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1.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237095, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32756599

RESUMO

Regular exercise is an effective strategy that is used to prevent and treat obesity as well as type 2 diabetes. Exercise-induced myokine secretion is considered a mechanism that coordinates communication between muscles and other organs. In order to examine the possibility of novel communications from muscle to adipose tissue mediated by myokines, we treated 3T3-L1 adipocytes with C2C12 myotube electrical pulse stimulation-conditioned media (EPS-CM), using a C2C12 myotube contraction system stimulated by an electrical pulse. Continuous treatment with myotube EPS-CM promoted adipogenesis of 3T3-L1 pre-adipocytes via the upregulation of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPARγ) 2 and PPARγ-regulated gene expression. Furthermore, our results revealed that myotube EPS-CM induces lipolysis and secretion of adiponectin in mature adipocytes. EPS-CM obtained from a C2C12 myoblast culture did not induce such changes in these genes, suggesting that contraction-induced myokine(s) secretion occurs particularly in differentiated myotubes. Thus, contraction-induced secretion of myokine(s) promotes adipogenesis and lipid metabolism in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. These findings suggest the possibility that skeletal muscle communicates to adipose tissues during exercise, probably by the intermediary of unidentified myokines.


Assuntos
Adipócitos/citologia , Diferenciação Celular , Lipólise , Fibras Musculares Esqueléticas/metabolismo , Células 3T3 , Adipócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Adipócitos/metabolismo , Adipogenia , Adiponectina/metabolismo , Animais , Comunicação Celular , Meios de Cultivo Condicionados/farmacologia , Camundongos , PPAR gama/metabolismo
2.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 2797, 2020 06 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32493999

RESUMO

Fat distribution is an independent cardiometabolic risk factor. However, its molecular and cellular underpinnings remain obscure. Here we demonstrate that two independent GWAS signals at RSPO3, which are associated with increased body mass index-adjusted waist-to-hip ratio, act to specifically increase RSPO3 expression in subcutaneous adipocytes. These variants are also associated with reduced lower-body fat, enlarged gluteal adipocytes and insulin resistance. Based on human cellular studies RSPO3 may limit gluteofemoral adipose tissue (AT) expansion by suppressing adipogenesis and increasing gluteal adipocyte susceptibility to apoptosis. RSPO3 may also promote upper-body fat distribution by stimulating abdominal adipose progenitor (AP) proliferation. The distinct biological responses elicited by RSPO3 in abdominal versus gluteal APs in vitro are associated with differential changes in WNT signalling. Zebrafish carrying a nonsense rspo3 mutation display altered fat distribution. Our study identifies RSPO3 as an important determinant of peripheral AT storage capacity.


Assuntos
Adipócitos/citologia , Adipócitos/metabolismo , Distribuição da Gordura Corporal , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intracelular/metabolismo , Trombospondinas/metabolismo , Proteínas de Peixe-Zebra/metabolismo , Adipócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Adiposidade/genética , Adulto , Alelos , Animais , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Diferenciação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular , Tamanho Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Doxiciclina/farmacologia , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Glucose/metabolismo , Humanos , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intracelular/genética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Caracteres Sexuais , Células-Tronco/metabolismo , Trombospondinas/genética , Relação Cintura-Quadril , Via de Sinalização Wnt/efeitos dos fármacos , Peixe-Zebra/genética , Proteínas de Peixe-Zebra/genética
3.
Mol Cell Endocrinol ; 515: 110917, 2020 09 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32593740

RESUMO

Obesity patients are more susceptible to develop COVID-19 severe outcome due to the role of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) in the viral infection. ACE2 is regulated in the human cells by different genes associated with increased (TLR3, HAT1, HDAC2, KDM5B, SIRT1, RAB1A, FURIN and ADAM10) or decreased (TRIB3) virus replication. RNA-seq data revealed 14857 genes expressed in human subcutaneous adipocytes, including genes mentioned above. Irisin treatment increased by 3-fold the levels of TRIB3 transcript and decreased the levels of other genes. The decrease in FURIN and ADAM10 expression enriched diverse biological processes, including extracellular structure organization. Our results, in human subcutaneous adipocytes cell culture, indicate a positive effect of irisin on the expression of multiple genes related to viral infection by SARS-CoV-2; furthermore, translatable for other tissues and organs targeted by the novel coronavirus and present, thus, promising approaches for the treatment of COVID-19 infection as therapeutic strategy to decrease ACE2 regulatory genes.


Assuntos
Adipócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Fibronectinas/farmacologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteína ADAM10/genética , Proteína ADAM10/metabolismo , Adipócitos/citologia , Adipócitos/metabolismo , Secretases da Proteína Precursora do Amiloide/genética , Secretases da Proteína Precursora do Amiloide/metabolismo , Betacoronavirus/genética , Betacoronavirus/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/genética , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/metabolismo , Células Cultivadas , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Fibronectinas/genética , Fibronectinas/metabolismo , Furina/genética , Furina/metabolismo , Ontologia Genética , Histona Acetiltransferases/genética , Histona Acetiltransferases/metabolismo , Histona Desacetilase 2/genética , Histona Desacetilase 2/metabolismo , Humanos , Histona Desmetilases com o Domínio Jumonji/genética , Histona Desmetilases com o Domínio Jumonji/metabolismo , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Modelos Biológicos , Anotação de Sequência Molecular , Proteínas Nucleares/genética , Proteínas Nucleares/metabolismo , Obesidade/virologia , Pandemias , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/genética , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/metabolismo , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/genética , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/metabolismo , Proteínas Repressoras/genética , Proteínas Repressoras/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Sirtuína 1/genética , Sirtuína 1/metabolismo , Receptor 3 Toll-Like/genética , Receptor 3 Toll-Like/metabolismo , Proteínas rab1 de Ligação ao GTP/genética , Proteínas rab1 de Ligação ao GTP/metabolismo
4.
Clin Sci (Lond) ; 134(12): 1537-1553, 2020 06 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32556103

RESUMO

Hyperuricaemia (HUA) significantly increases the risk of metabolic syndrome and is strongly associated with the increased prevalence of high serum free fatty acids (FFAs) and insulin resistance. However, the underlying mechanisms are not well established, especially the effect of uric acid (UA) on adipose tissue, a vital organ in regulating whole-body energy and FFA homeostasis. In the present study, we noticed that adipocytes from the white adipose tissue of patients with HUA were hypertrophied and had decreased UCP1 expression. To test the effects of UA on adipose tissue, we built both in vitro and in vivo HUA models and elucidated that a high level of UA could induce hypertrophy of adipocytes, inhibit their hyperplasia and reduce their beige-like characteristics. According to mRNA-sequencing analysis, UA significantly decreased the expression of leptin in adipocytes, which was closely related to fatty acid metabolism and the AMPK signalling pathway, as indicated by KEGG pathway analysis. Moreover, lowering UA using benzbromarone (a uricosuric agent) or metformin-induced activation of AMPK expression significantly attenuated UA-induced FFA metabolism impairment and adipose beiging suppression, which subsequently alleviated serum FFA elevation and insulin resistance in HUA mice. Taken together, these observations confirm that UA is involved in the aetiology of metabolic abnormalities in adipose tissue by regulating leptin-AMPK pathway, and metformin could lessen HUA-induced serum FFA elevation and insulin resistance by improving adipose tissue function via AMPK activation. Therefore, metformin could represent a novel treatment strategy for HUA-related metabolic disorders.


Assuntos
Adipócitos/patologia , Tecido Adiposo Bege/patologia , Tecido Adiposo Branco/patologia , Ácidos Graxos não Esterificados/sangue , Hiperuricemia/sangue , Hiperuricemia/tratamento farmacológico , Resistência à Insulina , Metformina/uso terapêutico , Células 3T3-L1 , Adenilato Quinase/metabolismo , Adipócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Adipócitos/metabolismo , Tecido Adiposo Bege/efeitos dos fármacos , Tecido Adiposo Branco/efeitos dos fármacos , Adulto , Animais , Ativação Enzimática , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertrofia , Leptina/metabolismo , Lipogênese , Lipólise , Masculino , Metformina/farmacologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Transdução de Sinais , Triglicerídeos/metabolismo , Ácido Úrico/sangue
5.
Mol Biol (Mosk) ; 54(2): 233-243, 2020.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32392192

RESUMO

Obesity is a major disease that causes significant complications. Inhibition of preadipocyte proliferation has the potential to prevent obesity and metabolic diseases. Melatonin is a pineal gland hormone that has various effects on cells and tissues. In this research, we investigated whether melatonin induces apoptosis in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. 3T3-L1 preadipocytes were cultured until confluence and then treated with 0, 10, 100, and 1000 µM melatonin for 1, 3, and 5 days. A cell viability assay kit was used for determining cell viability. Cell death marker proteins were assessed by Western blot analysis using GAPDH for control. Apoptotic morphological changes with nuclei fragmentation were observed using DAPI staining. Melatonin treatment decreased the phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinases (p-ERK) activation while increasing the activation of caspase-3, 8, and 9. Furthermore, melatonin not only increased Bcl-2-associated X protein (Bax) but decreased B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) expression as dose increases from 0 to 1000 µM. The melatonin treatment also suppressed the growth of preadipocytes with increasing concentration. These effects were attenuated by luzindole, a melatonin receptor antagonist and U0126, an inhibitor of p-ERK activation. In conclusion, melatonin can induce apoptosis of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes via p-ERK decrease.


Assuntos
Adipócitos/citologia , Apoptose , Melatonina/farmacologia , Células 3T3-L1 , Adipócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Caspases/metabolismo , Diferenciação Celular , Proliferação de Células , Sobrevivência Celular , MAP Quinases Reguladas por Sinal Extracelular/metabolismo , Camundongos , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-bcl-2/metabolismo , Proteína X Associada a bcl-2/metabolismo
6.
Toxicol Appl Pharmacol ; 399: 115068, 2020 07 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32445754

RESUMO

Volatile organic compounds (VOCs), such as vinyl chloride (VC), can be directly toxic at high concentrations. However, we have shown that 'nontoxic' exposures to VC and its metabolite chloroethanol (CE) enhances experimental non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), suggesting an unpredicted interaction. Importantly, VOC exposure has been identified as a potential risk factor for the development of obesity and its sequelae in humans. As there is a known axis between adipose and hepatic tissue in NAFLD, the impact of CE on white adipose tissue (WAT) inflammation and lipolysis was investigated. Mice were administered CE (or vehicle) once, after 10 weeks of being fed high-fat or low-fat diet (LFD). CE significantly enhanced hepatic steatosis and inflammation caused by HFD. HFD significantly increased the size of epididymal fat pads, which was enhanced by CE. The relative size of adipocyte lipid droplets increased by HFD + CE, which was also correlated with increased expression of lipid-associated proteins (e.g., PLINs). CE also enhanced HFD-induced indices of WAT inflammation, and ER stress. Hepatic-derived circulating FGF21, a major modulator of WAT lipolysis, which is hypothesized to thereby regulate hepatic steatosis, was significantly increased by CE in animals fed HFD. Taken together these data support the hypothesis that environmental toxicant exposure can exacerbate the severity of NAFLD/NASH, involving the liver-adipose axis in this process. Specifically, CE enhances local inflammation and alters lipid metabolism and WAT-mediated hepatic steatosis due to changes in WAT lipolysis.


Assuntos
Tecido Adiposo Branco/efeitos dos fármacos , Tecido Adiposo Branco/metabolismo , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/metabolismo , Cloreto de Vinil/toxicidade , Adipócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Adipócitos/metabolismo , Animais , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Inflamação/induzido quimicamente , Inflamação/metabolismo , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Lipídeos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/metabolismo , Obesidade/induzido quimicamente , Obesidade/metabolismo
7.
Phytomedicine ; 71: 153225, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32464299

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Impaired bone formation is one of the reasons behind osteoporosis. Alterations in the patterns of mesenchymal stromal cell differentiation towards adipocytes instead of osteoblasts contribute to osteoporosis progression. Natural anti-osteoporotic agents are effective and safe alternatives for osteoporosis treatment. PURPOSE: In this context, 3,5-dicaffeoyl­epi-quinic acid (DCEQA) which is a derivative of chlorogenic acid with reported bioactivities was studied for its osteogenic differentiation enhancing potential in vitro. METHODS: Anti-osteoporotic effects of DCEQA were investigated in human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (hBM-MSCs) which were induced to differentiate into osteoblasts or adipocytes with or without DCEQA treatment. Changes in the osteogenic and adipogenic markers such as ALP activity and lipid accumulation, respectively, were observed along with differentiation-specific activation of mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways. RESULTS: At 10 µM concentration, DCEQA increased the proliferation of bone marrow-derived human mesenchymal stromal cells (hBM-MSCs) during osteoblast differentiation. The expression of osteogenic markers ALP, osteocalcin, Runx2, BMP2 and Wnt 10a was upregulated by DCEQA treatment. The ALP activity and extracellular mineralization were also increased. DCEQA elevated the phosphorylation levels of p38 and JNK MAPKs as well as the activation of ß-catenin and Smad1/5. DCEQA suppressed the lipid accumulation and downregulated expression of adipogenic markers PPARγ, C/EBPα and SREBP1c in adipo-induced hBM-MSCs. DCEQA also decreased the phosphorylation of p38 and ERK MAPKs and stimulated the activation of AMPK in hBM-MSC adipocytes. CONCLUSION: DCEQA was suggested to enhance osteoblast differentiation via stimulating Wnt/BMP signaling. The adipocyte differentiation inhibitory effect of DCEQA was suggested to arise from its ability to increase AMPK phosphorylation. Overall, DCEQA was shown to possess osteogenesis enhancing and adipogenesis inhibitory properties which might facilitate its use against osteoporotic conditions.


Assuntos
Adipócitos/citologia , Atriplex/química , Ácido Clorogênico/análogos & derivados , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/efeitos dos fármacos , Osteoblastos/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por AMP/metabolismo , Adipócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Células da Medula Óssea , Proteína Morfogenética Óssea 2/metabolismo , Diferenciação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Cultivadas , Ácido Clorogênico/farmacologia , Subunidade alfa 1 de Fator de Ligação ao Core/metabolismo , Humanos , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/citologia , Osteoblastos/citologia , Osteoblastos/metabolismo , Osteogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Via de Sinalização Wnt/efeitos dos fármacos , beta Catenina/metabolismo
8.
Life Sci ; 254: 117786, 2020 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32433918

RESUMO

AIMS: Ovarian cancer (OC) is the most lethal gynecological malignancies and many women develop chemoresistance associated with the inflammatory process. We investigated the effects of P-MAPA and IL-12 on the inflammatory and immune responses in a chemically-induced OC model. MAIN METHODS: OCs were induced with 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene into the ovarian bursa, and the animals were given P-MAPA (5 mg/kg bw., i.p., twice a week), or IL-12 (300 ng/kg bw., i.p., one a week) for 60 days, or both P-MAPA and IL-12. Immunohistochemistry, western blot, flow cytometry, and multiplex assay were used to examine the effectiveness of immunotherapies in OC. KEY FINDINGS: The combinatory therapy improved the general OC features, reducing inflammatory cells and adipocyte accumulation, in addition to revealing a soft and mobile tissue with no adherences and peritoneal implants. P-MAPA treatment increased the levels of TLR2, TLR4 and TRIF in OCs while decreasing the number of regulatory T (Treg) cells. Additionally, the association of P-MAPA with IL-12 significantly increased the number of CD4+ and CD8+ T effector cells in draining lymph nodes. Regarding the inflammatory mediators, P-MAPA enhanced the levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-17 while P-MAPA+IL-12 increased the levels of IL-1ß. Treatment with IL-12 enhanced the cytokine levels of IL-17, TNF-α, IL-1ß, and IL-2 in addition to the chemokine MIP-1α. SIGNIFICANCE: We conclude that P-MAPA upregulated TLR2 and TLR4 signaling, possibly activating the non-canonical pathway, while attenuating the tumor immunosuppression. Also, the combination of P-MAPA with IL-12 improves the antitumor immunoresponse, opening a new therapeutic approach for fighting OC.


Assuntos
Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/efeitos dos fármacos , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/efeitos dos fármacos , Interleucina-12/farmacologia , Ácidos Linoleicos/farmacologia , Ácidos Oleicos/farmacologia , Neoplasias Ovarianas/tratamento farmacológico , Receptor 2 Toll-Like/metabolismo , Receptor 4 Toll-Like/metabolismo , 9,10-Dimetil-1,2-benzantraceno , Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transporte Vesicular/metabolismo , Adipócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/metabolismo , Quimiocina CCL3/metabolismo , Citocinas/metabolismo , Sinergismo Farmacológico , Feminino , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Interleucina-12/uso terapêutico , Ácidos Linoleicos/uso terapêutico , Ácidos Oleicos/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Ovarianas/induzido quimicamente , Neoplasias Ovarianas/metabolismo , Ratos , Linfócitos T Reguladores/efeitos dos fármacos
9.
Obes Facts ; 13(2): 221-236, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32252061

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To investigate the impact of omentin on the release of inflammation-related biomarkers and inflammatory pathways in primary human adipocytes. METHODS: Adipocytes were treated with or without omentin (500 and 2,000 ng/mL), and the supernatants were analyzed for inflammation-related biomarkers using proximity extension assay technology. Potential upstream regulators of the omentin-stimulated proteins were identified using Ingenuity Pathway Analysis. Protein levels of components of inflammatory pathways were measured using Western blotting. RESULTS: 2,000 ng/mL omentin induced the release of 30 biomarkers 97.1 ± 31.1-fold in the supernatants (all p < 0.05). Most biomarkers were proin-flammatory chemokines and cytokines. We identified the transcription factor nuclear factor "kappa-light-chain-enhancer" of activated B cells (NFĸB) and the kinases p38 and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)1/2 as potential upstream regulators in silico. On the cellular level, treatment with 2,000 ng/mL omentin for 24 h enhanced the phosphorylation levels of NFĸB 2.1 ± 0.3-fold (p < 0.05), of p38 2.6 ± 0.4-fold (p < 0.05), and of ERK1/2 1.8 ± 0.2-fold (p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: These data argue that omentin exerts proinflammatory effects through the activation of the inflammatory NFĸB, p38, and ERK1/2 pathways in cultured primary adipocytes.


Assuntos
Adipócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Adipócitos/metabolismo , Citocinas/farmacologia , Mediadores da Inflamação/metabolismo , Lectinas/farmacologia , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases/efeitos dos fármacos , Adipócitos/citologia , Células Cultivadas , Citocinas/metabolismo , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Proteínas Ligadas por GPI/farmacologia , Humanos , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Cultura Primária de Células , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas Quinases p38 Ativadas por Mitógeno/metabolismo
10.
Life Sci ; 248: 117474, 2020 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32112869

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Nicotinamide N-methyltransferase (NNMT) is a novel regulator of energy homeostasis in adipocytes. NNMT expression in adipose tissue is increased in obesity and diabetes. Knockdown of NNMT prevents mice from developing diet-induced obesity, which is closely linked to insulin resistance. An early sign of systemic insulin resistance is reduced expression of glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) selectively in adipose tissue. Adipose tissue-specific knockout and overexpression of GLUT4 cause reciprocal changes in NNMT expression. The aim of the current study was to elucidate the mechanism that regulates NNMT expression in adipocytes. METHODS: 3T3-L1 adipocytes were cultured in media with varying glucose concentrations or activators and inhibitors of intracellular pathways. NNMT mRNA and protein levels were measured with quantitative polymerase chain reaction and Western blotting. RESULTS: Glucose deprivation of 3T3-L1 adipocytes induced a 2-fold increase in NNMT mRNA and protein expression. This effect was mimicked by inhibition of glucose transport with phloretin, and by inhibition of glycolysis with the phosphoglucose isomerase inhibitor 2-deoxyglucose. Conversely, inhibition of the pentose phosphate pathway did not affect NNMT expression. Pharmacological activation of the cellular energy sensor AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and inhibition of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway caused an increase in NNMT levels that was similar to the effect of glucose deprivation. Activation of mTOR with MHY1485 prevented the effect of glucose deprivation on NNMT expression. Furthermore, upregulation of NNMT levels depended on functional autophagy and protein translation. CONCLUSION: Glucose availability regulates NNMT expression via an mTOR-dependent mechanism.


Assuntos
Adipócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Transportador de Glucose Tipo 4/genética , Glucose/farmacologia , Nicotinamida N-Metiltransferase/genética , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/genética , Células 3T3-L1 , Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por AMP/genética , Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por AMP/metabolismo , Adipócitos/citologia , Adipócitos/metabolismo , Animais , Autofagia/efeitos dos fármacos , Autofagia/genética , Transporte Biológico/efeitos dos fármacos , Diferenciação Celular , Desoxiglucose/farmacologia , Metabolismo Energético/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Glucose/metabolismo , Transportador de Glucose Tipo 4/antagonistas & inibidores , Transportador de Glucose Tipo 4/metabolismo , Glucose-6-Fosfato Isomerase/antagonistas & inibidores , Glucose-6-Fosfato Isomerase/genética , Glucose-6-Fosfato Isomerase/metabolismo , Homeostase/genética , Camundongos , Morfolinas/farmacologia , Nicotinamida N-Metiltransferase/antagonistas & inibidores , Nicotinamida N-Metiltransferase/metabolismo , Via de Pentose Fosfato/efeitos dos fármacos , Via de Pentose Fosfato/genética , Floretina/farmacologia , Biossíntese de Proteínas , RNA Mensageiro/antagonistas & inibidores , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/metabolismo , Triazinas/farmacologia
11.
Enzyme Microb Technol ; 135: 109496, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32146939

RESUMO

Catechins in green tea possess various health benefits. Enzymatic treatment improves physiological activities by inducing bioconversion of catechins. Here, we investigated the effect of green tea infusion (GT) after tannase treatment, which transforms (-)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) to gallic acid (GA) and (-)-epigallocatechin (EGC), on adipocyte differentiation and mature adipocyte metabolism. The optimal conditions for tannase-mediated improvement in GA and EGC yields in GT were investigated using response surface methodology. Yields of GA and EGC were 43-fold (0.43 mg/mL) and 1.66-fold higher (1.11 mg/mL), respectively, compared to GT without tannase treatment. The optimal reaction conditions for tannase-mediated biotransformation were observed on 0.54 mg mL-1 of tannase, reaction time (86.79 min), and reaction temperature at 22.59 °C. GT and tannase-treated GT (TANs) upregulated adiponectin, uncoupling protein 1, adipose triglyceride lipase, and hormone-sensitive lipase gene expression in differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes, with TAN inducing better effects than GT, which implies that tannase treatment improved the beneficial effect of GT on adipocyte metabolism. Thus, tannase-mediated bio-transformation is an attractive candidate for preparing GT with enhanced anti-obesity properties.


Assuntos
Adipócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Adipócitos/metabolismo , Hidrolases de Éster Carboxílico/química , Catequina/análogos & derivados , Proteínas Fúngicas/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Adipócitos/citologia , Adiponectina/genética , Adiponectina/metabolismo , Animais , Aspergillus/enzimologia , Biocatálise , Camellia sinensis/química , Catequina/química , Catequina/farmacologia , Diferenciação Celular , Manipulação de Alimentos , Ácido Gálico/química , Ácido Gálico/farmacologia , Camundongos , Células NIH 3T3 , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Folhas de Planta/química , Chá/química , Proteína Desacopladora 1/genética , Proteína Desacopladora 1/metabolismo
12.
Biol Pharm Bull ; 43(3): 440-449, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32115502

RESUMO

There is significant cultivation of persimmon (Diospyros kaki) in East Asia, a plant whose fruit has abundant nutrients, including vitamins, polyphenols, and dietary fiber. Persimmon dietary supplements can benefit health by amelioration of diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and obesity. There are also persimmon-based beverages produced via fermentation, such as wines and vinegars, and increasing consumption of these products in East Asia. Although there is great interest in functional foods, the health effects of fermented persimmon extract (FPE) are completely unknown. We examined the effects of FPE on the metabolic parameters of mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD). Our results indicated that FPE supplementation led to an approx. 15% reduction of body weight, reduced abdominal and liver fat, and reduced serum levels of triglycerides, total cholesterol, and glucose. FPE also blocked the differentiation of murine 3T3-L1 pre-adipocyte cells into mature adipocytes. We suggest that gallic acid is a major bioactive component of FPE, and that AMP-activated protein kinase mediates the beneficial effects of FPE and gallic acid.


Assuntos
Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por AMP/metabolismo , Diospyros/química , Obesidade/dietoterapia , Obesidade/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Células 3T3-L1/metabolismo , Gordura Abdominal/efeitos dos fármacos , Adipócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Adipócitos/metabolismo , Animais , Glicemia , Peso Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Fermentação , Frutas , Ácido Gálico/farmacologia , Gordura Intra-Abdominal/efeitos dos fármacos , Lipídeos/sangue , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Extratos Vegetais/química
13.
Biol Pharm Bull ; 43(3): 503-508, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32115509

RESUMO

Obesity elevates the risk of cardiovascular disease and has been strongly associated with increases in the incidence of many metabolic diseases. Therefore, prevention of obesity leads to the prevention of metabolic diseases. In light of this, substances that exert anti-obesity effects are crucial for the prevention of obesity. Indirubin, a 3,2' bisindole isomer of indigo, is the active component of the traditional Chinese medicine used for the treatment of chronic myelocytic leukemia. In particular, indirubin-3'-oxime (1) was shown to inhibit the differentiation of adipocytes. In this study, we investigated the inhibitory effects of nine indirubin-3'-oxime derivatives against lipid accumulation during differentiation in 3T3-L1 cells. Among the compounds tested, 5-methoxyindirubin-3'-oxime (2) and 6-bromoindirubin-3'-oxime (7) at 5 µM exhibited significantly stronger inhibitory activity than indirubin-3'-oxime (1). Furthermore, 5-methoxyindirubin-3'-oxime (2) and 6-bromoindirubin-3'-oxime (7) markedly suppressed the expression of CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein α, peroxisome proliferator activator γ2, and adipocyte protein 2, both of which are key adipogenic regulators at the intermediate stage of adipocyte differentiation. Our results demonstrate that 5-methoxyindirubin-3'-oxime (2) and 6-bromoindirubin-3'-oxime (7) significantly down-regulated lipid accumulation during differentiation of 3T3-L1 cells, suggesting their potential as novel therapeutic drugs against the development of obesity.


Assuntos
Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Células 3T3-L1/citologia , Adipócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Adipócitos/metabolismo , Animais , Proteína alfa Estimuladora de Ligação a CCAAT/metabolismo , Proteína beta Intensificadora de Ligação a CCAAT/metabolismo , Diferenciação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular , Indóis/química , Indóis/farmacologia , Camundongos , Oximas , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia
14.
Biol Pharm Bull ; 43(3): 526-532, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32115511

RESUMO

Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ), the molecular target for antidiabetic thiazolidinediones (TZDs), is a master regulator of preadipocyte differentiation and lipid metabolism. The adverse side effects of TZDs, arising from their potent agonistic activity, can be minimized by PPARγ partial agonists or PPARγ non-agonists without loss of insulin sensitization. In this study, we reported that WSF-7, a synthetic chemical derived from natural monoterpene α-pinene, is a partial PPARγ agonist. We found that WSF-7 binds directly to PPARγ. Activation of PPARγ by WSF-7 promotes adipogenesis, adiponectin oligomerization and insulin-induced glucose uptake. WSF-7 also inhibits obesity-mediated PPARγ phosphorylation at serine (Ser)273 and improves insulin sensitivity of 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Our study suggested that WSF-7 activates PPARγ transcription by a mechanism different from that of rosiglitazone or luteolin. Therefore, WSF-7 might be a potential therapeutic drug to treat type 2 diabetes.


Assuntos
Insulina/metabolismo , Monoterpenos/farmacologia , PPAR gama/agonistas , PPAR gama/metabolismo , Fosforilação/efeitos dos fármacos , Células 3T3-L1 , Adipócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Adiponectina/metabolismo , Animais , Glucose/metabolismo , Camundongos , Monoterpenos/química , Obesidade/metabolismo
15.
Br J Radiol ; 93(1110): 20190794, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32105502

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the specificity, clinical implication and prognostic value of MRI adipocytic maturation (MAM) in myxoid/round cells liposarcomas (MRC-LPS) treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC). METHODS: Of the 89 patients diagnosed with MRC-LPS at our sarcoma reference center between 2008 and 2018, 28 were included as they were treated with NAC, surgery and radiotherapy. All patients underwent contrast-enhanced MRIs at baseline and late evaluation. A control cohort of 13 high-grade pleomorphic and dedifferentiated LPS with same inclusion criteria was used to evaluate the specificity of MAM in MRC-LPS. Two radiologists analyzed the occurrence of MAM, changes in the tumor architecture, shape and surrounding tissues during NAC. Pathological features of tumor samples were reviewed and correlated with MRI. Metastatic relapse-free survival was estimated with Kaplan-Meier curves and Cox models. Associations between prognostic T1-based delta-radiomics features and MAM were investigated with Student t-test. RESULTS: MAM was more frequent in MRC-LPS (p = 0.045) and not specific of any type of chemotherapy (p = 0.7). Regarding MRC-LPS, 14 out of 28 patients (50%) demonstrated MAM. Eight patients showed metastatic relapses. MAM was not associated with metastatic relapse-free survival (p = 0.9). MAM correlated strongly with the percentage of histological adipocytic differentiation on surgical specimen (p < 0.001), which still expressed the tumor marker NY-ESO-1. None of the prognostic T1-based delta-radiomics features was associated with MAM. CONCLUSION: MAM seems a neutral event during NAC. ADVANCES IN KNOWLEDGE: MAM predominated in MRC-LPS and was not specific of a type of chemotherapy. Occurrence of MAM was not associated with better patients' metastasis free survival.


Assuntos
Adipócitos/patologia , Diferenciação Celular , Lipossarcoma Mixoide/diagnóstico por imagem , Lipossarcoma Mixoide/patologia , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Adipócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Adulto , Idoso , Antraciclinas/uso terapêutico , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Diferenciação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Quimioterapia Adjuvante , Meios de Contraste , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Lipossarcoma Mixoide/tratamento farmacológico , Lipossarcoma Mixoide/terapia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Terapia Neoadjuvante , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Radioterapia Adjuvante , Estudos Retrospectivos , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Carga Tumoral
16.
Chem Biol Interact ; 318: 108978, 2020 Feb 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32044341

RESUMO

2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) accumulates in human body, probably influencing adipocyte differentiation and causing various toxic effects, including wasting syndrome. Recently, orientin, a phenolic compound abundant in natural health products, has been shown to have antioxidant properties. We investigated the protective effects of orientin against TCDD-induced adipocyte dysfunction and its underlying mechanisms. In this study, orientin suppressed TCDD-induced loss of lipid accumulation. Orientin inhibited TCDD-driven decreases in the levels of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ and adiponectin. Orientin also reduced TCDD-induced prostaglandin E2, and cytosolic phospholipase A2α levels, and increased TCDD-inhibited peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-alpha levels in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. TCDD reduced the levels of insulin receptor substrate 1 and glucose transporter 4, and decreased insulin-stimulated glucose uptake activity; however, orientin diminished these TCDD-induced effects. These results suggest that orientin may have beneficial effects on the prevention of TCDD-induced wasting syndrome and type II diabetes mellitus accompanied by insulin resistance.


Assuntos
Adipócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Adipogenia/efeitos dos fármacos , Flavonoides/farmacologia , Glucosídeos/farmacologia , Insulina/metabolismo , Dibenzodioxinas Policloradas/toxicidade , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Células 3T3-L1 , Animais , Dinoprostona , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Glucose/metabolismo , Camundongos
17.
Life Sci ; 246: 117404, 2020 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32035128

RESUMO

AIMS: The study aims to investigate the effect of plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1), a primary inhibitor of fibrinolytic process, on blood glucose in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and its mechanism. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We developed a highly potent and highly specific PAI-1 inhibitor, named PAItrap3, based on the inactivated urokinase. Meanwhile, a single point mutation of PAItrap3 (i.e., PAItrapNC) was parallelly prepared as negative control. PAItrap3 was intravenously injected into type 2 diabetic (T2D) mice and its effect on metabolic system was evaluated by measuring the levels of blood glucose, PAI-1, and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) in T2D mice. KEY FINDINGS: PAItrap3 significantly reduced the high blood glucose level and PAI-1 level in streptozotocin-induced T2D mice. PAItrapNC did not have any hypoglycemic effect at all on T2D mice. Mechanistically, both PAI-1 and TNF-α levels were attenuated by the administration of PAItrap3. In addition, we observed that PAItrap3 reduced the amount of fat droplets in adipocytes. SIGNIFICANCE: These findings provide clear evidence for PAI-1 to participate in inflammation and obesity mediated hyperglycemia, and open up a new prospect for the treatment of T2DM by PAI-1 inhibition.


Assuntos
Glicemia/análise , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/tratamento farmacológico , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Fragmentos de Peptídeos/uso terapêutico , Inibidor 1 de Ativador de Plasminogênio/efeitos dos fármacos , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/antagonistas & inibidores , Ativador de Plasminogênio Tipo Uroquinase/uso terapêutico , Adipócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Masculino , Inibidor 1 de Ativador de Plasminogênio/sangue
18.
BMC Complement Med Ther ; 20(1): 33, 2020 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32024512

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Obesity is a major public health concern worldwide. A sedentary life and a nutritional transition to processed foods and high-calorie diets are contributing factors to obesity. The demand for nutraceutical foods, such as herbal weight-loss products, which offer the potential to counteract obesity, has consequently increased. We hypothesised that Opuntia cladodes consumption could assist weight management in an obesity prevention context. METHODS: This study was designed to explore the anti-adipogenic effects of lyophilised Opuntia cladode powders (OCP) in an in vitro cellular model for adipocyte differentiation and an in vivo high-fat-diet (HFD)-induced obesity rat model. Two OCP were tested, one from wild species O. streptacantha and the second from the most known species O. ficus-indica. RESULTS: Pre-adipocytes 3 T3-F442A were treated by OCP during the differentiation process by insulin. OCP treatment impaired the differentiation in adipocytes, as supported by the decreased triglyceride content and a low glucose uptake, which remained comparable to that observed in undifferentiated controls, suggesting that an anti-adipogenic effect was exerted by OCP. Sprague-Dawley rats were fed with a normal or HFD, supplemented or not with OCP for 8 weeks. OCP treatment slightly reduced body weight gain, liver and abdominal fat weights, improved some obesity-related metabolic parameters and increased triglyceride excretion in the faeces. Taken together, these results showed that OCP might contribute to reduce adipogenesis and fat storage in a HFD context, notably by promoting the faecal excretion of fats. CONCLUSIONS: Opuntia cladodes may be used as a dietary supplement or potential therapeutic agent in diet-based therapies for weight management to prevent obesity.


Assuntos
Adipócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Adipogenia/efeitos dos fármacos , Suplementos Nutricionais , Fezes/química , Obesidade/tratamento farmacológico , Opuntia , Animais , Peso Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Diferenciação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Dieta Hiperlipídica , Glucose/metabolismo , Masculino , México , Pós , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Triglicerídeos/metabolismo
19.
Food Funct ; 11(2): 1560-1571, 2020 Feb 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32003379

RESUMO

Previously, we have reported the opposite effects of compounds isolated from Lagerstroemia speciosa leaves on a glucose transport (GLUT4) assay. Ellagitannins from L. speciosa activated GLUT4, while ellagic acid derivatives showed an inhibitory effect. As part of our continuing research on anti-diabetic nutritional supplements, we herein compared the anti-diabetic effects of several extracts (LE1-8) from leaves of L. speciosa using different manufacturing processes based on the contents of ellagitannins and ellagic acid derivatives. Their anti-diabetic effects were evaluated through glucose uptake and adipocyte differentiation in 3T3-L1 cells in vitro as well as alloxan induced diabetic mice in vivo. These extracts were given to mice by gavage at doses of 0.25, 1.0, and 4.0 g per kg body weight once a day for 21 consecutive days. Results showed that LE1 (1.0 g kg-1), LE3 (1.0 or 4.0 g kg-1), LE4 (1.0 or 4.0 g kg-1), LE5 (0.25 or 1.0 or 4.0 g kg-1) and LE7 (1.0 or 4.0 g kg-1) showed significant anti-diabetic effects in alloxan-induced diabetic mice as indicated by the decreased levels of fasting blood glucose, body weight, serum biomarkers, tissue weight and body fat, and increased final insulin levels. LE8 (1.0 g kg-1) showed a moderate anti-diabetic effect as illustrated by the reduced fasting blood glucose level while LE2 and LE6 showed slight effects in alloxan-induced diabetic mice. The potential correlation of the content of ellagitannins, ellagic acid derivatives, and corosolic acid with the anti-diabetic activity was discussed.


Assuntos
Ácido Elágico , Taninos Hidrolisáveis , Hipoglicemiantes , Lagerstroemia/química , Extratos Vegetais , Células 3T3-L1 , Adipócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Glicemia/efeitos dos fármacos , Diferenciação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/metabolismo , Ácido Elágico/química , Ácido Elágico/farmacocinética , Ácido Elágico/farmacologia , Taninos Hidrolisáveis/química , Taninos Hidrolisáveis/farmacocinética , Taninos Hidrolisáveis/farmacologia , Hipoglicemiantes/química , Hipoglicemiantes/farmacocinética , Hipoglicemiantes/farmacologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos ICR , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacocinética , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Folhas de Planta/química
20.
Nutrients ; 12(2)2020 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32019160

RESUMO

Vitamin D status has been implicated in obesity and adipose tissue inflammation. In the present study, we explored the effects of dietary vitamin D supplementation on adipose tissue inflammation and immune cell population, and the effects of in vitro 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25-(OH)2D3) treatment on pro-inflammatory cytokine production by stromal vascular cells (SVCs) and adipocytes in lean and high-fat diet-induced obese mice. The results show that epididymal fat Mcp-1 and Rantes mRNA levels, which were higher in obese mice compared with lean mice, were significantly down-regulated by vitamin D supplementation. While obese mice had higher numbers of macrophages and natural killer (NK) cells within adipose tissue, these remained unaltered by vitamin D supplementation. In accordance with these in vivo findings, the in vitro 1,25(OH)2D3 treatment decreased IL-6, MCP-1, and IL-1ß production by SVCs from obese mice, but not by adipocytes. In addition, 1,25(OH)2D3 treatment significantly decreased Tlr2 expression and increased mRNA levels of Iκba and Dusp1 in SVCs. These findings suggest that vitamin D supplementation attenuates inflammatory response in adipose tissue, especially in SVCs, possibly through inhibiting NF-κB and MAPK signaling pathways in SVCs but not by the inhibition of macrophage infiltration.


Assuntos
Adipócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Calcitriol/farmacologia , Obesidade/imunologia , Células Estromais/efeitos dos fármacos , Vitaminas/farmacologia , Adipócitos/imunologia , Tecido Adiposo/efeitos dos fármacos , Tecido Adiposo/imunologia , Animais , Citocinas/efeitos dos fármacos , Citocinas/imunologia , Dieta Hiperlipídica , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Inflamação , Camundongos , Camundongos Obesos , Obesidade/terapia , Células Estromais/imunologia
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