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1.
Toxicol Lett ; 318: 12-21, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31622651

RESUMO

Maternal smoking during pregnancy and lactation is associated with increased fat mass in the offspring, but the mechanism by which this occurs is not fully understood. Our study focused on the relationships among maternal nicotine exposure, adipose angiogenesis and adipose tissue function in female offspring. Pregnant rats were randomly assigned to nicotine or control groups. Microvascular density, lipid metabolism and α7nAChR-Egr1-FGF2 signaling pathway genes/proteins were tested in 4-, 12- and 26-week female offspring. In vitro, nicotine concentration- and time-response experiments were conducted in 3T3-L1. Lipid metabolism and α7nAChR-Egr1-FGF2 signaling pathway genes/proteins were tested. The conditioned media of differentiated 3T3-L1 treated with nicotine were used to observe tube formation in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Nicotine-exposed females presented higher adipose microvascular density. The gene expression of α7nAChR, Egr1 and FGF2 was significantly increased in gonadal white adipose tissue (gWAT) and inguinal subcutaneous WAT (igSWAT) of nicotine-exposed females at 4 weeks of age. The protein expression of α7nAChR, Egr1 and FGF2 was increased in gWAT and igSWAT of nicotine-exposed females at 4 weeks of age, and increased in gWAT at 26 weeks. In vitro, nicotine increased the expression of lipid metabolism and α7nAChR-Egr1-FGF2 signaling pathway genes/proteins in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. In the tube formation experiment, adipocytes affected by nicotine promoted HUVEC angiogenesis. Therefore, maternal nicotine exposure promoted the early angiogenesis of adipose tissue via the α7nAChR-Egr1-FGF2 signaling pathway, and this angiogenesis mechanism was associated with increased adipogenesis in adipose tissue of female offspring.


Assuntos
Adipócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Tecido Adiposo Branco/irrigação sanguínea , Neovascularização Fisiológica/efeitos dos fármacos , Nicotina/toxicidade , Agonistas Nicotínicos/toxicidade , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal , Células 3T3-L1 , Adipócitos/metabolismo , Animais , Proteína 1 de Resposta de Crescimento Precoce/genética , Proteína 1 de Resposta de Crescimento Precoce/metabolismo , Feminino , Fator 2 de Crescimento de Fibroblastos/genética , Fator 2 de Crescimento de Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Células Endoteliais da Veia Umbilical Humana/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Endoteliais da Veia Umbilical Humana/metabolismo , Humanos , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Exposição Materna , Camundongos , Gravidez , Ratos Wistar , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Receptor Nicotínico de Acetilcolina alfa7/genética , Receptor Nicotínico de Acetilcolina alfa7/metabolismo
2.
Biomed Environ Sci ; 32(8): 578-591, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31488234

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We aimed to explore how fermented barley extracts with Lactobacillus plantarum dy-1 (LFBE) affected the browning in adipocytes and obese rats. METHODS: In vitro, 3T3-L1 cells were induced by LFBE, raw barley extraction (RBE) and polyphenol compounds (PC) from LFBE to evaluate the adipocyte differentiation. In vivo, obese SD rats induced by high fat diet (HFD) were randomly divided into three groups treated with oral gavage: (a) normal control diet with distilled water, (b) HFD with distilled water, (c) HFD with 800 mg LFBE/kg body weight (bw). RESULTS: In vitro, LFBE and the PC in the extraction significantly inhibited adipogenesis and potentiated browning of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes, rather than RBE. In vivo, we observed remarkable decreases in the body weight, serum lipid levels, white adipose tissue (WAT) weights and cell sizes of brown adipose tissues (BAT) in the LFBE group after 10 weeks. LFBE group could gain more mass of interscapular BAT (IBAT) and promote the dehydrogenase activity in the mitochondria. And LFBE may potentiate process of the IBAT thermogenesis and epididymis adipose tissue (EAT) browning via activating the uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1)-dependent mechanism to suppress the obesity. CONCLUSION: These results demonstrated that LFBE decreased obesity partly by increasing the BAT mass and the energy expenditure by activating BAT thermogenesis and WAT browning in a UCP1-dependent mechanism.


Assuntos
Adipócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Fármacos Antiobesidade/metabolismo , Lactobacillus plantarum/química , Obesidade/tratamento farmacológico , Probióticos/metabolismo , Proteína Desacopladora 1/metabolismo , Células 3T3 , Adipócitos/fisiologia , Tecido Adiposo Marrom/efeitos dos fármacos , Tecido Adiposo Marrom/fisiologia , Tecido Adiposo Branco/efeitos dos fármacos , Tecido Adiposo Branco/fisiologia , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Fármacos Antiobesidade/administração & dosagem , Diferenciação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Dieta , Fermentação , Hordeum/química , Masculino , Camundongos , Obesidade/genética , Extratos Vegetais/química , Probióticos/administração & dosagem , Distribuição Aleatória , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Proteína Desacopladora 1/genética
3.
Res Vet Sci ; 125: 351-359, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31374445

RESUMO

Fibronectin type III domain-containing protein 5 (FNDC5) plays an important role in white-to-brown adipose tissue conversion in mice. However, there is no report on the role of this protein in Arbas Cashmere goat adipose tissue. We investigated the effect of FNDC5 on the proliferation and differentiation of goat adipose-derived stem cells (gADSCs). We found that FNDC5 promotes the proliferation of gADSCs and increases the levels of p-ERK and p-p38, while it has no effect on the levels of ERK, p38, AKT and p-AKT. What's more, FNDC5 promotes the differentiation of gADSCs into lipid droplets. Overexpression of FNDC5 increased the protein levels of ASC1, UCP1, PPARγ and SREBP1. Additionally, mRNA levels of PPARγ, SREBP1, ACC, and FABP4 increased significantly. FNDC5 knockdown was associated with opposite effects. These results suggest that FNDC5 promotes the proliferation of gADSCs via MAPK signaling pathway and also induces the differentiation of these cells.


Assuntos
Adipócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Diferenciação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Fibronectinas/farmacologia , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/efeitos dos fármacos , Adipócitos/citologia , Animais , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/citologia , Camundongos
4.
Fitoterapia ; 137: 104250, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31271784

RESUMO

Obesity is associated with a number of metabolic disorders. Lipolysis is the initial step in the metabolism of lipids stored in adipocytes and is therefore considered a therapeutic target for obesity. Quassinoids are unique terpenes found in plants of the Simaroubaceae family, which were recently reported to have lipolytic activity and to suppress weight gain. Brucea javanica is a plant employed in traditional medicines in Asia, which is known to contain various quassinoids. Here, we investigated the lipolytic activity of B. javanica extracts, and identified six quassinoids: brucein A, brucein B, brucein C, 3'-hydroxybrucein A, brusatol, and bruceantinol, which represent the bioactive principals. The quassinoids contained in B. javanica demonstrated lipolytic activity at nanomolar concentrations, which were an order of magnitude lower than those of the previously reported quassinoids, suggesting that they may be useful for the treatment of obesity.


Assuntos
Adipócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Brucea/química , Lipólise/efeitos dos fármacos , Quassinas/farmacologia , Células 3T3-L1 , Adipócitos/metabolismo , Animais , Frutas/química , Camundongos , Estrutura Molecular , Compostos Fitoquímicos/isolamento & purificação , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/química , Quassinas/isolamento & purificação , Sementes/química
5.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(32): 8839-8846, 2019 Aug 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31334651

RESUMO

Natural products are one of the main sources for discovering new lead compounds. We previously reported that cinnamon extract has a promising effect in regulating lipid tissue volume and insulin sensitivity in vivo. However, its effective component and the underlying mechanism are not known. In the present study, we analyzed the effect of different components of cinnamon on regulating insulin sensitivity in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Functional assay revealed that, of the six major components of cinnamon extracts, the B-type procyanidin, procyanidin C1, improves the differentiation of 3T3-L1 cells (TG content: 1.10 ± 0.09 mM at a dosage of 25 µM vs 0.67 ± 0.02 mM in vehicle group, p < 0.001) and promotes insulin-induced glucose uptake (8.58 ± 1.43 at a dosage of 25 µM vs 3.05 ± 1.24 in vehicle group, p < 0.001). Mechanism studies further suggested that procyanidin C1 activates the AKT-eNOS pathway, thus up-regulating glucose uptake and enhancing insulin sensitivity in mature adipocytes. Taken together, our study identified B-type procyanidin C1, a component of cinnamon extract, that stimulates preadipocyte differentiation and acts as a potential insulin action enhancer through the AKT-eNOS pathway in mature adipocytes.


Assuntos
Adipócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Adipócitos/metabolismo , Biflavonoides/farmacologia , Catequina/farmacologia , Cinnamomum zeylanicum/química , Insulina/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Proantocianidinas/farmacologia , Células 3T3-L1 , Adipócitos/citologia , Animais , Transporte Biológico/efeitos dos fármacos , Diferenciação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Glucose/metabolismo , Camundongos , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo III/genética , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo III/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo
6.
Biomed Khim ; 65(3): 239-244, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31258148

RESUMO

The purpose of the study was to investigate the features of expression and adiponectin content in the adipocyte culture of subcutaneous, epicardial, and perivascular adipose tissue and the effect of various doses of rosuvastatin on these processes. 29 patients with coronary artery disease were examined. Adipocytes were isolated from the samples of SAT, EAT and PVAT which were taken during coronary artery bypass surgery, followed by cultivation in the presence of rosuvastatin and evaluation of gene expression and adiponectin concentration. Adipocytes SAT, EAT and PVAT differed in the level of adiponectin secretion and expression of its gene. On day 1 of cultivation the expression of the adiponectin gene in the EAT was 2.3 times lower than in the PVAT. On day 2 of cultivation the expression of the adiponectin gene was reduced both in the EAT and the PVAT as compared to the SAT. When rosuvastatin was added at a concentration of 1 mmol/L, adiponectin gene expression in PVAT was higher than when rosuvastatin was added at a concentration of 5 mmol/L, in the adipocyte culture of SAT effect was opposite. Thus, the adipocytes of EZhT and, to a greater extent, PAS, can be a therapeutic target for statins in the case of the pathological activation of adipose tissue.


Assuntos
Adiponectina/metabolismo , Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/metabolismo , Adipócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Adiponectina/genética , Células Cultivadas , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/genética , Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Rosuvastatina Cálcica/farmacologia
7.
Cytogenet Genome Res ; 158(3): 133-144, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31272101

RESUMO

Bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2) can mediate the signaling of R-Smads and regulate different biological functions, including adipocyte differentiation. Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) can be involved in many important biological processes, including fat metabolism, as miRNA sponges. This study aimed to investigate the molecular mechanism of fat deposition and to provide useful information for the prevention and treatment of lipid-related diseases. lncRNA sequencing was performed to compare and analyze, for the first time, the expression of lncRNAs in BMP2-induced and non-BMP2-induced preadipocytes from Junmu1 pigs. In addition, functional annotation and enrichment analysis of differentially expressed lncRNA target genes were carried out. lncRNAs and mRNAs were compared and analyzed. lncRNAs were identified that may regulate adipogenesis and lipid metabolism. The results give a theoretical basis for further studies on fat deposition mechanisms and provide potential therapeutic targets for metabolic diseases.


Assuntos
Adipócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteína Morfogenética Óssea 2/farmacologia , Diferenciação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , RNA Longo não Codificante/análise , Células-Tronco/efeitos dos fármacos , Suínos/genética , Transcriptoma/genética , Adipócitos/citologia , Adipócitos/metabolismo , Animais , RNA Longo não Codificante/genética , Análise de Sequência de RNA , Células-Tronco/citologia , Células-Tronco/metabolismo , Triglicerídeos/metabolismo
8.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(30): 8361-8369, 2019 Jul 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31339708

RESUMO

The calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR), a G-protein receptor, is well recognized for its role in the regulation of adipocyte proliferation, in modulating adipose tissue dysfunction, and as a potential target for therapeutic intervention. In the present study, we investigate the anti-inflammatory effect of γ-glutamylvaline (γ-EV) on mouse adipocytes and explore the role of γ-EV-activated CaSR in the regulation of cellular homeostasis using the mouse 3T3-L1 cell line in vitro model. Our results indicate that the 3T3-L1 adipocyte-like cells accumulated lipids and expressed CaSR after 2 days of differentiation and 7 days of maturation period. The pretreatment with γ-EV (10 µM) suppressed the production of TNF-α-induced pro-inflammatory cytokines, i.e., IL-6 (23.92 ± 5.45 ng/mL, p < 0.05)) and MCP-1 (101.17 ± 39.93 ng/mL, p < 0.05), while enhancing the expression of PPARγ (1.249 ± 0.109, p < 0.001) and adiponectin (7.37 ± 0.59 ng/mL, p < 0.05). Elevated expression of Wnt5a was detected in γ-EV-treated cells (115.90 ± 45.50, p < 0.001), suggesting the involvement of the Wnt/ß-catenin pathway. Also, phosphorylation of ß-catenin was shown to be significantly inhibited (0.442 ± 0.034) by TNF-α but restored when cells were pretreated with γ-EV (0.765 ± 0.048, p < 0.05). These findings suggest that γ-EV-induced CaSR activation not only prevents TNF-α-induced inflammation in adipocytes but also modulates the cross-talk between Wnt and PPARγ pathways. Concentrations of serine phosphorylated IRS-1 were shown to be lower in γ-EV-treated cells, indicating γ-EV may also prevent inflammation in the context of insulin resistance. Thus, γ-EV-activated CaSR plays a significant role in the cross-talk between adipocyte inflammatory and metabolic pathways through the regulation of extracellular sensing.


Assuntos
Adipócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Dipeptídeos/farmacologia , Receptores de Detecção de Cálcio/imunologia , Células 3T3-L1 , Adipócitos/imunologia , Animais , Interleucina-6/genética , Interleucina-6/imunologia , Camundongos , PPAR gama/genética , PPAR gama/imunologia , Fosforilação , Receptores de Detecção de Cálcio/genética , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/genética , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/imunologia
9.
Life Sci ; 233: 116682, 2019 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31348945

RESUMO

AIMS: Fibrosis as the hallmark of adipose tissue dysfunction which is associated with insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes, results from deposition of excess extra cellular matrix components like collagen and increased cell death. Here we investigated the effect of antidiabetic drug, Metformin, on the factors that play role in fibrosis such as; integrin/ERK pathway, collagen VI, MMP2, MMP9, apoptosis markers including DAPK1, DAPK3, DAP, SIVA, necrosis markers including RIPK1, RIPK3, and MLKL in insulin resistant and hypertrophied adipocytes. METHODS: 3T3-L1 adipocytes after differentiation to insulin resistant and hypertrophied cells, treated with Metformin, and the gene expression of aforementioned factors assayed by real time PCR. The protein expression of collagen VI and ERK assayed by western blotting. KEY FINDINGS: The expression of integrins changed from 0.5 to 6-fold in hypertrophied adipocyte versus adipocyte. Apoptosis and necrosis markers increased >1.5-fold in insulin resistant and hypertrophied adipocytes. Also ECM components and ERK activation increased >2-fold and 1.5-fold, respectively in insulin resistant and hypertrophied adipocytes. Metformin caused reduction of activity of integrin/ERK pathway in Metformin treated insulin resistant and hypertrophied adipocytes compared to untreated group. Metformin also reduced collagen VI in both gene and protein expression level, MMP2 and MMP9 in gene expression, and also the expression of apoptosis and necrosis gene. SIGNIFICANCE: Metformin with reduction of ECM component as collagen VI, MMP2 and MMP9, integrin/ERK pathway, necrosis markers as RIPK1, RIPK3 and MLKL, and apoptosis markers including DAP, DAPK1, DAPK3 and SIVA effects on fibrosis in insulin resistant and hypertrophied adipocytes in vitro.


Assuntos
Adipócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Fibrose/prevenção & controle , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Hipertrofia/prevenção & controle , Hipoglicemiantes/farmacologia , Resistência à Insulina , Metformina/farmacologia , Células 3T3-L1 , Animais , Apoptose , Diferenciação Celular , Colágeno Tipo IV/genética , Colágeno Tipo IV/metabolismo , Matriz Extracelular/efeitos dos fármacos , Integrinas/genética , Integrinas/metabolismo , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases/efeitos dos fármacos , Camundongos , Necrose
10.
Phytother Res ; 33(7): 1888-1897, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31155812

RESUMO

Increased adiposity has been associated with adipose tissue low-grade inflammation leading to insulin resistance. Adipocyte differentiation inhibitors are expected to be effective in preventing obesity and related diseases. Anthocyanins (ACNs) are associated to enhanced adipocyte function and protection from metabolic stress. Herein, we evaluated the in vitro protective effects of an ACN rich extract against palmitic acid (PA)-induced hypertrophy, inflammation, and insulin resistance in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. ACN extract pretreatment reduces lipid accumulation and peroxisome proliferators-activated receptor-γ protein levels induced by PA. In addition, PA induces inflammation with activation of NF-κB pathway, whereas ACN extract pretreatment dose-dependently inhibited this pathway. Furthermore, adipocyte dysfunction associated with hypertrophy induces insulin resistance by affecting phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-protein kinase B/Akt axis, GLUT-1, and adiponectin mRNA levels. ACN extract pretreatment reverts these effects induced by PA and moreover was able to induce insulin pathway with levels higher than insulin control cells, supporting an insulin sensitizer role for ACNs. This study demonstrates a prevention potential of ACNs against obesity comorbidities, due to their protective effects against inflammation/insulin resistance in adipocytes. In addition, these results contribute to the knowledge and strategies on the evaluation of the mechanism of action of ACNs from a food source under basal and insulin resistance conditions related to obesity.


Assuntos
Adipócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Antocianinas/farmacologia , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Resistência à Insulina , Células 3T3-L1 , Adipócitos/metabolismo , Animais , Hipertrofia , Camundongos , Ácido Palmítico
11.
Food Chem Toxicol ; 131: 110543, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31154084

RESUMO

A dual role of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) in inflammation is well-reported and recent studies demonstrated adipogenic effects of H2S in 3T3-L1 cells. Here, we aimed to investigate the effects of H2S on adipocyte differentiation and inflammation. H2S concentration in 3T3-L1 culture media was increased during adipocyte differentiation in parallel to adipogenic and Cth gene expression, and its inhibition using DL-Propargyl Glycine (PPG) impaired 3T3-L1 differentiation. GYY4137 and Na2S administration only in the first or in the last stage of adipocyte differentiation resulted in a significant increased expression of adipogenic genes. However, when GYY4137 or Na2S were administrated during all process no significant effects on adipogenic gene expression were found, suggesting that excessive H2S administration might exert negative effects on adipogenesis. In fact, continuous addition of Na2S, which resulted in Na2S excess, inhibited adipogenesis, whereas time-expired Na2S had no effect. In inflammatory conditions, GYY4137, but not Na2S, administration attenuated the negative effects of inflammation on adipogenesis and insulin signaling-related gene expression during adipocyte differentiation. In inflamed adipocytes, Na2S administration enhanced the negative effects of inflammatory process. Altogether these data showed that slow-releasing H2S improved adipocyte differentiation in inflammatory conditions, and that H2S proadipogenic effects depend on dose, donor and exposure time.


Assuntos
Adipócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Sulfeto de Hidrogênio/metabolismo , Morfolinas/farmacologia , Compostos Organotiofosforados/farmacologia , Sulfetos/farmacologia , Células 3T3-L1 , Adipogenia/efeitos dos fármacos , Adipogenia/fisiologia , Alquinos/farmacologia , Animais , Diferenciação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Glicina/análogos & derivados , Glicina/farmacologia , Inflamação/fisiopatologia , Camundongos
12.
Biol Pharm Bull ; 42(6): 968-976, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31155593

RESUMO

Previously, we reported that adenosine N1-oxide (ANO), which is found in royal jelly, inhibited the secretion of inflammatory mediators by activated macrophages and reduced lethality in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced endotoxin shock. Here, we examined the regulatory mechanisms of ANO on the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines, with a focus on the signaling pathways activated by toll-like receptor (TLR)4 in response to LPS. ANO inhibited both tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interleukin (IL)-6 secretion from LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells without affecting cell proliferation. In this response, phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) family members (extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)1/2, p38 and SAPK/c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK)) and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) p65 was not affected by treatment with ANO. In contrast, phosphorylation of Akt (Ser473) and its downstream molecule glycogen synthase kinase-3ß (GSK-3ß) (Ser9) was up-regulated by ANO, suggesting that ANO stimulated GSK-3ß phosphorylation via phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt signaling pathway. The phosphorylation of GSK-3ß on Ser9 has been shown to negatively regulate the LPS-induced inflammatory response. Activation of PI3K/Akt signaling pathway has also been implicated in differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells into osteoblasts and adipocytes. As expected, ANO induced alkaline phosphatase activity and promoted calcium deposition in a mouse pre-osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cell line. The ANO-induced differentiation into osteoblasts was abrogated by coincubation with Wortmannin. Furthermore, ANO promoted insulin/dexamethasone-induced differentiation of mouse 3T3-L1 preadipocytes into adipocytes at much lower concentrations than adenosine. The protective roles of PI3K/Akt/GSK-3ß signaling pathway in inflammatory disorders have been well documented. Our data suggest that ANO may serve as a potential candidate for the treatment of inflammatory disorders. Promotion of osteogenic and adipocyte differentiation further suggests its application for regenerative medicine.


Assuntos
Adenosina/análogos & derivados , Adipócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Óxidos N-Cíclicos/farmacologia , Glicogênio Sintase Quinase 3 beta/metabolismo , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinase/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Adenosina/farmacologia , Adipócitos/fisiologia , Animais , Diferenciação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular , Feminino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Osteogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos
13.
Sheng Li Xue Bao ; 71(3): 379-387, 2019 Jun 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31218328

RESUMO

Adipose tissue is the main energy reserve of the body. When energy is required, adipocyte triglycerides stored in lipid droplets (LDs) are broken down by lipase, and free fatty acids are released to supply the physiological need. Intracellular LDs are active metabolic organelles in mammalian cells, particularly in adipocytes. The present study was aimed to investigate the morphological changes of LDs and the alternation of LD-associated perilipin family proteins during long-term lipolysis stimulated by forskolin. Primary differentiated adipocytes derived from epididymal fat pads of Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were incubated in the presence or absence of 1 µmol/L forskolin for 24 h. Content of glycerol released to the culture medium was determined by a colorimetric assay and served as an index of lipolysis. Morphological changes of LDs were observed by Nile red staining. The mRNA level of perilipin family genes was detected by quantitative real-time PCR. The protein level and subcellular localization were examined by immunoblotting and immunofluorescence staining, respectively. The results showed that forskolin induced sustained lipolysis in differentiated adipocytes. The morphology of LDs changed in a time-dependent manner. Large clustered LDs became gradually smaller in size and eventually disappeared; in contrast, peripheral micro-LDs increased gradually in number until the cytoplasm was filled with numerous micro-LDs. The protein level of the perilipin family proteins showed obvious alternation. Mature adipocytes physiologically expressed a very low level of Plin2 protein, whereas in adipocytes stimulated with lipolytic forskolin, the protein and mRNA levels of Plin2 were significantly increased, and the increased Plin2 was specifically bound to the surface of LDs. During chronic stimulation of forskolin, the mRNA level of Plin3 was unchanged, but the mRNA levels of Plin1, Plin4 and Plin5 were significantly decreased. These results suggest that the morphology of LDs and perilipin family proteins on the surface of LDs are significantly altered during long-term lipolysis stimulated by forskolin, representing a dynamic process of the remodeling of LDs.


Assuntos
Adipócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Colforsina/farmacologia , Gotículas Lipídicas , Lipólise , Perilipinas/metabolismo , Animais , Células Cultivadas , Perilipina-2/metabolismo , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
14.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(26): 7348-7364, 2019 Jul 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31180673

RESUMO

A chemical study on the peels of the cultivated edible mushroom Wolfiporia cocos led to the isolation and identification of 47 lanostane triterpenoids including 16 new compounds (1-16). The structures of the new compounds were determined by analysis of the NMR, MS, and electronic circular dichroism (ECD) data. Compounds 1 and 2 represent new members of the family of 4,5-secolanostane triterpenes. Compound 3 is a new aromatic lanostane triterpene with an unusual methyl rearrangement from C-10 to C-6. The absolute configurations of 1 and 8 were assigned by ECD spectra calculation. All compounds were evaluated for cytotoxicity (K562, SW480, and HepG2) and glucose-uptake-stimulating effects. Compounds 23, 25, 29, and 31 showed weak inhibition on the K562 cells with IC50 in the range of 25.7 to 68.2 µM, respectively. Compounds 21, 28, and 30 increased the glucose uptake in 3T3-L1 cells by 25%, 14%, and 50% at 5 µM, respectively. In addition, compounds 14, 23, 29, 35, and 43 showed insulin-sensitizing activity by increasing the insulin-stimulated glucose uptake at 2.5 µM in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. A preliminary structure-activity relationship analysis indicates that the 6/6/6/5 ring skeleton and the double bond between C-8 and C-9 are beneficial for the glucose-uptake-stimulating and insulin-sensitizing activities. Furthermore, the alkaline-insoluble fraction mainly containing compounds 22, 24, 28, and 31 were confirmed to have hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic activity on high-fat-diet-induced obese mice. This work confirms the potential of the peels' extracts of W. cocos as a functional food or dietary supplements.


Assuntos
Glucose/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Triterpenos/farmacologia , Wolfiporia/química , Células 3T3-L1 , Adipócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Adipócitos/metabolismo , Animais , Transporte Biológico/efeitos dos fármacos , Hipoglicemiantes/química , Hipoglicemiantes/isolamento & purificação , Hipoglicemiantes/farmacologia , Insulina/metabolismo , Camundongos , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Triterpenos/química , Triterpenos/isolamento & purificação
15.
Biochemistry (Mosc) ; 84(5): 553-561, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31234769

RESUMO

Obesity is accompanied by dyslipidemia, hypoxia, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, and inflammation, representing the major risk factor for the development of insulin resistance (IR) and type 2 diabetes. We modeled these conditions in cultured 3T3-L1 adipocytes and studied their effect on insulin signaling, glucose uptake, and inflammatory response via activation of stress-dependent JNK1/2 kinases. Decreased insulin-induced phosphorylation of the insulin cascade components IRS, Akt, and AS160 was observed under all tested conditions (lipid overloading of cells by palmitate, acute inflammation induced by bacterial lipopolysaccharide, hypoxia induced by Co2+, and ER stress induced by brefeldin A). In all the cases, except the acute inflammation, glucose uptake by adipocytes was reduced, and the kinetics of JNK1/2 activation was bi-phasic exhibiting sustained activation for 24 h. By contrast, in acute inflammation, JNK1/2 phosphorylation increased transiently and returned to the basal level within 2-3 h of stimulation. These results suggest a critical role of sustained (latent) vs. transient (acute) inflammation in the induction of IR and impairment of glucose utilization by adipose tissue. The components of the inflammatory signaling can be promising targets in the development of new therapeutic approaches for preventing IR and type 2 diabetes.


Assuntos
Inflamação , Resistência à Insulina , Obesidade/patologia , Células 3T3-L1 , Adipócitos/citologia , Adipócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Adipócitos/metabolismo , Animais , Estresse do Retículo Endoplasmático/efeitos dos fármacos , Ácidos Graxos não Esterificados/farmacologia , Inflamação/etiologia , Insulina/farmacologia , Lipopolissacarídeos/farmacologia , Camundongos , Proteína Quinase 8 Ativada por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Proteína Quinase 9 Ativada por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Obesidade/metabolismo , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/metabolismo , Fosforilação/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos
16.
Mar Drugs ; 17(5)2019 May 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31137922

RESUMO

Fucoxanthin (FX), a marine carotenoid found in macroalgae and microalgae, exhibits several beneficial effects to health. The anti-obesity activity of FX is well documented, but FX has not been mass-produced or applied extensively or commercially because of limited availability of raw materials and complex extraction techniques. In this study, we investigated the anti-obesity effect of standardized FX powder (Phaeodactylum extract (PE)) developed from microalga Phaeodactylum tricornutum as a commercial functional food. The effects of PE on adipogenesis inhibition in 3T3-L1 adipocytes and anti-obesity in high-fat diet (HFD)-fed C57BL/6J mice were evaluated. PE and FX dose-dependently decreased intracellular lipid contents in adipocytes without cytotoxicity. In HFD-fed obese mice, PE supplementation for six weeks decreased body weight, organ weight, and adipocyte size. In the serum parameter analysis, the PE-treated groups showed attenuation of lipid metabolism dysfunction and liver damage induced by HFD. In the liver, uncoupling protein-1 (UCP1) upregulation and peroxisome proliferator activated receptor γ (PPARγ) downregulation were detected in the PE-treated groups. Additionally, micro computed tomography revealed lower fat accumulation in PE-treated groups compared to that in the HFD group. These results indicate that PE exerts anti-obesity effects by inhibiting adipocytic lipogenesis, inducing fat mass reduction and decreasing intracellular lipid content, adipocyte size, and adipose weight.


Assuntos
Adipogenia/efeitos dos fármacos , Fármacos Antiobesidade/farmacologia , Produtos Biológicos/farmacologia , Estramenópilas/química , Xantofilas/farmacologia , Adipócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Fármacos Antiobesidade/isolamento & purificação , Dieta Hiperlipídica , Alimento Funcional/análise , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Microalgas/química
17.
Molecules ; 24(9)2019 Apr 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31035366

RESUMO

Limonoids are phytochemicals with a variety of biological properties. In the present study, we elucidated the molecular mechanism of suppression of adipogenesis in adipocytes by a limonoid, 7-deacetoxy-7-oxogedunin (CG-1) from Carapa guianensis (Meliaceae), known as andiroba. CG-1 reduced the accumulation of intracellular triglycerides in a concentration-dependent manner. The expression levels of the adipogenic, lipogenic, and lipolytic genes were decreased by CG-1 treatment, whereas the glycerol release level was not affected. When CG-1 was added into the medium during days 0-2 of 6-days-adipogenesis, the accumulation of intracellular lipids and the mRNA levels of the adipogenesis-related genes were decreased. In addition, the phosphorylation level of insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1) and Akt in the early phase of adipocyte differentiation (within 1 day after initiating adipocyte differentiation) was reduced by CG-1. Furthermore, insulin-activated translocation of glucose transporter 4 to the plasma membranes in adipocytes was suppressed by CG-1, followed by decreased glucose uptake into the cells. These results indicate that an andiroba limonoid CG-1 suppressed the accumulation of intracellular lipids in the early phase of adipocyte differentiation through repression of IRS-1/Akt-mediated glucose uptake in adipocytes.


Assuntos
Adipócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Adipócitos/metabolismo , Transportador de Glucose Tipo 4/genética , Glucose/metabolismo , Proteínas Substratos do Receptor de Insulina/metabolismo , Limoninas/farmacologia , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Células 3T3-L1 , Adipogenia/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Transportador de Glucose Tipo 4/metabolismo , Limoninas/química , Meliaceae/química , Camundongos , Estrutura Molecular
18.
Molecules ; 24(10)2019 May 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31126054

RESUMO

Dexamethasone is a glucocorticoid analog, which is reported to induce insulin resistance and to exacerbate diabetic symptoms. In this study, we investigated the association between mitochondrial dysfunction and the pathophysiology of dexamethasone-induced insulin resistance. An insulin resistance model in 3T3-L1 adipocyte was established by 48-h treatment of 1 µM dexamethasone, followed with the detection of mitochondrial function. Results showed that dexamethasone impaired insulin-induced glucose uptake and caused mitochondrial dysfunction. Abnormality in mitochondrial function was supported by decreased intracellular ATP and mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), increased intracellular and mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) and mtDNA damage. Mitochondrial dynamic changes and biogenesis were suggested by decreased Drp1, increased Mfn2, and decreased PGC-1, NRF1, and TFam, respectively. The mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) copy number exhibited no change while the mitochondrial mass increased. In agreement, studies in isolated mitochondria from mouse liver also showed dexamethasone-induced reduction of mitochondrial respiratory function, as suggested by decreased mitochondrial respiration controlling rate (RCR), lower MMP, declined ATP synthesis, opening of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP), damage of mtDNA, and the accumulation of ROS. In summary, our study suggests that mitochondrial dysfunction occurs along with dexamethasone-induced insulin resistance in 3T3 L1 adipocytes and might be a potential mechanism of dexamethasone-induced insulin resistance.


Assuntos
Adipócitos/citologia , Dexametasona/efeitos adversos , Resistência à Insulina , Mitocôndrias Hepáticas/efeitos dos fármacos , Células 3T3-L1 , Trifosfato de Adenosina/metabolismo , Adipócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Adipócitos/metabolismo , Animais , Células Cultivadas , Dano ao DNA , DNA Mitocondrial/efeitos dos fármacos , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Glucose/metabolismo , Potencial da Membrana Mitocondrial/efeitos dos fármacos , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos ICR , Mitocôndrias Hepáticas/genética , Mitocôndrias Hepáticas/metabolismo , Dinâmica Mitocondrial/efeitos dos fármacos
19.
Food Funct ; 10(5): 2958-2969, 2019 May 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31073569

RESUMO

Cacao (Theobroma cacao) has a significant polyphenol content and has been reported to elicit anti-obesity effects. Previous studies have focused on the properties of cacao extract and procyanidins, while the potential mechanisms have not been fully elucidated. Here, we investigated the inhibitory effects of procyanidin metabolites on adipogenic cocktail-induced adipogenesis and lipogenesis in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. It was observed that 5-(3',4'-dihydroxyphenyl)-γ-valerolactone (DHPV), a major procyanidin metabolite, exhibited the greatest inhibitory effects on adipogenesis and lipogenesis. DHPV dose-dependently reduced the expression levels of proteins involved in adipogenesis including peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPAR γ) and CCAT/enhancer-binding protein α (C/EBP α), as well as lipogenesis-related factors such as fatty acid synthase and acetyl-CoA carboxylase. These inhibitory effects were primarily due to G1 phase arrest and the suppression of cell proliferation during mitotic clonal expansion, the early stage of adipogenesis. In an extensive kinase array, DHPV directly suppressed activation of the CDK2/cyclin O complex, and inhibited the phosphorylation of C/EBP ß, which is responsible for the induction of PPAR γ and C/EBP α. Taken together, these findings suggest that DHPV is a highly biologically active compound with potential anti-obesity effects and works by inhibiting the intracellular lipid content and cell differentiation.


Assuntos
Adipogenia/efeitos dos fármacos , Biflavonoides/metabolismo , Cacau/química , Catequina/metabolismo , Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Quinase 2 Dependente de Ciclina/metabolismo , Ciclinas/metabolismo , Lactonas/farmacologia , Proantocianidinas/metabolismo , Adipócitos/citologia , Adipócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Adipócitos/metabolismo , Animais , Proteína alfa Estimuladora de Ligação a CCAAT/genética , Proteína alfa Estimuladora de Ligação a CCAAT/metabolismo , Quinase 2 Dependente de Ciclina/genética , Ciclinas/genética , Lactonas/metabolismo , Camundongos , Células NIH 3T3 , PPAR gama/genética , PPAR gama/metabolismo , Fosforilação
20.
Transl Res ; 210: 26-42, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31121128

RESUMO

Obesity is a major cause of metabolic syndrome and type II diabetes, and it presents with metabolic disorders, such as hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia, and insulin resistance. Pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF), a protein isolated from retinal pigment epithelial cells, has multiple functions, including neuronal protection, antineoplastic effects, and anti-inflammatory activity. The aim of this study is to investigate the antiobesity effects of PEDF. The antiobesity effects of PEDF on fat accumulation, inflammation, energy expenditure, insulin resistance, and obesity-related physiological parameters and protein levels were assessed in high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obese mice in vivo and in 3T3-L1 adipocytes, palmitate (PA)-treated HepG2 cells, and C2C12 myotubes in vitro. In an in vivo assay, PEDF effectively decreased body weight gain, white adipose tissue mass, and inflammation and improved insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, and hyperglycemia in HFD-induced mice. In liver tissue, PEDF decreased lipid accumulation and fibrosis. In an in vitro assay, PEDF diminished the differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. We also determined that PEDF promoted lipolysis and prolonged cell cycle progression, through the mTOR-S6K pathway and downstream transcription factors, such as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma, CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein α (CEBP-α), and CEBP-ß. In addition, PEDF decreased reactive oxygen species production in PA-induced HepG2 cells and improved glucose uptake ability in PA-induced HepG2 cells and C2C12 myotubes. In the present study, PEDF protected against HFD-induced obesity and metabolic disorders in mice, inhibited adipogenesis, and improved insulin resistance. These results provide a new potential treatment for obesity in the future.


Assuntos
Adipócitos/metabolismo , Adipogenia/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas do Olho/farmacologia , Doenças Metabólicas/patologia , Fatores de Crescimento Neural/farmacologia , Obesidade/patologia , Obesidade/prevenção & controle , Serpinas/farmacologia , Células 3T3-L1 , Adipócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Tecido Adiposo/patologia , Animais , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Clonais , Dieta Hiperlipídica , Fígado Gorduroso/sangue , Fígado Gorduroso/complicações , Fígado Gorduroso/patologia , Células Hep G2 , Humanos , Inflamação/patologia , Resistência à Insulina , Masculino , Doenças Metabólicas/sangue , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Fibras Musculares Esqueléticas/efeitos dos fármacos , Fibras Musculares Esqueléticas/metabolismo , Músculo Esquelético/efeitos dos fármacos , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Músculo Esquelético/patologia , Obesidade/sangue , Obesidade/complicações , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Ácido Palmítico , Proteínas Quinases S6 Ribossômicas/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/metabolismo
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