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1.
Trials ; 22(1): 673, 2021 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34593030

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Metabolic syndrome is a combination of metabolic risk factors causing a pathological condition that increases the risk of non-communicable diseases, such as diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. A variety of dietary approaches have been examined to halt this rapid trend; however, the effects of modified-Paleo diet and medium-carbohydrate diet on inflammation, adipokines, hepatokines, and the profile of endothelial microparticles in individuals with metabolic syndrome have not been investigated in detail. The present study is designed to examine the effect of modified-Paleo and moderate-carbohydrate diet with two delivery modes: "fixed diet plan" vs "calorie counting" on weight, body composition, serum levels of some hepatokines and adipocytokines, and flow cytometric analysis of endothelial microparticles in adults with metabolic syndrome. METHODS: Eighty metabolic syndrome patients will be recruited in this study. They will be randomly allocated to one of the following 4 groups: (1) receiving a modified-Paleo diet with calorie counting, (2) receiving a modified-Paleo diet with a fixed diet plan, (3) receiving a medium-carbohydrate diet with calorie counting, and (4) receiving a medium-carbohydrate diet with a fixed diet plan for 10 weeks. Weight, height, waist circumference, and body composition will be assessed at the study baseline and at the end of the trial. Serum insulin, asprosin, chemerin, FGF-21, CTRP-1, PYY, ghrelin, plasma EMPs (CD31+/CD42b- and CD144+/CD42b-), lipid profile, glycemic indices, hs-CRP, leptin, vitamin C, creatinine and satiety, hunger, fullness, and desire to eat (via visual analog scales) will be measured at the study baseline and at the end of the trial. Insulin resistance and insulin sensitivity will be determined using the HOMA-IR and QUICKI equations. DISCUSSION: To the best of our knowledge, this is the first randomized controlled trial that will determine the effect of modified-Paleo and moderate-carbohydrate diet on weight, body composition, serum levels of some hepatokines and adipocytokines, and the profile of EMPs in adults with metabolic syndrome. Moreover, the effects of different diet delivery modes, including "fixed diet plan" and "calorie counting" will also be analyzed. The results of this trial can provide clinical witnesses on the effectiveness of carbohydrate-restricted diets in ameliorating metabolic status and prevent the development of chronic diseases. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Iranian Registry of Clinical Trials IRCT2016121925267N4 . Registered on 26 July 2017.


Assuntos
Síndrome Metabólica , Hormônios Peptídicos , Adipocinas , Adulto , Composição Corporal , Carboidratos , Quimiocinas , Dieta com Restrição de Carboidratos , Fibrilina-1 , Humanos , Irã (Geográfico) , Síndrome Metabólica/diagnóstico , Proteínas dos Microfilamentos , Fragmentos de Peptídeos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
2.
Georgian Med News ; (318): 119-124, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34628391

RESUMO

There is a growing body of evidence suggesting that the elderly population is characterized by chronic low-grade inflammation ("inflammaging"). Age associated inflammation can be caused by a decrease in the level of IL-10, one of the anti-inflammatory cytokines during aging. The binding of IL-10 to adipose tissue is very important. In rats, IL-10 has also been shown to effect on adipocytes and may be considered as a therapeutic agent for the prevention of age-related glucose metabolism. Adipocytes, which increase in overweight individuals, synthesize various adipokines that directly or indirectly affect the number and balance of cytokines, which in turn further aggravates the inflammatory status. The goal of our research was to study age-related changes of plasma levels of IL-10 and pleiotropic resistin and their potential association. The study was carried out on 150 apparently healthy volunteers (from 20 to 90 years old). Anthropometric data were collected for each individual using a special questionnaire. Individuals who had pathologies affecting the immune system were not included in the study. Plasma levels of IL-10 and resistin were measured using commercial ELISA set (Thermofisher scientific, USA) according to the protocol. The results revealed that there is a statistically significant difference in every parameter between female and male except of resistin. IL-10 levels are elevated in postmenopausal women (P< 0.05). While in men il-10 correlated reliably with height and diastolic blood pressure. The results indicate a direct statistically significant correlation between IL-10 and resistin only in postmenopausal women. To our knowledge, this is the first study to demonstrate that the IL-10 is correlated with the resistin levels in postmenopausal women.


Assuntos
Interleucina-10 , Resistina , Adipocinas , Idoso , Animais , Citocinas , Feminino , Humanos , Inflamação , Masculino , Ratos
3.
Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke Za Zhi ; 23(8): 828-834, 2021 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês, Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34511173

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To study the expression of adipokines in children with primary nephrotic syndrome (PNS) before and after treatment and its correlation with blood lipids, as well as the role of adipokines in PNS children with hyperlipidemia. METHODS: A total of 90 children who were diagnosed with incipient PNS or recurrence of PNS after corticosteroid withdrawal for more than 6 months were enrolled as subjects. Thirty children who underwent physical examination were enrolled as the control group. Venous blood samples were collected from the children in the control group and the children with PNS before corticosteroid therapy (active stage) and after urinary protein clearance following 4 weeks of corticosteroid therapy (remission stage). ELISA was used to measure the levels of adipokines. An automatic biochemical analyzer was used to measure blood lipid levels. RESULTS: Compared with the control group, the children with PNS had a significantly lower level of omentin-1 in both active and remission stages, and their level of omentin-1 in the active stage was significantly lower than that in the remission stage (P<0.001). For the children with PNS, the level of chemerin in the active stage was significantly higher than that in the remission stage, and the children with PNS in the active stage had a significantly higher level of chemerin than the control group (P<0.001). For the children with PNS, atherogenic index of plasma, atherogenic coefficient (AC), castelli risk index-1 (CRI-1), castelli risk index-2 (CRI-2), and non-high-density lipoprotein in the active stage were significantly higher than those in the remission stage (P<0.001), and these indices in the children with PNS in the active stage were significantly higher than those in the control group (P<0.001). The children with PNS in the remission stage had significantly higher atherogenic index of plasma, AC, CRI-1, and non-high-density lipoprotein than the control group (P<0.001). Compared with the control group, the children with PNS in the remission stage had significantly higher serum levels of total cholesterol, triglyceride, high-density lipoprotein, low-density lipoprotein, apolipoprotein B, and apolipoprotein A (P<0.01). In the children with PNS, the ratio of omentin-1 before and after corticosteroid therapy was positively correlated with that of high-density lipoprotein, 24-hour urinary protein excretion, and high-density lipoprotein/apolipoprotein A before and after treatment, and it was negatively correlated with the ratio of AC and CRI-1 before and after treatment (P<0.05). The PNS children with low omentin-1 levels in the active stage had significantly higher levels of CRI-1, CRI-2, AC, and apolipoprotein B/apolipoprotein A ratio than those with high omentin-1 levels (P<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Omentin-1 may be associated with disease activity, dyslipidemia, and proteinuria in children with PNS. Blood lipid ratios may be more effective than traditional blood lipid parameters in monitoring early cardiovascular risk in children with PNS.


Assuntos
Citocinas/metabolismo , Hiperlipidemias , Lectinas/metabolismo , Síndrome Nefrótica , Adipocinas , Quimiocinas , Criança , Citocinas/genética , Proteínas Ligadas por GPI/genética , Proteínas Ligadas por GPI/metabolismo , Humanos , Lectinas/genética , Lipídeos , Síndrome Nefrótica/tratamento farmacológico , Proteinúria
4.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(16)2021 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34445677

RESUMO

Adiponectin is an adipokine associated with the healthy obese phenotype. Adiponectin increases insulin sensitivity and has cardio and vascular protection actions. Studies related to adiponectin, a modulator of the innate and acquired immunity response, have suggested a role of this molecule in asthma. Studies based on various asthma animal models and on the key cells involved in the allergic response have provided important insights about this relation. Some of them indicated protection and others reversed the balance towards negative effects. Many of them described the cellular pathways activated by adiponectin, which are potentially beneficial for asthma prevention or for reduction in the risk of exacerbations. However, conclusive proofs about their efficiency still need to be provided. In this article, we will, briefly, present the general actions of adiponectin and the epidemiological studies supporting the relation with asthma. The main focus of the current review is on the mechanisms of adiponectin and the impact on the pathobiology of asthma. From this perspective, we will provide arguments for and against the positive influence of this molecule in asthma, also indicating the controversies and sketching out the potential directions of research to complete the picture.


Assuntos
Adiponectina/metabolismo , Asma/metabolismo , Asma/fisiopatologia , Adipocinas/metabolismo , Adiponectina/fisiologia , Humanos , Resistência à Insulina/fisiologia , Leptina/metabolismo , Obesidade/metabolismo
5.
Nutrients ; 13(7)2021 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34371941

RESUMO

Insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) and insulin-like growth-factor-binding proteins (IGFBPs) regulate cell proliferation and differentiation and may be of importance in obesity development. The aim of the study was to analyze the expression of chosen IGF-axis genes and the concentration of their protein products in 28 obese children (OB) and 34 healthy control (HC), and their correlation with essential parameters associated with childhood obesity. The gene expression of IGFBP7 was higher, and the expression of IGF2 and IGFBP1 genes was lower in the OB. The expression of IGFBP6 tended to be lower in OB. IGFBP4 concentration was significantly higher, and IGFBP3 tended to be higher in the OB compared to the HC, while IGFBP1, IGFBP2, and IGFBP6 were significantly lower, and IGFBP7 tended to be lower in OB. We found numerous correlations between IGFs and IGFBP concentration and obesity metabolic parameters. IGFBP6 correlated positively with apelin, cholecystokinin, glucagone-like peptide-1, and leptin receptor. These peptides were also significantly lower in obese children in our study. The biological role of decreased levels of IGFBP6 in obese children needs further investigation.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Ligação a Fator de Crescimento Semelhante a Insulina/sangue , Fator de Crescimento Insulin-Like II/análise , Fator de Crescimento Insulin-Like I/análise , Obesidade Pediátrica/sangue , Adipocinas/sangue , Adolescente , Biomarcadores/sangue , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Proteínas de Ligação a Fator de Crescimento Semelhante a Insulina/genética , Fator de Crescimento Insulin-Like I/genética , Fator de Crescimento Insulin-Like II/genética , Masculino , Análise de Sequência com Séries de Oligonucleotídeos , Obesidade Pediátrica/diagnóstico , Obesidade Pediátrica/genética
6.
Biomolecules ; 11(7)2021 07 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34356649

RESUMO

Curcumin is a known anti-adipogenic agent for alleviating obesity and related disorders. Comprehensive comparisons of the anti-adipogenic activity of curcumin with other curcuminoids is minimal. This study compared adipogenesis inhibition with curcumin, demethoxycurcumin (DMC), and bisdemethoxycurcumin (BDMC), and their underlying mechanisms. We differentiated 3T3-L1 cells in the presence of curcuminoids, to determine lipid accumulation and triglyceride (TG) production. The expression of adipogenic transcription factors and lipogenic proteins was analyzed by Western blot. A significant reduction in Oil red O (ORO) staining was observed in the cells treated with curcuminoids at 20 µM. Inhibition was increased in the order of curcumin < DMC < BDMC. A similar trend was observed in the detection of intracellular TG. Curcuminoids suppressed differentiation by downregulating the expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) and CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein α (C/EBPα), leading to the downregulation of the lipogenic enzymes acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) and fatty acid synthase (FAS). AMP-activated protein kinase α (AMPKα) phosphorylation was also activated by BDMC. Curcuminoids reduced the release of proinflammatory cytokines and leptin in 3T3-L1 cells in a dose-dependent manner, with BDMC showing the greatest potency. BDMC at 20 µM significantly decreased leptin by 72% compared with differentiated controls. Molecular docking computation indicated that curcuminoids, despite having structural similarity, had different interaction positions to PPARγ, C/EBPα, and ACC. The docking profiles suggested a possible interaction of curcuminoids with C/EBPα and ACC, to directly inhibit their expression.


Assuntos
Adipogenia/efeitos dos fármacos , Diarileptanoides/química , Diarileptanoides/farmacologia , Células 3T3-L1 , Adipócitos/citologia , Adipócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Adipogenia/fisiologia , Adipocinas/metabolismo , Animais , Diferenciação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Curcuma/química , Curcumina/análise , Curcumina/farmacologia , Enzimas/metabolismo , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Camundongos , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , PPAR gama/química , PPAR gama/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/análise , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Triglicerídeos/metabolismo
7.
Acta Biomed ; 92(3): e2021195, 2021 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34212936

RESUMO

Background Frailty is a multifactorial physiological syndrome most often associated with age but which has received increasing recognition as a component of chronic illnesses such as heart failure. Patients with heart failure are likely to be frail, irrespective of their age. Adipokine dysregulation, which is associated with frailty, occurs in patients with heart failure. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that adipokines are associated with frailty in patients with heart failure. Methods Thirty-five patients with heart failure (age, 67 ± 14 years; 25 males; left ventricular ejection fraction, 45 ± 19%) were included. Serum adipokine levels, physical performance, and body composition were measured. Results Adiponectin and leptin were inversely correlated with grip strength. Adiponectin was inversely correlated with bone mineral density. Leptin was positively correlated with fat mass. Adipokines were not correlated with skeletal muscle mass. Conclusions Adipokines were associated with frailty in patients with heart failure. Adipokine dysregulation may play a role in the development of frailty in heart failure.


Assuntos
Adipocinas , Fragilidade , Insuficiência Cardíaca , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Fragilidade/complicações , Insuficiência Cardíaca/complicações , Humanos , Leptina , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Volume Sistólico , Função Ventricular Esquerda
8.
Am J Physiol Cell Physiol ; 321(3): C596-C606, 2021 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34319829

RESUMO

Ceiling culture-derived preadipocytes (ccdPAs) and adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) can be harvested from human subcutaneous fat tissue using the specific gravity method. Both cell types possess a similar spindle shape without lipid droplets. We previously reported that ccdPAs have a higher adipogenic potential than ASCs, even after a 7-wk culture. We performed a genome-wide epigenetic analysis to examine the mechanisms contributing to the adipogenic potential differences between ccdPAs and ASCs. Methylation analysis of cytosines followed by guanine (CpG) using a 450-K BeadChip was performed on human ccdPAs and ASCs isolated from three metabolically healthy females. Chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing was performed to evaluate trimethylation at lysine 4 of histone 3 (H3K4me3). Unsupervised machine learning using t-distributed stochastic neighbor embedding to interpret 450,000-dimensional methylation assay data showed that the cells were divided into ASC and ccdPA groups. In Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway analysis of 1,543 genes with differential promoter CpG methylation, the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) and adipocytokine signaling pathways ranked in the top 10 pathways. In the PPARγ gene, H3K4me3 peak levels were higher in ccdPAs than in ASCs, whereas promoter CpG methylation levels were significantly lower in ccdPAs than in ASCs. Similar differences in promoter CpG methylation were also seen in the fatty acid-binding protein 4 and leptin genes. In conclusion, we analyzed the epigenetic status of adipogenesis-related genes as a potential mechanism underlying the differences in adipogenic differentiation capability between ASCs and ccdPAs.


Assuntos
Adipócitos/metabolismo , Adipogenia/genética , Adipocinas/genética , Epigênese Genética , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/metabolismo , PPAR gama/genética , Adipócitos/classificação , Adipócitos/citologia , Adipocinas/metabolismo , Ilhas de CpG , Metilação de DNA , Proteínas de Ligação a Ácido Graxo/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a Ácido Graxo/metabolismo , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Histonas/genética , Histonas/metabolismo , Humanos , Leptina/genética , Leptina/metabolismo , Mamoplastia/métodos , Glândulas Mamárias Humanas/citologia , Glândulas Mamárias Humanas/metabolismo , Glândulas Mamárias Humanas/cirurgia , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/classificação , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/citologia , Especificidade de Órgãos , PPAR gama/metabolismo , Cultura Primária de Células , Gordura Subcutânea/citologia , Gordura Subcutânea/metabolismo , Aprendizado de Máquina não Supervisionado
9.
Front Immunol ; 12: 650768, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34248937

RESUMO

The role of adipose tissue (AT) inflammation in obesity and its multiple related-complications is a rapidly expanding area of scientific interest. Within the last 30 years, the role of the adipocyte as an endocrine and immunologic cell has been progressively established. Like the macrophage, the adipocyte is capable of linking the innate and adaptive immune system through the secretion of adipokines and cytokines; exosome release of lipids, hormones, and microRNAs; and contact interaction with other immune cells. Key innate immune cells in AT include adipocytes, macrophages, neutrophils, and innate lymphoid cells type 2 (ILC2s). The role of the innate immune system in promoting adipose tissue inflammation in obesity will be highlighted in this review. T cells and B cells also play important roles in contributing to AT inflammation and are discussed in this series in the chapter on adaptive immunity.


Assuntos
Imunidade Adaptativa/imunologia , Adipócitos/imunologia , Tecido Adiposo/imunologia , Imunidade Inata/imunologia , Obesidade/imunologia , Adipócitos/citologia , Adipócitos/metabolismo , Adipocinas/imunologia , Adipocinas/metabolismo , Tecido Adiposo/citologia , Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Citocinas/imunologia , Citocinas/metabolismo , Humanos , Macrófagos/imunologia , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Linfócitos T/metabolismo
10.
Nutrients ; 13(7)2021 Jun 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34208976

RESUMO

Although bioactive sphingolipids have been shown to regulate cardiometabolic homeostasis and inflammatory signaling pathways in rodents, population-based longitudinal studies of relationships between sphingolipids and onset of metabolic syndrome (MetS) are sparse. We aimed to determine associations of circulating sphingolipids with inflammatory markers, adipokines, and incidence of MetS. Among 1242 Chinese people aged 50-70 years who completed the 6-year resurvey, 76 baseline plasma sphingolipids were quantified by high-throughput liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. There were 431 incident MetS cases at 6-year revisit. After multivariable adjustment including lifestyle characteristics and BMI, 21 sphingolipids mainly from ceramide and hydroxysphingomyelin subclasses were significantly associated with incident MetS. Meanwhile, the baseline ceramide score was positively associated (RRQ4 versus Q1 = 1.31; 95% CI 1.05, 1.63; ptrend = 0.010) and the hydroxysphingomyelin score was inversely associated (RRQ4 versus Q1 = 0.60; 95% CI 0.45, 0.79; ptrend < 0.001) with incident MetS. When further controlling for clinical lipids, both associations were attenuated but remained significant. Comparing extreme quartiles, RRs (95% CIs) of MetS risk were 1.34 (95% CI 1.06, 1.70; ptrend = 0.010) for ceramide score and 0.71 (95% CI 0.51, 0.97; ptrend = 0.018) for hydroxysphingomyelin score, respectively. Furthermore, a stronger association between ceramide score and incidence of MetS was evidenced in those having higher inflammation levels (RRQ4 versus Q1 1.57; 95% CI 1.16, 2.12; pinteraction = 0.004). Our data suggested that elevated ceramide concentrations were associated with a higher MetS risk, whereas raised hydroxysphingomyelin levels were associated with a lower MetS risk beyond traditional clinical lipids.


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático , Síndrome Metabólica/sangue , Síndrome Metabólica/epidemiologia , Esfingolipídeos/sangue , Adipocinas/sangue , China/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Análise Fatorial , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Mediadores da Inflamação/metabolismo , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise de Componente Principal , Fatores de Risco
11.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 57(7)2021 Jun 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34202323

RESUMO

Adipokines are active molecules with pleiotropic effects produced by adipose tissue and involved in obesity-related metabolic and cardiovascular diseases. Arterial stiffness, which is a consequence of arteriosclerosis, has been shown to be an independent predictor of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. The pathogenesis of arterial stiffness is complex but incompletely understood. Adipokines dysregulation may induce, by various mechanisms, vascular inflammation, endothelial dysfunction, and vascular remodeling, leading to increased arterial stiffness. This article summarizes literature data regarding adipokine-related pathogenetic mechanisms involved in the development of arterial stiffness, particularly in obesity, as well as the results of clinical and epidemiological studies which investigated the relationship between adipokines and arterial stiffness.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares , Rigidez Vascular , Adipocinas , Tecido Adiposo , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Humanos , Obesidade/complicações , Obesidade/epidemiologia
12.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(13)2021 Jun 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34202651

RESUMO

Dieting is a common but often ineffective long-term strategy for preventing weight gain. Similar to humans, adult rats exhibit progressive weight gain. The adipokine leptin regulates appetite and energy expenditure but hyperleptinemia is associated with leptin resistance. Here, we compared the effects of increasing leptin levels in the hypothalamus using gene therapy with conventional caloric restriction on weight gain, food consumption, serum leptin and adiponectin levels, white adipose tissue, marrow adipose tissue, and bone in nine-month-old female Sprague-Dawley rats. Rats (n = 16) were implanted with a cannula in the 3rd ventricle of the hypothalamus and injected with a recombinant adeno-associated virus, encoding the rat gene for leptin (rAAV-Lep), and maintained on standard rat chow for 18 weeks. A second group (n = 15) was calorically-restricted to match the weight of the rAAV-Lep group. Both approaches prevented weight gain, and no differences in bone were detected. However, calorically-restricted rats consumed 15% less food and had lower brown adipose tissue Ucp-1 mRNA expression than rAAV-Lep rats. Additionally, calorically-restricted rats had higher abdominal white adipose tissue mass, higher serum leptin and adiponectin levels, and higher marrow adiposity. Caloric restriction and hypothalamic leptin gene therapy, while equally effective in preventing weight gain, differ in their effects on energy intake, energy expenditure, adipokine levels, and body composition.


Assuntos
Restrição Calórica , Metabolismo Energético , Terapia Genética , Hipotálamo/metabolismo , Leptina/genética , Adipocinas/sangue , Adipocinas/genética , Adipocinas/metabolismo , Adiponectina/genética , Adiponectina/metabolismo , Tecido Adiposo Branco/metabolismo , Adiposidade/genética , Animais , Biomarcadores , Peso Corporal , Medula Óssea/metabolismo , Dependovirus/genética , Ingestão de Energia , Metabolismo Energético/genética , Feminino , Expressão Gênica , Terapia Genética/métodos , Vetores Genéticos , Leptina/metabolismo , Ratos , Transgenes
13.
BMC Geriatr ; 21(1): 442, 2021 07 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34315434

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Adiponectin and zinc alpha2-glycoprotein (ZAG) are associated with frailty. This study aims to further examine the association of adiponectin with ZAG. METHODS: Outpatients aged 65 years or older with chronic disease followed up in a hospital-based program were recruited for a comprehensive geriatric assessment. We excluded outpatients who were bedridden, residing in a nursing home, with expected life expectancy less than 6 months, or with severe hearing or communication impairment. Plasma ZAG and adiponectin levels were measured. Association between plasma ZAG and adiponectin levels was analyzed by univariate and multivariable linear regression analyses. RESULTS: A total of 189 older adults were enrolled (91 men and 98 women, mean age: 77.2 ± 6.1 years). Log-transformed plasma ZAG level was 1.82 ± 0.11 µg/mL, and it was significantly higher in men than that in women (1.85 ± 0.12 vs 1.79 ± 0.10 µg/mL, P = .0006). Log-transformed plasma adiponectin level was 1.00 ± 0.26 µg/mL, and there was no significant gender difference (P = .195). Overall, plasma ZAG level positively correlated with plasma adiponectin level in the multivariable linear regression analysis (P = .0085). The gender-specific significance, however, was less clear: this relationship was significant in men (P = .0049) but not in women (P = .2072). To be more specific by frailty phenotype components, plasma adiponectin was positively correlated with weight loss (P = .0454) and weakness (P = .0451). CONCLUSIONS: Both of ZAG and adiponectin may be potential frailty biomarkers. Plasma ZAG is an independent factor of plasma adiponectin, especially in older male adults.


Assuntos
Adipocinas/sangue , Adiponectina , Fragilidade , Adiponectina/sangue , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Avaliação Geriátrica , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores Sexuais , Perda de Peso
14.
Nutrients ; 13(6)2021 Jun 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34205356

RESUMO

The prevalence of being overweight and obese has been expanded dramatically in recent years worldwide. Obesity usually occurs when the energetic introit overtakes energy expenditure from metabolic and physical activity, leading to fat accumulation mainly in the visceral depots. Excessive fat accumulation represents a risk factor for many chronic diseases, including cancer. Adiposity, chronic low-grade inflammation, and hyperinsulinemia are essential factors of obesity that also play a crucial role in tumor onset. In recent years, several strategies have been pointed toward boundary fat accumulation, thus limiting the burden of cancer attributable to obesity. While remodeling fat via adipocytes browning seems a tempting prospect, lifestyle interventions still represent the main pathway to prevent cancer and enhance the efficacy of treatments. Specifically, the Mediterranean Diet stands out as one of the best dietary approaches to curtail visceral adiposity and, therefore, cancer risk. In this Review, the close relationship between obesity and cancer has been investigated, highlighting the biological mechanisms at the basis of this link. Finally, strategies to remodel fat, including browning and lifestyle interventions, have been taken into consideration as a major perspective to limit excess body weight and tumor onset.


Assuntos
Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Obesidade Abdominal/complicações , Adipocinas , Animais , Dieta , Dieta Mediterrânea , Exercício Físico , Feminino , Humanos , Inflamação , Resistência à Insulina , Estilo de Vida , Reação de Maillard , Masculino , Neoplasias/prevenção & controle , Neoplasias/terapia , Obesidade/complicações , Obesidade Abdominal/epidemiologia , Obesidade Abdominal/terapia , Prognóstico , Fatores de Risco
15.
Nutrients ; 13(6)2021 Jun 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34208404

RESUMO

Numerous studies indicate that zinc and the new zinc-related adipokine, zinc-α2-glycoprotein (ZAG), are involved in lipid metabolism. Excess body fat lowers blood concentrations of Zn and ZAG, leading not only to the development of obesity but also to other components of the metabolic syndrome. Zinc homeostasis disorders in the body negatively affect the lipid profile and cytokine secretion. Zinc appears to be a very important ZAG homeostasis regulator. The physiological effects of ZAG are related to lipid metabolism, but studies show that ZAG also affects glucose metabolism and is linked to insulin resistance. ZAG has a zinc binding site in its structure, which may indicate that ZAG mediates the effect of zinc on lipid metabolism. The review aimed to verify the available studies on the effects of zinc and ZAG on lipid metabolism. A literature review within the scope of this research area was conducted using articles available in PubMed (including MEDLINE), Web of Science and Cochrane Library databases. An analysis of available studies has shown that zinc improves hepatic lipid metabolism and has an impact on the lipid profile. Numerous studies have found that zinc supplementation in overweight individuals significantly reduced blood levels of total cholesterol, LDL (Low-density lipoprotein)cholesterol and triglycerides, potentially reducing cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Some results also indicate that it increases HDL-C (High-density lipoprotein) cholesterol levels. ZAG has been shown to play a significant role in reducing obesity and improving insulin sensitivity, both in experimental animal model studies and in human studies. Furthermore, ZAG at physiologically relevant concentrations increases the release of adiponectin from human adipocytes. In addition, ZAG has been shown to inhibit in vitro leptin production. Further studies are needed to provide more data on the role of zinc and zinc-α2-glycoprotein.


Assuntos
Adipocinas/metabolismo , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Proteínas de Plasma Seminal/metabolismo , Zinco/metabolismo , Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Animais , Peso Corporal , Feminino , Humanos , Lipídeos/sangue , Fígado/metabolismo , Masculino , Sobrepeso/metabolismo , Zinco/administração & dosagem , Zinco/farmacologia
16.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(13)2021 Jun 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34198988

RESUMO

Secreted frizzled-related protein 5 (SFRP5), an antagonist of the noncanonical WNT pathway, has a controversial role in liver disease. The aim of this study was to analyze the role of SFRP5 and the noncanonical WNT pathway in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Plasma SFRP5 levels were determined by ELISA in women with normal weight (NW; n = 20) and morbid obesity (MO; n = 69). Women with MO were subclassified according to hepatic histology into normal liver (NL; n = 28), NAFLD (n = 41) (simple steatosis (SS; n = 24), and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH; n = 17)). We used RT-qPCR to evaluate the hepatic mRNA expression of SFRP5, WNT5A, and JNK in women with MO. SFRP5 levels were lower in NW than in MO patients who underwent a very low-calorie diet before surgery. Hepatic SFRP5 mRNA expression was higher in SS than in NL or NASH; additionally, patients with hepatic inflammation or ballooning presented lower SFRP5 abundance. WNT5A and JNK expression was enhanced in NAFLD compared with NL. In conclusion, circulating SFRP5 levels depend on the diet, and hepatic SFRP5 seems to have a protective role in the first steps of NAFLD; however, SFRP5 could be deregulated in an advanced stage while WNT5A and JNK are activated, promoting liver damage.


Assuntos
Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/metabolismo , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/metabolismo , Obesidade Mórbida/complicações , Obesidade Mórbida/metabolismo , Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/sangue , Adipocinas/metabolismo , Biomarcadores , Índice de Massa Corporal , Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Mediadores da Inflamação/metabolismo , MAP Quinase Quinase 4/metabolismo , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/sangue , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/etiologia , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/patologia , RNA Mensageiro/genética , Proteína Wnt-5a/metabolismo
17.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(14)2021 Jul 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34299261

RESUMO

Many approaches have been used in the effective management of type 2 diabetes mellitus. A recent paradigm shift has focused on the role of adipose tissues in the development and treatment of the disease. Brown adipose tissues (BAT) and white adipose tissues (WAT) are the two main types of adipose tissues with beige subsets more recently identified. They play key roles in communication and insulin sensitivity. However, WAT has been shown to contribute significantly to endocrine function. WAT produces hormones and cytokines, collectively called adipocytokines, such as leptin and adiponectin. These adipocytokines have been proven to vary in conditions, such as metabolic dysfunction, type 2 diabetes, or inflammation. The regulation of fat storage, energy metabolism, satiety, and insulin release are all features of adipose tissues. As such, they are indicators that may provide insights on the development of metabolic dysfunction or type 2 diabetes and can be considered routes for therapeutic considerations. The essential roles of adipocytokines vis-a-vis satiety, appetite, regulation of fat storage and energy, glucose tolerance, and insulin release, solidifies adipose tissue role in the development and pathogenesis of diabetes mellitus and the complications associated with the disease.


Assuntos
Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Complicações do Diabetes/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus/metabolismo , Adipocinas/metabolismo , Adiponectina/metabolismo , Tecido Adiposo Bege/metabolismo , Tecido Adiposo Marrom/metabolismo , Tecido Adiposo Branco/metabolismo , Animais , Metabolismo Energético/fisiologia , Humanos , Insulina/metabolismo , Resistência à Insulina/fisiologia , Leptina/metabolismo , Obesidade/metabolismo
18.
Appetite ; 166: 105442, 2021 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34111480

RESUMO

Loss of control (LOC) eating is the defining feature of binge-eating disorder, and it has particular relevance for bariatric patients. The biomarkers of LOC eating are unclear; however, gut hormones (i.e., ghrelin, cholecystokinin [CCK], peptide YY [PYY], glucagon-like peptide 1 [GLP-1], and pancreatic polypeptide [PP]), adipokines (i.e., leptin, adiponectin), and pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines/markers (e.g., high-sensitivity C-reactive protein [hsCRP]) are candidates due to their involvement in the psychophysiological mechanisms of LOC eating. This review aimed to synthesize research that has investigated these biomarkers with LOC eating. Because LOC eating is commonly examined within the context of binge-eating disorder, is sometimes used interchangeably with subclinical binge-eating, and is the latent construct underlying disinhibition, uncontrolled eating, and food addiction, these eating behaviors were included in the search. Only studies among individuals with overweight or obesity were included. Among the identified 31 studies, 2 studies directly examined LOC eating and 4 studies were conducted among bariatric patients. Most studies were case-control in design (n = 16) and comprised female-dominant (n = 13) or female-only (n = 13) samples. Studies generally excluded fasting total ghrelin, fasting CCK, fasting PYY, and fasting PP as correlates of the examined eating behaviors. However, there was evidence that the examined eating behaviors were associated with lower levels of fasting acyl ghrelin (the active form of ghrelin) and adiponectin, higher levels of leptin and hsCRP, and altered responses of postprandial ghrelin, CCK, and PYY. The use of GLP-1 analog was able to decrease binge-eating. In conclusion, this review identified potential biomarkers of LOC eating. Future studies would benefit from a direct focus on LOC eating (especially in the bariatric population), using longitudinal designs, exploring potential mediators and moderators, and increased inclusion of the male population.


Assuntos
Adipocinas , Transtorno da Compulsão Alimentar , Citocinas , Hormônios Gastrointestinais , Anti-Inflamatórios , Transtorno da Compulsão Alimentar/diagnóstico , Biomarcadores , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
19.
Int J Obes (Lond) ; 45(9): 2126-2131, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34059786

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Obesity is commonly reported in COVID-19 patients and is associated with poorer outcomes. It is suggested that leptin could be the missing link between obesity and severe COVID-19. Our study aimed to unravel the link between adipokines, COVID-19 status, immune response, and outcomes in severe pneumonia. METHODS: In this prospective observational single-center study, 63 immunocompetent patients with severe pneumonia (36 non-COVID-19 and 27 COVID-19) were enrolled, most required intensive care. Clinical and biological characteristics (glucose metabolism, plasma adipokines, and cytokine concentrations) and outcomes were compared. RESULTS: At similar baseline severity, COVID-19 patients required mechanical ventilation for significantly longer than non-COVID-19 patients (p = 0.0049). Plasma concentrations of leptin and adiponectin were respectively positively and negatively correlated with BMI and glucose metabolism (glycemia and insulinemia), but not significantly different between the two groups. Leptin levels were negatively correlated with IL-1ß and IL-6, but the adipokines were not correlated with most other inflammatory mediators, baseline severity (SOFA score), or the duration of mechanical ventilation. CONCLUSION: Adipokine levels were correlated with BMI but not with most inflammatory mediators, severity, or outcomes in severe pneumonia, regardless of the origin. The link between obesity, dysregulated immune response, and life-threatening COVID-19 requires further investigation. CLINICAL TRIAL: ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT03505281.


Assuntos
Adipocinas/imunologia , COVID-19/imunologia , Obesidade/complicações , Adipocinas/sangue , Adiponectina , Idoso , Citocinas , Feminino , Humanos , Imunidade , Leptina , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
20.
Theriogenology ; 172: 178-186, 2021 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34175524

RESUMO

The adipose tissue has a substantial impact on reproduction in mammals, specifically in females. As an energy depository organ, it is precisely associated with the reproductive success of mammals. Adipose tissue secretes many single molecules that are called 'adipokines' which mainly act as endocrine hormones. Adipokines homeostasis is fundamental to energy regulation, metabolic and cardiovascular diseases. The endocrine function of adipokines is influential for the long-term control of energy metabolism and performs an important function in metabolic state and fertility modulation. During the last years, new roles for adipokines have been appearing in the field of fertility. The adipokines have functions in reproduction at levels of the hypothalamus, the pituitary, and the gonads in humans, rodents, and other animals. Normal levels of adipokines are indispensable to protect the integrity of the hypothalamus-hypophysis-gonadal axis, regular ovulatory processes, and successful embryo implantation. Leptin and adiponectin are the most studied adipokines, but also the novel adipokines; apelin, visfatin, and irisin are important adipokines having several functions within the reproductive tract. Due to the known and unknown effects of these novel adipokines in the reproduction of farm animals, in this review, we will highlight the reproductive functions of apelin, visfatin, and irisin and summarize the known reproductive effects in farm animals to introduce the gaps for future studies in farm animals.


Assuntos
Adipocinas , Nicotinamida Fosforribosiltransferase , Tecido Adiposo , Animais , Animais Domésticos , Apelina , Feminino , Humanos , Reprodução
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