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1.
Front Immunol ; 11: 1714, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32793244

RESUMO

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the third coronavirus leading to a global health outbreak. Despite the high mortality rates from SARS-CoV-1 and Middle-East respiratory syndrome (MERS)-CoV infections, which both sparked the interest of the scientific community, the underlying physiopathology of the SARS-CoV-2 infection, remains partially unclear. SARS-CoV-2 shares similar features with SARS-CoV-1, notably the use of the angiotensin conversion enzyme 2 (ACE2) as a receptor to enter the host cells. However, some features of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic are unique. In this work, we focus on the association between obesity, metabolic syndrome, and type 2 diabetes on the one hand, and the severity of COVID-19 infection on the other, as it seems greater in these patients. We discuss how adipocyte dysfunction leads to a specific immune environment that predisposes obese patients to respiratory failure during COVID-19. We also hypothesize that an ACE2-cleaved protein, angiotensin 1-7, has a beneficial action on immune deregulation and that its low expression during the SARS-CoV-2 infection could explain the severity of infection. This introduces angiotensin 1-7 as a potential candidate of interest in therapeutic research on CoV infections.


Assuntos
Adipocinas/imunologia , Angiotensina I/imunologia , Betacoronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/patologia , Fragmentos de Peptídeos/imunologia , Pneumonia Viral/patologia , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/patologia , Adipocinas/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/imunologia , Humanos , Síndrome Metabólica/imunologia , Obesidade/imunologia , Pandemias , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/metabolismo
2.
High Blood Press Cardiovasc Prev ; 27(5): 379-388, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32705504

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Structural and functional properties of the left ventricle (LV) wall have been reported to be altered in hypertension, even at early stages of the disease. Abnormal adipokine levels affect blood pressure regulation. Hypo-adiponectinaemia and hyper-leptinaemia were reported in hypertension. AIM: To evaluate the effects of valsartan versus amlodipine on LV deformation also, on plasma adiponectin and leptin levels in hypertensive individuals. METHODS: LV strain was measured by two-dimensional speckle tracking echocardiography, plasma levels of adiponectin and leptin was determined in 30 healthy individuals served as control group and in 200 hypertensive patients before and after treatment for 6 months with either valsartan 160 mg or amlodipine 10 mg. RESULTS: Compared to control group longitudinal strain was significantly affected in hypertensive patients, adiponectin was significantly lower while TNF-α, hs-CRP and leptin levels were significantly higher in hypertensive group. A significant improvement in LV functions, along with a decrease in leptin and increase in adiponectin levels in valsartan group compared to amlodipine group. CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate that valsartan is superior to amlodipine when it comes to affecting the hormonal function of human adipose tissue. Valsartan has a beneficial effect on LV deformation and function presented in GLS.


Assuntos
Adipocinas/sangue , Anlodipino/uso terapêutico , Bloqueadores do Receptor Tipo 1 de Angiotensina II/uso terapêutico , Anti-Hipertensivos/uso terapêutico , Bloqueadores dos Canais de Cálcio/uso terapêutico , Ecocardiografia , Hipertensão/terapia , Valsartana/uso terapêutico , Função Ventricular Esquerda/efeitos dos fármacos , Remodelação Ventricular/efeitos dos fármacos , Adiponectina/sangue , Adulto , Anlodipino/efeitos adversos , Bloqueadores do Receptor Tipo 1 de Angiotensina II/efeitos adversos , Anti-Hipertensivos/efeitos adversos , Biomarcadores/sangue , Proteína C-Reativa/metabolismo , Bloqueadores dos Canais de Cálcio/efeitos adversos , Egito , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão/sangue , Hipertensão/diagnóstico por imagem , Hipertensão/fisiopatologia , Leptina/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/sangue , Valsartana/efeitos adversos
3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32560148

RESUMO

Pro-inflammatory adipokines have a multifunctional role in adipogenesis, angiogenesis, glucose homeostasis, and inflammation. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the effect of running a 100 km ultra-marathon on serum levels of two adipokines: resistin and chemerin. Fifteen male participants complete a medical questionnaire and their body composition is assessed. Serum resistin, chemerin, high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), glucose, and lactate levels are measured at baseline and post-race. During-race data on fluid and food consumption and energy expenditure are calculated. There is a higher (p < 0.001) post-race concentration of resistin and hs-CRP compared with resting values, with no change in chemerin levels. There is an inverse correlation of the change in resistin levels with post-run glucose values (r = 0.742, p < 0.001) and a positive correlation between changes in hs-CRP and energy expenditure (r = 0.782, p < 0.001). The present results show the impact of running an ultra-marathon on serum levels of pro-inflammatory markers released by adipose tissue. It is difficult to establish whether these results may be due to the stress of exercise, high energy expenditure or caloric deficit. However, we suggest that an addition of resistin to traditional pro-inflammatory markers (including CRP) may improve the assessment of inflammation in conditions of high-energy expenditure.


Assuntos
Adipocinas , Inflamação , Resistina , Corrida , Adipocinas/sangue , Adulto , Biomarcadores/sangue , Proteína C-Reativa , Quimiocinas , Exercício Físico , Humanos , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intercelular , Masculino , Corrida/fisiologia
4.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0233169, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32407420

RESUMO

In broiler hens, the genetic selection increased susceptibility to metabolic disorders and reproductive dysfunctions. In human ovarian cells, grape seed extracts (GSE) improved steroid production. Here, we investigated the effects of a GSE dietary supplementation on egg production and quality, fertility parameters, Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) and steroid content in yolk egg associated to plasma adipokines in broiler hens. For this, we designed two in vivo experiments, the first one included three groups of hens: A (control), B and C (supplemented with GSE at 0.5% and 1% of the total diet composition, respectively, since week 4), and the second one used two groups of hens: A (control) and D (supplemented with GSE at 1% of the total diet composition since hatching). We assessed the egg production from 23th to 40th weeks and quality at 33th week. After artificial inseminations, the fertility parameters were calculated. In egg yolk, Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) level and steroid production were evaluated by Ros-Glo H202 and ELISA assay, respectively. Expression of steroidogenic enzymes and adipokines and their receptors was determined by RT-qPCR in ovarian cells and plasma adipokines (RARRES2, ADIPOQ and NAMPT) were evaluated by specific ELISA assays. The fertility parameters and egg production were unaffected by GSE supplementation whatever the experiment (exp.). However, the rate of double-yolk eggs decreased for all GSE supplemented groups (exp. 1 P <0.01, exp.2, P<0.02). In exp.1, C group eggs were bigger and larger (P<0.0001) and the shell elasticity was higher for both B and C (P<0.0003) as compared to control. In the egg yolk, GSE supplementation in both exp. reduced ROS content and steroidogenesis consistent with a decrease in P450 aromatase and StAR mRNA expression and basal in vitro progesterone secretion in granulosa cells (P<0.001). Interestingly, in both exp. RARRES2 plasma levels were positively correlated while ADIPOQ and NAMPT plasma levels were negatively correlated, with steroids and ROS in yolk (P<0.0001). Taken together, maternal dietary GSE supplementation did not affect egg production and fertility parameters whereas it reduced ROS content and steroidogenesis in yolk egg. Furthermore, it ameliorated egg quality by decreasing the number of double-yolk eggs and by improving the size of normal eggs and the elasticity of the shell. Taken together, our data suggest the possibility of using dietary maternal GSE to improve egg quality.


Assuntos
Galinhas/fisiologia , Suplementos Nutricionais , Fertilidade/efeitos dos fármacos , Extrato de Sementes de Uva/farmacologia , Ovário/metabolismo , Óvulo/metabolismo , Reprodução/efeitos dos fármacos , Esteroides/biossíntese , Adipocinas/sangue , Animais , Galinhas/sangue , Galinhas/genética , Dieta , Gema de Ovo/efeitos dos fármacos , Gema de Ovo/metabolismo , Feminino , Células da Granulosa/efeitos dos fármacos , Células da Granulosa/metabolismo , Tamanho do Órgão/efeitos dos fármacos , Ovário/efeitos dos fármacos , Oviposição/efeitos dos fármacos , Óvulo/efeitos dos fármacos , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Receptores de Adipocina/genética , Receptores de Adipocina/metabolismo , Células Tecais/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Tecais/metabolismo
5.
Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis ; 30(6): 872-888, 2020 06 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32409275

RESUMO

AIMS: This study aimed to summarize earlier studies on the effects of dairy consumption on inflammatory biomarkers in adults and to quantify these effects through meta-analysis. DATA SYNTHESIS: A comprehensive search of all relevant articles, published up to December 2019 indexed in PubMed, ISI (Institute for Scientific Information), EmBase, Scopus, and Google Scholar was done using relevant keywords. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that examined the effect of dairy products consumption, compared with low or no dairy intake, on inflammatory biomarkers in adults were included. Overall, 11 RCTs with 663 participants were included in this meta-analysis. We found that high consumption of dairy products, compared with low or no dairy intake, might significantly reduce CRP [weighed mean difference (WMD): -0.24 mg/L; 95% CI, -0.35, -0.14], TNF-α (WMD:- 0.66 pg/mL; 95% CI, -1.23, -0.09), IL-6 (WMD: -0.74 pg/mL; 95% CI, -1.36, -0.12), and MCP concentrations (WMD: -25.58 pg/mL; 95% CI, -50.31, -0.86). However, when the analyses were confined to cross-over trials, no such beneficial effects of dairy intake on inflammation were observed. In addition, high dairy intake might result in increased adiponectin levels (WMD: 2.42 µg/mL; 95% CI, 0.17, 4.66). No significant effect of dairy consumption on serum leptin (WMD: -0.32 ng/mL; 95% CI, -3.30, 2.65), ICAM-1 (WMD: -3.38 ng/ml; 95% CI, -15.57, 8.96) and VCAM-1 (WMD: 3.1 ng/mL; 95% CI, -21.38, 27.58) levels was observed. CONCLUSIONS: In summary, the current meta-analysis indicated that dairy intake might improve several inflammatory biomarkers in adults. In most subgroups without heterogeneity, effects tended to be null. Study design and participants' age were the main sources of heterogeneity. More research, with a particular focus on fat content of dairy foods, is recommended.


Assuntos
Laticínios , Mediadores da Inflamação/sangue , Inflamação/epidemiologia , Adipocinas/sangue , Adulto , Idoso , Biomarcadores/sangue , Proteína C-Reativa/metabolismo , Citocinas/sangue , Laticínios/efeitos adversos , Regulação para Baixo , Feminino , Humanos , Inflamação/sangue , Inflamação/diagnóstico , Inflamação/prevenção & controle , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Fatores de Proteção , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
6.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0232483, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32392256

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Percutaneous coronary intervention represents the most important treatment modality of coronary artery stenosis. In-stent restenosis (ISR) is still a limitation for the long-term outcome despite the introduction of drug eluting stents. It has been shown that adipokines directly influence vessel wall homeostasis by influencing the function of endothelial cells and arterial smooth muscle cells. Visceral adipose tissue-derived serpin vaspin was recently identified as a member of serine protease inhibitor family and serveral studies could demonstrate a relation to metabolic diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate a role of vaspin in the development of in-stent restenosis in vivo and on migration of smooth muscle cells and endothelial cells in vitro. METHODS: We studied 85 patients with stable coronary artery disease who underwent elective and successful PCI with implatation of drug eluting stents. Blood samples were taken directly before PCI. Vaspin plasma levels were measured by specific ELISA. ISR was evaluated eight months later by coronary angiography. Human coronary artery smooth muscle cells (HCASMC) and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) migration was analyzed by an in-vitro migration assay with different concentrations (0.004ng/mL up to 40ng/mL) of vaspin as well as by an scratch assay. For proliferation an impedance measurement with specialiced E-Plates was performed. RESULTS: During the follow up period, 14 patients developed ISR. Patients with ISR had significantly lower vaspin plasma levels compared to patients without ISR (0.213 ng/ml vs 0.382 ng/ml; p = 0.001). In patients with plasma vaspin levels above 1.35 ng/ml we could not observe any restenosis. There was also a significant correlation of plasma vaspin levels and late lumen loss in the stented coronary segments. Further we could demonstrate that vaspin nearly abolishes serum induced migration of HCASMC (100% vs. 9%; p<0.001) in a biphasic manner but not migration of HUVEC. Proliferation of HCASMC and HUVEC was not modulated by vaspin treatment. CONCLUSION: We were able to show that the adipokine vaspin selectively inhibits human coronary SMC migration in vitro and has no effect on HUVEC migration. Vaspin had no effect on proliferation of HUVEC which is an important process of the healing of the stented vessel. In addition, the occurrence of ISR after PCI with implantation of drug eluting stents was significantly associated with low vaspin plasma levels before intervention. Determination of vaspin plasma levels before PCI might be helpful in the identification of patients with high risk for development of ISR after stent implantation. In addition, the selective effects of vaspin on smooth muscle cell migration could potentially be used to reduce ISR without inhibition of re-endothelialization of the stented segment.


Assuntos
Adipocinas/fisiologia , Reestenose Coronária/etiologia , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea/efeitos adversos , Serpinas/fisiologia , Adipocinas/sangue , Adipocinas/farmacologia , Idoso , Movimento Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Movimento Celular/fisiologia , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Proliferação de Células/fisiologia , Células Cultivadas , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/sangue , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/patologia , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/cirurgia , Reestenose Coronária/patologia , Reestenose Coronária/fisiopatologia , Vasos Coronários/patologia , Vasos Coronários/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Células Endoteliais da Veia Umbilical Humana , Humanos , Técnicas In Vitro , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Miócitos de Músculo Liso/efeitos dos fármacos , Miócitos de Músculo Liso/patologia , Miócitos de Músculo Liso/fisiologia , Serpinas/sangue , Serpinas/farmacologia
7.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0231943, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32330176

RESUMO

Patients diagnosed with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) are at high risk of developing a myriad of endocrinologic and metabolic derailments. Moreover, PCOS is a leading cause of habitual abortion, also known as recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL). Meteorin-like protein (Metrnl) is a newly discovered adipokine with the potential to counteract the metaflammation. This study aimed at determining the associations of serum Metrnl levels with homocysteine, hs-CRP, and some components of metabolic syndrome in PCOS-RPL and infertile PCOS patients.This case-control study was conducted in 120 PCOS patients (60 PCOS-RPL and 60 infertile) and 60 control. Serum hs-CRP and homocysteine were assessed using commercial kits, while adiponectin, Metrnl, FSH, LH, free testosterone and insulin levels were analyzed using ELISA technique. Serum Metrnl levels were found to be lower in PCOS patients when compared to controls (67.98 ± 26.66 vs. 96.47 ± 28.72 pg/mL, P <0.001)). Furthermore, serum adiponectin levels were lower, while free testosterone, fasting insulin, HOMA-IR, homocysteine, and hs-CRP were significantly higher in PCOS group compared to controls. Moreover, serum Metrnl correlated with BMI, adiponectin, and homocysteine in controls, and inversely correlated with FBG, fasting insulin, and HOMA-IR in PCOS group and subgroups. Besides, it inversely correlated with hs-CRP in control, and PCOS group and subgroups. These findings revealed a possible role of Metrnl in the pathogenesis of PCOS and RPL. Nevertheless, there is a necessity for future studies to prove this concept.


Assuntos
Adipocinas/sangue , Síndrome do Ovário Policístico/sangue , Adulto , Biomarcadores/sangue , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos
8.
Life Sci ; 250: 117560, 2020 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32198054

RESUMO

AIMS: Dietary calcium a common nutrient of our daily diet found to have an anti-obesity effect which may also regulate insulin sensitivity but this effect and the exact mechanism remains unexplored. Therefore, we aimed to study the effect of different types of calcium diet on insulin sensitivity with respect to the changes in the adipokine secretions in high fat diet (HFD) induced obese rats. MAIN METHODS: Healthy male rats were subjected to HFD for 12 weeks to induce obesity and further exposed to a calcium deficient (0.25% Ca) HFD and calcium enriched (1.0% Ca) HFD for another 12 weeks. Thereafter, all rats were sacrificed to collect the blood, liver, adipose tissue and muscle for downstream analysis. KEY FINDINGS: Calcium enriched HFD (1.0% Ca) significantly reduced (p < 0.01) body weight, adiposity index, glucose level, insulin level, HOMA-IR, adipokines (TNF-α, IL-6, MCP-1, Leptin), hepatic lipid accumulation, hepatic macrophage infiltration, adipocyte hypertrophy and significantly increased (p < 0.01) the adiponectin level, in HFD induced obese rats. The down-regulation of the adipokine secretion significantly increased (p < 0.01) the hepatic and muscle glycogen synthase activity and suppressed the hepatic gluconeogenesis activity via activating the insulin receptor-mediated PI3K/AKT/GLUT insulin signaling pathway thereby improving the insulin sensitivity. On the other hand calcium deficient HFD (0.25% Ca) accelerated the risk of insulin resistance (IR) due to its inability to improve insulin sensitivity by activating the associated pathways. SIGNIFICANCE: Calcium enriched HFD (1.0% Ca) reduced the risk of IR by improving the hepatic and muscle insulin sensitivity by restoring adipokine secretion.


Assuntos
Adipócitos/metabolismo , Adipocinas/metabolismo , Cálcio na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Resistência à Insulina , Insulina/metabolismo , Obesidade/metabolismo , Adipocinas/sangue , Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Animais , Glicemia/análise , Metabolismo dos Carboidratos , Dieta Hiperlipídica , Teste de Tolerância a Glucose , Fígado/metabolismo , Masculino , Músculos/metabolismo , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Transdução de Sinais
9.
PLoS One ; 15(3): e0229765, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32130282

RESUMO

AIM: To evaluate the serum concentrations of inflammatory mediators in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) with or without renal alteration (RA) function. METHODS: Serum samples from 76 patients with T2DM and 24 healthy individuals were selected. Patients with T2DM were divided into two groups according to eGFR (> or < 60mL/min/1.73m2). Cytokines, chemokines and adipokines levels were evaluated using the Multiplex immunoassay and ELISA. RESULTS: TNFR1 and leptin were higher in the T2DM group with RA than in the T2DM group without RA and control group. All patients with T2DM showed increased resistin, IL-8, and MIP-1α compared to the control group. Adiponectin were higher and IL-4 decreased in the T2DM group with RA compared to the control group. eGFR positively correlated with IL-4 and negatively with TNFR1, TNFR2, and leptin in patients with T2DM. In the T2DM group with RA, eGFR was negatively correlated with TNFR1 and resistin. TNFR1 was positively correlated with resistin and leptin, as well as resistin with IL-8 and leptin. CONCLUSION: Increased levels of TNFR1, adipokines, chemokines and decrease of IL-4 play important role in the inflammatory process developed in T2DM and decreased renal function. We also suggest that TNFR1 is a strong predictor of renal dysfunction in patients with T2DM.


Assuntos
Adipocinas/sangue , Quimiocinas/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Interleucinas/sangue , Rim/fisiopatologia , Adulto , Biomarcadores/sangue , Antígenos CD40/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
10.
PLoS One ; 15(2): e0229005, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32053666

RESUMO

Although their functional outcomes remain largely unknown, single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the fat mass and obesity-associated gene (FTO) may interact with adipokines, especially leptin and adiponectin, to modify the risk of colorectal cancer. We conducted a prospective study of 375 colorectal cancer cases and 750 matched controls to examine the effects of SNPs in the FTO, either alone or in interaction with pre-diagnostic plasma adipokine levels. Using a conditional logistic regression model, we obtained odds ratios (ORs) and their 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of colorectal cancer. Seven SNPs in strong linkage disequilibrium demonstrated a similarly positive association with colorectal cancer, and most evidently for rs1558902, rs8050136, rs3751812, and rs9939609 (Ptrend = 0.02). Of interest, we observed a statistically significant interaction of rs8050136 with plasma total adiponectin levels (Pinteraction = 0.03). Compared to non-carriers in the lowest quintile of plasma total adiponectin, A allele carriers in the same quintile showed a considerably elevated risk of colorectal cancer, with a body mass index-adjusted OR of 2.54 (95% CI, 1.36-4.75). This investigation of the interaction between SNPs in the FTO and pre-diagnostic plasma adipokine levels has revealed the importance of both genetic and hormonal factors associated with adiposity in colorectal carcinogenesis.


Assuntos
Adipocinas/sangue , Neoplasias Colorretais/sangue , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Adulto , Alelos , Dioxigenase FTO Dependente de alfa-Cetoglutarato/genética , Intervalos de Confiança , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Humanos , Desequilíbrio de Ligação/genética , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
11.
Metabolism ; 106: 154172, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32027908

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Preeclampsia represents a major pregnancy complication, associated with high rates of perinatal morbidity. The aim of this systematic review is to accumulate current literature evidence in order to examine the pattern of serum adipokine levels among preeclamptic women and asses their potential efficacy in the prediction of the disease. METHODS: Medline, Scopus, CENTRAL, Clinicaltrials.gov and Google Scholar databases were systematically searched from inception. All observational studies reporting serum adipokine values among preeclamptic and healthy pregnant women were held eligible. RESULTS: A total of 163 studies were included, comprising 23,482 women. Leptin was evaluated in 91 studies and its values were found to be significantly elevated in preeclamptic women during all pregnancy trimester, independently of disease onset and severity. Preeclampsia was also associated with increased serum fatty acid binding protein-4 and chemerin levels, when measured both during the 1st and 3rd trimester. Data concerning the rest adipokines were either conflicting or limited to reach firm conclusions. Quality of evidence was evaluated to be high for leptin, moderate for serum fatty acid binding protein-4 and chemerin and low for the other adipokines. CONCLUSIONS: The existing evidence suggests that preeclampsia is linked to increased levels of leptin, chemerin and fatty acid binding protein-4 in all pregnancy trimesters and forms of the disease. Inconsistent data currently exists concerning the role of the other adipokines. Large-scale prospective studies should longitudinally evaluate the serum concentration of novel adipokines and define the optimal threshold and timing of measurement to be widely applied in clinical practice.


Assuntos
Adipocinas/sangue , Adipocinas/fisiologia , Pré-Eclâmpsia/sangue , Pré-Eclâmpsia/etiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Observacionais como Assunto , Gravidez , Estudos Prospectivos
12.
Diabetes Res Clin Pract ; 161: 108068, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32044349

RESUMO

AIM: The relationship between serum Metrnl levels and visceral fat obesity (VFO) remains unclear. This study aimed to investigate the association between serum Metrnl levels and VFO in Chinese patients with type 2 diabetes. METHODS: A total of 321 Chinese patients with type 2 diabetes (226 men and 95 postmenopausal women aged 61.4 ± 6.5 years, BMI 25.1 ± 3.2 kg/m2) were evaluated. Serum Metrnl levels were measured by enzyme linked-immunosorbent assay. Visceral fat area (VFA) was quantified via Dual Energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DXA). Correlation analyses were carried out for serum Metrnl levels and VFO. RESULTS: VFO groups (VFA ≧100 cm2) have lower serum Metrnl levels than non-VFO groups (VFA < 100 cm2) (578.9 ± 225.1 vs. 684.9 ± 263.8, P = 0.001). An increasing trend in serum Metrnl levels was found to accompany the decrease in VFA. Serum Metrnl levels were negatively correlated with VFA, total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and albumin (ALB), but positively correlated with age, height, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), creatinine (Cr) and uric acid (UA) (all P < 0.05). Binary logistic regression analysis showed that serum Metrnl was inversely associated with VFO even after adjusted age, gender, height, TC, TG, LDL-C, ALB, BUN, Cr, and UA (odds ration [OR], 0.846; confidence interval [CI], 0.745-0.961; P = 0.010). The optimal cut-off value of serum Metrnl levels that predicted VFO was 671.3 ng/ml (95%CI = 0.55-0.70, P = 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Serum Metrnl levels were inversely correlated with VFO and may be a useful indicator of VFO in Chinese patients with type 2 diabetes.


Assuntos
Adipocinas/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Gordura Intra-Abdominal/metabolismo , Obesidade Abdominal/sangue , Estudos Transversais , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
13.
Dis Markers ; 2020: 9608276, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32015774

RESUMO

Background: Adipokines are a group of cytokines or peptides secreted by adipose tissue to exert numerous biological functions. In the present study, we measured the plasma levels of four adipokines (adiponectin, leptin, fatty acid-binding protein 4 (FABP4), and visfatin) in cardiac arrest patients following return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC). Methods: Totally, 21 patients who experienced cardiac arrest and successful ROSC with expected survival of at least 48 hours (from January 2016 to December 2017) were consecutively enrolled into this prospective observational clinical study. Of the 21 enrolled patients, ten survived, and other eleven died between 2 days and 6 months post ROSC. Venous blood was drawn at three time points: baseline (<1 hour post ROSC), 2 days post ROSC, and 7 days post ROSC. Plasma concentrations of adiponectin, leptin, FABP4, and visfatin were determined using commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Results: The plasma visfatin levels at 2 or 7 days post ROSC increased significantly compared with the baseline (P < 0.01), while plasma levels of adiponectin, leptin, and FABP4 did not change. Moreover, plasma visfatin levels in survivors at 2 or 7 days post ROSC were higher than those in nonsurvivors (P < 0.01). Plasma visfatin levels at 2 or 7 days post ROSC were negatively correlated with Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) II score and time to ROSC. Moreover, receiver operating characteristic curve analysis showed that the plasma visfatin levels at 2 or 7 days post ROSC were good predictors for survival of the patients. Conclusion: Elevated plasma visfatin levels may be a marker for better outcome of cardiac arrest patients post ROSC.


Assuntos
Adipocinas/sangue , Reanimação Cardiopulmonar/mortalidade , Parada Cardíaca/sangue , Nicotinamida Fosforribosiltransferase/sangue , Idoso , Biomarcadores/sangue , Feminino , Parada Cardíaca/diagnóstico , Parada Cardíaca/terapia , Humanos , Masculino , Análise de Sobrevida
14.
Cancer Causes Control ; 31(4): 309-320, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32100190

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Disentangling the effects of endogenous estrogens and inflammation on obesity-related diseases requires a clearer understanding of how the two biological mechanisms relate to each other. METHODS: We studied 155 healthy postmenopausal women not taking menopausal hormone therapy enrolled in the Prostate Lung Colorectal and Ovarian (PLCO) screening cancer trial. From a baseline blood draw, we measured endogenous estradiol and 69 inflammation biomarkers: cytokines, chemokines, adipokines, angiogenic factors, growth factors, acute phase proteins, and soluble receptors. We evaluated the estradiol-inflammation relationship by assessing associations across different models (linear, ordinal logistic, and binary logistic) using a variety of estradiol classifications. We additionally investigated the estradiol-inflammation relationship stratified by baseline obesity status (BMI < 30 stratum and BMI > 30 stratum). RESULTS: Associations of estradiol with 7 inflammation biomarkers met p < 0.05 statistical significance in linear and ordinal models: C-reactive protein (CRP), adiponectin, chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand-6, thymus activation-regulated chemokine, eosinophil chemotactic protein, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1, and serum amyloid A. The positive association between estradiol and CRP was robust to model changes. Each standard deviation increase in endogenous estradiol doubled a woman's odds of having CRP levels higher than the study median (odds ratio 2.29; 95% confidence interval 1.28, 4.09). Estradiol was consistently inversely associated with adiponectin. Other estradiol-inflammation biomarker associations were not robust to model changes. CONCLUSIONS: Endogenous estradiol appears to be associated with CRP and adiponectin; the evidence is limited for other inflammation biomarkers.


Assuntos
Estradiol/sangue , Inflamação/sangue , Obesidade/sangue , Adipocinas/sangue , Idoso , Biomarcadores/sangue , Proteína C-Reativa/metabolismo , Citocinas/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances
15.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 1403, 2020 Jan 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31996731

RESUMO

This study investigated the inhibitory effect of arctigenin, a novel anti-inflammatory lignan, on prostate cancer in obese conditions both in vitro and in vivo. In vitro obese models were established by co-culture of mouse adipocytes 3T3-L1 with androgen-sensitive LNCaP human prostate cancer cells, or by culturing LNCaP cells in adipocytes-conditioned medium. Arctigenin significantly inhibited LNCaP proliferation, along with decreased androgen receptor (AR) and increased Nkx3.1 cellular expression. Male severe combined immunodeficiency mice were subcutaneously implanted with human prostate cancer LAPC-4 xenograft tumors for in vivo study. Mice were fed high-fat (HF) diet and orally given arctigenin at 50 mg/kg body weight daily or vehicle control for 6 weeks. Tumor bearing HF control mice showed a significant increase in serum free fatty acids (FFAs) and decrease in subcutaneous/peritoneal fat depots compared to non-tumor bearing control mice. Arctigenin intervention significantly reduced tumor growth by 45%, associated with decreased circulating FFAs and adipokines/cytokines including IGF-1, VEGF, and MCP-1, along with decreased AR, Ki67, and microvessel density and increased Nkx3.1 expression in tumors. These results indicate the strong ability of arctigenin to co-target obesity and tumor itself in inhibition of prostate tumor growth at a lower concentration compared to most phytochemicals.


Assuntos
Tecido Adiposo/efeitos dos fármacos , Furanos/administração & dosagem , Lignanas/administração & dosagem , Obesidade/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias da Próstata/tratamento farmacológico , Carga Tumoral/efeitos dos fármacos , Adipócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Adipócitos/metabolismo , Adipocinas/sangue , Adipocinas/metabolismo , Tecido Adiposo/citologia , Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Administração Oral , Animais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Citocinas/sangue , Citocinas/metabolismo , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Proteínas de Homeodomínio/metabolismo , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Obesidade/etiologia , Obesidade/metabolismo , Próstata/patologia , Neoplasias da Próstata/complicações , Neoplasias da Próstata/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Próstata/patologia , Receptores Androgênicos/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
16.
Eur J Endocrinol ; 182(1): 67-77, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31705791

RESUMO

Objective: Adipokines could be a link between metabolic syndrome (MS) and infertility. While the association between circulating adipokines and fertility has been extensively studied in females, this relationship in males was less investigated, although some adipokines are detectable in seminal plasma (SP). The aim of this study was to determine adipokine levels in blood and SP and to assess the relationships between adipokines, MS and semen parameters in men from infertile couples. Design: Male partners of infertile couples referred to four medical French centers were enrolled in years 2013-2016. Methods: Subjects (n = 160) aged 18-45 years were assessed for anthropometric, biochemical, sperm, and circulating hormonal parameters. Leptin, adiponectin, resistin, chemerin, visfatin, and IL-6 were measured in serum and SP. Results: Infertility duration was higher in men with than without MS. Adipokine concentrations were higher in blood than in SP, except for IL-6 and visfatin. The most striking result was the significant correlation observed between seminal IL-6 and spermatozoid concentration, progressive motility, and sperm vitality. Moreover, while men with MS exhibited an expected lower adiponectinemia, they displayed 2.1-fold higher adiponectin levels in SP than men without MS. Finally, logistic regression analysis showed that BMI, infertility duration, and adiponectin serum/SP ratio were independently associated with MS. Conclusions: These results suggest an involvement of seminal adipokines to modulate fertility in men with MS and that seminal IL-6 could play a beneficial role on sperm functionality. Further mechanistic studies are necessary to investigate the precise roles of these adipokines in male reproduction.


Assuntos
Adipocinas/metabolismo , Infertilidade Masculina/metabolismo , Infertilidade Masculina/fisiopatologia , Adipocinas/sangue , Adolescente , Adulto , Quimiocinas/sangue , Quimiocinas/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Interleucina-6/sangue , Interleucina-6/metabolismo , Leptina/sangue , Leptina/metabolismo , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nicotinamida Fosforribosiltransferase/sangue , Nicotinamida Fosforribosiltransferase/metabolismo , Reprodução/fisiologia , Sêmen/metabolismo , Sêmen/fisiologia , Contagem de Espermatozoides , Motilidade Espermática/fisiologia , Espermatozoides/metabolismo , Espermatozoides/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
17.
AIDS Behav ; 24(4): 1042-1050, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31016505

RESUMO

Several studies evidenced that a sedentary lifestyle is related with higher levels of systemic inflammation and highlighted that physical activity can trigger anti-inflammatory effects. To evaluate the impact of self-prescribed physical activity on fitness status, metabolism, inflammation and immune-activation in people living with HIV, an interim analysis of the results of the clinical trial PRIMO (NCT03392805) was performed. Patients enrolled were divided in 2 groups on the basis of self-prescribed physical activity: a physically active group (self-prescribed physical activity) and a sedentary group. Physical fitness was evaluated by sport medicine specialists and related to nutritional status, anthropometric variables, adipokines levels (adiponectin, leptin, resistin), peripheral immune-activation (CD38, HLA-DR on CD4 and CD8), and plasma inflammatory markers (IL-6 and TNF-α). The physically active group had a better profile in anthropometric measures and aerobic fitness but did not show lower levels of immune-activation compared to sedentary group. Also serum IL-6, TNF-α, and adipokines levels showed no statistical differences. On the basis of these data, a regular self-organized physical activity seems useful to improve cardio-respiratory fitness, but unable to control HIV-related immune-activation.


Assuntos
Adipocinas/metabolismo , Biomarcadores/sangue , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Infecções por HIV/imunologia , HIV-1/imunologia , Estado Nutricional , Aptidão Física/fisiologia , Comportamento Sedentário , Adipocinas/sangue , Adiponectina/sangue , Adulto , Antropometria , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/sangue , Infecções por HIV/virologia , Humanos , Inflamação/sangue , Inflamação/imunologia , Inflamação/virologia , Interleucina-6/sangue , Leptina/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Resistina/sangue , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/sangue
18.
Pediatr Obes ; 15(3): e12587, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31845502

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Though the physiological roles of adipokines in metabolism, insulin resistance and satiety are clear, literature regarding associations between cord blood adipokine levels and childhood adiposity is equivocal. OBJECTIVES: To determine whether cord blood levels of leptin and adiponectin are associated with adiposity in children 2 to 5 years of age, and whether such associations are modified by sex. METHODS: Leptin and adiponectin levels were measured in cord blood and anthropometric measures were completed on 550 children enrolled in the Maternal-Infant Research on Environmental Chemicals Child Development Plus study (MIREC-CD Plus). We used multivariable linear and Poisson regression models to determine associations between cord blood adipokine levels and child body mass index (BMI), triceps and subscapular skinfold thickness and risk of overweight/obesity and to assess effect modification by child sex. RESULTS: Cord blood adiponectin was significantly associated with modest increases in BMI and the sum of triceps and subscapular skinfold z-scores in boys but not girls. A doubling of adiponectin levels was associated with a 30% increased risk of overweight/obesity in boys (RR = 1.30; 95% CI: 1.02, 1.64). Leptin was not associated with anthropometric measures in either sex. CONCLUSIONS: The observed associations between adiponectin and adiposity in boys were statistically significant, of moderate magnitude, and underscore the value of considering sex-specific patterns.


Assuntos
Adipocinas/sangue , Adiposidade/fisiologia , Sangue Fetal/química , Obesidade Pediátrica/sangue , Adulto , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Caracteres Sexuais
19.
PLoS One ; 14(12): e0226200, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31869355

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Medium chain triglycerides (MCT) have unique metabolic properties which may improve insulin sensitivity (Si) and beta cell function but data in humans are limited. We conducted a 6-week clinical trial of MCT oil supplementation. METHODS: 22 subjects without diabetes (8 males, 14 females, mean ± standard error age 39±2.9 years, baseline BMI 27.0±1.4 kg/m2) were counseled to maintain their body weight and physical activity (PA) during the trial. Dietary intake, PA data, body composition, and resting energy expenditure (REE) were obtained through dietary recall, international PA questionnaire, dual x-ray absorptiometry, and indirect calorimetry, respectively. MCT prescriptions were given based on REE and PA to replace part of dietary fat with 30 grams of MCT per 2000 kcal daily. Insulin-modified frequently sampled intravenous glucose tolerance tests were performed before and after MCT to measure changes in Si, acute insulin response (AIR), disposition index (DI), and glucose effectiveness (Sg). RESULTS: MCT were well tolerated and weight remained stable (mean change 0.3 kg, p = 0.39). Fasting REE, respiratory quotient, and body composition were stable during the intervention. There were no significant changes in mean fasting glucose, insulin, insulin resistance, fasting total ketones, Si, AIR, DI, Sg, leptin, fructosamine, and proinsulin. The mean change in Si was 0.5 10-4 min-1 per mU/L (95% CI: -1.4, 2.4), corresponding to a 12% increase from baseline, and the range was -4.7 to 12.9 10-4 min-1 per mU/L. Mean total adiponectin decreased significantly from 22925 ng/mL at baseline to 17598 ng/mL at final visit (p = 0.02). The baseline clinical and laboratory parameters were not significantly associated with the change in Si. DISCUSSION: There were a wide range of changes in the minimal model parameters of glucose and insulin metabolism in subjects following 6 weeks of MCT as an isocaloric substitution for part of usual dietary fat intake. Since this was a single-arm non-randomized study without a control group, it cannot be certain whether these changes were due to MCT so further randomized controlled trials are warranted.


Assuntos
Gorduras na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Suplementos Nutricionais , Resistência à Insulina , Células Secretoras de Insulina/efeitos dos fármacos , Obesidade/dietoterapia , Triglicerídeos/administração & dosagem , Adipocinas/sangue , Adulto , Composição Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Teste de Tolerância a Glucose , Humanos , Insulina/metabolismo , Células Secretoras de Insulina/fisiologia , Masculino , Obesidade/metabolismo , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Projetos Piloto
20.
Med Sci Monit ; 25: 8968-8974, 2019 Nov 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31766048

RESUMO

BACKGROUND Metrnl is a novel identified adipomyokine which might have therapeutic potential for metabolic and inflammatory diseases, including type 2 diabetes mellitus. We aimed to explore the associations of circulating Metrnl level with ß-cell function and insulin resistance (IR) and further explore the possible correlation between Metrnl and another adipomyokine named irisin in patients diagnosed type 2 diabetes. MATERIAL AND METHODS Our study recruited 59 participants with type 2 diabetes and 30 normal glucose tolerance (NGT) participants. We used enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to measure serum levels of Metrnl and irisin. The associations of Metrnl level with indexes of ß-cell function and IR and irisin level were analyzed by multiple linear regression analysis or spearman correlation analysis. RESULTS Compared with NGT participants, serum Metrnl level was elevated in participants with type 2 diabetes: 210.30 pg/mL (range 105.94-323.91 pg/mL) versus 132.02 pg/mL (range 104.93-195.92 pg/mL). Metrnl level did not show significant correlation with ß-cell function-related indicators, but positively correlated with HOMA2-IR and negatively correlated with HOMA2-%S after controlling multiple covariates in participants with type 2 diabetes. Metrnl level was also not associated with obesity-related indicators (body mass index, waist circumference, body fat percentage, and visceral adipose tissue area) in the type 2 diabetes group. In addition, the correlation between Metrnl and irisin level was also not present (r=-0.159, P=0.229) in type 2 diabetes group. CONCLUSIONS Serum Metrnl level was associated with IR, but not with ß-cell function in participants with diagnosed type 2 diabetes.


Assuntos
Adipocinas/análise , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/metabolismo , Adipocinas/sangue , Glicemia/metabolismo , Índice de Massa Corporal , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Feminino , Fibronectinas/análise , Fibronectinas/sangue , Glucose , Humanos , Insulina/sangue , Resistência à Insulina/fisiologia , Células Secretoras de Insulina/metabolismo , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/complicações , Circunferência da Cintura
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