Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 7.628
Filtrar
1.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 5201, 2021 08 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34465779

RESUMO

N6-methyladenosine (m6A) is a post-transcriptional modification that controls gene expression by recruiting proteins to RNA sites. The modification also slows biochemical processes through mechanisms that are not understood. Using temperature-dependent (20°C-65°C) NMR relaxation dispersion, we show that m6A pairs with uridine with the methylamino group in the anti conformation to form a Watson-Crick base pair that transiently exchanges on the millisecond timescale with a singly hydrogen-bonded low-populated (1%) mismatch-like conformation in which the methylamino group is syn. This ability to rapidly interchange between Watson-Crick or mismatch-like forms, combined with different syn:anti isomer preferences when paired (~1:100) versus unpaired (~10:1), explains how m6A robustly slows duplex annealing without affecting melting at elevated temperatures via two pathways in which isomerization occurs before or after duplex annealing. Our model quantitatively predicts how m6A reshapes the kinetic landscape of nucleic acid hybridization and conformational transitions, and provides an explanation for why the modification robustly slows diverse cellular processes.


Assuntos
Adenosina/análogos & derivados , DNA/química , DNA/metabolismo , Adenosina/química , Adenosina/genética , Adenosina/metabolismo , Pareamento de Bases , DNA/genética , Ligação de Hidrogênio , Cinética , Modelos Moleculares , Conformação de Ácido Nucleico , Hibridização de Ácido Nucleico , Processamento Pós-Transcricional do RNA , Uridina/química , Uridina/genética , Uridina/metabolismo
2.
Nature ; 596(7871): 296-300, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34349264

RESUMO

During the splicing of introns from precursor messenger RNAs (pre-mRNAs), the U2 small nuclear ribonucleoprotein (snRNP) must undergo stable integration into the spliceosomal A complex-a poorly understood, multistep process that is facilitated by the DEAD-box helicase Prp5 (refs. 1-4). During this process, the U2 small nuclear RNA (snRNA) forms an RNA duplex with the pre-mRNA branch site (the U2-BS helix), which is proofread by Prp5 at this stage through an unclear mechanism5. Here, by deleting the branch-site adenosine (BS-A) or mutating the branch-site sequence of an actin pre-mRNA, we stall the assembly of spliceosomes in extracts from the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae directly before the A complex is formed. We then determine the three-dimensional structure of this newly identified assembly intermediate by cryo-electron microscopy. Our structure indicates that the U2-BS helix has formed in this pre-A complex, but is not yet clamped by the HEAT domain of the Hsh155 protein (Hsh155HEAT), which exhibits an open conformation. The structure further reveals a large-scale remodelling/repositioning of the U1 and U2 snRNPs during the formation of the A complex that is required to allow subsequent binding of the U4/U6.U5 tri-snRNP, but that this repositioning is blocked in the pre-A complex by the presence of Prp5. Our data suggest that binding of Hsh155HEAT to the bulged BS-A of the U2-BS helix triggers closure of Hsh155HEAT, which in turn destabilizes Prp5 binding. Thus, Prp5 proofreads the branch site indirectly, hindering spliceosome assembly if branch-site mutations prevent the remodelling of Hsh155HEAT. Our data provide structural insights into how a spliceosomal helicase enhances the fidelity of pre-mRNA splicing.


Assuntos
RNA Helicases DEAD-box/química , RNA Helicases DEAD-box/metabolismo , Precursores de RNA/química , Precursores de RNA/genética , Splicing de RNA , Proteínas de Saccharomyces cerevisiae/química , Proteínas de Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo , Saccharomyces cerevisiae , Spliceossomos/enzimologia , Actinas/genética , Adenosina/metabolismo , Sítios de Ligação , Microscopia Crioeletrônica , RNA Helicases DEAD-box/ultraestrutura , Modelos Moleculares , Mutação , Domínios Proteicos , Precursores de RNA/metabolismo , Precursores de RNA/ultraestrutura , Splicing de RNA/genética , Ribonucleoproteína Nuclear Pequena U1/metabolismo , Ribonucleoproteína Nuclear Pequena U2/química , Ribonucleoproteína Nuclear Pequena U2/metabolismo , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/enzimologia , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genética , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/ultraestrutura , Proteínas de Saccharomyces cerevisiae/ultraestrutura , Spliceossomos/química , Spliceossomos/metabolismo
3.
Theranostics ; 11(16): 7640-7657, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34335955

RESUMO

Background: Since primary prostate cancer (PCa) can advance to the life-threatening metastatic PCa, exploring the molecular mechanisms underlying PCa metastasis is crucial for developing the novel targeted preventive strategies for decreasing the mortality of PCa. RNA N6-methyladenosine (m6A) is an emerging regulatory mechanism for gene expression and its specific roles in PCa progression remains elusive. Methods: Western blotting, quantitative real-time PCR and immunohistochemical analyses were used to detect target gene expression in PCa cells in vitro and prostate tissues from patients. RNA immunoprecipitation was conducted to analyze the specific binding of mRNA to the target protein. Migration and invasion assays were used to assess the migratory capacities of cancer cells. The correlation between target gene expression and survival rate of PCa patients was analyzed based the TCGA database. Results: We found that total RNA N6-methyladenosine (m6A) modification levels were markedly upregulated in human PCa tissues due to increased expression of methyltransferase like 3 (METTL3). Further studies revealed that the migratory and invasive capacities of PCa cells were markedly suppressed upon METTL3 knockdown. Mechanistically, METTL3 mediates m6A modification of USP4 mRNA at A2696, and m6A reader protein YTHDF2 binds to and induces degradation of USP4 mRNA by recruiting RNA-binding protein HNRNPD to the mRNA. Decrease of USP4 fails to remove the ubiquitin group from ELAVL1 protein, resulting in a reduction of ELAVL1 protein. Lastly, downregulation of ELAVL1 in turn increases ARHGDIA expression, promoting migration and invasion of PCa cells. Conclusions: Our findings highlight the role of METTL3 in modulating invasion and metastasis of PCa cells, providing insight into promising therapeutic strategies for hindering PCa progressing to deadly metastases.


Assuntos
Metiltransferases/genética , Neoplasias da Próstata/metabolismo , Adenosina/análogos & derivados , Adenosina/genética , Adenosina/metabolismo , Movimento Celular/genética , Proliferação de Células/genética , Expressão Gênica/genética , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/genética , Inativação Gênica/fisiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Metiltransferases/metabolismo , Invasividade Neoplásica/genética , Metástase Neoplásica/genética , Próstata/metabolismo , Próstata/patologia , Neoplasias da Próstata/genética , RNA Mensageiro/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA/metabolismo , Proteases Específicas de Ubiquitina/genética
4.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 4778, 2021 08 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34362929

RESUMO

N6,2'-O-dimethyladenosine (m6Am), a terminal modification adjacent to the mRNA cap, is a newly discovered reversible RNA modification. Yet, a specific and sensitive tool to directly map transcriptome-wide m6Am is lacking. Here, we report m6Am-seq, based on selective in vitro demethylation and RNA immunoprecipitation. m6Am-seq directly distinguishes m6Am and 5'-UTR N6-methyladenosine (m6A) and enables the identification of m6Am at single-base resolution and 5'-UTR m6A in the human transcriptome. Using m6Am-seq, we also find that m6Am and 5'-UTR m6A respond dynamically to stimuli, and identify key functional methylation sites that may facilitate cellular stress response. Collectively, m6Am-seq reveals the high-confidence m6Am and 5'-UTR m6A methylome and provides a robust tool for functional studies of the two epitranscriptomic marks.


Assuntos
Adenosina/análogos & derivados , Adenosina/metabolismo , Transcriptoma , Regiões 5' não Traduzidas , Fatores Ativadores da Transcrição , Adenosina/genética , Sequência de Bases , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Imunoprecipitação , Metilação , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo
5.
Front Immunol ; 12: 720192, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34456928

RESUMO

COVID-19 might lead to multi-organ failure and, in some cases, to death. The COVID-19 severity is associated with a "cytokine storm." Danger-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) are proinflammatory molecules that can activate pattern recognition receptors, such as toll-like receptors (TLRs). DAMPs and TLRs have not received much attention in COVID-19 but can explain some of the gender-, weight- and age-dependent effects. In females and males, TLRs are differentially expressed, likely contributing to higher COVID-19 severity in males. DAMPs and cytokines associated with COVID-19 mortality are elevated in obese and elderly individuals, which might explain the higher risk for severer COVID-19 in these groups. Adenosine signaling inhibits the TLR/NF-κB pathway and, through this, decreases inflammation and DAMPs' effects. As vaccines will not be effective in all susceptible individuals and as new vaccine-resistant SARS-CoV-2 mutants might develop, it remains mandatory to find means to dampen COVID-19 disease severity, especially in high-risk groups. We propose that the regulation of DAMPs via adenosine signaling enhancement might be an effective way to lower the severity of COVID-19 and prevent multiple organ failure in the absence of severe side effects.


Assuntos
Alarminas/imunologia , COVID-19/fisiopatologia , Mediadores da Inflamação/imunologia , Adenosina/metabolismo , Alarminas/antagonistas & inibidores , Animais , COVID-19/complicações , COVID-19/imunologia , COVID-19/terapia , Humanos , Inflamação/prevenção & controle , Mediadores da Inflamação/antagonistas & inibidores , Insuficiência de Múltiplos Órgãos/etiologia , Insuficiência de Múltiplos Órgãos/prevenção & controle , Gravidade do Paciente , Transdução de Sinais , Receptores Toll-Like/antagonistas & inibidores , Receptores Toll-Like/imunologia
6.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(29): e26648, 2021 Jul 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34398021

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Endometrial carcinoma (EC) has become a common gynecologic malignancy with a high mortality. The m6A regulators have been identified to be closely associated with multiple human cancers including EC. However, the CpG methylation signature related to m6A regulators in EC remains unclear. METHOD: The methylation profiles of EC patients including cancer samples and adjacent normal samples were obtained from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database. The CpG sites in 20 m6A regulators were identified. Univariate Cox regression and LASSO Cox regression analysis were used to screen key CpG sites which were located at m6A regulators and significantly related to the prognosis of EC. The predictive model for EC prognosis was constructed, and multivariate Cox regression analysis was applied to explore whether the risk score derived from the model could function as an independent signature for EC prognosis. Meanwhile, a nomogram model was constructed by combing the independent prognostic signatures for prediction of the long-term survival in EC patients. RESULTS: A total of 396 CpG sites located at 20 m6A regulators were identified. A specific predictive model for EC prognosis based on 7 optimal CpG sites was constructed, which presented good performance in prognosis prediction of EC patients. Moreover, risk score was determined to be an independent signature both in the training set and validation set. By bringing in three independent prognostic factors (age, risk score, and TNM stage), the nomogram was constructed and could effectively predict the 3- and 5-year survival rates of EC patients. CONCLUSION: Our study suggested that the CpG sites located at m6A regulators might be considered as potential prognostic signatures for EC patients.


Assuntos
Adenosina/análogos & derivados , Neoplasias do Endométrio/mortalidade , Adenosina/genética , Adenosina/metabolismo , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , China , Neoplasias do Endométrio/genética , Neoplasias do Endométrio/metabolismo , Feminino , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Metilação , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nomogramas , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Prognóstico , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , RNA/genética , Análise de Sobrevida
7.
Nutrients ; 13(7)2021 Jun 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34202492

RESUMO

The classic ketogenic diet is a diet high in fat, low in carbohydrates, and well-adjusted proteins. The reduction in glucose levels induces changes in the body's metabolism, since the main energy source happens to be ketone bodies. Recent studies have suggested that nutritional interventions may modulate drug addiction. The present work aimed to study the potential effects of a classic ketogenic diet in modulating alcohol consumption and its rewarding effects. Two groups of adult male mice were employed in this study, one exposed to a standard diet (SD, n = 15) and the other to a ketogenic diet (KD, n = 16). When a ketotic state was stable for 7 days, animals were exposed to the oral self-administration paradigm to evaluate the reinforcing and motivating effects of ethanol. Rt-PCR analyses were performed evaluating dopamine, adenosine, CB1, and Oprm gene expression. Our results showed that animals in a ketotic state displayed an overall decrease in ethanol consumption without changes in their motivation to drink. Gene expression analyses point to several alterations in the dopamine, adenosine, and cannabinoid systems. Our results suggest that nutritional interventions may be a useful complementary tool in treating alcohol-use disorders.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/prevenção & controle , Alcoolismo/dietoterapia , Dieta Cetogênica/psicologia , Ingestão de Alimentos/genética , Ingestão de Alimentos/psicologia , Adenosina/metabolismo , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/psicologia , Alcoolismo/psicologia , Animais , Canabinoides/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Dopamina/metabolismo , Etanol , Expressão Gênica/fisiologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Motivação/genética
8.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(12)2021 Jun 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34205261

RESUMO

The amyloid ß peptide (Aß) is a central player in the neuropathology of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The alteration of Aß homeostasis may impact the fine-tuning of cell signaling from the very beginning of the disease, when amyloid plaque is not deposited yet. For this reason, primary culture of rat cortical neurons was exposed to Aß25-35, a non-oligomerizable form of Aß. Cell viability, metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluR) and adenosine receptors (AR) expression and signalling were assessed. Aß25-35 increased mGluR density and affinity, mainly due to a higher gene expression and protein presence of Group I mGluR (mGluR1 and mGluR5) in the membrane of cortical neurons. Intriguingly, the main effector of group I mGluR, the phospholipase C ß1 isoform, was less responsive. Also, the inhibitory action of group II and group III mGluR on adenylate cyclase (AC) activity was unaltered or increased, respectively. Interestingly, pre-treatment of cortical neurons with an antagonist of group I mGluR reduced the Aß25-35-induced cell death. Besides, Aß25-35 increased the density of A1R and A2AR, along with an increase in their gene expression. However, while A1R-mediated AC inhibition was increased, the A2AR-mediated stimulation of AC remained unchanged. Therefore, one of the early events that takes place after Aß25-35 exposure is the up-regulation of adenosine A1R, A2AR, and group I mGluR, and the different impacts on their corresponding signaling pathways. These results emphasize the importance of deciphering the early events and the possible involvement of metabotropic glutamate and adenosine receptors in AD physiopathology.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer/etiologia , Peptídeos beta-Amiloides/toxicidade , Neurônios/efeitos dos fármacos , Fragmentos de Peptídeos/toxicidade , Receptores de Neurotransmissores/metabolismo , Adenosina/metabolismo , Doença de Alzheimer/metabolismo , Animais , Córtex Cerebral , Feminino , Neurônios/metabolismo , Fosfolipase C beta/metabolismo , Gravidez , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Receptor A1 de Adenosina/metabolismo , Receptor A2A de Adenosina/metabolismo , Receptores de Glutamato/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais
9.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 13(12): 16287-16315, 2021 06 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34230220

RESUMO

N6-methyladenosine (m6A) RNA methylation is associated with malignant tumor progression and is modulated by various m6A RNA methylation regulator proteins. However, its role in endometrial cancer is unclear. In this work, we analyzed sequence, copy number variation, and clinical data obtained from the TCGA database. Expression was validated using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemistry. Changes in m6A RNA methylation regulators were closely related to the clinicopathological stage and prognosis of endometrial cancer. In particular, ZC3H13, YTHDC1, and METTL14 were identified as potential markers for endometrial cancer diagnosis and prognosis. The TIMER algorithm indicated that immune cell infiltration correlated with changes in ZC3H13, YTHDC1, and METTL14 expression. Meanwhile, ZC3H13 or YTHDC1 knockdown promoted the proliferation and invasion of endometrial cancer cells. Through gene enrichment analysis, we constructed a regulatory network in order to explore the potential molecular mechanism involving ZC3H13, YTHDC1, and METTL14. Virtual screening predicted interactions of potential therapeutic compounds with METTL14 and YTHDC1. These findings advance the understanding of RNA epigenetic modifications in endometrial cancer while identifying m6A regulators associated with immune infiltration, prognosis, and potential treatment strategies.


Assuntos
Adenosina/análogos & derivados , Neoplasias do Endométrio/genética , Neoplasias do Endométrio/imunologia , Linfócitos do Interstício Tumoral/imunologia , Adenosina/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/genética , Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA/genética , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Neoplasias do Endométrio/patologia , Feminino , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Redes Reguladoras de Genes , Humanos , Ligantes , Metilação , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Mutação/genética , Invasividade Neoplásica , Proteínas de Neoplasias/metabolismo , Prognóstico , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Bibliotecas de Moléculas Pequenas/farmacologia , Bibliotecas de Moléculas Pequenas/uso terapêutico , Microambiente Tumoral/imunologia
10.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(14)2021 Jul 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34299305

RESUMO

Adenosine is a ubiquitous endogenous modulator with the main function of maintaining cellular and tissue homeostasis in pathological and stress conditions. It exerts its effect through the interaction with four G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) subtypes referred as A1, A2A, A2B, and A3 adenosine receptors (ARs), each of which has a unique pharmacological profile and tissue distribution. Adenosine is a potent modulator of inflammation, and for this reason the adenosinergic system represents an excellent pharmacological target for the myriad of diseases in which inflammation represents a cause, a pathogenetic mechanism, a consequence, a manifestation, or a protective factor. The omnipresence of ARs in every cell of the immune system as well as in almost all cells in the body represents both an opportunity and an obstacle to the clinical use of AR ligands. This review offers an overview of the cardinal role of adenosine in the modulation of inflammation, showing how the stimulation or blocking of its receptors or agents capable of regulating its extracellular concentration can represent promising therapeutic strategies for the treatment of chronic inflammatory pathologies, neurodegenerative diseases, and cancer.


Assuntos
Adenosina/imunologia , Inflamação/imunologia , Adenosina/metabolismo , Animais , Humanos , Inflamação/metabolismo , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/imunologia , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/metabolismo , Ligantes , Pneumopatias/imunologia , Pneumopatias/metabolismo , Modelos Biológicos , Modelos Imunológicos , Neoplasias/imunologia , Neoplasias/metabolismo , Neuroimunomodulação , Osteoartrite/imunologia , Osteoartrite/metabolismo , Receptores Purinérgicos P1/imunologia , Receptores Purinérgicos P1/metabolismo , Doenças Reumáticas/imunologia , Doenças Reumáticas/metabolismo
11.
Cell Death Dis ; 12(8): 732, 2021 07 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34301919

RESUMO

Severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is characterized by symptoms of lymphopenia and multiorgan damage, but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. To explore the function of N6-methyladenosine (m6A) modifications in COVID-19, we performed microarray analyses to comprehensively characterize the m6A epitranscriptome. The results revealed distinct global m6A profiles in severe and mild COVID-19 patients. Programmed cell death and inflammatory response were the major biological processes modulated by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. Further, RBM15, a major m6A methyltransferase, was significantly elevated and positively correlated with disease severity. Silencing RBM15 drastically reduced lymphocyte death in vitro. Knockdown of RBM15 remarkably suppressed the expression levels of multitarget genes related to programmed cell death and inflammatory response. This study shows that SARS-CoV-2 infection alters the m6A epitranscriptome of lymphocytes, particularly in the case of severe patients. RBM15 regulated host immune response to SARS-CoV-2 by elevating m6A modifications of multitarget genes. These findings indicate that RBM15 can serve as a target for the treatment of COVID-19.


Assuntos
Adenosina/análogos & derivados , COVID-19/genética , Processamento Pós-Transcricional do RNA , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA/metabolismo , Transcriptoma , Adenosina/metabolismo , COVID-19/patologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Epigênese Genética , Feminino , Humanos , Linfócitos/metabolismo , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA/genética , Células THP-1
12.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(14)2021 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34299203

RESUMO

While the concept of a receptor reserve (spare receptors) is old, their presence on human cells as an adaptive mechanism in cardiovascular disease is a new suggestion. The presence of spare receptors is suspected when the activation of a weak fraction of receptors leads to maximal biological effects, in other words, when the half-maximal effective concentration (EC50) for a biological effect (cAMP production, for example) is lower than the affinity (KD) of the ligand for a receptor. Adenosine is an ATP derivative that strongly impacts the cardiovascular system via its four membrane receptors, named A1R, A2AR, A2BR, and A3R, with the A1R being more particularly involved in heart rhythm, while the A2AR controls vasodilation. After a general description of the tools necessary to explore the presence of spare receptors, this review focuses on the consequences of the presence of spare adenosine receptors in cardiovascular physiopathology. Finally, the role of the adenosinergic system in the long-term potentiation and its possible consequences on the physiopathology are also mentioned.


Assuntos
Adenosina/metabolismo , Doenças Cardiovasculares/metabolismo , Potenciação de Longa Duração , Receptores Purinérgicos P1/metabolismo , Animais , Humanos
13.
Mol Cell ; 81(15): 3048-3064.e9, 2021 08 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34216543

RESUMO

RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) are critical regulators of post-transcriptional gene expression, and aberrant RBP-RNA interactions can promote cancer progression. Here, we interrogate the function of RBPs in cancer using pooled CRISPR-Cas9 screening and identify 57 RBP candidates with distinct roles in supporting MYC-driven oncogenic pathways. We find that disrupting YTHDF2-dependent mRNA degradation triggers apoptosis in triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) cells and tumors. eCLIP and m6A sequencing reveal that YTHDF2 interacts with mRNAs encoding proteins in the MAPK pathway that, when stabilized, induce epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition and increase global translation rates. scRibo-STAMP profiling of translating mRNAs reveals unique alterations in the translatome of single cells within YTHDF2-depleted solid tumors, which selectively contribute to endoplasmic reticulum stress-induced apoptosis in TNBC cells. Thus, our work highlights the therapeutic potential of RBPs by uncovering a critical role for YTHDF2 in counteracting the global increase of mRNA synthesis in MYC-driven breast cancers.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA/genética , Adenosina/análogos & derivados , Adenosina/metabolismo , Animais , Morte Celular/genética , Transição Epitelial-Mesenquimal/genética , Feminino , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Genes myc , Humanos , Camundongos Nus , Camundongos Transgênicos , Biossíntese de Proteínas , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/genética , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/metabolismo , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/patologia , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
14.
Viruses ; 13(6)2021 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34205979

RESUMO

There are over 100 different chemical RNA modifications, collectively known as the epitranscriptome. N6-methyladenosine (m6A) is the most commonly found internal RNA modification in cellular mRNAs where it plays important roles in the regulation of the mRNA structure, stability, translation and nuclear export. This modification is also found in viral RNA genomes and in viral mRNAs derived from both RNA and DNA viruses. A growing body of evidence indicates that m6A modifications play important roles in regulating viral replication by interacting with the cellular m6A machinery. In this review, we will exhaustively detail the current knowledge on m6A modification, with an emphasis on its function in virus biology.


Assuntos
Adenosina/análogos & derivados , Adenosina/genética , Epigênese Genética , Regulação Viral da Expressão Gênica , RNA Viral/genética , Adenosina/metabolismo , Animais , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/imunologia , Humanos , Metilação , RNA Viral/metabolismo , Especificidade da Espécie , Transcrição Genética , Replicação Viral/genética
15.
Nat Genet ; 53(8): 1156-1165, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34211177

RESUMO

The most prevalent post-transcriptional mRNA modification, N6-methyladenosine (m6A), plays diverse RNA-regulatory roles, but its genetic control in human tissues remains uncharted. Here we report 129 transcriptome-wide m6A profiles, covering 91 individuals and 4 tissues (brain, lung, muscle and heart) from GTEx/eGTEx. We integrate these with interindividual genetic and expression variation, revealing 8,843 tissue-specific and 469 tissue-shared m6A quantitative trait loci (QTLs), which are modestly enriched in, but mostly orthogonal to, expression QTLs. We integrate m6A QTLs with disease genetics, identifying 184 GWAS-colocalized m6A QTL, including brain m6A QTLs underlying neuroticism, depression, schizophrenia and anxiety; lung m6A QTLs underlying expiratory flow and asthma; and muscle/heart m6A QTLs underlying coronary artery disease. Last, we predict novel m6A regulators that show preferential binding in m6A QTLs, protein interactions with known m6A regulators and expression correlation with the m6A levels of their targets. Our results provide important insights and resources for understanding both cis and trans regulation of epitranscriptomic modifications, their interindividual variation and their roles in human disease.


Assuntos
Adenosina/análogos & derivados , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Pulmão/fisiologia , Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Adenosina/genética , Adenosina/metabolismo , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Coração/fisiologia , Humanos , Metilação , Especificidade de Órgãos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Processamento Pós-Transcricional do RNA , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA/genética , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
16.
Genes Dev ; 35(13-14): 1005-1019, 2021 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34168039

RESUMO

N6-methyladenosine (m6A) is an abundant internal RNA modification, influencing transcript fate and function in uninfected and virus-infected cells. Installation of m6A by the nuclear RNA methyltransferase METTL3 occurs cotranscriptionally; however, the genomes of some cytoplasmic RNA viruses are also m6A-modified. How the cellular m6A modification machinery impacts coronavirus replication, which occurs exclusively in the cytoplasm, is unknown. Here we show that replication of SARS-CoV-2, the agent responsible for the COVID-19 pandemic, and a seasonal human ß-coronavirus HCoV-OC43, can be suppressed by depletion of METTL3 or cytoplasmic m6A reader proteins YTHDF1 and YTHDF3 and by a highly specific small molecule METTL3 inhibitor. Reduction of infectious titer correlates with decreased synthesis of viral RNAs and the essential nucleocapsid (N) protein. Sites of m6A modification on genomic and subgenomic RNAs of both viruses were mapped by methylated RNA immunoprecipitation sequencing (meRIP-seq). Levels of host factors involved in m6A installation, removal, and recognition were unchanged by HCoV-OC43 infection; however, nuclear localization of METTL3 and cytoplasmic m6A readers YTHDF1 and YTHDF2 increased. This establishes that coronavirus RNAs are m6A-modified and host m6A pathway components control ß-coronavirus replication. Moreover, it illustrates the therapeutic potential of targeting the m6A pathway to restrict coronavirus reproduction.


Assuntos
Coronavirus Humano OC43/fisiologia , Processamento Pós-Transcricional do RNA/genética , SARS-CoV-2/fisiologia , Replicação Viral/genética , Adenosina/análogos & derivados , Adenosina/genética , Adenosina/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular , Infecções por Coronavirus/metabolismo , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Metiltransferases/antagonistas & inibidores , Metiltransferases/metabolismo , Proteínas do Nucleocapsídeo , RNA Viral/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA/metabolismo , Replicação Viral/efeitos dos fármacos
17.
Nucleic Acids Res ; 49(13): 7361-7374, 2021 07 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34181729

RESUMO

N6-methyladenosine (m6A) is a common modification on endogenous RNA transcripts in mammalian cells. Technologies to precisely modify the RNA m6A levels at specific transcriptomic loci empower interrogation of biological functions of epitranscriptomic modifications. Here, we developed a bidirectional dCasRx epitranscriptome editing platform composed of a nuclear-localized dCasRx conjugated with either a methyltransferase, METTL3, or a demethylase, ALKBH5, to manipulate methylation events at targeted m6A sites. Leveraging this platform, we specifically and efficiently edited m6A modifications at targeted sites, reflected in gene expression and cell proliferation. We employed the dCasRx epitranscriptomic editor system to elucidate the molecular function of m6A-binding proteins YTHDF paralogs (YTHDF1, YTHDF2 and YTHDF3), revealing that YTHDFs promote m6A-mediated mRNA degradation. Collectively, our dCasRx epitranscriptome perturbation platform permits site-specific m6A editing for delineating of functional roles of individual m6A modifications in the mammalian epitranscriptome.


Assuntos
Adenosina/análogos & derivados , Homólogo AlkB 5 da RNA Desmetilase/metabolismo , Metiltransferases/metabolismo , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Adenosina/metabolismo , Homólogo AlkB 5 da RNA Desmetilase/genética , Proteínas Associadas a CRISPR/genética , Proliferação de Células , Células Cultivadas , Proteína Forkhead Box M1/genética , Proteína Forkhead Box M1/metabolismo , Glioblastoma/genética , Glioblastoma/metabolismo , Glioblastoma/patologia , Humanos , Metiltransferases/genética , Células-Tronco Neoplásicas/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-myc/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-myc/metabolismo , Processamento Pós-Transcricional do RNA , RNA Mensageiro/química , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA/metabolismo , Proteínas Recombinantes de Fusão/metabolismo , Transcriptoma
18.
Nucleic Acids Res ; 49(11): 6389-6398, 2021 06 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34086932

RESUMO

Biogenesis of ribosomal subunits involves enzymatic modifications of rRNA that fine-tune functionally important regions. The universally conserved prokaryotic dimethyltransferase KsgA sequentially modifies two universally conserved adenosine residues in helix 45 of the small ribosomal subunit rRNA, which is in proximity of the decoding site. Here we present the cryo-EM structure of Escherichia coli KsgA bound to an E. coli 30S at a resolution of 3.1 Å. The high-resolution structure reveals how KsgA recognizes immature rRNA and binds helix 45 in a conformation where one of the substrate nucleotides is flipped-out into the active site. We suggest that successive processing of two adjacent nucleotides involves base-flipping of the rRNA, which allows modification of the second substrate nucleotide without dissociation of the enzyme. Since KsgA is homologous to the essential eukaryotic methyltransferase Dim1 involved in 40S maturation, these results have also implications for understanding eukaryotic ribosome maturation.


Assuntos
Adenosina/metabolismo , Escherichia coli/enzimologia , Metiltransferases/química , Adenosina/química , Microscopia Crioeletrônica , Metiltransferases/metabolismo , Modelos Moleculares , Conformação Proteica , Subunidades Ribossômicas Menores de Bactérias/química , Especificidade por Substrato
19.
Nat Protoc ; 16(7): 3596-3624, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34172975

RESUMO

Deaminase fused-Cas9 base editing technologies have enabled precise single-nucleotide genomic editing without the need for the introduction of damaging double-stranded breaks and inefficient homology-directed repair. However, current methods to isolate base-edited cell populations are ineffective, especially when utilized with human pluripotent stem cells, a cell type resistant to genome modification. Here, we outline a series of methods that employ transient reporters of editing enrichment (TREE) to facilitate the highly efficient single-base editing of human cells at precise genomic loci. Briefly, these transient reporters of editing enrichment based methods employ a transient episomal fluorescent reporter that allows for the real-time, flow-cytometry-based enrichment of cells that have had single nucleotide changes at precise genomic locations. This protocol details how these approaches can enable the rapid (~3-4 weeks) and efficient (clonal editing efficiencies >80%) generation of biallelic or multiplexed edited isogenic hPSC lines using adenosine and cytosine base editors.


Assuntos
Adenosina/metabolismo , Citosina/metabolismo , Edição de Genes/métodos , Genes Reporter , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes Induzidas/metabolismo , Sequência de Bases , Células Clonais , Criopreservação , Citometria de Fluxo , Humanos , Plasmídeos/genética , RNA Guia/metabolismo , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Análise de Célula Única , Transfecção
20.
Cancer Sci ; 112(8): 3243-3254, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34097350

RESUMO

RNA N6 -methyladenosine (m6 A) is an emerging regulatory mechanism for tumor progression in several types of cancer. However, the underlying regulation mechanisms of m6 A methylation in colorectal cancer (CRC) remain unknown. Although the oncogenic function of methyl CpG binding protein 2 (MeCP2) has been reported, it is still unclear whether MeCP2 could alter RNA m6 A methylation state. Here, we systematically identified MeCP2 as a prometastasis gene to regulate m6 A methylation in CRC. Interestingly, MeCP2 could bind to methyltransferase-like 14 (METTL14) to coregulate tumor suppressor Kruppel-like factor 4 (KLF4) expression through changing m6 A methylation modification. Furthermore, insulin-like growth factor 2 mRNA-binding protein 2 recognized the unique modified m6 A methylation sites to enhance KLF4 mRNA stability. Taken together, these findings highlight the novel function of MeCP2 for regulating m6 A methylation and reveal the underlying molecular mechanism for the interaction between MeCP2 and METTL14, which offers a better understanding of CRC progression and metastasis.


Assuntos
Adenosina/análogos & derivados , Neoplasias Colorretais/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição Kruppel-Like/genética , Proteína 2 de Ligação a Metil-CpG/metabolismo , Metiltransferases/genética , Regulação para Cima , Adenosina/metabolismo , Animais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Progressão da Doença , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Células HCT116 , Células HT29 , Humanos , Camundongos , Transplante de Neoplasias , Estabilidade de RNA
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...