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1.
Sr Care Pharm ; 34(7): 456-463, 2019 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31383057

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine whether the pharmacistled Geriatric Education and Medication Management (GEMM) clinic utilizing the Pharmacists' Patient Care Process (PPCP) improves therapeutic and safety outcomes in ambulatory older adults. DESIGN/PATIENTS: This is a retrospective, case series of veterans newly enrolled into the GEMM clinic from September 2013 to September 2015. SETTING: This study was conducted in an ambulatory pharmacist-led clinic at the Baltimore Veteran Affairs Medical Center in Maryland. INTERVENTION: Demographic, clinical, laboratory, and pharmacy fill data were collected from the computerized patient record system. Medication use patterns were collected using the clinic's supplemental medication reconciliation flowsheet. Descriptive statistics were used to analyze data. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S): Change in adherence rate, number of potentially inappropriate medications, and number of care transitions within the 12-month study period. RESULTS: The primary outcome of medication adherence was high throughout the 12-month study period; beginning at 91.1% at baseline and increasing to 99.0% by the fourth quarter. There was a 36.4% decrease in number of potentially inappropriate medications (PIMs) from 22 at baseline to 14 at 12 months. Medication-related, short-term care transitions decreased from 10 to 4 in the pre- to post-clinic enrollment time frame. Only one subject experienced a long-term care transition during the study period. CONCLUSIONS: Implementing the PPCP in the pharmacist-led GEMM clinic improved medication adherence and persistence, decreased number of PIMs, and assisted in preventing care transitions in ambulatory older adults with multimorbidity and polypharmacy.


Assuntos
Assistência ao Paciente , Farmacêuticos , Idoso , Baltimore , Humanos , Adesão à Medicação , Multimorbidade , Estudos Retrospectivos
2.
Pan Afr Med J ; 33: 27, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31384342

RESUMO

Introduction: In Nigeria, approximately 4.33 million adults suffer from hypertension and about a third of them do not adhere to prescribed medications. Depression has been reported to significantly predict poor medication adherence. The relationship between medication non-adherence and co-morbid depressive disorder in patients with hypertension has not been adequately explored in this environment. The study aimed to determine the prevalence of depression in patients with hypertension. The association between socio-demographic characteristics and presence of co-morbidity on medication adherence was also determined. Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive research design was adopted for the study. A socio-demographic questionnaire, the modified Morisky Medication Adherence Scale (MMAS), the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAM-D) and the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI), were administered to four hundred patients with hypertension attending medical out-patient clinic between August and September 2012. Results: About 43% (168) were aged 61 to 64 years the majority being females, with a female to male ratio of 1.63:1. The prevalence of comorbid depression was 22.8%, made up of mild (21.8%) and moderate (1.0%) depressive episodes only. Depression was commoner among females than males in a ratio of 3:1. A majority of the participants (96.8%) had high medication adherence; 2.8% and 0.4% had moderate and low adherence respectively. Depression was more among patients with good medication adherence. Conclusion: The occurrence of mild depressive disorder among hypertensives did not affect the level of medication adherence. Review of Antihypertensive drugs should also be done often to ensure patients are not likely to have depressive illness as a side effect of drugs used.


Assuntos
Anti-Hipertensivos/administração & dosagem , Depressão/epidemiologia , Hipertensão/tratamento farmacológico , Adesão à Medicação/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Anti-Hipertensivos/efeitos adversos , Estudos Transversais , Depressão/diagnóstico , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão/psicologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nigéria , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Fatores Sexuais , Inquéritos e Questionários , Centros de Atenção Terciária , Adulto Jovem
3.
Pan Afr Med J ; 33: 28, 2019.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31384343

RESUMO

Poor compliance with therapy is frequently encountered in most of patients with chronic diseases. It increases the risk of morbi-mortality and healthcare costs. Patients on chronic haemodialysis often have poor compliance with treatment. This study aims to assess the level of compliance with treatment in our patients on chronic hemodialysis and to identify the predictive factors of poor compliance with treatment. We conducted a cross-sectional study at the Oujda Hospital in November 2011. The compliance with treatment was measured using a questionnaire: the compliance evaluation test (CET) assessed the compliance with medication treatment and diet. A rate of 85% was retained arbitrarily as a threshold for good compliance with treatment. Patient in a zone of partial adherence had a rate between 57% and 85% while a lower rate (57%) indicated poor compliance with treatment. Different demographic and clinicobiologic parameters were analyzed and predictive factors for good and poor compliance with treatment were identified. Our study involved 101 patients on chronic haemodialysis; the sex ratio was 1.2, the average age of patients was 15.6 years. CET showed that 23.4% of patients had good compliance with treatment, 39.4% partial compliance with treatment and 37.2% poor compliance with treatment. Statistical analysis showed that poor compliance with treatment was associated with a lower socio-economic and intellectual status, with co-morbidities and with long term hemodialysis. Good compliance with treatment was observed in very old patients helped by a third person, taking a reduced number of medications, with a higher intellectual level.


Assuntos
Dieta/normas , Adesão à Medicação/estatística & dados numéricos , Cooperação do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Diálise Renal/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
4.
Stud Health Technol Inform ; 264: 873-877, 2019 Aug 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31438049

RESUMO

Poor communication of medication administration instructions is a preventable cause of medication nonadherence. The Universal Medication Schedule (UMS) framework improves adherence by providing a simplified set of dose timing rules. However, this framework does not readily generalize to individuals with varying daily routines. We propose a point-of-care solution for enhancing guideline-based electronic prescribing and personalizing dose schedules. We describe a JSON-based approach to encode and execute standard treatment guidelines to support electronic prescribing as well as an algorithm for optimizing medication administration schedules based on a patient's daily routine. We evaluated the structure and accuracy of our JavaScript Object Notation (JSON) formalism focusing on Kenya's hypertension treatment guidelines. Our experiments compare the medication schedules generated by our algorithm with those generated by pharmacists. Our findings show that treatment guidelines can be efficiently represented and executed using the JSON formalism, and that different medication administration schedules can be generated automatically and optimized for patients' daily routines.


Assuntos
Prescrição Eletrônica , Preparações Farmacêuticas , Humanos , Quênia , Adesão à Medicação , Farmacêuticos
5.
Stud Health Technol Inform ; 264: 1712-1713, 2019 Aug 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31438306

RESUMO

We developed a HeartGuardian app and explored its effects supporting people with CVD on lipid control and medication adherence. Fifty-seven patients were enrolled, 29 in the intervention group and 28 in the control group. The 12-week intervention resulted in a moderate improvement in lipid level and greater improvement in medication adherence (82.14% vs 37.93%, P = 0.001). These outcomes translate into significant differences in occurrence of major adverse cardiac events (28.75% vs 72.43%, P = 0.001).


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares , Prevenção Secundária , Smartphone , Doenças Cardiovasculares/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Adesão à Medicação
6.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(31): e16469, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31374008

RESUMO

Despite higher health care needs, older adults often have limited and fixed income. Approximately a quarter of them report not filling or delaying prescription medications due to cost (cost-related prescription delay, CRPD). To ascertain the association between CRPD and satisfaction with health care, secondary analysis of the 2012 Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems (CAHPS) Medicare Advantage Survey was performed.Regression models quantified the association between CRPD and rating of personal doctor, specialist, and overall health care. Models were adjusted for demographic, health-related, and socioeconomic characteristics. 274,996 Medicare Advantage enrollees were mailed the CAHPS survey, of which 101,910 (36.8%) returned a survey that had responses to all the items we analyzed. CRPD was assessed by self-report of delay in filling prescriptions due to cost. Health care ratings were on a 0-10 scale. A score ≤ 5 was considered a poor rating of care.In unadjusted models, CRPD more than doubled the relative risk (RR) for poor ratings of personal doctor (RR 2.34), specialist (RR 2.14), and overall health care (RR 2.40). Adjusting for demographics and health status slightly reduced the RRs to 1.9, but adjusting for low-income subsidy and lack of insurance for medications did not make a difference.CRPD is independently associated with poor ratings of medical care, regardless of health, financial or insurance status. Providers might reduce patients' financial stress and improve patient satisfaction by explicitly discussing prescription cost and incorporating patient priorities when recommending treatments.


Assuntos
Adesão à Medicação/psicologia , Medicamentos sob Prescrição/economia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Gastos em Saúde/normas , Gastos em Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Medicare/economia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Satisfação do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Estados Unidos
7.
Stud Health Technol Inform ; 264: 1451-1452, 2019 Aug 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31438176

RESUMO

Adherence to medications is a key performance indicator and behavioral outcome in healthcare. Electronic healthcare databases represent rich data sources for estimating adherence in both research and practice. To build a solid evidence base for adherence management across clinical settings, it is necessary to standardize adherence estimation and facilitate its appropriate use. We present the recent development and oportunities offered by AdhereR, an R package for visualisation of medication histories and computation of adherence.


Assuntos
Adesão à Medicação , Bases de Dados Factuais
8.
Rev. pesqui. cuid. fundam. (Online) ; 11(4): 962-967, jul.-set. 2019. tab
Artigo em Inglês, Português | LILACS, BDENF - Enfermagem | ID: biblio-1005814

RESUMO

Objetivos: Descrever as características dos casos de abandono do tratamento de tuberculose em pacientes que desenvolveram tuberculose multirresistente (TBMR). Métodos: Estudo descritivo de abordagem quantitativa, desenvolvido em uma instituição terciária de referência para tratamento de TBMR localizada na cidade do Rio de Janeiro. Foi utilizado instrumento estruturado com informações de quarenta prontuários entre os meses de agosto a dezembro de 2016. A análise dos dados foi realizada por meio do software SPSS. Resultados: Dos pacientes estudados, 35% abandonaram tratamento anterior de tuberculose. Conclusão e implicação para a prática: É necessária a identificação precoce de pacientes que apresentam maior risco para abandono do tratamento, bem como a criação de um modelo de assistência voltado ao perfil dos usuários que abandonam o tratamento, com uma prática participativa, com grupos educativos que promovam ações preventivas, identificando e estudando estratégias para a superação de barreiras ligadas à realidade de vida individual e coletiva


Objective: To describe the characteristics of cases of tuberculosis treatment abandonment in patients who developed MDR-TB. Methods: a descriptive study of a quantitative approach developed in a tertiary referral institution for the treatment of MDR-TB, located in the city of Rio de Janeiro. A structured instrument was used with information from forty medical records between August and December 2016. Data analysis was performed using SPSS software. Results: Of the patients studied, 35% abandoned previous treatment of tuberculosis. Conclusion and implication for the practice: early identification of patients who are at greater risk for treatment abandonment is required, as well as the creation of a model of assistance aimed at the profile of users who abandon treatment, with a participatory practice with educational groups That promote preventive actions, identifying, studying strategies for overcoming barriers linked to reality, individual and collective life


Objetivos: Describir las características de los casos de abandono del tratamiento de tuberculosis en pacientes que desarrollaron TBMR. Métodos: estudio descriptivo de abordaje cuantitativo, desarrollado en una institución terciaria de referencia para tratamiento de TBMR, ubicado en la ciudad de Río de Janeiro. Se utilizó instrumento estructurado con informaciones de cuarenta prontuarios entre los meses de agosto a diciembre de 2016. El análisis de los datos fue realizado a través del software SPSS. Resultados: de los pacientes estudiados, el 35% abandonó el tratamiento anterior de la tuberculosis.Conclusión e implicación para la práctica: es necesaria la identificación precoz de pacientes que presentan mayor riesgo para el abandono del tratamiento, así como la creación de un modelo de asistencia orientado al perfil de los usuarios que abandonan el tratamiento, con una práctica participativa, con grupos educativos Que promuevan acciones preventivas, identificando, estudiando estrategias para la superación de barreras ligadas a la realidad, de vida individual y colectiva


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Recém-Nascido , Lactente , Pré-Escolar , Criança , Adolescente , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Pacientes Desistentes do Tratamento/estatística & dados numéricos , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos/tratamento farmacológico , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos/terapia , Adesão à Medicação/estatística & dados numéricos
9.
J Assoc Physicians India ; 67(4): 26-29, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31299834

RESUMO

Introduction: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is becoming a potential epidemic in India with more than 62 million diagnosed diabetics and an increase of nearly 2 million per year. Poor adherence to medication regimens increases the probability of adverse outcomes in type 2 diabetes patients. Therefore, improving medication adherence is a growing priority to control this epidemic. Hence, this study was conducted to determine the level of adherence to medication in Type II diabetic patients and to study the various factors affecting adherence to medication and the relationship between the severity of diabetes with the adherence categories. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted at medicine outpatient department (OPD) of a tertiary care hospital, New Delhi among 200 type 2 diabetic patients for duration of 2 months using a predesigned and pretested semi-structured interview schedule and diabetes medication adherence was assessed by Morisky's medication adherence scale questionnaire. Results: Out of 200 participants, 32.5% were found to have high adherence while 34.5% and 33% had moderate and low adherence. Factors found to be associated with adherence were age, educational status, longer duration of disease and presence of glucometer. Almost four-fifths of the patients (79.5%) had poor plasma glucose control. Conclusion: There is a need to focus on improving adherence among type 2 diabetes patients and strengthening health care systems for regular supply of medicines and provide health education to the patients and their families emphasising the need of adherence to medications.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Adesão à Medicação/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Hipoglicemiantes , Índia , Autorrelato , Centros de Atenção Terciária
10.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(27): e16116, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31277112

RESUMO

To assess the adherence level of antihypertensive treatment and identify any associated risk factors in a sample of hypertensive patients from China.A cross-sectional study involving 488 Chinese hypertensive patients was conducted in a tertiary hospital in Xi'an, China. Data were collected regarding socio-demographic factors and hypertension-related clinical characteristics. The adherence to treatment was assessed using the previously validated instrument: therapeutic adherence scale for hypertensive patients.A total of 27.46% of patients were compliant with their antihypertensive treatments. Three factors were identified to be independently associated with antihypertensive treatment adherence: gender (P = .034), residence (P = .029), duration of high blood pressure (P < .001). Gender, residence, occupation, and the duration of antihypertensive drugs treatment used were found to have significant effects on treatment adherence in certain categories.Treatment adherence among hypertensive patients in China was poor. More attention and effective strategies should be designed to address factors affecting treatment adherence. Education about hypertension knowledge should be strengthened for patients. Moreover, the importance of lifestyle modification during hypertension treatment is often neglected by patients, therefore, there is an urgent need to educate hypertensive patients about the adherence to lifestyle modifications.


Assuntos
Anti-Hipertensivos/uso terapêutico , Hipertensão/terapia , Adesão à Medicação/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Distribuição de Qui-Quadrado , China , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão/classificação , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Inquéritos e Questionários
11.
Eur. heart j ; 40(25)Jul. 1, 2019. ilus
Artigo em Inglês | Sec. Est. Saúde SP, SESSP-IDPCPROD, Sec. Est. Saúde SP | ID: biblio-1009597

RESUMO

Non-adherence has been well recognized for years to be a common issue that significantly impacts clinical outcomes and health care costs. Medication adherence is remarkably low even in the controlled environment of clinical trials where it has potentially complex major implications. Collection of non-adherence data diverge markedly among cardiovascular randomized trials and, even where collected, is rarely incorporated in the statistical analysis to test the consistency of the primary endpoint(s). The imprecision introduced by the inconsistent assessment of non-adherence in clinical trials might confound the estimate of the calculated efficacy of the study drug. Hence, clinical trials may not accurately answer the scientific question posed by regulators, who seek an accurate estimate of the true efficacy and safety of treatment, or the question posed by payers, who want a reliable estimate of the effectiveness of treatment in the marketplace after approval. The Non-adherence Academic Research Consortium is a collaboration among leading academic research organizations, representatives from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration and physician-scientists from the USA and Europe. One in-person meeting was held in Madrid, Spain, culminating in a document describing consensus recommendations for reporting, collecting, and analysing adherence endpoints across clinical trials. The adoption of these recommendations will afford robustness and consistency in the comparative safety and effectiveness evaluation of investigational drugs from early development to post-marketing approval studies. These principles may be useful for regulatory assessment, as well as for monitoring local and regional outcomes to guide quality improvement initiatives.(AU)


Assuntos
Adesão à Medicação
13.
Sr Care Pharm ; 34(6): 351-362, 2019 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31164182

RESUMO

Patients with dementia face challenges with medication adherence because of the nature of the disease. Not only is adherence difficult in individuals with dementia, but the majority of this patient population also has comorbidities that make comprehension of complex treatment plans difficult. A large analysis of patients with dementia showed that 12% had only dementia as a diagnosis, 70% had at least two comorbidities, and 48% had at least three comorbidities. Proper medication adherence is important to prevent progression of these comorbidities and decline in overall health. However, as dementia progresses, the risk of taking certain medications may outweigh the benefits. Therefore, the treatment team needs to reassess medication lists over time. Incorrect medication use can pose a major safety concern for this patient population. Pharmacists can have conversations with patients and the patients' family members to discuss goals of care to determine if deprescribing is an option.


Assuntos
Demência , Desprescrições , Família , Humanos , Adesão à Medicação , Farmacêuticos
14.
Niger Postgrad Med J ; 26(2): 129-137, 2019 Apr-Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31187754

RESUMO

Background of the Study: Low adherence is an essential element responsible for impaired effectiveness and efficiency in the pharmacological treatment of hypertension. Patient satisfaction is an important measure of healthcare quality and is a crucial determinant of patients' perspective on behavioural intention. Aims: This study determined the association between medication adherence and treatment satisfaction among hypertensive patients attending hypertension outpatient clinic in Lagos University Teaching Hospital (LUTH), Nigeria. Materials and Methods: Setting - The study setting was LUTH; a descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted. Study design - Hypertensive patients were consecutively recruited from the outpatient clinic. Medication adherence was assessed using the 8-item Morisky Medication Adherence Scale and treatment satisfaction was assessed using the 14-item Treatment Satisfaction Questionnaire for Medication. Statistical Analysis: Univariate and linear regression analyses were conducted using STATA software version 14.1 (StataCorp LP, College Station, TX, USA). Statistical significance was set at P ≤ 0.05. Results: A total of 500 respondents with a mean age of 58.9 ± 13.3 years participated in the study. Overall, majority (446 [89.2%]) of the respondents in this study had 'moderate' adherence to antihypertensive medication. However, only five (1.0%) respondents reported 'high' adherence. Mean scores were highest in the moderate adherence category for all satisfaction domains and overall domain. Treatment satisfaction was associated with medication adherence, and was statistically significant (P = 0.000). Conclusion: One in every hundred patients had high adherence to hypertensive medication in this study, and there was a positive association between treatment satisfaction and medication adherence. Continuous patient-specific and tailored adherence education and counselling for hypertensive patients is recommended.


Assuntos
Anti-Hipertensivos/administração & dosagem , Hipertensão/tratamento farmacológico , Adesão à Medicação/estatística & dados numéricos , Satisfação do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Instituições de Assistência Ambulatorial , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Hospitais de Ensino , Humanos , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nigéria/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
15.
Infect Dis Poverty ; 8(1): 44, 2019 Jun 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31182164

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis (TB) prevalence is closely associated with poverty in China, and poor patients face more barriers to treatment. Using an insurance-based approach, the China-Gates TB program Phase II was implemented between 2012 and 2014 in three cities in China to improve access to TB care and reduce the financial burden on patients, particularly among the poor. This study aims to assess the program effects on service use, and its equity impact across different income groups. METHODS: Data from 788 and 775 patients at baseline and final evaluation were available for analysis respectively. Inpatient and outpatient service utilization, treatment adherence, and patient satisfaction were assessed before and after the program, across different income groups (extreme poverty, moderate poverty and non-poverty), and in various program cities, using descriptive statistics and multi-variate regression models. Key stakeholder interviews were conducted to qualitatively evaluate program implementation and impacts. RESULTS: After program implementation, the hospital admission rate increased more for the extreme poverty group (48.5 to 70.7%) and moderate poverty group (45.0 to 68.1%), compared to the non-poverty group (52.9 to 64.3%). The largest increase in the number of outpatient visits was also for the extreme poverty group (4.6 to 5.7). The proportion of patients with good medication adherence increased by 15 percentage points in the extreme poverty group and by ten percentage points in the other groups. Satisfaction rates were high in all groups. Qualitative feedback from stakeholders also suggested that increased reimbursement rates, easier reimbursement procedures, and allowance improved patients' service utilization. Implementation of case-based payment made service provision more compliant to clinical pathways. CONCLUSION: Patients in extreme or moderate poverty benefited more from the program compared to a non-poverty group, indicating improved equity in TB service access. The pro-poor design of the program provides important lessons to other TB programs in China and other countries to better address TB care for the poor.


Assuntos
Assistência à Saúde/economia , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/economia , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde , Satisfação do Paciente , Tuberculose/economia , Tuberculose/psicologia , Adulto , Idoso , Antituberculosos/economia , Antituberculosos/uso terapêutico , China , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Hospitalização/economia , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Reembolso de Seguro de Saúde , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Adesão à Medicação , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Satisfação do Paciente/economia , Pobreza/estatística & dados numéricos , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Inquéritos e Questionários , Tuberculose/tratamento farmacológico
16.
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi ; 40(6): 610-615, 2019 Jun 10.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31238606

RESUMO

Objective: To explore the patient and hospital related determinants of adherence to early antithrombotic therapy among patients with acute ischemic stroke (AIS). Methods: AIS patients aged 50 years old or above who were eligible for early antithrombotic therapy, were included from the China National Stroke Registry Ⅱ (CNSR Ⅱ) project. Characteristics related to patients and hospitals were collected. Univariate analysis method was conducted to explore the correlation between hospital or patient-related determinants and early antithrombotic therapy. A 2-level logistic regression model was set up to identify patient and hospital-related variables that were associated with the adherence to early antithrombotic therapy, with patient as level 1 and hospital as level 2. Results: A total of 16 910 patients were included in the study, with 14 332 (84.75%) of them having received early antithrombotic therapy. Results from the univariate analysis showed that the patient determinants to early antithrombotic therapy would include age, type of health insurance, average income and history of dyslipidemia. Hospital determinants would include factors as: level and region of the hospital, academic status, with/without stroke unit, quality control on single disease and the percentage of neurological beds in total beds (P<0.05). Data on multilevel model showed that the patient-related determinants on early antithrombotic therapy would include age, gender, average income, history of hypertension, National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score at admission while hospital related determinants would include percentage of neurological beds in total beds, and region of the hospital (P<0.05). Conclusions: The quality of a hospital was associated with the adherence to early antithrombotic therapy. AIS patients at advanced age or with high NIHSS score at admission should be paid more attention.


Assuntos
Isquemia Encefálica/tratamento farmacológico , Fibrinolíticos/uso terapêutico , Adesão à Medicação , Qualidade da Assistência à Saúde , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/tratamento farmacológico , Doença Aguda , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , China , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multinível , Sistema de Registros , Fatores Socioeconômicos
18.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 19(1): 422, 2019 Jun 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31238950

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Medication non-adherence is a major contributor to poor outcomes in diabetes. Previous research has shown an association between use of mail order pharmacy delivery and better medication adherence, but little is known about the barriers and facilitators to mail order pharmacy use in diabetes patients. This qualitative study examined factors related to mail order pharmacy use versus traditional "brick and mortar" pharmacies to refill prescriptions. METHODS: We conducted four 90-min focus groups in 2016 among 28 diabetes patients in the Hawaii and Northern California regions of Kaiser Permanente, a large integrated health care delivery system. We queried participants on their preferred mode for refilling prescriptions and perceived barriers and facilitators of mail order pharmacy use. One researcher independently coded each focus group transcript, with two of these transcripts double-coded by a second researcher to promote reliability. We employed thematic analysis guided by the Capability, Opportunity, Motivation, and Behavior (COM-B) framework using NVivo 11 software. RESULTS: A total of 28 diabetes patients participated. Participants' average age was 64.1 years; 57% were female; and racial/ethnic backgrounds included Asian/Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander (36%), Black/African-American (21%) Hispanic/Latino (7%), and non-Hispanic White (36%). Analysis uncovered 26 themes related to the decision to use mail order pharmacy, with each theme representing a barrier or facilitator mapped to the COM-B framework. Most themes (20/26) fell into the COM-B category of 'Opportunity.' Opportunity barriers to mail order pharmacy use included unpredictability of medication delivery date, concerns about mail security, and difficulty coordinating refill orders for multiple prescriptions. In contrast, facilitators included greater access and convenience (e.g., no need to wait in line or arrange transportation) compared to traditional pharmacies. Motivational facilitators to mail order pharmacy use included receiving a pharmacy benefit plan incentive of a free one-month supply of prescriptions. CONCLUSIONS: This study found that while patients with diabetes may benefit from mail order pharmacy use, they perceive numerous barriers to using the service. These findings will inform the design of interventions and quality improvement initiatives to increase mail order pharmacy use, which in turn may improve medication adherence and outcomes in diabetes patients, across health care systems.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus/tratamento farmacológico , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Assistência Farmacêutica/estatística & dados numéricos , Serviços Postais/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , California , Feminino , Grupos Focais , Hawaii , Humanos , Masculino , Adesão à Medicação/estatística & dados numéricos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pesquisa Qualitativa
19.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 789, 2019 Jun 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31221113

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Socially disadvantaged groups, such as drug users, sex workers and homeless individuals, are labelled as "hard-to-reach" (HTR) in public health and medical research. HIV disproportionately impacts these populations, but data on how the HTR status could affect antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence among HIV-positive people are limited and have not been previously synthesized in a systematic manner. We performed a meta-analysis to explore the association between HTR status and optimal antiretroviral therapy adherence in the HIV-infected population to provide evidence and recommendations regarding ART adherence improvement and HIV infection control and prevention among HTR people. METHODS: The PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrance Library databases and the bibliographies of relevant studies were systematically searched up to December 2018. Full-text studies published in English were included, and no geographic or race restrictions were applied. Studies that quantitatively assessed the association between HTR status and optimal ART adherence among HIV-infected populations with a status of homelessness, sex work, or drug use were eligible for inclusion. We estimated the pooled odds ratios (ORs) of HTR characteristics related to ART adherence from each eligible study using a random effects model. The sensitivity, heterogeneity and publication bias were assessed. RESULTS: Our search identified 593 articles, of which 29 studies were eligible and included in this meta-analysis. The studies were carried out between 1993 and 2017 and reported between 1999 and 2018. The results showed that HTR status resulted in a 45% reduction in the odds of achieving optimal ART adherence compared to odds in the general population (OR = 0.55, 95% confidential intervals (CIs) 0.49-0.62), and this significant inverse association was consistently found regardless of study design, exposure measurement, adherence cut-off points, etc. Subgroup analyses revealed that the HTRs tend to be suboptimal adhering during a longer observational period. CONCLUSIONS: HIV treatment adherence is extremely negatively affected by HTR status. It is crucial to develop appropriate interventions to improve ART adherence and health outcomes among HTR people who are HIV-infected.


Assuntos
Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Usuários de Drogas/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Pessoas em Situação de Rua/estatística & dados numéricos , Adesão à Medicação/estatística & dados numéricos , Profissionais do Sexo/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Estudos Observacionais como Assunto
20.
JAMA ; 321(22): 2214-2230, 2019 06 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31184746

RESUMO

Importance: Effective prevention strategies for HIV infection are an important public health priority. Preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) involves use of antiretroviral therapy (ART) daily or before and after sex to decrease risk of acquiring HIV infection. Objective: To synthesize the evidence on the benefits and harms of PrEP, instruments for predicting incident HIV infection, and PrEP adherence to inform the US Preventive Services Task Force. Data Sources: Ovid MEDLINE, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, and EMBASE through June 2018, with surveillance through January 2019. Study Selection: English-language placebo-controlled randomized clinical trials of oral PrEP with tenofovir disoproxil fumarate/emtricitabine or tenofovir disoproxil fumarate monotherapy; studies on the diagnostic accuracy of instruments for predicting incident HIV infection; and studies on PrEP adherence. Data Extraction and Synthesis: Dual review of titles and abstracts, full-text articles, study quality, and data abstraction. Data were pooled using the Dersimonian and Laird random-effects model for effects of PrEP on HIV infection, mortality, and harms. Main Outcomes and Measures: HIV acquisition, mortality, and harms; adherence to PrEP; and diagnostic test accuracy and discrimination. Results: Fourteen RCTs (N = 18 837), 8 observational studies (N = 3884), and 7 studies of diagnostic accuracy (N = 32 279) were included. PrEP was associated with decreased risk of HIV infection vs placebo or no PrEP after 4 months to 4 years (11 trials; relative risk [RR], 0.46 [95% CI, 0.33-0.66]; I2 = 67%; absolute risk reduction [ARD], -2.0% [95% CI, -2.8% to -1.2%]). Greater adherence was associated with greater efficacy (RR with adherence ≥70%, 0.27 [95% CI, 0.19-0.39]; I2 = 0%) in 6 trials. PrEP was associated with an increased risk of renal adverse events (12 trials; RR, 1.43 [95% CI, 1.18-1.75]; I2 = 0%; ARD, 0.56% [95% CI, 0.09%-1.04%]) and gastrointestinal adverse events (12 trials; RR, 1.63 [95% CI, 1.26-2.11]; I2 = 43%; ARD, 1.95% [95% CI, 0.48%-3.43%]); most adverse events were mild and reversible. Instruments for predicting incident HIV infection had moderate discrimination (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve, 0.49-0.72) and require further validation. Adherence to PrEP in the United States in men who have sex with men varied widely (22%-90%). Conclusions and Relevance: In adults at increased risk of HIV infection, PrEP with oral tenofovir disoproxil fumarate monotherapy or tenofovir disoproxil fumarate/emtricitabine was associated with decreased risk of acquiring HIV infection compared with placebo or no PrEP, although effectiveness decreased with suboptimal adherence.


Assuntos
Antirretrovirais/uso terapêutico , Emtricitabina/uso terapêutico , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Profilaxia Pré-Exposição , Tenofovir/uso terapêutico , Administração Oral , Antirretrovirais/efeitos adversos , Quimioterapia Combinada , Emtricitabina/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Adesão à Medicação , Risco , Tenofovir/efeitos adversos
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