Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 18.916
Filtrar
1.
Sr Care Pharm ; 35(1): 3-12, 2020 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31883540

RESUMO

The term "elder orphan" is an emerging description of an individual older than 65 years of age who lacks dependents or close family members on whom to rely for assistance, particularly in dealing with health problems. As the number of elder orphans continues to grow, this population is increasingly at risk. Some social determinants of health affect the elder-orphan population disproportionately, including financial security, housing, and transportation. Medication nonadherence may be a sign of increasing isolation and unaddressed problems. Elder orphans may have difficulty managing their health care, and pharmacists can help by identifying patients without support systems may be able to act as valuable assets to these patients. Brown-bag medication reviews, medication therapy management, and thorough medication reconciliation are excellent interventions to prevent medication misadventure. Identifying other medical professionals and services that can support the elder orphan is also prudent.


Assuntos
Reconciliação de Medicamentos , Farmacêuticos , Idoso , Humanos , Adesão à Medicação , Conduta do Tratamento Medicamentoso
2.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(50): e18232, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31852085

RESUMO

Transgender people continue to be at high-risk for HIV acquisition, but little is known about the characteristics of their sexual partners. To address this gap, we examined sociodemographic and sexual characteristics of cisgender men who have sex with men (MSM) on pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) reporting transgender sexual partners.A cohort of 392 MSM in southern California in a randomized clinical trial for PrEP adherence were followed from 2013 to 2016. Multivariable generalized estimating equation and logistic models identified characteristics of MSM reporting transgender sexual partners and PrEP adherence.Only 14 (4%) MSM reported having transgender sexual partners. MSM were more likely to report transgender partners if they were African American, had incident chlamydia, reported injection drug-using sexual partners, or received items for sex. Most associations remained significant in the multivariable model: African American (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 11.20, P = .01), incident chlamydia (AOR 3.71, P = .04), and receiving items for sex (AOR 5.29, P = .04). There were no significant differences in PrEP adherence between MSM reporting transgender partners and their counterpart.MSM who report transgender sexual partners share characteristics associated with individuals with high HIV prevalence. Identifying this group distinct from larger cohorts of MSM could offer new HIV prevention opportunities for this group of MSM and the transgender community.


Assuntos
Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Homossexualidade Masculina/psicologia , Prevenção Primária/métodos , Comportamento Sexual , Parceiros Sexuais , Pessoas Transgênero , Adulto , Seguimentos , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Adesão à Medicação , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
3.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(52): e18353, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31876709

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To determine the effectiveness of text message reminders (TMR) on medication adherence (MA) and to investigate the effects of TMR on clinical outcomes. METHODS: The PubMed, Cochrane library, EMbase, and China Biology Medicine databases were searched for randomized-controlled trials with TMR as the intervention for patients with coronary heart disease. Two reviewers independently extracted data and assessed the risk of bias. Meta-analysis was conducted using Stata 15.0 software. RESULTS: In total, 1678 patients in 6 trials were included. Compared with the control group, the MA was 2.85 times greater among the intervention group (RR [relative risk] 2.85; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.07-7.58). TMR reduced systolic blood pressure (BP) (weighted mean difference) = -6.51; 95% CI -9.79 to -3.23), cholesterol (standard mean difference = -0.26; 95% CI -0.4 to -0.12) and increased the number of patients with BP <140/90 mm Hg (RR 1.39; 95% CI 1.26-1.54). CONCLUSION: TMR significantly promoted MA and reduced systolic BP, cholesterol level, and body mass index, but had no effect on mortality, diastolic BP, or lipoproteins. However, substantial heterogeneity existed in our analyses.


Assuntos
Doença das Coronárias/tratamento farmacológico , Adesão à Medicação , Sistemas de Alerta , Mensagem de Texto , Humanos
4.
Ther Umsch ; 76(6): 301-310, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31762413

RESUMO

Development of inhaled therapies for COPD and asthma Abstract. Inhaled therapies still represent one of the most important pillars of the COPD and asthma treatments. In recent years, the importance of inhaled corticosteroids in the treatment of COPD changed again and again and currently it seems that they are gaining more importance again. In the future, inhaled therapies will increasingly focus on biomarkers. New to the market are the "triple therapies as a fixed combination", whose success will be evident in the next few years. Despite the great variety of new agents, new combinations and new inhalation systems, it is important to keep a good overview and to focus on the individual benefit of the patients. The goal is to find the products that are suitable for the individual patient in a dosage form that is ideal for him. A correct inhalation technique and a good medication adherence to the prescribed treatment plan is crucial for the success of an inhaled therapy.


Assuntos
Asma , Broncodilatadores/administração & dosagem , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica , Administração por Inalação , Corticosteroides , Asma/tratamento farmacológico , Broncodilatadores/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Adesão à Medicação , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/tratamento farmacológico
5.
Pan Afr Med J ; 33: 309, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31692777

RESUMO

Introduction: Adherence to insulin therapy is a critical factor for adequate control of diabetes mellitus. Despite the multiple well-known benefits of adherence to insulin therapy, poor adherence remains to be a common cause of diabetes mellitus-related complications. A better management of diabetes mellitus requires determining the level of patient adherence and identifying why non-adherence to insulin therapy occurs. Therefore, this study was designed to assess the level of adherence to insulin therapy and associated factors among diabetes mellitus patients. Methods: The study was conducted from May 1 to July 1, 2018, using a cross-sectional study design. Interviewer-administered questionnaire was employed for data collection and systematic random sampling technique was used to select study participants. The collected data were entered using Epi data version 3.1.1 and exported to SPSS version 22 for analysis. Logistic analysis was carried out to check the level of association between adherence to insulin therapy and the independent variables with significance level of 0.05 at 95% confidence interval. Results: 273 respondents were selected with a 100% response rate. Near to one-fourth (24.2%) of the respondents were adherent to their insulin therapy. The study revealed that good knowledge of diabetes mellitus [AOR=6.51; 95% CI [1.58, 26.71], age [>30 years] [AOR=2.63; 95% CI [1.27, 5.42], knowledge regarding insulin self-injection [AOR=4.21; 95%CI [1.06,16.65], favorable attitude towards insulin injection [AOR=2.14; 95% CI [1.04,4.41], free-of-cost insulin therapy [AOR= 4.62, 95% CI [1.06,16.65], having of glucometer at home [AOR= 2.82, 95% CI [1.12,7.09], and being a member of Ethiopian diabetic association [AOR= 5.41, 95% CI [2.31,12.64] were found to significantly affect adherence to insulin therapy. Conclusion: Nearly one-fourth of the study participants were adherent to their insulin therapy. Good knowledge and favorable attitude towards insulin injection, good knowledge regarding diabetes mellitus, being a member of the Ethiopian Diabetes Association, age greater than thirty years old, free-of-cost insulin therapy and having glucometer at home were found to be significant predictors of adherence to insulin therapy.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus/tratamento farmacológico , Hipoglicemiantes/administração & dosagem , Insulina/administração & dosagem , Adesão à Medicação/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Etiópia , Feminino , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Hospitais Públicos , Humanos , Injeções , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Autoadministração , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
6.
Pan Afr Med J ; 33: 277, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31692880

RESUMO

Introduction: Adherence is vital to effective antiretroviral therapy (ART) for reducing viral load and HIV/AIDS-related morbidity and mortality. This study was aimed at evaluating the adherence of HIV seropositive patients to ART in a tertiary institution in Nigeria. Methods: A cross sectional observational study was conducted among 400 HIV seropositive patients. The study was carried out between December 2016 and February 2017 at the HIV clinic of the Ekiti State University Teaching Hospital, Ado-Ekiti, Nigeria. Results: The mean age of the HIV patients was 42.2±9.5 years with a predominant female gender (Male:Female = 1:2.8). The median CD4 counts increased from 302.1±15.0cells/mm3 at diagnosis to 430.8±13.3cells/mm3 at the time of the study. Majority of participants were unaware of their spouses' HIV status (59.3%) while 32.5% of participants had a serodiscordant spouse. Poverty was a major challenge as 73.3% earned less than 140 dollars per month. Depressive symptoms, anxiety disorder and insomnia were also reported in 40.7%, 33.2% and 47.2% respectively. Poor adherence to ART was observed in almost 20% of the patients. Logistic regression indicated that predictors of poor adherence were depression, anxiety and low CD4 counts. Conclusion: Adherence to anti-retroviral therapy was good amongst the majority of HIV seropositive patients. Depression, anxiety disorder and low CD4 count were however associated with poor adherence. This emphasizes the role of the psychology units as integral part of the HIV clinic to assist patients' adherence to anti-retroviral regimens.


Assuntos
Fármacos Anti-HIV/administração & dosagem , Contagem de Linfócito CD4 , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Adesão à Medicação/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Depressão/epidemiologia , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/psicologia , Humanos , Masculino , Adesão à Medicação/psicologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nigéria , Inquéritos e Questionários
9.
Bone Joint J ; 101-B(11): 1402-1407, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31674239

RESUMO

AIMS: Bone health assessment and the prescription of medication for secondary fracture prevention have become an integral part of the acute management of patients with hip fracture. However, there is little evidence regarding compliance with prescription guidelines and subsequent adherence to medication in this patient group. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The World Hip Trauma Evaluation (WHiTE) is a multicentre, prospective cohort of hip fracture patients in NHS hospitals in England and Wales. Patients aged 60 years and older who received operative treatment for a hip fracture were eligible for inclusion in WHiTE. The prescription of bone protection medications was recorded from participants' discharge summaries, and participant-reported use of bone protection medications was recorded at 120 days following surgery. RESULTS: Of 5456 recruited patients with baseline data, 2853 patients (52%) were prescribed bone protection medication at discharge, of which oral bisphosphonates were the most common, 4109 patients (75%) were prescribed vitamin D or calcium, and 606 patients (11%) were not prescribed anything. Of those prescribed a bone protection medication, only 932 patients (33%) reported still taking their medication 120 days later. CONCLUSION: These data provide a reference for current prescription and adherence rates. Adherence with oral medication remains poor in patients with hip fracture. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2019;101-B:1402-1407.


Assuntos
Conservadores da Densidade Óssea/uso terapêutico , Fraturas do Quadril/cirurgia , Idoso , Cálcio/uso terapêutico , Estudos de Coortes , Denosumab/uso terapêutico , Difosfonatos/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Hidroxicolecalciferóis/uso terapêutico , Adesão à Medicação , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Cuidados Pós-Operatórios/métodos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/prevenção & controle , Estudos Prospectivos , Teriparatida/uso terapêutico , Reino Unido , Vitamina D/uso terapêutico
10.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(44): e17826, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31689870

RESUMO

Current study was to evaluate the prevalence of guideline recommended medications adherence in myocardial infarction (MI) patients postpercutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) and the association of medication nonadherence and major adverse cardiovascular events (MACEs).MI patients who underwent PCI in the last 12 months were enrolled. Demographic and clinical characteristics were collected and guideline recommended medications were evaluated. Patients were divided into with and without MACEs groups.Compared to patients without MACEs, those with MACEs were older (54.8 ±â€Š16.4 vs 51.1 ±â€Š15.2 years), more likely to be smoker (40.2% vs 31.9%), have higher body mass index (BMI; 25.0 ±â€Š6.1 vs 23.8 ±â€Š5.7 kg/m), diabetes (47.5% vs 37.8%), ischemic stroke (34.4% vs 25.6%), and estimated lower glomerular filtration rate (85.4 ±â€Š9.6 vs 92.6 ±â€Š10.7 mL/minute/1.73 m). Patients with MACEs were also more likely to present with ST-elevation MI (STEMI; 54.1% vs 48.4%) and to undergo urgent PCI (62.3% vs 56.3%). Furthermore, patients with MACEs were less likely to adhere to dual antiplatelet therapy (77.9% vs 85.9%), renin-angiotensin system inhibitor (62.3% vs 69.7%), and beta-blocker (69.7% vs 72.8%) treatment. In unadjusted model, medication nonadherence was associated with 2-fold higher odds of MACEs. After adjustment for demographics, risk factors, comorbidities, and peri-PCI characteristics, medications nonadherence remained independently associated with MACEs, with odds ratio of 1.40 (95% confidence interval: 1.29-1.87).Medications adherence rate among MI patients post-PCI is suboptimal in China, which is independently associated with MACEs.


Assuntos
Fármacos Cardiovasculares/uso terapêutico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Adesão à Medicação/estatística & dados numéricos , Infarto do Miocárdio/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Idoso , China/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infarto do Miocárdio/cirurgia , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea , Prevalência
11.
Evid. actual. práct. ambul ; 22(3): e002021, nov. 2019.
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-1047108

RESUMO

Una joven de 23 años con asma leve intermitente se presenta a la consulta médica. Se plantea cuál es la mejor alternativa para su tratamiento: el uso de broncodilatadores de acción corta a demanda (SABA, por sus iniciales en inglés) o de broncodilatadores de acción rápida en asociación con corticoides inhalatorios (ICS/FABA, por sus iniciales en inglés) a demanda. Tras revisar la bibliografía se encontraron una revisión sistemática y dos ensayos clínicos que indican que los ICS/FABA serían superiores a los SABA; sin embargo este efecto fue solamente estudiado en casos de asma persistente.Es importante discutir estos hallazgos con los pacientes, junto a sus implicancias económicas, incorporando sus valores y preferencias a la hora de tomar una decisión terapéutica. (AU)


A 23-year-old woman with mild intermittent asthma comes to the doctor's office. The best alternative for treatment is considered: the use of short-acting bronchodilators on demand (SABA) or fast-acting bronchodilators in association with inhaled corticosteroids (ICS/FABA) on demand. After a literature search, a systematic review and two clinical trials werefound, which indicate that the ICS/FABA would be superior to the SABA; however, this effect was only studied in cases of persistent asthma. It is important to discuss these findings with the patients, alongside with their economic implications,incorporating their values and preferences when making a therapeutic decision.


Assuntos
Humanos , Feminino , Lactente , Adulto , Adulto Jovem , Asma/tratamento farmacológico , Broncodilatadores/uso terapêutico , Asma/diagnóstico , Asma/etiologia , Asma/epidemiologia , Sinais e Sintomas Respiratórios , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Broncodilatadores/administração & dosagem , Bronquiolite , Sons Respiratórios , Corticosteroides/uso terapêutico , Tosse , Tomada de Decisões , Dispneia , Adesão à Medicação
12.
Expert Opin Drug Metab Toxicol ; 15(11): 913-925, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31623470

RESUMO

Introduction: The treatment of psoriasis with conventional topical therapies and disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARDs) is often linked to unsatisfactory outcomes and the risk of serious adverse events. Over the last decades, research advances in understanding the role of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF α) and other cytokines in the pathogenesis of psoriasis have driven the introduction of biologic agents targeting specific immune mediators in everyday clinical practice. TNF α inhibitors are a consolidated treatment option for patients with moderate-to-severe disease with remarkable efficacy and a reassuring safety profile.Areas covered: The PubMed database was searched using combinations of the following keywords: psoriasis, TNF α inhibitors, biologic therapy, pharmacodynamics, adalimumab, etanercept, infliximab, certolizumab pegol, golimumab, adverse effects. The aim of this review is to describe the pharmacodynamic profile of anti-TNF α inhibitors, currently approved by the European Medicines Agency (EMA) for the treatment of psoriasis, focusing on related clinical implications, also in comparison to the new generation biological therapies targeting the interleukin 23/interleukin 17 axis.Expert opinion: Pharmacodynamics of TNF α inhibitors should be fully considered in planning patient's therapy strategies, especially in case of secondary failures, poor adherence to treatment, instable psoriasis, high risk of infection, pregnant or lactating women, metabolic comorbidities, coexistence of other immune-mediated inflammatory diseases.


Assuntos
Fármacos Dermatológicos/administração & dosagem , Psoríase/tratamento farmacológico , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/antagonistas & inibidores , Animais , Antirreumáticos/administração & dosagem , Antirreumáticos/efeitos adversos , Antirreumáticos/farmacologia , Fármacos Dermatológicos/efeitos adversos , Fármacos Dermatológicos/farmacologia , Desenvolvimento de Medicamentos , Humanos , Fatores Imunológicos/administração & dosagem , Fatores Imunológicos/efeitos adversos , Fatores Imunológicos/farmacologia , Adesão à Medicação , Psoríase/imunologia , Psoríase/patologia , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo
13.
Sr Care Pharm ; 34(9): 604-612, 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31601294

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The primary objective of this study is to determine factors associated with health literacy and medication adherence in an urban community. DESIGN: A cross-sectional study was conducted to assess factors associated with health literacy and medication adherence. Participants were recruited from October 2012 to April 2013. SETTING: Ambulatory care clinic and senior wellness center. PARTICIPANTS: Participants were eligible if they were older than 18 years of age and had received care at the ambulatory clinic or obtained services at the senior wellness center. INTERVENTIONS: REALM survey and the Morisky 8-Item Medication Adherence Questionnaire. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The two outcomes evaluated in this study were health literacy and medication adherence. RESULTS: A total of 51 participants were enrolled in the study. Twenty-seven (53%) of the participants were noted to be nonadherent to their medications. Twenty (74%) of these participants read below the high school level, and the remaining 7 (26%) read above a high school level. Study findings showed that both education level and comorbidities status were associated with health literacy. Participants who had a below high school education level had greater odds of having a below high school health literacy level (odds ratio [OR] = 7.500, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.482-37.949). Participants who had two or more comorbidities had greater odds of having a below high school health literacy level (OR = 24.889, 95% CI 2.698-229.610). CONCLUSION: Our study results found associations between both comorbidities and education with health literacy.


Assuntos
Alfabetização em Saúde , Adesão à Medicação , Adolescente , Estudos Transversais , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Inquéritos e Questionários
14.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(39): e17071, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31574806

RESUMO

Access to antiretroviral-based HIV prevention has been marked by sex asymmetries, and its effectiveness has been compromised by low clinical follow-up rates. We investigated risk profiles of women who received nonoccupational post-exposure prophylaxis (nPEP), as well as the rates and predictive factors of loss to follow-up after nPEP initiation.Retrospective study evaluating 501 women who received nPEP between 2014 and 2015 at 5 HIV centers (testing centers-VCT, outpatient clinics, and infectious diseases hospital). Risk profiles were drawn based on the characteristics of the women and their sexual partners, and then stratified by sociodemographic indicators and previous use of HIV prevention services. Loss to follow-up (LTFU) was defined as not presenting for follow-up visits or for HIV testing after nPEP initiation. Predictors of LTFU were analyzed by calculating adjusted prevalence ratios (aPRs).Approximately 90% of women had sexual encounters that met the criteria established in the Brazilian guidelines for nPEP. Those who declared to be sex workers (26.5%) or drug users (19.2%) had the highest social vulnerability indicators. In contrast, women who had intercourse with casual partners of unknown HIV risk (42.7%) had higher education and less experience with previous HIV testing (89.3%) or nPEP use (98.6%). Of the women who received nPEP after sexual intercourse with stable partners, 75.8% had HIV-infected partners. LTFU rate was 72.8% and predictors included being Black (aPR = 1.15, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.03-1.30), using drugs/alcohol (aPR = 1.15, 95% CI: 1.01-1.32) and having received nPEP at an HIV outpatient clinic (aPR = 1.35, 95% CI: 1.20-1.51) or at an infectious diseases hospital (aPR = 1.37, 95% CI: 1.11-1.69) compared with a VCT. The risk of LTFU declined as age increased (aPR 41-59 years = 0.80, 95% CI: 0.68-0.96).Most women who used nPEP had higher socioeconomic status and were not part of populations most affected by HIV. In contrast, factors that contribute to loss to follow-up were: having increased social vulnerability; increased vulnerability to HIV infection; and seeking nPEP at HIV treatment services as opposed to at a VCT.


Assuntos
Antirretrovirais/uso terapêutico , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Profilaxia Pós-Exposição , Sexo sem Proteção , Adolescente , Adulto , Brasil , Coito , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Adesão à Medicação , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Assunção de Riscos , Trabalho Sexual , Classe Social , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/complicações , Adulto Jovem
15.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(42): e17323, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31626087

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Non-adherence can be highlighted as one of the main contributors to the occurrence of adverse events in patients treated with warfarin. The usefulness of self-reporting measures of drug adherence could be improved by following psychometric properties in the development of the measurement scales. Thus, we aimed to describe the protocol of a systematic literature review designed to investigate and describe validated instruments used to assess adherence to warfarin therapy. METHODS: We will perform a systematic review will include observational and experimental studies involving the use of validated instruments to assess adherence to warfarin therapy. Dimensions of adherence raised by the selected studies will be extracted to be compared. We will systematically search electronic databases including MEDLINE, LILACS, EMBASE, and Cochrane Library using a comprehensive strategy from inception to June 31, 2019. Two reviewers will revise the literature independently using a standardized form and assess the potential bias. After the comparison of results, discrepancies will be solved after the analysis of a third reviewer. RESULT: The development of the present systematic will help to summarize and evaluate the validated instruments that have been previously published to assess adherence to warfarin therapy. CONCLUSION: This review will substantiate the discussion of relevant topics that should be assessed while providing care to patients taking warfarin. This knowledge will enable a comprehensive approach for healthcare professionals to improve treatment outcomes and the design of future investigations. REGISTRATION: The systematic review is registered in the PROSPERO international prospective register of systematic review (PROSPERO# CRD42019128324).


Assuntos
Anticoagulantes/uso terapêutico , Adesão à Medicação , Varfarina/uso terapêutico , Administração Oral , Humanos , Revisão Sistemática como Assunto , Estudos de Validação como Assunto
16.
Rev Med Suisse ; 15(668): 1946-1949, 2019 Sep 23.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31643156

RESUMO

High blood pressure is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease, leading to a high and increasing rate of morbidity and mortality with our current lifestyle. This is therefore a real public health problem. About 20 % of refractory hypertension is caused by a poor drug intake. The new 2018 European recommendations for high blood pressure emphasize the importance of improving patients' therapeutic adherence. To achieve that, the general practitioner must promote a bio-psycho-social approach, targeted to patient empowerment and to develop multidisciplinarity with the other care providers. Concerning the medication, physicians are encouraged to use combination therapies in a single pill.


Assuntos
Anti-Hipertensivos/administração & dosagem , Anti-Hipertensivos/uso terapêutico , Hipertensão/tratamento farmacológico , Hipertensão/psicologia , Adesão à Medicação , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Combinação de Medicamentos , Humanos , Adesão à Medicação/psicologia
17.
Nutr. hosp ; 36(5): 1001-010, sept.-oct. 2019. tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-184619

RESUMO

Background: nutritional support (NS) is a core element in the treatment of underweight patients with anorexia nervosa (AN). Objective: to analyze the adherence of NS prescriptions to clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) for AN patients and to compare the effectiveness, safety, and cost of NS according to adherence. Methods: this retrospective observational study included AN patients admitted to an Eating Disorders Unit between January 2006 and December 2009 and followed until December 2014. NS prescriptions were compared with guidelines published by the American Psychiatric Association (APA), the National Institute for Clinical Excellence (NICE), and the Spanish Ministry of Health and Consumption (SMHC). Adherence was defined as percentage of hospitalizations that followed all recommendations. Results: adherence to APA and NICE/SMHC was observed in 10.2% and 73.4%, respectively, of the total of 177 hospitalizations. Body weight and body mass index were higher at admission in the NICE/SMHC adherence versus non-adherence group (p < 0.001). Weight gain rate during hospitalization was higher (p = 0.009) in "APA adherence" (135.5 g/day) versus "non-adherence" (92.1 g/day) group. Hospital stay was significantly shorter (p = 0.025) in "NICE/SMHC adherence" (39.5 days) versus "non-adherence" group (50.0 days). NICE/SMHC adherence was associated with lower costs (p = 0.006). Conclusions: NS prescriptions for anorexic patients more frequently followed NICE/SMHC than APA recommendations. Over the short-term, APA adherence was associated with improved weight gain. Patients adhering to NICE/SMHC recommendations had shorter hospital stay and reduced costs, likely due to their more favorable nutritional status at admission


Introducción: el soporte nutricional (SN) es un elemento clave en el tratamiento de la anorexia nerviosa (AN). Objetivo: analizar la adecuación de las prescripciones de SN en pacientes con AN a las guías de práctica clínica (GPC) y comparar la efectividad, seguridad y coste según la adecuación. Métodos: estudio observacional retrospectivo en pacientes con AN ingresados en una Unidad de Trastornos de Conducta Alimentaria entre enero de 2006 y diciembre de 2009. Se hizo seguimiento hasta diciembre de 2014. Se compararon las prescripciones de SN con las GPC publicadas por la Asociación Americana de Psiquiatría (APA), el Instituto Nacional de Excelencia Clínica (NICE) y el Ministerio Español de Sanidad y Consumo (MSC). Se definió adecuación como porcentaje de ingresos que cumplieron todas las recomendaciones. Resultados: el grado de adecuación a APA y NICE/MSC fue del 10,2% y 73,4%, respectivamente. El peso corporal y el índice de masa corporal al ingreso fueron mayores en el grupo "sí-adecuación" al NICE/MSC versus "no-adecuación" (p < 0,001). La tasa de ganancia ponderal fue superior (p = 0,009) en el grupo "sí-adecuación" a APA (135.5 g/día) versus "no-adecuación" (92,1 g/día). La estancia hospitalaria fue menor (p = 0,025) en "sí-adecuación" al NICE/MSC (39,5 días) versus "no-adecuación" (50,0 días). La adecuación al NICE/MSC fue asociada con menores costes (p = 0,006). Conclusiones: las prescripciones de SN se ajustaron en mayor grado al NICE/MSC que a la APA. La adecuación a APA parece relacionarse con mayor tasa de ganancia ponderal. Los pacientes que se adecuaron al NICE/MSC presentaron menores estancias hospitalarias y costes, probablemente relacionado con su estado nutricional más favorable al ingreso


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto/normas , Apoio Nutricional , Anorexia Nervosa/terapia , Resultado do Tratamento , Adesão à Medicação , Anorexia Nervosa/economia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Peso Corporal , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estado Nutricional , Tempo de Internação/economia
18.
J Assoc Physicians India ; 67(7): 69-71, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31559773

RESUMO

Public-health facilities in the developing world often experience a high patient burden, low doctor-patient ratio, drug stock-outs and the lack of avenues for adequate patient-provider communication. We identified strategies for enhancing medication adherence for chronic disorders in Indian health settings that rely on improving patient-provider communication through a review of the literature. These include (A)sk the patient on adherence status, (A)ssess accurately medication adherence, provide (A)ssistance with regimen and enlisting support from all available resources especially family support, (A)nticipating and precluding interruption in adherence, (A)ssurance against harm due to drug sideeffects and finally (A)void blaming the patient for non-adherence.


Assuntos
Comunicação , Adesão à Medicação , Relações Médico-Paciente , Humanos
20.
Pan Afr Med J ; 33: 89, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31489067

RESUMO

Introduction: Mortality of adult patients who are on antiretroviral therapy (ART) is higher in low-income than in high-income countries. After the failure of standard first-line treatment, patients switch to second-line regimens. However, there are limited data about the outcome of patients after switching to a second-line regimen in the study area. This study aimed to measure the rate of mortality and its determinants among HIV patients on second-line ART regimens. Methods: Multicenter institution based retrospective follow up study was conducted among 1192 adult patients who started second-line ART between 2008 and 2016 in eight selected hospitals of Amhara region. Patients who started second-line treatment after the failure of first-line treatment were included. Patient medical records, registration books, and computer database were used to collect the data. Time to death after a switch to second-line ART was the primary outcome of interest. Cox proportional hazard model was fitted to identify determinant factors of mortality. Results: Among 1192 patients who were on second-line ART, 136 (11.4%) died with 3,157 person-years of follow up. Over the study period, the mortality rate was 4.33 per 100 person-years. Not taking isoniazid preventive therapy (IPT) (Adjusted Hazard Ratio (AHR): 6.6; 95% CI: 2.9, 15.0), did not make modification on second-line regimen (AHR: 4.4; 95% CI: 2.8, 6.8), poor clinical adherence (AHR: 2.5; 95% CI: 1.4, 4.5), functional status of bedridden (AHR: 2.7; 95% CI: 1.5, 4.8), and having attained a tertiary level of education (AHR: 0.4; 95% CI: 0.2, 0.8) were independent determinants of mortality. Conclusion: The incidence rate of mortality was high and most of the deaths occurred within 12 months after switching to second-line ART. Higher mortality among adult HIV-infected patients was associated with poor adherence, no formal education, not taking IPT, being bedridden at the time of the switch, and not modifying second-line treatment. Improving treatment adherence of patients by providing consistent adherence counseling, providing INH prophylaxis and monitoring patient's regimen more closely during the first twelve months after switch could decrease mortality of HIV patients on a second-line regimen.


Assuntos
Fármacos Anti-HIV/administração & dosagem , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Isoniazida/administração & dosagem , Adesão à Medicação/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Pessoas Acamadas/estatística & dados numéricos , Escolaridade , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Infecções por HIV/mortalidade , Hospitais , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA