma/terapia , Adenoma Hipofisário Secretor de Hormônio do Crescimento/terapia , Adenocarcinoma/terapia , Imuno-Histoquímica , Prolactinoma/terapia , Neurocirurgia , Biomarcadores , Alquilantes/uso terapêutico , Melanoma/epidemiologia
3.
Eur J Endocrinol ; 183(4): D1-D13, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32698136

RESUMO

The literature on an association between acromegaly and cancer is particularly abundant on either colorectal cancer or thyroid cancer, and an endless debate is ongoing whether patients with acromegaly should be submitted to specific oncology screening and surveillance protocols. The aim of the present work is to review the most recent data on the risk of either colorectal cancer or thyroid cancer in acromegaly and discuss the opportunity for specific screening in relation to the accepted procedures in the general population.


Assuntos
Acromegalia/complicações , Neoplasias Colorretais/diagnóstico , Detecção Precoce de Câncer , Programas de Rastreamento , Monitorização Fisiológica , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/diagnóstico , Acromegalia/diagnóstico , Acromegalia/epidemiologia , Acromegalia/terapia , Adenoma/complicações , Adenoma/diagnóstico , Adenoma/epidemiologia , Adenoma/terapia , Neoplasias Colorretais/complicações , Neoplasias Colorretais/epidemiologia , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/métodos , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/normas , Endocrinologia/métodos , Endocrinologia/normas , Adenoma Hipofisário Secretor de Hormônio do Crescimento/complicações , Adenoma Hipofisário Secretor de Hormônio do Crescimento/diagnóstico , Adenoma Hipofisário Secretor de Hormônio do Crescimento/epidemiologia , Adenoma Hipofisário Secretor de Hormônio do Crescimento/terapia , Humanos , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Programas de Rastreamento/normas , Oncologia/métodos , Oncologia/normas , Monitorização Fisiológica/métodos , Monitorização Fisiológica/normas , Vigilância da População/métodos , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto/normas , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/complicações , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/epidemiologia
4.
Eur J Endocrinol ; 183(4): 427-437, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32688336

RESUMO

Objective: Growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) excess results in both reversible and irreversible musculoskeletal damage, including increased vertebral fracture (VF) risk. The prevalence of VFs is approximately 60% in controlled acromegaly patients, and these VFs can progress in time. We aimed to identify the course of VFs in a cohort of acromegaly patients in long-term remission and their associated risk factors during prolonged follow-up. Methods: Thirty-one patients with acromegaly (49% female, median age 60 years (IQR 53-66)), who were in remission for ≥2 years, were included in this longitudinal, prospective, follow-up study. Spine radiographs of vertebrae Th4 to L4 were assessed for VFs using the Genant score, at baseline, after 2.6 years and 9.1 years. Progression was defined as either a new fracture or a ≥1-point increase in Genant score. Results: The prevalence of VF at baseline was 87% (27/31 patients). Progression of VFs was observed in eleven patients (35.5%) during the 9.1-year follow-up period, with a total incidence rate of 65.5 per 1000 person years (males 59.8 per 1000 person years vs females 71.6 per 1000 person years). Patients treated with surgery or radiotherapy had a higher risk of VF progression in this cohort (P = 0.030). Conclusions: In this cohort of long-term, well-controlled acromegalic patients, the prevalence and progression of VFs was high, showing that the deleterious effects of GH and IGF-1 excess on bone persist despite achievement of longstanding remission.


Assuntos
Acromegalia/epidemiologia , Fraturas da Coluna Vertebral/epidemiologia , Fraturas da Coluna Vertebral/patologia , Acromegalia/etiologia , Acromegalia/terapia , Adenoma/complicações , Adenoma/epidemiologia , Adenoma/terapia , Adulto , Idoso , Densidade Óssea , Sobreviventes de Câncer/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos de Coortes , Estudos Transversais , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Seguimentos , Adenoma Hipofisário Secretor de Hormônio do Crescimento/complicações , Adenoma Hipofisário Secretor de Hormônio do Crescimento/epidemiologia , Adenoma Hipofisário Secretor de Hormônio do Crescimento/terapia , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Fraturas da Coluna Vertebral/etiologia
5.
Eur J Endocrinol ; 183(1): G1-G7, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32380475

RESUMO

Clinical evaluation should guide those needing immediate investigation. Strict adherence to COVID-19 protection measures is necessary. Alternative ways of consultations (telephone, video) should be used. Early discussion with regional/national experts about investigation and management of potential and existing patients is strongly encouraged. Patients with moderate or severe clinical features need urgent investigation and management. Patients with active Cushing's syndrome, especially when severe, are immunocompromised and vigorous adherence to the principles of social isolation is recommended. In patients with mild features or in whom a diagnosis is less likely, clinical re-evaluation should be repeated at 3 and 6 months or deferred until the prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 has significantly decreased; however, those individuals should be encouraged to maintain social distancing. Diagnostic pathways may need to be very different from usual recommendations in order to reduce possible exposure to SARS-CoV-2. When extensive differential diagnostic testing and/or surgery is not feasible, it should be deferred and medical treatment should be initiated. Transsphenoidal pituitary surgery should be delayed during high SARS-CoV-2 viral prevalence. Medical management rather than surgery will be the used for most patients, since the short- to mid-term prognosis depends in most cases on hypercortisolism rather than its cause; it should be initiated promptly to minimize the risk of infection in these immunosuppressed patients. The risk/benefit ratio of these recommendations will need re-evaluation every 2-3 months from April 2020 in each country (and possibly local areas) and will depend on the local health care structure and phase of pandemic.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Síndrome de Cushing/terapia , Inibidores Enzimáticos/uso terapêutico , Glucocorticoides/uso terapêutico , Controle de Infecções/métodos , Procedimentos Neurocirúrgicos/métodos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Telemedicina , Inibidores de 14-alfa Desmetilase/uso terapêutico , Adenoma Hipofisário Secretor de ACT/complicações , Adenoma Hipofisário Secretor de ACT/diagnóstico , Adenoma Hipofisário Secretor de ACT/terapia , Adenoma/complicações , Adenoma/diagnóstico , Adenoma/terapia , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Síndrome de Cushing/diagnóstico , Síndrome de Cushing/etiologia , Síndrome de Cushing/imunologia , Gerenciamento Clínico , Humanos , Hidrocortisona/sangue , Hospedeiro Imunocomprometido , Cetoconazol/uso terapêutico , Metirapona/uso terapêutico , Educação de Pacientes como Assunto , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Fatores de Tempo
6.
Eur J Endocrinol ; 183(1): G17-G23, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32369770

RESUMO

Patients with pituitary tumours, ensuing hormonal abnormalities and mass effects are usually followed in multidisciplinary pituitary clinics and can represent a management challenge even during the times of non-pandemic. The COVID-19 pandemic has put on hold routine medical care for hundreds of millions of patients around the globe, while many pituitary patients' evaluations cannot be delayed for too long. Furthermore, the majority of patients with pituitary tumours have co-morbidities potentially impacting the course and management of COVID-19 (e.g. hypopituitarism, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, obesity and cardiovascular disease). Here, we summarize some of the diagnostic and management dilemmas encountered, and provide guidance on safe and as effective as possible delivery of care in the COVID-19 era. We also attempt to address how pituitary services should be remodelled in the event of similar crises, while maintaining or even improving patient outcomes. Regular review of these recommendations and further adjustments are needed, depending on the evolution of the COVID-19 pandemic status. We consider that the utilization of successful models of pituitary multidisciplinary care implemented during the COVID-19 pandemic should continue after the crisis is over by using the valuable and exceptional experience gained during these challenging times.


Assuntos
Adenoma/terapia , Antineoplásicos Hormonais/uso terapêutico , Infecções por Coronavirus , Agonistas de Dopamina/uso terapêutico , Procedimentos Neurocirúrgicos , Pandemias , Apoplexia Hipofisária/terapia , Neoplasias Hipofisárias/terapia , Pneumonia Viral , Adenoma/diagnóstico , Cabergolina/uso terapêutico , Gerenciamento Clínico , Terapia de Reposição Hormonal , Hormônio do Crescimento Humano/análogos & derivados , Hormônio do Crescimento Humano/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Octreotida/uso terapêutico , Peptídeos Cíclicos/uso terapêutico , Apoplexia Hipofisária/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Hipofisárias/diagnóstico , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Radioterapia , Somatostatina/análogos & derivados , Somatostatina/uso terapêutico , Telemedicina , Fatores de Tempo , Testes de Campo Visual
7.
Best Pract Res Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 34(2): 101382, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32139169

RESUMO

Pituitary surgery is the first-line treatment for patients with Cushing's disease. For patients who are not considered candidates for pituitary surgery, pituitary radiation and bilateral adrenalectomy are further treatment alternatives. Not all patients are cured with pituitary surgery, and a substantial number of patients develop recurrence, sometimes many years after an apparently successful treatment. The same applies to patients treated with radiotherapy. Far from all patients are cured, and in many cases the disease recurs. Bilateral adrenalectomy, although always curative, causes chronic adrenal insufficiency and the remaining pituitary tumour can continue to grow and cause symptoms due to pressure on adjacent tissues, a phenomenon called Nelson's syndrome. In this paper the rate of recurrence of hypercortisolism, as well as the rate of development of Nelson's syndrome, following treatment of patients with Cushing's syndrome, will be reviewed. The aim of the paper is also to summarize clinical and biochemical factors that are associated with recurrence of hypercortisolism and how the patients should be monitored following treatment.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores/análise , Síndrome de Cushing/diagnóstico , Síndrome de Cushing/terapia , Diagnóstico por Imagem/métodos , Técnicas de Diagnóstico Endócrino , Monitorização Fisiológica/métodos , Doença de Addison/diagnóstico , Doença de Addison/epidemiologia , Doença de Addison/etiologia , Doença de Addison/terapia , Adenoma/complicações , Adenoma/diagnóstico , Adenoma/epidemiologia , Adenoma/terapia , Adrenalectomia/efeitos adversos , Síndrome de Cushing/epidemiologia , Síndrome de Cushing/patologia , Humanos , Síndrome de Nelson/diagnóstico , Síndrome de Nelson/epidemiologia , Síndrome de Nelson/etiologia , Síndrome de Nelson/cirurgia , Neoplasias Hipofisárias/complicações , Neoplasias Hipofisárias/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Hipofisárias/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Hipofisárias/terapia , Recidiva
8.
Arq Neuropsiquiatr ; 78(1): 28-33, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32074187

RESUMO

METHODS: Prolactin (PRL) secreting adenomas are associated with high incidence of headache. The role of hyperprolactinemia in the headache context is not clear, nor is the effect of its treatment on headache. The present longitudinal study evaluated hyperprolactinemic patients (69), in terms of presence and characteristics of headache before and after hyperprolactinemia treatment. RESULTS: Headache was reported by 45 (65.2%) patients, independent of the etiology of hyperprolactinemia. The migraine phenotype was the most prevalent (66.6%). Medications used in the treatment of headache not changed during the study. The first line of treatment of hyperprolactinemia was dopaminergic agonists. In the last reevaluation, PRL level under treatment was within the reference range in 54.7% of the cases, and it was observed complete or partial resolution of the headache in 75% of the cases. The median PRL at this time in patients with complete headache resolution was 17 ng/mL, in those who reported partial recovery was 21 ng/mL, and in those in whom the headache did not change was 66 ng/mL, with a significant difference between the group with complete headache resolution vs. the group with unchanged headache (p=0.022). In the cases with complete headache resolution, the median fall on PRL levels was 89% and in those cases with partial headache resolution 86%, both significantly different (p<0.001) from the fall in the cases with an unchanged headache. CONCLUSION: Data allow us to conclude that, in this series, in the majority of cases the reduction in the level of PRL was followe3d by cessation or relief of the pain.


Assuntos
Cefaleia/sangue , Cefaleia/prevenção & controle , Hiperprolactinemia/terapia , Prolactina/sangue , Adenoma/complicações , Adenoma/terapia , Adulto , Análise de Variância , Agonistas de Dopamina/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Cefaleia/etiologia , Humanos , Hiperprolactinemia/complicações , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias Hipofisárias/complicações , Neoplasias Hipofisárias/terapia , Valores de Referência , Estatísticas não Paramétricas , Resultado do Tratamento
9.
Nat Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 17(2): 111-130, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31900466

RESUMO

Colorectal cancer (CRC), a leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide, evolves as a result of the stepwise accumulation of a series of genetic and epigenetic alterations in the normal colonic epithelium, leading to the development of colorectal adenomas and invasive adenocarcinomas. Although genetic alterations have a major role in a subset of CRCs, the pathophysiological contribution of epigenetic aberrations in this malignancy has attracted considerable attention. Data from the past couple of decades has unequivocally illustrated that epigenetic marks are important molecular hallmarks of cancer, as they occur very early in disease pathogenesis, involve virtually all key cancer-associated pathways and, most importantly, can be exploited as clinically relevant disease biomarkers for diagnosis, prognostication and prediction of treatment response. In this Review, we summarize the current knowledge on the best-studied epigenetic modifications in CRC, including DNA methylation and histone modifications, as well as the role of non-coding RNAs as epigenetic regulators. We focus on the emerging potential for the bench-to-bedside translation of some of these epigenetic alterations into clinical practice and discuss the burgeoning evidence supporting the potential of emerging epigenetic therapies in CRC as we usher in the era of precision medicine.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma/genética , Adenoma/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Epigênese Genética/genética , MicroRNAs/genética , Adenocarcinoma/terapia , Adenoma/terapia , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais/terapia , Metilação de DNA , Código das Histonas , Humanos , Terapia de Alvo Molecular , Prognóstico
10.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 105(1)2020 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31612224

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) is common in active acromegaly and negatively influences quality of life, morbidity, and mortality. This prospective study with 3 predetermined timepoints and a standardized treatment protocol investigates changes in sleep parameters during the first 2.5 years of acromegaly treatment. METHODS: Before initiation of acromegaly treatment (medical pretreatment followed by surgery), polysomnography (PSG) was performed in 27 consecutive patients with treatment-naive acromegaly. PSG was repeated after 1 year (N = 24) and 2.5 years (N = 23), and anthropometric and biochemical parameters were obtained. RESULTS: At baseline, 74.1% of the patients was diagnosed with OSAS. The respiratory disturbance index (RDI; P = 0.001), oxygen desaturation index (ODI; P = 0.001), lowest oxygen saturation (LSaO2; P = 0.007) and the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS; P < 0.001) improved significantly during treatment, with the greatest improvement in the first year. After 2.5 years of treatment, all patients had controlled acromegaly. Of the 16 patients with repeated PSG and OSAS at baseline, 11 (68.8%) were cured of OSAS. Changes in RDI, ODI, LSaO2, and ESS correlated with insulin-like growth factor 1 levels. CONCLUSION: OSAS has a high prevalence in active acromegaly. There is a substantial decrease in prevalence and severity of OSAS following acromegaly treatment, with the largest improvement during the first year. Most patients recover from OSAS following surgical or biochemical control of the acromegaly. Therefore, a PSG is advised after diagnosis of acromegaly. When OSAS is present, it should be treated and PSG should be repeated during acromegaly treatment.


Assuntos
Acromegalia/complicações , Acromegalia/epidemiologia , Acromegalia/terapia , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono/complicações , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono/epidemiologia , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono/patologia , Acromegalia/diagnóstico , Adenoma/complicações , Adenoma/epidemiologia , Adenoma/terapia , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Progressão da Doença , Agonistas de Dopamina/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Adenoma Hipofisário Secretor de Hormônio do Crescimento/complicações , Adenoma Hipofisário Secretor de Hormônio do Crescimento/epidemiologia , Adenoma Hipofisário Secretor de Hormônio do Crescimento/terapia , Hormônio do Crescimento Humano/análogos & derivados , Hormônio do Crescimento Humano/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Procedimentos Neurocirúrgicos , Polissonografia , Prevalência , Prognóstico , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono/diagnóstico , Sonolência , Resultado do Tratamento
11.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 105(3)2020 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31701145

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To determine the prevalence of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) normalization with long-term multimodality therapy in a pituitary center and to assess changes over time. METHODS: Patients with acromegaly (N = 409), with ≥1 year of data after surgery and at least 2 subsequent clinic visits were included in long-term analysis (N = 266). Biochemical data, clinical characteristics, and therapeutic interventions were reviewed retrospectively. RESULTS: At diagnosis, mean [standard deviation] age was 43.4 [14.3] years, body mass index was 28.5 (24.9-32.1) kg/m2 (median, interquartile range), serum IGF-1 index (IGF-1 level/upper limit of normal) was 2.3 [1.7-3.1], and 80.5% had macroadenomas. Patients with transsphenoidal surgery after 2006 were older [46.6 ± 14.3 vs 40.0 ± 13.4 years; P < 0.001]. Age and tumor size correlated inversely. Overall (N = 266), 93.2% achieved a normal IGF-1 level during 9.9 [5.0-15.0] years with multimodality therapy. The interval to first normal IGF-1 level following failed surgical remission was shorter after 2006: 14.0 (95% confidence interval, 10.0-20.0) versus 27.5 (22.0-36.0) months (P = 0.002). Radiation therapy and second surgery were rarer after 2006: 28 (22%) versus 62 (47.0%); P < 0.001 and 12 (9.4%) versus 28 (21.2%); P = 0.010, respectively. Age at diagnosis increased over time periods, possibly reflecting increased detection of acromegaly in older patients with milder disease. Male gender, older age, smaller tumor and lower IGF-1 index at diagnosis predicted long-term sustained IGF-1 control after surgery without adjuvant therapies. CONCLUSION: The vast majority of patients with acromegaly can be biochemically controlled with multimodality therapy in the current era. Radiotherapy and repeat pituitary surgery became less frequently utilized over time. Long-term postoperative IGF-1 control without use of adjuvant therapies has improved.


Assuntos
Acromegalia/terapia , Adenoma/terapia , Terapia Combinada/métodos , Fator de Crescimento Insulin-Like I/metabolismo , Neoplasias Hipofisárias/terapia , Acromegalia/sangue , Acromegalia/complicações , Adenoma/etiologia , Adulto , Índice de Massa Corporal , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias Hipofisárias/etiologia , Período Pós-Operatório , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
13.
HNO ; 68(1): 55-58, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31531685

RESUMO

Adenomas are very rare tumors of the middle ear. They are benign neoplasms originating from the glandular components of the mucous membrane of the middle ear. The middle ear adenoma was first described by Hyams and Michaels in 1976, which was named an adenomatous tumor. This article reports the case of a 50-year-old female patient, who presented with recurrent right-sided dull otalgia and pulse synchronous tinnitis, which began 1 year prior to presentation, with the suspected diagnosis of a glomus tympanicum tumor. Following the otorhinolaryngological examination and imaging an unclear mesotympanal space-occupying lesion was detected. A transmeatal endoscopic complete removal of the tumor was carried out. The histopathological investigations enabled the diagnosis of an adenoma of the middle ear. Adenomas are a rare differential diagnosis of tumors of the middle ear. In cases with a suitable localization an adequate exposure and removal of this rare tumor can be achieved by a transmeatal endoscopic access.


Assuntos
Adenoma , Neoplasias da Orelha , Adenoma/diagnóstico , Adenoma/patologia , Adenoma/terapia , Neoplasias da Orelha/diagnóstico , Neoplasias da Orelha/patologia , Neoplasias da Orelha/terapia , Orelha Média , Endoscopia , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Osso Temporal
14.
PLoS One ; 14(12): e0226033, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31830115

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Cushing's disease (CD) is a rare cause of hypercortisolemia presenting a major diagnostic and therapeutic challenge. Data on pituitary function in long-term follow-up after CD treatment in childhood is limited. AIM: Long-term assessment of patients of the Children's Memorial Health Institute (CMHI) after CD treatment in childhood. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Retrospective analysis of 29 CD patients, mean age at the time of diagnosis 13.46 yrs. The long-term follow-up (FU) was done by: 1) obtaining the data from a patient's questionnaire (75% of adult patients); 2) using the data from the last clinic visit for patients who did not respond to the questionnaire and for current CMHI patients. The average long-term FU from transsphenoidal pituitary surgery (TSS) was 10.23 yrs. RESULTS: At the latest FU: 18 patients (62%) had long-term disease remission after TSS1, 2 patients (6.9%) after TSS2, 1 patient (3.4%) after the post-TSS radiotherapy (XRT) cycle and 3 patients (10.3%) after bilateral adrenalectomy (BA). One patient (3.4%) died after TSS2 due to postoperative complications, 1 patient (3.4%) had persistent disease at latest FU, in 1 patient (3.4%) the long-term FU was not possible to perform. CD recurrence occurred in 4 out of 28 patients (14%) at an average time 3.6 yrs. from definitive treatment. One patient (3.4%) after BA was operated because of Nelson's syndrome. Two patients (6.9%) were suspected of relapse at latest assessment. At the time of the last evaluation, 17 patients (63%) were on levothyroxine therapy since definitive treatment, 16 patients (59%) were on hydrocortisone treatment, 10 patients (37%) were taking sex hormones replacement, 4 patients (15%)-antidiuretic hormone. CONCLUSIONS: Relatively large number of patients after CD treatment in childhood have hormonal pituitary deficits as well as mood and cognitive disorders. CD recurrence can occur even after a long time post effective treatment.


Assuntos
Hipersecreção Hipofisária de ACTH/epidemiologia , Hipersecreção Hipofisária de ACTH/terapia , Adenoma/complicações , Adenoma/epidemiologia , Adenoma/metabolismo , Adenoma/terapia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idade de Início , Criança , Desenvolvimento Infantil/fisiologia , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/epidemiologia , Hipersecreção Hipofisária de ACTH/fisiopatologia , Testes de Função Hipofisária , Neoplasias Hipofisárias/complicações , Neoplasias Hipofisárias/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Hipofisárias/metabolismo , Neoplasias Hipofisárias/terapia , Polônia/epidemiologia , Puberdade/fisiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
15.
Ann Endocrinol (Paris) ; 80 Suppl 1: S10-S18, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31606057

RESUMO

Acromegaly is characterized by increased release of growth hormone (GH) and, consequently, Insulin-Like Growth Factor I (IGF-I), most often by a pituitary adenoma. Prolonged exposure to excess hormone leads to progressive somatic disfigurement and a wide range of systemic manifestations that are associated with increased mortality. Transsphenoidal adenomectomy is the treatment of choice of GH-secreting pituitary tumors but surgical cure is not achieved in around 50% of patients, then adjuvant treatment is necessary. Mortality in acromegaly is normalized with biochemical control and has decreased in the last decade with the increased use of adjuvant therapy. Both GH and IGF-I are currently biomarkers for assessing disease activity in patients with acromegaly. However, discordance between GH and IGF-I results is encountered in a quarter of treated patients. The impacts of such a discrepancy over mortality and morbidity and the risk of biochemical and/or clinical recurrence are unclear. Moreover, despite a good biochemical control, some symptoms persist, leading to a decreased quality of life. Back pain due to vertebral fractures seem to be frequent in these patients and underdiagnosed. In patients with acromegaly, bone mineral density is not a reliable predictor of fracture risk. A more accurate evaluation of bone microstructural alterations associated with GH hypersecretion and vertebral fractures may be provided by new radiological devices analyzing alteration of trabecular microarchitecture, leading to a better prevention. © 2019 Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved. Cet article fait partie du numéro supplément Les Must de l'Endocrinologie 2019 réalisé avec le soutien institutionnel de Ipsen-Pharma.


Assuntos
Acromegalia/terapia , Garantia da Qualidade dos Cuidados de Saúde , Melhoria de Qualidade , Acromegalia/diagnóstico , Acromegalia/epidemiologia , Acromegalia/etiologia , Adenoma/complicações , Adenoma/epidemiologia , Adenoma/metabolismo , Adenoma/terapia , Técnicas de Diagnóstico Endócrino/tendências , Adenoma Hipofisário Secretor de Hormônio do Crescimento/complicações , Adenoma Hipofisário Secretor de Hormônio do Crescimento/epidemiologia , Adenoma Hipofisário Secretor de Hormônio do Crescimento/metabolismo , Adenoma Hipofisário Secretor de Hormônio do Crescimento/terapia , Hormônio do Crescimento Humano/metabolismo , Humanos , Garantia da Qualidade dos Cuidados de Saúde/métodos , Garantia da Qualidade dos Cuidados de Saúde/tendências
16.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 23(17): 7663-7673, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31539159

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Colonoscopy is usually performed with the one-handed technique (1HT), although several countries and operators still adopt the two-handed technique (2HT). It is still uncertain whether the 1HT can improve the quality outcomes of colonoscopy. We performed a systematic review with meta-analysis to explore the quality outcomes in patients undergoing 1HT or 2HT colonoscopy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We performed a systematic review with meta-analysis to compare the pooled rates of adenoma detection rate (ADR), cecal intubation rate (CIR), cecal intubation time (CIT), and withdrawal time (WT), in patients undergoing 1HT or 2HT colonoscopy via PubMed/EMBASE, SCOPUS, and Cochrane databases. The primary outcome was the pooled rate of ADR and CIR. CIT and WT were also assessed. Pooled odds ratio (OR), standard mean differences (SMD), and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated using fixed or random-effect models. RESULTS: Five studies (15,763 patients) met the inclusion criteria. The pooled ADR was not significantly different between the two techniques (OR 1.10; 95% CI 0.88-1.39; p=0.16), and CIR was not significantly different in 1HT from 2HT (OR 0.757; 95% CI 0.55-1.02; p=0.07), with no significant heterogeneity. Furthermore, no significant differences were seen for CIT (SMD 0.95; p=0.62) and WT (SMD 0.58; p=0.74). CONCLUSIONS: The 1HT colonoscopy does not add relevant improvement in the quality and efficacy of colonoscopy.


Assuntos
Adenoma/diagnóstico , Neoplasias do Colo/diagnóstico , Adenoma/terapia , Neoplasias do Colo/terapia , Colonoscopia , Bases de Dados Factuais , Humanos , Intubação , Razão de Chances
17.
Neurosurg Clin N Am ; 30(4): 445-455, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31471051

RESUMO

Cavernous sinuses are complex dural venous sinuses that house important neurovascular structures, which often preclude full surgical access for tumor resection. Neuro-imaging and anatomic grading scales have corroborated that more invasive tumors are less likely to undergo gross total resection and biochemical remission. Endoscopic approaches are increasingly favored over microsurgical techniques. Direct transcavernous approaches have yielded even greater degrees of resection. Radiosurgery is a powerful adjuvant therapy for residual, recurrent, and/or inaccessible cavernous sinus disease that provides excellent tumor control rates and favorable risk-benefit ratios for the achievement of biochemical remission with minimal endocrine morbidity.


Assuntos
Adenoma/terapia , Seio Cavernoso/cirurgia , Terapia Combinada/métodos , Neoplasias Hipofisárias/terapia , Humanos , Invasividade Neoplásica , Neuroendoscopia , Radiocirurgia , Resultado do Tratamento
18.
Neurosurg Clin N Am ; 30(4): 473-482, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31471054

RESUMO

Pituitary adenomas are typically slow-growing benign tumors. However, 50% to 60% of tumors progress following subtotal resection and up to 30% recur after apparent complete resection. Options for treatment of recurrent pituitary adenomas include repeat surgical resection, radiation therapy, and systemic therapies. There is no consensus approach for the management of recurrent pituitary adenomas. This article reviews the natural history of recurrent adenomas and emerging biomarkers predictive of clinical behavior as well as the outcomes associated with the various treatment modalities for these challenging tumors, with an emphasis on the surgical treatment.


Assuntos
Adenoma/terapia , Neoplasias Hipofisárias/terapia , Humanos , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/terapia , Procedimentos Neurocirúrgicos/métodos , Resultado do Tratamento
19.
Arch Endocrinol Metab ; 63(4): 385-393, 2019 Jul 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31365626

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Gigantism is a rare pediatric disease characterized by increased production of growth hormone (GH) before epiphyseal closure, that manifests clinically as tall stature, musculoskeletal abnormalities, and multiple comorbidities. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Case series of 6 male patients with gigantism evaluated at the Endocrinology Service of Hospital de San José (Bogotá, Colombia) between 2010 and 2016. RESULTS: All patients had macroadenomas and their mean final height was 2.01 m. The mean age at diagnosis was 16 years, and the most common symptoms were headache (66%) and hyperhidrosis (66%). All patients had acral changes, and one had visual impairment secondary to compression of the optic chiasm. All patients underwent surgery, and 5 (83%) required additional therapy for biochemical control, including radiotherapy (n = 4, 66%), somatostatin analogues (n = 5, 83%), cabergoline (n = 3, 50%), and pegvisomant (n = 2, 33%). Three patients (50%) achieved complete biochemical control, while 2 patients showed IGF-1 normalization with pegvisomant. Two patients were genetically related and presented a mutation in the aryl hydrocarbon receptor-interacting protein (AIP) gene (pathogenic variant, c.504G>A in exon 4, p.Trp168*), fulfilling the diagnostic criteria of familial isolated pituitary adenoma. CONCLUSIONS: This is the largest case series of patients with gigantism described to date in Colombia. Transsphenoidal surgery was the first-choice procedure, but additional pharmacological therapy was usually required. Mutations in the AIP gene should be considered in familial cases of GH-producing adenomas.


Assuntos
Adenoma/terapia , Gigantismo/terapia , Neoplasias Hipofisárias/terapia , Adenoma/diagnóstico , Adolescente , Colômbia , Seguimentos , Gigantismo/diagnóstico , Hormônio do Crescimento/sangue , Adenoma Hipofisário Secretor de Hormônio do Crescimento/genética , Humanos , Fator de Crescimento Insulin-Like I/análise , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intracelular/genética , Masculino , Mutação/genética , Linhagem , Neoplasias Hipofisárias/diagnóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Distribuição por Sexo , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
20.
Best Pract Res Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 33(2): 101309, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31405752

RESUMO

Pituitary diseases are rare conditions with severe chronic multiorgan and multisystemic morbidity requiring complex multidisciplinary treatment and usually life-long drug treatment. Most cases are caused by functioning or non-functioning pituitary adenoma. From the patient's perspective, the burden of disease is caused by the tumour itself and associated compression symptoms, interventions, hormone excess and deficiencies, systemic manifestations of these endocrine abnormalities and general psychosocial issues that can manifest in patients with a chronic condition. In this review, patient burden is classified according to classic endocrine syndromes, with burden at diagnosis and after long-term remission, and also within the framework of value-based health care and the conceptual model of wellbeing. The recently developed patient-reported outcome measurement tool that helps to evaluate burden of patients is also discussed.


Assuntos
Adenoma , Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença , Neoplasias Hipofisárias , Acromegalia/epidemiologia , Acromegalia/etiologia , Acromegalia/psicologia , Acromegalia/terapia , Adenoma/diagnóstico , Adenoma/epidemiologia , Adenoma/psicologia , Adenoma/terapia , Humanos , Neoplasias Hipofisárias/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Hipofisárias/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Hipofisárias/psicologia , Neoplasias Hipofisárias/terapia , Qualidade de Vida
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