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1.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4388, 2020 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32873805

RESUMO

Presynaptic spike timing-dependent long-term depression (t-LTD) at hippocampal CA3-CA1 synapses is evident until the 3rd postnatal week in mice, disappearing during the 4th week. At more mature stages, we found that the protocol that induced t-LTD induced t-LTP. We characterized this form of t-LTP and the mechanisms involved in its induction, as well as that driving this switch from t-LTD to t-LTP. We found that this t-LTP is expressed presynaptically at CA3-CA1 synapses, as witnessed by coefficient of variation, number of failures, paired-pulse ratio and miniature responses analysis. Additionally, this form of presynaptic t-LTP does not require NMDARs but the activation of mGluRs and the entry of Ca2+ into the postsynaptic neuron through L-type voltage-dependent Ca2+ channels and the release of Ca2+ from intracellular stores. Nitric oxide is also required as a messenger from the postsynaptic neuron. Crucially, the release of adenosine and glutamate by astrocytes is required for t-LTP induction and for the switch from t-LTD to t-LTP. Thus, we have discovered a developmental switch of synaptic transmission from t-LTD to t-LTP at hippocampal CA3-CA1 synapses in which astrocytes play a central role and revealed a form of presynaptic LTP and the rules for its induction.


Assuntos
Astrócitos/metabolismo , Hipocampo/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Potenciação de Longa Duração/fisiologia , Transmissão Sináptica/fisiologia , Adenosina/metabolismo , Animais , Feminino , Ácido Glutâmico/metabolismo , Hipocampo/citologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Técnicas de Patch-Clamp , Receptores de Glutamato Metabotrópico/metabolismo , Receptores de N-Metil-D-Aspartato/metabolismo
2.
Sci Signal ; 13(651)2020 09 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32994211

RESUMO

There are currently no antiviral therapies specific for SARS-CoV-2, the virus responsible for the global pandemic disease COVID-19. To facilitate structure-based drug design, we conducted an x-ray crystallographic study of the SARS-CoV-2 nsp16-nsp10 2'-O-methyltransferase complex, which methylates Cap-0 viral mRNAs to improve viral protein translation and to avoid host immune detection. We determined the structures for nsp16-nsp10 heterodimers bound to the methyl donor S-adenosylmethionine (SAM), the reaction product S-adenosylhomocysteine (SAH), or the SAH analog sinefungin (SFG). We also solved structures for nsp16-nsp10 in complex with the methylated Cap-0 analog m7GpppA and either SAM or SAH. Comparative analyses between these structures and published structures for nsp16 from other betacoronaviruses revealed flexible loops in open and closed conformations at the m7GpppA-binding pocket. Bound sulfates in several of the structures suggested the location of the ribonucleic acid backbone phosphates in the ribonucleotide-binding groove. Additional nucleotide-binding sites were found on the face of the protein opposite the active site. These various sites and the conserved dimer interface could be exploited for the development of antiviral inhibitors.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/enzimologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Metiltransferases/química , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Proteínas não Estruturais Virais/química , Adenosina/análogos & derivados , Adenosina/metabolismo , Adenosina/farmacologia , Betacoronavirus/efeitos dos fármacos , Sítios de Ligação , Domínio Catalítico , Cristalografia por Raios X , Dimerização , Genes Virais/genética , Humanos , Metilação , Metiltransferases/antagonistas & inibidores , Modelos Moleculares , Fases de Leitura Aberta/genética , Pandemias , Ligação Proteica , Conformação Proteica , Análogos de Capuz de RNA/metabolismo , Processamento Pós-Transcricional do RNA , RNA Viral/metabolismo , S-Adenosil-Homocisteína/metabolismo , S-Adenosilmetionina/metabolismo , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Proteínas não Estruturais Virais/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas não Estruturais Virais/metabolismo
3.
Life Sci ; 259: 118389, 2020 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32898522

RESUMO

AIMS: Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is released at a high concentration in the tumor microenvironment. The overexpression of ectonucleotidases in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC), metabolizing ΑΤP to the immunosuppressive adenosine, is studied. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We examined the expression of the ectonucleotidases CD73 and CD39 in NSCLC in parallel with immunological parameters and markers of hypoxia and anaerobic metabolism. In vitro experiments with A549 and H1299 lung cancer cell lines were also conducted. RESULTS: CD73 and CD39 were not expressed by normal bronchial and alveolar epithelium. In contrast, these were overexpressed by cancer cells, cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs), and tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs). High CD73 cancer cell expression was directly linked with lactate dehydrogenase LDH5 and with hypoxia-inducible factor HIF1α expression by cancer cells. The expression of CD39 by CAFs was directly linked with PD-L1 expression by cancer cells. A significant abundance of FOXP3+ and PD-1+ TILs was noted in tumors with high CD73 and CD39 stroma expression. In in vitro experiments, hypoxia and acidity induced CD73 mRNA and protein levels in cancer cell lines. Exposure of cancer cell lines to adenosine induced the expression of PD-L1 and LDHA mRNA and protein levels. CONCLUSION: Ectonucleotidases are up-regulated in cancer cells, CAFs, and TILs in lung tumors. Such overexpression is linked with regulatory TIL-phenotype and PD-L1 up-regulation by cancer cells. Overexpression of LDH5 is up-regulated by adenosine, creating a vicious cycle, as the high amounts of ATP produced by LDH5-mediated anaerobic glycolysis promote the production of adenosine by a tumor microenvironment rich in ectonucleotidases.


Assuntos
5'-Nucleotidase/metabolismo , Antígenos CD/metabolismo , Apirase/metabolismo , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/metabolismo , Hipóxia/etiologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/metabolismo , Adenosina/metabolismo , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antígeno B7-H1/metabolismo , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/enzimologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Feminino , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Hipóxia/metabolismo , Tolerância Imunológica , Neoplasias Pulmonares/enzimologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
4.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0236882, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32790688

RESUMO

N6-methyladenosine (m6A) is the most prevalent type of RNA modification. METTL3 in the methyltransferase complex is the core enzyme responsible for methylation. METTL3 selectively catalyzes the adenosines centered in the RRAC motif. Functional studies established that m6A could enhance the translation efficiency (TE) of modified genes by recruiting reader protein YTHDF1 and other initiation factors. We downloaded the m6A peaks in HeLa cells from a previous study and defined the m6A modified genes and sites. Ancestral mutations in the genic region fixed in the HeLa cell samples were defined using their mRNA-Seq data and the alignment between human and mouse genomes. Furthermore, in the small interfering (si)-METTL3 sample, the calculated TE foldchange of all genes was compared to that in the negative control. The TE of m6A genes was globally down-regulated in si-METTL3 versus control compared to the non-m6A genes. In m6A modified genes, RRAC motif mutations were suppressed compared to mutations in non-motif regions or non-m6A genes. Among the m6A genes, a fraction RRAC motif mutations negatively correlated with the TE foldchange (si-METTL3 versus control). The TE of m6A modified genes was enhanced in HeLa cells. RRAC motif mutations could potentially prevent methylation of adenosines and consequently abolish the enhanced translation. Such mutations in the RRAC motif might be deleterious. Accordingly, we observed lower fractions of mutations in RRAC motifs than in other regions. This prevention of mutations in the RRAC motif could be a strategy adopted by cancer cells to maintain the elevated translation of particular genes.


Assuntos
Adenosina/análogos & derivados , Metiltransferases/genética , Adenosina/genética , Adenosina/metabolismo , Animais , Sequência de Bases , Células HeLa , Humanos , Metiltransferases/antagonistas & inibidores , Metiltransferases/metabolismo , Camundongos , Mutação , Interferência de RNA , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , RNA Interferente Pequeno/metabolismo
5.
DNA Cell Biol ; 39(10): 1767-1778, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32833542

RESUMO

N1-methyladenosine (m1A) is an important post-transcriptional modification in RNA, and plays critical roles in cellular functions. However, the relationship between m1A regulators and clinical significance of gynecological cancers remains unknown. In this study, we systematically analyzed RNA-seq and clinical data from several public database. Cell proliferation and migration assays were performed to verify the function of the m1A writer TRMT10C in cancer cells. We observed genetic alterations and dysregulated expressions of m1A regulators in gynecological cancer samples. We demonstrated that several m1A regulators could serve as prognostic biomarkers for gynecological cancer patients. The high correlations among the expression of m1A, N6-methyladenosine (m6A), and 5mC regulators were also revealed. Gene set enrichment analysis indicated that the mechanism of TRMT10C in regulating tumorigenesis was related to a variety of cancer-related pathways. Moreover, silencing TRMT10C suppressed the proliferation, colony formation, and migration of ovarian cancer and cervical cancer cells. In summary, our results highlight the importance of m1A regulators in regulating oncogenesis, and indicate that targeting specific m1A regulators might be a potential therapeutic strategy for gynecological cancers.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Metiltransferases/genética , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/genética , Adenosina/análogos & derivados , Adenosina/metabolismo , Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Movimento Celular , Proliferação de Células , Feminino , Células HeLa , Humanos , Metiltransferases/metabolismo , Neoplasias Ovarianas/metabolismo , Neoplasias Ovarianas/patologia , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/metabolismo , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/patologia
6.
Virology ; 548: 59-72, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32838947

RESUMO

Methylation of the N6 position of adenosine (m6A) is a widespread RNA modification that is critical for various physiological and pathological processes. Although this modification was also found in the RNA of several viruses almost 40 years ago, its biological functions during viral infection have been elucidated recently. Here, we investigated the effects of viral and host RNA methylation during porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) infection. The results demonstrated that the m6A modification was abundant in the PEDV genome and the host methyltransferases METTL3 and METTL14 and demethylase FTO were involved in the regulation of viral replication. The knockdown of the methyltransferases increased PEDV replication while silencing the demethylase decreased PEDV output. Moreover, the proteins of the YTHDF family regulated the PEDV replication by affecting the stability of m6A-modified viral RNA. In particular, PEDV infection could trigger an increasement of m6A in host RNA and decrease the expression of FTO. The m6A modification sites in mRNAs and target genes were also altered during PEDV infection. Additionally, part of the host responses to PEDV infection was controlled by m6A modification, which could be reversed by the expression of FTO. Taken together, our results identified the role of m6A modification in PEDV replication and interactions with the host.


Assuntos
Adenosina/análogos & derivados , Infecções por Coronavirus/veterinária , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/genética , Vírus da Diarreia Epidêmica Suína/fisiologia , Doenças dos Suínos/genética , Doenças dos Suínos/virologia , Replicação Viral , Adenosina/metabolismo , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Chlorocebus aethiops , Genoma Viral , Metilação , Vírus da Diarreia Epidêmica Suína/ultraestrutura , Ligação Proteica , RNA Viral , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA/metabolismo , Suínos , Células Vero
7.
Chem Biol Interact ; 330: 109228, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32827518

RESUMO

This study aimed at exploring the potential mechanism of decreased in vivo exposure of the antiplatelet agent, ticagrelor and its active metabolite, AR-C124910XX, mediated by tea polyphenols, which was first revealed by our previous study, as well as predicting the in vivo drug-drug interaction (DDI) potential utilizing an in vitro to in vivo extrapolation (IVIVE) approach. The bidirectional transport and uptake kinetics of ticagrelor were determined using Caco-2 cells. Inhibition potency of major components of tea polyphenols, epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) and epigallocatechin (EGC) were obtained from Caco-2 cells, human intestinal and hepatic microsomes (HIMs and HLMs) in vitro. A mean efflux ratio of 2.28 ± 0.38 and active uptake behavior of ticagrelor were observed in Caco-2 cell studies. Further investigation showed that the IC50 values of EGCG and EGC on the uptake of ticagrelor were 42.0 ± 5.1 µM (95% CI 31.9-54.8 µM) and 161 ± 13 µM (95% CI 136-191 µM), respectively. EGCG and EGC also displayed moderate to weak reversible inhibition on the formation of AR-C124910XX and the inactive metabolite, AR-C133913XX in HIMs and HLMs, while no clinically significant time-dependent inhibition was observed for either compound. IVIVE indicated a significant inhibition effect of EGCG on the uptake process of ticagrelor, while no potential DDI risk was found based on microsomal data. A 45% decrease in ticagrelor in vivo exposure was mechanistically predicted by incorporating intestinal and hepatic metabolism as well as intestinal absorption. This dual inhibition of tea polyphenols on ticagrelor revealed the underlying potential of transporter-enzyme interplay, in which the altered uptake process was more critical.


Assuntos
Modelos Teóricos , Polifenóis/farmacologia , Chá/química , Ticagrelor/antagonistas & inibidores , Adenosina/análogos & derivados , Adenosina/metabolismo , Transporte Biológico/efeitos dos fármacos , Células CACO-2 , Catequina/análogos & derivados , Catequina/farmacologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Interações Medicamentosas , Humanos , Absorção Intestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Cinética , Microssomos Hepáticos/metabolismo , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/farmacocinética , Antagonistas do Receptor Purinérgico P2Y/farmacocinética , Ticagrelor/metabolismo , Ticagrelor/farmacocinética
8.
PLoS Pathog ; 16(8): e1008740, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32822429

RESUMO

Adenosine-to-inosine (A-to-I) RNA editing is an important posttranscriptional event in eukaryotes; however, many features remain largely unexplored in prokaryotes. This study focuses on a serine-to-proline recoding event (S128P) that originated in the mRNA of fliC, which encodes a flagellar filament protein; the editing event was observed in RNA-seq samples exposed to oxidative stress. Using Sanger sequencing, we show that the S128P editing event is induced by H2O2. To investigate the in vivo interaction between RNAs and TadA, which is the principal enzyme for A-to-I editing, genome-wide RNA immunoprecipitation-coupled high-throughput sequencing (iRIP-Seq) analysis was performed using HA-tagged TadA from Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzicola. We found that TadA can bind to the mRNA of fliC and the binding motif is identical to that previously reported by Bar-Yaacov and colleagues. This editing event increased motility and enhanced tolerance to oxidative stress due to changes in flagellar filament structure, which was modelled in 3D and measured by TEM. The change in filament structure due to the S128P mutant increased biofilm formation, which was measured by the 3D laser scanning confocal microscopy. RNA-seq revealed that a gene cluster that contributes to siderophore biosynthesis and Fe3+ uptake was upregulated in S128P compared with WT. Based on intracellular levels of reactive oxygen species and an oxidative stress survival assay, we found that this gene cluster can contribute to the reduction of the Fenton reaction and increases biofilm formation and bacterial virulence. This oxidative stress response was also confirmed in Pseudomonas putida. Overall, our work demonstrates that A-to-I RNA editing plays a role in bacterial pathogenicity and adaptation to oxidative stress.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Edição de RNA , Xanthomonas/genética , Xanthomonas/metabolismo , Adenosina/genética , Adenosina/metabolismo , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/farmacologia , Inosina/genética , Inosina/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Virulência/efeitos dos fármacos , Xanthomonas/efeitos dos fármacos , Xanthomonas/patogenicidade
9.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0234103, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32645016

RESUMO

Cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) contribute to the cancer hallmarks of uncontrolled proliferation and increased survival. As a result, over the last two decades substantial efforts have been directed towards identification and development of pharmaceutical CDK inhibitors. Insights into the biological consequences of CDK inhibition in specific tumor types have led to the successful development of CDK4/6 inhibitors as treatments for certain types of breast cancer. More recently, a new generation of pharmaceutical inhibitors of CDK enzymes that regulate the transcription of key oncogenic and pro-survival proteins, including CDK9, have entered clinical development. Here, we provide the first disclosure of the chemical structure of fadraciclib (CYC065), a CDK inhibitor and clinical candidate designed by further optimization from the aminopurine scaffold of seliciclib. We describe its synthesis and mechanistic characterization. Fadraciclib exhibits improved potency and selectivity for CDK2 and CDK9 compared to seliciclib, and also displays high selectivity across the kinome. We show that the mechanism of action of fadraciclib is consistent with potent inhibition of CDK9-mediated transcription, decreasing levels of RNA polymerase II C-terminal domain serine 2 phosphorylation, the pro-survival protein Myeloid Cell Leukemia 1 (MCL1) and MYC oncoprotein, and inducing rapid apoptosis in cancer cells. This cellular potency and mechanism of action translate to promising anti-cancer activity in human leukemia mouse xenograft models. Studies of leukemia cell line sensitivity identify mixed lineage leukemia (MLL) gene status and the level of B-cell lymphoma 2 (BCL2) family proteins as potential markers for selection of patients with greater sensitivity to fadraciclib. We show that the combination of fadraciclib with BCL2 inhibitors, including venetoclax, is synergistic in leukemic cell models, as predicted from simultaneous inhibition of MCL1 and BCL2 pro-survival pathways. Fadraciclib preclinical pharmacology data support its therapeutic potential in CDK9- or CDK2-dependent cancers and as a rational combination with BCL2 inhibitors in hematological malignancies. Fadraciclib is currently in Phase 1 clinical studies in patients with advanced solid tumors (NCT02552953) and also in combination with venetoclax in patients with relapsed or refractory chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) (NCT03739554) and relapsed refractory acute myeloid leukemia (AML) or myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) (NCT04017546).


Assuntos
Adenosina/análogos & derivados , Adenosina/metabolismo , Adenosina/farmacologia , Animais , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Compostos Bicíclicos Heterocíclicos com Pontes/farmacologia , Pontos de Checagem do Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Quinase 2 Dependente de Ciclina/efeitos dos fármacos , Quinase 2 Dependente de Ciclina/metabolismo , Quinase 9 Dependente de Ciclina/efeitos dos fármacos , Quinase 9 Dependente de Ciclina/metabolismo , Quinases Ciclina-Dependentes/antagonistas & inibidores , Humanos , Camundongos , Proteína de Sequência 1 de Leucemia de Células Mieloides/metabolismo , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacologia , Sulfonamidas/farmacologia
10.
Cells ; 9(8)2020 07 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32707842

RESUMO

The ectonucleotidases CD39 and CD73 regulate immune responses by balancing extracellular ATP and adenosine in inflammation and are likely to be involved in the pathophysiology of COVID-19. Here, we analyzed CD39 and CD73 on different lymphocyte populations in a small cohort of COVID-19 patients and in healthy individuals. We describe a significantly lower level of expression of CD73 on cytotoxic lymphocyte populations, including CD8+ T, natural killer T (NKT), and natural killer (NK) cells, during COVID-19. Interestingly, the decrease of CD73 on CD8+ T cells and NKT cells correlated with serum ferritin levels. Furthermore, we observed distinct functional differences between the CD73+ and CD73- subsets of CD8+ T cells and NKT cells with regard to cytokine/toxin secretion. In COVID-19 patients, the majority of the CD73-CD8+ T cells were capable of secreting granzyme B, perforin, tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α) or interferon-gamma (IFN-γ). To conclude, in this first study of CD39 and CD73 expression of lymphocytes in COVID-19, we show that CD8+ T cells and NKT cells lacking CD73 possess a significantly higher cytotoxic effector functionality compared to their CD73+ counterparts. Future studies should investigate differences of cellular CD39 and CD73 expression in patients at different disease stages and their potential as prognostic markers or targets for immunomodulatory therapies.


Assuntos
5'-Nucleotidase/metabolismo , Apirase/metabolismo , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Células Matadoras Naturais/imunologia , Células T Matadoras Naturais/imunologia , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Linfócitos T Citotóxicos/imunologia , Adenosina/metabolismo , Adulto , Idoso , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/enzimologia , Feminino , Proteínas Ligadas por GPI/metabolismo , Granzimas/metabolismo , Humanos , Inflamação/enzimologia , Inflamação/imunologia , Interferon gama/metabolismo , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Perforina/metabolismo , Pneumonia Viral/enzimologia , Transdução de Sinais/imunologia , Linfócitos T Citotóxicos/metabolismo , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo
11.
Mol Cell ; 79(3): 425-442.e7, 2020 08 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32615088

RESUMO

Double-strand breaks (DSBs) are the most deleterious DNA lesions, which, if left unrepaired, may lead to genome instability or cell death. Here, we report that, in response to DSBs, the RNA methyltransferase METTL3 is activated by ATM-mediated phosphorylation at S43. Phosphorylated METTL3 is then localized to DNA damage sites, where it methylates the N6 position of adenosine (m6A) in DNA damage-associated RNAs, which recruits the m6A reader protein YTHDC1 for protection. In this way, the METTL3-m6A-YTHDC1 axis modulates accumulation of DNA-RNA hybrids at DSBs sites, which then recruit RAD51 and BRCA1 for homologous recombination (HR)-mediated repair. METTL3-deficient cells display defective HR, accumulation of unrepaired DSBs, and genome instability. Accordingly, depletion of METTL3 significantly enhances the sensitivity of cancer cells and murine xenografts to DNA damage-based therapy. These findings uncover the function of METTL3 and YTHDC1 in HR-mediated DSB repair, which may have implications for cancer therapy.


Assuntos
Adenosina/análogos & derivados , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/genética , Metiltransferases/genética , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/genética , Fatores de Processamento de RNA/genética , Reparo de DNA por Recombinação/efeitos dos fármacos , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas de Cabeça e Pescoço/genética , Adenosina/metabolismo , Animais , Antibióticos Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Proteínas Mutadas de Ataxia Telangiectasia/genética , Proteínas Mutadas de Ataxia Telangiectasia/metabolismo , Proteína BRCA1/genética , Proteína BRCA1/metabolismo , Bleomicina/farmacologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , DNA/genética , DNA/metabolismo , Células Epiteliais/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Epiteliais/metabolismo , Células Epiteliais/patologia , Feminino , Células HEK293 , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/mortalidade , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/patologia , Humanos , Metiltransferases/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Camundongos Nus , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/metabolismo , Hibridização de Ácido Nucleico , Osteoblastos/efeitos dos fármacos , Osteoblastos/metabolismo , Osteoblastos/patologia , Fosforilação , Isoformas de Proteínas/genética , Isoformas de Proteínas/metabolismo , Fatores de Processamento de RNA/metabolismo , Rad51 Recombinase/genética , Rad51 Recombinase/metabolismo , Ribonuclease H/genética , Ribonuclease H/metabolismo , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas de Cabeça e Pescoço/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas de Cabeça e Pescoço/mortalidade , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas de Cabeça e Pescoço/patologia , Análise de Sobrevida , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
12.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 3717, 2020 07 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32709887

RESUMO

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the cause of the COVID-19 pandemic. 2'-O-RNA methyltransferase (MTase) is one of the enzymes of this virus that is a potential target for antiviral therapy as it is crucial for RNA cap formation; an essential process for viral RNA stability. This MTase function is associated with the nsp16 protein, which requires a cofactor, nsp10, for its proper activity. Here we show the crystal structure of the nsp10-nsp16 complex bound to the pan-MTase inhibitor sinefungin in the active site. Our structural comparisons reveal low conservation of the MTase catalytic site between Zika and SARS-CoV-2 viruses, but high conservation of the MTase active site between SARS-CoV-2 and SARS-CoV viruses; these data suggest that the preparation of MTase inhibitors targeting several coronaviruses - but not flaviviruses - should be feasible. Together, our data add to important information for structure-based drug discovery.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/enzimologia , Metiltransferases/química , Proteínas não Estruturais Virais/química , Proteínas Virais Reguladoras e Acessórias/química , Adenosina/análogos & derivados , Adenosina/metabolismo , Adenosina/farmacologia , Domínio Catalítico , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Cristalografia por Raios X , Inibidores Enzimáticos/metabolismo , Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacologia , Humanos , Metiltransferases/metabolismo , Modelos Químicos , Modelos Moleculares , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Capuzes de RNA , Estabilidade de RNA , RNA Viral/metabolismo , Proteínas não Estruturais Virais/metabolismo , Proteínas Virais Reguladoras e Acessórias/metabolismo
13.
PLoS Comput Biol ; 16(6): e1007903, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32584811

RESUMO

Nucleotides comprise small molecules that perform critical signaling roles in biological systems. Adenosine-based nucleotides, including adenosine tri-, di-, and mono-phosphate, are controlled through their rapid degradation by diphosphohydrolases and ecto-nucleotidases (NDAs). The interplay between nucleotide signaling and degradation is especially important in synapses formed between cells, which create signaling 'nanodomains'. Within these 'nanodomains', charged nucleotides interact with densely-packed membranes and biomolecules. While the contributions of electrostatic and steric interactions within such nanodomains are known to shape diffusion-limited reaction rates, less is understood about how these factors control the kinetics of nucleotidase activity. To quantify these factors, we utilized reaction-diffusion numerical simulations of 1) adenosine triphosphate (ATP) hydrolysis into adenosine monophosphate (AMP) and 2) AMP into adenosine (Ado) via two representative nucleotidases, CD39 and CD73. We evaluate these sequentially-coupled reactions in nanodomain geometries representative of extracellular synapses, within which we localize the nucleotidases. With this model, we find that 1) nucleotidase confinement reduces reaction rates relative to an open (bulk) system, 2) the rates of AMP and ADO formation are accelerated by restricting the diffusion of substrates away from the enzymes, and 3) nucleotidase co-localization and the presence of complementary (positive) charges to ATP enhance reaction rates, though the impact of these contributions on nucleotide pools depends on the degree to which the membrane competes for substrates. As a result, these contributions integratively control the relative concentrations and distributions of ATP and its metabolites within the junctional space. Altogether, our studies suggest that CD39 and CD73 nucleotidase activity within junctional spaces can exploit their confinement and favorable electrostatic interactions to finely control nucleotide signaling.


Assuntos
Adenosina Trifosfatases/metabolismo , Adenosina/metabolismo , Nucleotídeos/metabolismo , Cinética , Transdução de Sinais , Propriedades de Superfície
14.
PLoS Genet ; 16(6): e1008836, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32479508

RESUMO

Codon usage bias is a universal feature of all genomes and plays an important role in regulating protein expression levels. Modification of adenosine to inosine at the tRNA anticodon wobble position (I34) by adenosine deaminases (ADATs) is observed in all eukaryotes and has been proposed to explain the correlation between codon usage and tRNA pool. However, how the tRNA pool is affected by I34 modification to influence codon usage-dependent gene expression is unclear. Using Neurospora crassa as a model system, by combining molecular, biochemical and bioinformatics analyses, we show that silencing of adat2 expression severely impaired the I34 modification levels for the ADAT-related tRNAs, resulting in major ADAT-related tRNA profile changes and reprogramming of translation elongation kinetics on ADAT-related codons. adat2 silencing also caused genome-wide codon usage-biased ribosome pausing on mRNAs and proteome landscape changes, leading to selective translational repression or induction of different mRNAs. The induced expression of CPC-1, the Neurospora ortholog of yeast GCN4p, mediates the transcriptional response after adat2 silencing and amino acid starvation. Together, our results demonstrate that the tRNA I34 modification by ADAT plays a major role in driving codon usage-biased translation to shape proteome landscape.


Assuntos
Anticódon/genética , Uso do Códon , Elongação Traducional da Cadeia Peptídica/genética , Proteoma/genética , RNA de Transferência de Arginina/genética , Adenosina/metabolismo , Adenosina Desaminase/metabolismo , Anticódon/metabolismo , Biologia Computacional , Proteínas Fúngicas/genética , Proteínas Fúngicas/metabolismo , Inosina/metabolismo , Neurospora crassa/genética , RNA de Transferência de Arginina/metabolismo , Ribossomos/metabolismo
15.
Cancer Immunol Immunother ; 69(9): 1801-1812, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32350590

RESUMO

Immunotherapy as an approach for cancer treatment is clinically promising. CD73, which is the enzyme that produces extracellular adenosine, favors cancer progression and protects the tumor from immune surveillance. While CD73 has recently been demonstrated to be a potential target for glioma treatment, its role in regulating the inflammatory tumor microenvironment has not yet been investigated. Thus, this study explores the immunotherapeutic value of the CD73 blockade in glioblastoma. The immuno-therapeutic value of the CD73 blockade was evaluated in vivo in immunocompetent pre-clinical glioblastoma model. As such, glioblastoma-bearing rats were nasally treated for 15 days with a siRNA CD73-loaded cationic-nanoemulsion (NE-siRNA CD73R). Apoptosis was determined by flow cytometry using Annexin-V staining and cell proliferation was analyzed by Ki67 expression by immunohistochemistry. The frequencies of the CD4+, CD8+, and CD4+CD25highCD39+ (Treg) T lymphocytes; CD11b+CD45high macrophages; CD11b+CD45low-microglia; and CD206+-M2-like phenotypes, along with expression levels of CD39 and CD73 in tumor and tumor-associated immune cells, were determined using flow cytometry, while inflammatory markers associated with tumor progression were evaluated using RT-qPCR. The CD73 blockade by NE-siRNA CD73 was found to induce tumor cell apoptosis. Meanwhile, the population of Tregs, microglia, and macrophages was significantly reduced in the tumor microenvironment, though IL-6, CCL17, and CCL22 increased. The treatment selectively decreased CD73 expression in the GB cells as well as in the tumor-associated-macrophages/microglia. This study indicates that CD73 knockdown using a nanotechnological approach to perform nasal delivery of siRNA-CD73 to CNS can potentially regulate the glioblastoma immune microenvironment and delay tumor growth by inducing apoptosis.


Assuntos
5'-Nucleotidase/antagonistas & inibidores , 5'-Nucleotidase/imunologia , Proliferação de Células/fisiologia , Glioblastoma/imunologia , Glioblastoma/metabolismo , Glioma/imunologia , Glioma/metabolismo , Adenosina/imunologia , Adenosina/metabolismo , Animais , Neoplasias Encefálicas/imunologia , Neoplasias Encefálicas/metabolismo , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/metabolismo , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Imuno-Histoquímica/métodos , Imunoterapia/métodos , Macrófagos/imunologia , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Microglia/imunologia , Microglia/metabolismo , Ratos
16.
Gene ; 753: 144810, 2020 Aug 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32470506

RESUMO

Meiotic entry and progression require dynamic regulation of germline gene expression. m6A on mRNAs and recognition by YTHDC2 has been known as post-transcriptional regulatory complex, but the roles of this regulator remain unclear for meiotic initiation and progression in female germ cells (FGCs). This study showed that m6A modification occurred mainly in FGCs rather than ovarian somatic cells (SOMAs), and m6A levels in FGCs increased significantly with meiotic initiation. m6A inhibition suppressed expression of the meiotic markers and affected the percent of FGCs at zygotene, pachytene and diplotene stage respectively. YTHDC2 expression also increased in the same pattern with m6A. Ythdc2 knockdown decreased the percent of STRA8-positive FGCs and altered the percent of FGCs at zygotene and pachytene stage respectively. Taken together, these results suggest that mRNA m6A modification and YTHDC2 expression are essential for meiotic initiation and progression in FGCs.


Assuntos
Adenosina/análogos & derivados , Meiose/genética , RNA Helicases/genética , Adenosina/genética , Adenosina/metabolismo , Animais , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento/genética , Células Germinativas/metabolismo , Meiose/fisiologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos ICR , Ovário/metabolismo , RNA Helicases/metabolismo , RNA Mensageiro/genética
17.
Nucleic Acids Res ; 48(10): 5684-5694, 2020 06 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32356894

RESUMO

Studies on biological functions of N6-methyladenosine (m6A) modification in mRNA have drawn significant attention in recent years. Here we describe the construction and characterization of a CRISPR-Cas13b-based tool for targeted demethylation of specific mRNA. A fusion protein, named dm6ACRISPR, was created by linking a catalytically inactive Type VI-B Cas13 enzyme from Prevotella sp. P5-125 (dPspCas13b) to m6A demethylase AlkB homolog 5 (ALKBH5). dm6ACRISPR specifically demethylates m6A of targeted mRNA such as cytochrome b5 form A (CYB5A) to increase its mRNA stability. It can also demethylate ß-catenin-encoding CTNNB1 mRNA that contains multiple m6A sites to trigger its translation. In addition, the dm6ACRISPR system incurs efficient demethylation of targeted epitranscriptome transcripts with limited off-target effects. Targeted demethylation of transcripts coding for oncoproteins such as epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and MYC can suppress proliferation of cancer cells. Together, we provide a programmable and in vivo manipulation tool to study mRNA modification of specific genes and their related biological functions.


Assuntos
Homólogo AlkB 5 da RNA Desmetilase/metabolismo , Proteínas Associadas a CRISPR/genética , Sistemas CRISPR-Cas , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Regiões 5' não Traduzidas , Adenosina/análogos & derivados , Adenosina/metabolismo , Homólogo AlkB 5 da RNA Desmetilase/genética , Proliferação de Células , Desmetilação , Células HEK293 , Células HeLa , Humanos , Oncogenes , Prevotella/enzimologia , Engenharia de Proteínas , RNA Mensageiro/química , Proteínas Recombinantes de Fusão/metabolismo
18.
Life Sci ; 256: 117862, 2020 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32473244

RESUMO

Vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) exhibit a high degree of plasticity when they undergo the progression from a normal to a disease condition, which makes them a potential target for evaluating early markers and for the development of new therapies. Purinergic signalling plays a key role in vascular tonus control, ATP being an inductor of vasoconstriction, whereas adenosine mediates a vasodilation effect antagonising the ATP actions. The control of extracellular ATP and adenosine levels is done by ectonucleotidases, which represent a potential target to be evaluated in the progression of cardiovascular diseases. In this study, we analysed the basal activity and expression of the ectonucleotidases in aortic rat VSMCs, and we further performed in silico analysis to determine the expression of those enzymes in conditions that mimicked vascular diseases. Cultured in vitro VSMCs showed a prominent expression of Entpd1 followed by Entpd2 and Nt5e (CD73) and very low levels of Entpd3. Slightly faster AMP hydrolysis was observed when compared to ATP and ADP nucleotides. In silico analysis showed that the ectonucleotidases were modulated after induction of conditions that can lead to vascular diseases such as, hypertensive and hypotensive mice models (Nt5e); exposition to high-fat (Entpd1 and Entpd2) or high-phosphate (Nt5e) diet; mechanical stretch (Entpd1, Entpd2 and Nt5e); and myocardial infarction (Entpd1). Our data show that VSMCs are able to efficiently metabolise the extracellular nucleotides generating adenosine. The modulation of Entpd1, Entdp2 and Nt5e in vascular diseases suggests these ectoenzymes as potential targets or markers to be investigated in future studies.


Assuntos
5'-Nucleotidase/metabolismo , Adenosina Trifosfatases/metabolismo , Antígenos CD/metabolismo , Apirase/metabolismo , Músculo Liso Vascular/patologia , Doenças Vasculares/fisiopatologia , Adenosina/metabolismo , Difosfato de Adenosina/metabolismo , Trifosfato de Adenosina/metabolismo , Animais , Aorta/citologia , Simulação por Computador , Proteínas Ligadas por GPI/metabolismo , Camundongos , Músculo Liso Vascular/enzimologia , Nucleotídeos/metabolismo , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Doenças Vasculares/enzimologia
19.
Nucleic Acids Res ; 48(11): 6251-6264, 2020 06 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32406913

RESUMO

m6A is a prevalent internal modification in mRNAs and has been linked to the diverse effects on mRNA fate. To explore the landscape and evolution of human m6A, we generated 27 m6A methylomes across major adult tissues. These data reveal dynamic m6A methylation across tissue types, uncover both broadly or tissue-specifically methylated sites, and identify an unexpected enrichment of m6A methylation at non-canonical cleavage sites. A comparison of fetal and adult m6A methylomes reveals that m6A preferentially occupies CDS regions in fetal tissues. Moreover, the m6A sub-motifs vary between fetal and adult tissues or across tissue types. From the evolutionary perspective, we uncover that the selection pressure on m6A sites varies and depends on their genic locations. Unexpectedly, we found that ∼40% of the 3'UTR m6A sites are under negative selection, which is higher than the evolutionary constraint on miRNA binding sites, and much higher than that on A-to-I RNA modification. Moreover, the recently gained m6A sites in human populations are clearly under positive selection and associated with traits or diseases. Our work provides a resource of human m6A profile for future studies of m6A functions, and suggests a role of m6A modification in human evolutionary adaptation and disease susceptibility.


Assuntos
Adenosina/análogos & derivados , Metilação de DNA , Evolução Molecular , Regiões 3' não Traduzidas , Adenosina/metabolismo , Adulto , Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Epigenoma , Feto/metabolismo , Genética Populacional , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Metiltransferases/deficiência , Metiltransferases/genética , Especificidade de Órgãos
20.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 2578, 2020 05 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32444598

RESUMO

Studies on biological functions of N6-methyladenosine (m6A) modification in mRNA have sprung up in recent years. We find m6A can positively regulate the glycolysis of cancer cells. Specifically, m6A-sequencing and functional studies confirm that pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 4 (PDK4) is involved in m6A regulated glycolysis and ATP generation. The m6A modified 5'UTR of PDK4 positively regulates its translation elongation and mRNA stability via binding with YTHDF1/eEF-2 complex and IGF2BP3, respectively. Targeted specific demethylation of PDK4 m6A by dm6ACRISPR system can significantly decrease the expression of PDK4 and glycolysis of cancer cells. Further, TATA-binding protein (TBP) can transcriptionally increase the expression of Mettl3 in cervical cancer cells via binding to its promoter. In vivo and clinical data confirm the positive roles of m6A/PDK4 in tumor growth and progression of cervical and liver cancer. Our study reveals that m6A regulates glycolysis of cancer cells through PDK4.


Assuntos
Adenosina/análogos & derivados , Glicólise/fisiologia , Quinase Piruvato Desidrogenase (Transferência de Acetil)/metabolismo , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/genética , Regiões 5' não Traduzidas , Adenosina/metabolismo , Trifosfato de Adenosina/metabolismo , Animais , Repetições Palindrômicas Curtas Agrupadas e Regularmente Espaçadas , Feminino , Glicólise/genética , Células HeLa , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Metiltransferases/genética , Metiltransferases/metabolismo , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Quinase Piruvato Desidrogenase (Transferência de Acetil)/genética , Estabilidade de RNA , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA/metabolismo , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/mortalidade , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
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