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1.
Zhongguo Shi Yan Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi ; 28(5): 1718-1725, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33067980

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the adenovirus-mediated expression of human clotting factor IX (hFIX) gene in mouse adipose-derived stem cells(ADSC). METHODS: The mouse ADSC were isolated and cultured in vitro, the morphology of cells was observed and its growth viability was detected by using CCK-8. Cell surface markers CD29,CD90,CD45 were identified by flow cytometry, and its diferentiation ability was identified by adipogenic and osteogenic induction. Morphological changes was observed and the growth curve should be drawn after transfecting ADSC with adenovirus containing hFIX gene. The expression of hFIX gene was detected by RT-PCR. The expression of hFIX protein in ADSC or in culture supernatant was detected by Western blot. hFIX protein in the supernatant was measured by ELISA, and the clotting factor activity of hFIX in culture supernatant was measured by one-stage method. RESULTS: The in vitro cultured mouse ADSC displayed microspherical shape and strong refractive property. Anchoring growth was lasted for 4-6 hours after planting into culture flask. After cultured for 72 hours, the cells showed long spindle-shaped fibrous and swirling arrangement. The overall growth trend of the third generation ADSC cultured in vitro was S-shaped. The formation of lipid droplets could be observed in the induced cells with Oil red O staining by inverted microscope. After alizarin red staining, the orange-red calcified bone nodes were observed in the induced cells under inverted phase contrast microscope. CD29 (99.91%) and CD90 (99.02%) highly expressed in the third generation of ADSC, but CD45 (0.94%) almost not expressed. RT-PCR showed the hFIX gene could expressed in mouse ADSC. Western blot showed that hFIX protein expressed in both ADSC and culture supernatant. FIX:Ag in cell supernatant was 21.33±3.93 ng/(106 cells.24 h) on the first day, 12.63±0.86 ng/(106 cells.24 h) on the third day and 12.63±2.36 ng/(106 cells.24 h) on the ninth day. FIX:C in culture supernatant was 8.5%. CONCLUSION: Adenovirus-carried hFIX gene can effectively transfect ADSC. ADSC modified by hFIX gene can secrete hFIX protein with coagulation activity.


Assuntos
Adenoviridae , Fator IX , Adenoviridae/genética , Adipogenia , Animais , Fator IX/genética , Humanos , Camundongos , Osteogênese , Células-Tronco
2.
Mol Cell ; 79(6): 874-875, 2020 09 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32946760

RESUMO

PARP enzymes are increasingly taking on important roles beyond DNA repair. Huang et al. (2020b) report how the NAD+-dependent ADP-ribosylation of histone H2B by PARP-1 in complex with a metabolic enzyme suppresses the phosphorylation of an adjacent residue, impacting adipogenesis.


Assuntos
Histonas , Inibidores de Poli(ADP-Ribose) Polimerases , ADP-Ribosilação , Adipogenia , Epigênese Genética , Humanos , Obesidade , Fosforilação , Poli(ADP-Ribose) Polimerases
3.
Mol Cell ; 79(6): 934-949.e14, 2020 09 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32822587

RESUMO

Although ADP-ribosylation of histones by PARP-1 has been linked to genotoxic stress responses, its role in physiological processes and gene expression has remained elusive. We found that NAD+-dependent ADP-ribosylation of histone H2B-Glu35 by small nucleolar RNA (snoRNA)-activated PARP-1 inhibits AMP kinase-mediated phosphorylation of adjacent H2B-Ser36, which is required for the proadipogenic gene expression program. The activity of PARP-1 on H2B requires NMNAT-1, a nuclear NAD+ synthase, which directs PARP-1 catalytic activity to Glu and Asp residues. ADP-ribosylation of Glu35 and the subsequent reduction of H2B-Ser36 phosphorylation inhibits the differentiation of adipocyte precursors in cultured cells. Parp1 knockout in preadipocytes in a mouse lineage-tracing genetic model increases adipogenesis, leading to obesity. Collectively, our results demonstrate a functional interplay between H2B-Glu35 ADP-ribosylation and H2B-Ser36 phosphorylation that controls adipogenesis.


Assuntos
ADP-Ribosilação/genética , Adipogenia/genética , Histonas/genética , Poli(ADP-Ribose) Polimerase-1/genética , Adenosina Difosfato Ribose/genética , Adipócitos/metabolismo , Adipócitos/patologia , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Dano ao DNA/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento/genética , Camundongos , Fosforilação/genética , RNA Nucleolar Pequeno/genética
4.
Plast Reconstr Surg ; 146(2): 309-320, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32740581

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Adipose-derived stem cells are considered as candidate cells for regenerative plastic surgery. Measures to influence cellular properties and thereby direct their regenerative potential remain elusive. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy-the exposure to 100% oxygen at an increased atmospheric pressure-has been propagated as a noninvasive treatment for a multitude of indications and presents a potential option to condition cells for tissue-engineering purposes. The present study evaluates the effect of hyperbaric oxygen therapy on human adipose-derived stem cells. METHODS: Human adipose-derived stem cells from healthy donors were treated with hyperbaric oxygen therapy at 2 and 3 atm. Viability before and after each hyperbaric oxygen therapy, proliferation, expression of surface markers and protein contents of transforming growth factor (TGF)-ß, tumor necrosis factor-α, hepatocyte growth factor, and epithelial growth factor in the supernatants of treated adipose-derived stem cells were measured. Lastly, adipogenic, osteogenic, and chondrogenic differentiation with and without use of differentiation-inducing media (i.e., autodifferentiation) was examined. RESULTS: Hyperbaric oxygen therapy with 3 atm increased viability, proliferation, and CD34 expression and reduced the CD31/CD34/CD45 adipose-derived stem cell subset and endothelial progenitor cell population. TGF-ß levels were significantly decreased after two hyperbaric oxygen therapy sessions in the 2-atm group and decreased after three hyperbaric oxygen therapy sessions in the 3-atm group. Hepatocyte growth factor secretion remained unaltered in all groups. Although the osteogenic and chondrogenic differentiation were not influenced, adipogenic differentiation and autodifferentiation were significantly enhanced, with osteogenic autodifferentiation significantly alleviated by hyperbaric oxygen therapy with 3 atm. CONCLUSION: Hyperbaric oxygen therapy with 3 atm increases viability and proliferation of adipose-derived stem cells, alters marker expression and subpopulations, decreases TGF-ß secretion, and skews adipose-derived stem cells toward adipogenic differentiation. CLINICAL QUESTION/LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Therapeutic, V.


Assuntos
Adipogenia/efeitos dos fármacos , Diferenciação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Engenharia Celular/métodos , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/efeitos dos fármacos , Oxigênio/administração & dosagem , Tecido Adiposo/citologia , Adulto , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Cultivadas , Citocinas/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intercelular/metabolismo , Masculino , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/fisiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pressão , Cultura Primária de Células/métodos
5.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4150, 2020 08 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32811819

RESUMO

The systemic decline in autophagic activity with age impairs homeostasis in several tissues, leading to age-related diseases. A mechanistic understanding of adipocyte dysfunction with age could help to prevent age-related metabolic disorders, but the role of autophagy in aged adipocytes remains unclear. Here we show that, in contrast to other tissues, aged adipocytes upregulate autophagy due to a decline in the levels of Rubicon, a negative regulator of autophagy. Rubicon knockout in adipocytes causes fat atrophy and hepatic lipid accumulation due to reductions in the expression of adipogenic genes, which can be recovered by activation of PPARγ. SRC-1 and TIF2, coactivators of PPARγ, are degraded by autophagy in a manner that depends on their binding to GABARAP family proteins, and are significantly downregulated in Rubicon-ablated or aged adipocytes. Hence, we propose that age-dependent decline in adipose Rubicon exacerbates metabolic disorders by promoting excess autophagic degradation of SRC-1 and TIF2.


Assuntos
Adipócitos/metabolismo , Envelhecimento/fisiologia , Autofagia/genética , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intracelular/metabolismo , Doenças Metabólicas/metabolismo , Adipócitos/patologia , Adipogenia/genética , Tecido Adiposo/citologia , Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Adiposidade/genética , Animais , Proteínas Reguladoras de Apoptose/metabolismo , Autofagia/fisiologia , Fígado Gorduroso/genética , Fígado Gorduroso/metabolismo , Técnicas de Inativação de Genes , Glucose/genética , Glucose/metabolismo , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intracelular/genética , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/genética , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Proteínas Associadas aos Microtúbulos/metabolismo , Coativador 1 de Receptor Nuclear/metabolismo , Coativador 2 de Receptor Nuclear/metabolismo , PPAR gama/metabolismo
6.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237095, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32756599

RESUMO

Regular exercise is an effective strategy that is used to prevent and treat obesity as well as type 2 diabetes. Exercise-induced myokine secretion is considered a mechanism that coordinates communication between muscles and other organs. In order to examine the possibility of novel communications from muscle to adipose tissue mediated by myokines, we treated 3T3-L1 adipocytes with C2C12 myotube electrical pulse stimulation-conditioned media (EPS-CM), using a C2C12 myotube contraction system stimulated by an electrical pulse. Continuous treatment with myotube EPS-CM promoted adipogenesis of 3T3-L1 pre-adipocytes via the upregulation of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPARγ) 2 and PPARγ-regulated gene expression. Furthermore, our results revealed that myotube EPS-CM induces lipolysis and secretion of adiponectin in mature adipocytes. EPS-CM obtained from a C2C12 myoblast culture did not induce such changes in these genes, suggesting that contraction-induced myokine(s) secretion occurs particularly in differentiated myotubes. Thus, contraction-induced secretion of myokine(s) promotes adipogenesis and lipid metabolism in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. These findings suggest the possibility that skeletal muscle communicates to adipose tissues during exercise, probably by the intermediary of unidentified myokines.


Assuntos
Adipócitos/citologia , Diferenciação Celular , Lipólise , Fibras Musculares Esqueléticas/metabolismo , Células 3T3 , Adipócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Adipócitos/metabolismo , Adipogenia , Adiponectina/metabolismo , Animais , Comunicação Celular , Meios de Cultivo Condicionados/farmacologia , Camundongos , PPAR gama/metabolismo
7.
Life Sci ; 257: 118055, 2020 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32634429

RESUMO

AIMS: Human adipose derived mesenchymal stem cells (hAD-MSCs) as the most promising target for cell therapy and regenerative medicine, face senescence as a major drawback resulting in their limited proliferation and differentiation potentials. To evaluate the efficacy of miR-34a silencing as an anti-senescence strategy in hAD-MSCs, in this study common hallmarks of senescence were assessed after transient inhibition of miR-34a in hAD-MSCs. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The expression levels of miR-34a in hAD-MSCs at different passages were evaluated by real-time quantitative PCR. hAD-MSCs at passage 2 and passage 7 were transfected with miR-34a inhibitor. Doubling time assay, colony forming assay, and cell cycle analysis were performed to evaluate cell proliferation rate. The activity of senescence associated ß-galactosidase (SA-ß-gal) was assessed by histochemical staining. Moreover, the senescence associated molecular alterations including that of pro-senescence (P53, P21 and P16) and anti-senescence (SIRT1, HTERT and CD44) genes were examined by quantitative RT-PCR and western blot assays. To evaluate the differentiation potentials of MSCs, following adipogenic and osteogenic induction, the expression levels of lineage specific markers were analyzed by qPCR. KEY FINDINGS: Our results showed that inhibition of miR-34a enhances the proliferation, promotes the adipogenic and osteogenic differentiation potency, reduces the senescence associated-ß gal activity, and reverses the senescence associated molecular alterations in hAD-MSCs. SIGNIFICANCE: In this study, we showed that inhibition of miR-34a reduces the cellular senescence through the activation of SIRT1. Our findings support the silencing of miR-34a as an anti-senescence approach to improve the therapeutic potentials of hAD-MSCs.


Assuntos
Diferenciação Celular/fisiologia , Senescência Celular/fisiologia , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/citologia , MicroRNAs/genética , Sirtuína 1/genética , Adipogenia/fisiologia , Tecido Adiposo/citologia , Inativação Gênica , Humanos , Receptores de Hialuronatos/genética , Osteogênese/fisiologia , Telomerase/genética
8.
Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab ; 319(2): E363-E375, 2020 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32603262

RESUMO

Bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) receptor signaling is critical for the regulation of the endocrine system and cardiovascular structure and function. The objective of this study was to investigate whether Bmp3b, a glycoprotein synthetized and secreted by adipose tissue, is necessary to regulate glucose and lipid metabolism, adipogenesis, and cardiovascular remodeling. Over the course of 4 mo, Bmp3b-knockout (Bmp3b-/-) mice gained more weight than wild-type (WT) mice. The plasma levels of cholesterol and triglycerides were higher in Bmp3b-/- mice than in WT mice. Bmp3b-/- mice developed insulin resistance and glucose intolerance. The basal heart rate was higher in Bmp3b-/- mice than in WT mice, and echocardiography revealed eccentric remodeling in Bmp3b-/- mice. The expression of adipogenesis-related genes in white adipose tissue was higher in Bmp3b-/- mice than in WT control mice. In vitro studies showed that Bmp3b modulates the activity of the C/ebpα promoter, an effect mediated by Smad2/3. The results of this study suggest that Bmp3b is necessary for the maintenance of homeostasis in terms of age-related weight gain, glucose metabolism, and left ventricular (LV) remodeling and function. Interventions that increase the level or function of BMP3b may decrease cardiovascular risk and pathological cardiac remodeling.


Assuntos
Adipogenia/fisiologia , Fator 10 de Diferenciação de Crescimento/deficiência , Fator 10 de Diferenciação de Crescimento/fisiologia , Síndrome Metabólica/etiologia , Adipócitos/patologia , Tecido Adiposo/patologia , Animais , Proteína Morfogenética Óssea 3/deficiência , Proteína Morfogenética Óssea 3/fisiologia , Dislipidemias/etiologia , Feminino , Intolerância à Glucose/etiologia , Cardiopatias/etiologia , Cardiopatias/fisiopatologia , Resistência à Insulina/fisiologia , Masculino , Síndrome Metabólica/fisiopatologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Obesidade/etiologia , Obesidade/patologia , Transdução de Sinais/fisiologia
9.
Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol ; 40(9): 2227-2243, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32640901

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT) surrounding arteries supports healthy vascular function. During obesity, PVAT loses its vasoprotective effect. We study pathological conversion of PVAT, which involves molecular changes in protein profiles and functional changes in adipocytes. Approach and Results: C57BL6/J mice were fed a 60% high-fat diet for 12 weeks or a cardioprotective 30% calorie-restricted diet for 5 weeks. Proteomic analysis identified PVAT as a molecularly distinct adipose depot, and novel markers for thermogenic adipocytes, such as GRP75 (stress-70 protein, mitochondrial), were identified. High-fat diet increased the similarity of protein signatures in PVAT and brown adipose, suggesting activation of a conserved whitening pathway. The whitening phenotype was characterized by suppression of UCP1 (uncoupling protein 1) and increased lipid deposition, leptin, and inflammation, and specifically in PVAT, elevated Notch signaling. Conversely, PVAT from calorie-restricted mice had decreased Notch signaling and less lipid. Using the Adipoq-Cre strain, we constitutively activated Notch1 signaling in adipocytes, which phenocopied the changes in PVAT caused by a high-fat diet, even on a standard diet. Preadipocytes from mouse PVAT expressed Sca1, CD140a, Notch1, and Notch2, but not CD105, showing differences compared with preadipocytes from other depots. Inhibition of Notch signaling during differentiation of PVAT-derived preadipocytes reduced lipid deposition and adipocyte marker expression. CONCLUSIONS: PVAT shares features with other adipose depots, but has a unique protein signature that is regulated by dietary stress. Increased Notch signaling in PVAT is sufficient to initiate the pathological conversion of PVAT by promoting adipogenesis and lipid accumulation and may thus prime the microenvironment for vascular disease.


Assuntos
Adipócitos Brancos/metabolismo , Adipogenia , Tecido Adiposo Branco/metabolismo , Lipogênese , Obesidade/metabolismo , Receptores Notch/metabolismo , Adipócitos Brancos/patologia , Tecido Adiposo Branco/patologia , Adiposidade , Animais , Ataxina-1/metabolismo , Aterosclerose/genética , Aterosclerose/metabolismo , Aterosclerose/patologia , Restrição Calórica , Dieta Hiperlipídica , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Endoglina/metabolismo , Feminino , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Transgênicos , Obesidade/genética , Obesidade/patologia , Fenótipo , Pró-Proteína Convertase 9/genética , Pró-Proteína Convertase 9/metabolismo , Proteômica , Receptor Notch1/genética , Receptor Notch1/metabolismo , Receptor Notch2/metabolismo , Receptor alfa de Fator de Crescimento Derivado de Plaquetas/metabolismo , Receptores Notch/genética , Transdução de Sinais
10.
Mol Cell Biol ; 40(17)2020 08 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32601106

RESUMO

Transcription factors C/EBPß and C/EBPδ are induced within hours after initiation of adipogenesis in culture. They directly promote the expression of master adipogenic transcription factors peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) and C/EBPα and are required for adipogenesis in vivo However, the mechanism that controls the induction of C/EBPß and C/EBPδ remains elusive. We previously showed that histone methyltransferases MLL3/MLL4 and associated PTIP are required for the induction of PPARγ and C/EBPα during adipogenesis. Here, we show MLL3/MLL4/PTIP-associated protein PAGR1 (also known as PA1) cooperates with phosphorylated CREB and ligand-activated glucocorticoid receptor to directly control the induction of C/EBPß and C/EBPδ in the early phase of adipogenesis. Deletion of Pagr1 in white and brown preadipocytes prevents the induction of C/EBPß and C/EBPδ and leads to severe defects in adipogenesis. Adipogenesis defects in PAGR1-deficient cells can be rescued by the ectopic expression of C/EBPß or PPARγ. Finally, the deletion of Pagr1 in Myf5+ precursor cells impairs brown adipose tissue and muscle development. Thus, by controlling the induction of C/EBPß and C/EBPδ, PAGR1 plays a critical role in adipogenesis.


Assuntos
Adipogenia/fisiologia , Proteína beta Intensificadora de Ligação a CCAAT/metabolismo , Proteína delta de Ligação ao Facilitador CCAAT/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/metabolismo , Histona-Lisina N-Metiltransferase/metabolismo , Células 3T3-L1 , Adipócitos/metabolismo , Tecido Adiposo Marrom/metabolismo , Animais , Diferenciação Celular/fisiologia , Histona Metiltransferases/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , PPAR gama/metabolismo , Ligação Proteica
11.
Cell Prolif ; 53(8): e12871, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32597546

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Osteonecrosis of the femoral head (ONFH), largely caused by alcohol abuse, is a refractory bone disease characterized by the impaired capacity of osteogenic differentiation of bone mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs), as well as the disordered adipocyte accumulation. Chrysophanic acid (CPA) is a natural anthraquinone which has lipid regulation and bone protection capacity. The aim of this study was to reveal the potential function of CPA and the underlying mechanisms for the alcohol-induced ONFH. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The effects of alcohol and CPA on BMSCs were investigated by cell proliferation, induced differentiation assays and immunofluorescent staining. Meanwhile, the function of PI3K/AKT and AMPK pathway was investigated in the process of osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation, respectively. Furthermore, we established the rat model of alcohol-induced ONFH to reveal the pharmacotherapeutic effect of CPA in vivo using radiographical and histopathological methods. RESULTS: In vitro, alcohol significantly inhibited the proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of BMSCs but stimulated the adipogenic differentiation. However, CPA could counteract the anti-osteogenesis of alcohol partly via PI3K/AKT pathway and retard the promotion of alcohol-induced adipogenesis via AMPK pathway. In vivo, radiographical and histopathological findings showed that CPA could alleviate alcohol-induced ONFH and substantially restore the bone volume. CONCLUSIONS: We demonstrated that CPA ameliorated alcohol-induced ONFH possibly via regulating the differentiation tendency of BMSCs. Hence, CPA may become a beneficial herb extract to alleviate alcohol-induced ONFH.


Assuntos
Antraquinonas/farmacologia , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Cabeça do Fêmur/patologia , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/efeitos dos fármacos , Osteogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Osteonecrose/patologia , Adipogenia/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Diferenciação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Cabeça do Fêmur/efeitos dos fármacos , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/citologia , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
12.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0234641, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32574164

RESUMO

Chondrocytes, comparable to many cells from the connective tissue, dedifferentiate and end up in a similar fibroblastoid cell type, marked by the loss of the specific expression pattern. Here, chondrocytes isolated from osteoarthritic (OA) patients were investigated. The OA chondrocytes used in this work were not affected by the loss of specific gene expression upon cell culture. The mRNA levels of known cartilage markers, such as SOX5, SOX6, SOX9, aggrecan and proteoglycan 4, remained unchanged. Since chondrocytes from OA and healthy tissue show different DNA methylation patterns, the underlying mechanisms of cartilage marker maintenance were investigated with a focus on the epigenetic modification by DNA methylation. The treatment of dedifferentiated chondrocytes with the DNA methyltransferase inhibitor 5-aza-2´-deoxycytidine (5-aza-dC) displayed no considerable impact on the maintenance of marker gene expression observed in the dedifferentiated state, while the chondrogenic differentiation capacity was compromised. On the other hand, the pre-cultivation with 5-aza-dC improved the osteogenesis and adipogenesis of OA chondrocytes. Contradictory to these effects, the DNA methylation levels were not reduced after treatment for four weeks with 1 µM 5-aza-dC. In conclusion, 5-aza-dC affects the differentiation capacity of OA chondrocytes, while the global DNA methylation level remains stable. Furthermore, dedifferentiated chondrocytes isolated from late-stage OA patients represent a reliable cell source for in vitro studies and disease models without the need for additional alterations.


Assuntos
Condrócitos/patologia , Decitabina/farmacologia , Osteoartrite/patologia , Adipogenia/efeitos dos fármacos , Adipogenia/genética , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Cartilagem Articular/efeitos dos fármacos , Cartilagem Articular/metabolismo , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Proliferação de Células/genética , Forma Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Forma Celular/genética , Células Cultivadas , Condrócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Condrócitos/metabolismo , Colágeno Tipo II/metabolismo , DNA (Citosina-5-)-Metiltransferases/metabolismo , Metilação de DNA/efeitos dos fármacos , Metilação de DNA/genética , Matriz Extracelular/efeitos dos fármacos , Matriz Extracelular/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Osteoartrite/genética , Osteogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Osteogênese/genética
13.
Hum Cell ; 33(3): 502-511, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32447572

RESUMO

Antipsychotic-induced weight gain is a well-established but poorly understood clinical phenomenon. New mechanistic insights into how antipsychotics modulate adipose physiology are sorely needed, in hopes of either devising a therapeutic intervention to ameliorate weight gain or contributing to improved design of future agents. In this study, we have hypothesized that the weight gain-associated tricyclic antipsychotics clozapine and chlorpromazine directly impact adipose tissue by potentiating adipogenic differentiation of preadipocytes. Utilizing a well-established in vitro model system (3T3-L1 preadipocyte cell line), we demonstrate that, when applied specifically during induction of adipogenic differentiation, both clozapine and chlorpromazine significantly potentiate in vitro adipogenesis, observed as morphological changes and increased intracellular lipid accumulation. These persistent effects, observed at endpoints well after the end of antipsychotic exposure, are accompanied by increased transcript- and protein-level expression of the mature adipocyte marker perilipin-1, as indicated by RT-qPCR and Western blotting, but not by further upregulation of pro-adipogenic transcription factors versus positive controls. Our findings point to a possible physiological mechanism of antipsychotic-induced hyperplasia, with potentiated expression of mature adipocyte markers enhancing the differentiation and maturation of preadipocytes.


Assuntos
Adipócitos/citologia , Adipogenia/efeitos dos fármacos , Adipogenia/genética , Antidepressivos Tricíclicos/efeitos adversos , Diferenciação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Diferenciação Celular/genética , Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Expressão Gênica/genética , Células Cultivadas , Humanos , Ganho de Peso/efeitos dos fármacos
14.
Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab ; 319(1): E117-E132, 2020 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32369418

RESUMO

One of the primary metabolic functions of a mature adipocyte is to supply energy via lipolysis, or the catabolism of stored lipids. Adipose triacylglycerol lipase (ATGL) and hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) are critical lipolytic enzymes, and their phosphorylation generates phospho-binding sites for 14-3-3 proteins, a ubiquitously expressed family of molecular scaffolds. Although we previously identified essential roles of the 14-3-3ζ isoform in murine adipogenesis, the presence of 14-3-3 protein binding sites on ATGL and HSL suggests that 14-3-3ζ could also influence mature adipocyte processes like lipolysis. Here we demonstrate that 14-3-3ζ is necessary for lipolysis in male mice and fully differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes, as depletion of 14-3-3ζ significantly impaired glycerol and free fatty acid (FFA) release. Unexpectedly, reducing 14-3-3ζ expression was found to significantly impact adipocyte maturity, as observed by reduced abundance of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)γ2 protein and expression of mature adipocyte genes and those associated with de novo triglyceride synthesis and lipolysis. The impact of 14-3-3ζ depletion on adipocyte maturity was further examined with untargeted lipidomics, which revealed that reductions in 14-3-3ζ abundance promoted the acquisition of a lipidomic signature that resembled undifferentiated preadipocytes. Collectively, these findings reveal a novel aspect of 14-3-3ζ in adipocytes, as reducing 14-3-3ζ was found to have a negative effect on adipocyte maturity and adipocyte-specific processes like lipolysis.


Assuntos
Proteínas 14-3-3/genética , Adipócitos/metabolismo , Adipogenia/genética , Lipólise/genética , Proteínas 14-3-3/metabolismo , Células 3T3-L1 , Animais , Diferenciação Celular , Ácidos Graxos não Esterificados/metabolismo , Glicerol/metabolismo , Lipase/genética , Lipase/metabolismo , Lipidômica , Masculino , Camundongos , PPAR gama/genética , PPAR gama/metabolismo , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Esterol Esterase/genética , Esterol Esterase/metabolismo
15.
PLoS Genet ; 16(5): e1008823, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32453789

RESUMO

The development of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) depends on interactions between genetic and environmental factors, and a better understanding of gene-diet interactions in T2DM will be useful for disease prediction and prevention. Ascorbic acid has been proposed to reduce the risk of T2DM. However, the links between ascorbic acid and metabolic consequences are not fully understood. Here, we report that glucose transporter 10 (GLUT10) maintains intracellular levels of ascorbic acid to promote adipogenesis, white adipose tissue (WAT) development and protect mice from high-fat diet (HFD)-induced metabolic dysregulation. We found genetic polymorphisms in SLC2A10 locus are suggestively associated with a T2DM intermediate phenotype in non-diabetic Han Taiwanese. Additionally, mice carrying an orthologous human Glut10G128E variant (Glut10G128E mice) with compromised GLUT10 function have reduced adipogenesis, reduced WAT development and increased susceptibility to HFD-induced metabolic dysregulation. We further demonstrate that GLUT10 is highly expressed in preadipocytes, where it regulates intracellular ascorbic acid levels and adipogenesis. In this context, GLUT10 increases ascorbic acid-dependent DNA demethylation and the expression of key adipogenic genes, Cebpa and Pparg. Together, our data show GLUT10 regulates adipogenesis via ascorbic acid-dependent DNA demethylation to benefit proper WAT development and protect mice against HFD-induced metabolic dysregulation. Our findings suggest that SLC2A10 may be an important HFD-associated susceptibility locus for T2DM.


Assuntos
Tecido Adiposo Branco/metabolismo , Ácido Ascórbico/metabolismo , Metilação de DNA , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/genética , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Proteínas Facilitadoras de Transporte de Glucose/genética , Células 3T3-L1 , Adipogenia , Adulto , Idoso , Animais , Proteínas Estimuladoras de Ligação a CCAAT/genética , Metilação de DNA/efeitos dos fármacos , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas Facilitadoras de Transporte de Glucose/metabolismo , Hemoglobina A Glicada/metabolismo , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , PPAR gama/genética
16.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 2303, 2020 05 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32385276

RESUMO

White adipose tissue (WAT) expansion in obesity occurs through enlargement of preexisting adipocytes (hypertrophy) and through formation of new adipocytes (adipogenesis). Adipogenesis results in WAT hyperplasia, smaller adipocytes and a metabolically more favourable form of obesity. How obesogenic WAT hyperplasia is induced remains, however, poorly understood. Here, we show that the mechanosensitive cationic channel Piezo1 mediates diet-induced adipogenesis. Mice lacking Piezo1 in mature adipocytes demonstrated defective differentiation of preadipocyte into mature adipocytes when fed a high fat diet (HFD) resulting in larger adipocytes, increased WAT inflammation and reduced insulin sensitivity. Opening of Piezo1 in mature adipocytes causes the release of the adipogenic fibroblast growth factor 1 (FGF1), which induces adipocyte precursor differentiation through activation of the FGF-receptor-1. These data identify a central feed-back mechanism by which mature adipocytes control adipogenesis during the development of obesity and suggest Piezo1-mediated adipocyte mechano-signalling as a mechanism to modulate obesity and its metabolic consequences.


Assuntos
Adipócitos/metabolismo , Fator 1 de Crescimento de Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Canais Iônicos/metabolismo , Receptor Tipo 1 de Fator de Crescimento de Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Adipogenia/fisiologia , Tecido Adiposo Branco/metabolismo , Animais , Calorimetria , Células Cultivadas , Feminino , Fator 1 de Crescimento de Fibroblastos/genética , Citometria de Fluxo , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Marcação In Situ das Extremidades Cortadas , Insulina/sangue , Interleucina-6/sangue , Canais Iônicos/genética , Masculino , Camundongos , Receptor Tipo 1 de Fator de Crescimento de Fibroblastos/genética , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Transdução de Sinais/fisiologia
17.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 2306, 2020 05 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32385399

RESUMO

During ß-adrenergic stimulation of brown adipose tissue (BAT), p38 phosphorylates the activating transcription factor 2 (ATF2) which then translocates to the nucleus to activate the expression of Ucp1 and Pgc-1α. The mechanisms underlying ATF2 target activation are unknown. Here we demonstrate that p62 (Sqstm1) binds to ATF2 to orchestrate activation of the Ucp1 enhancer and Pgc-1α promoter. P62Δ69-251 mice show reduced expression of Ucp1 and Pgc-1α with impaired ATF2 genomic binding. Modulation of Ucp1 and Pgc-1α expression through p62 regulation of ATF2 signaling is demonstrated in vitro and in vivo in p62Δ69-251 mice, global p62-/- and Ucp1-Cre p62flx/flx mice. BAT dysfunction resulting from p62 deficiency is manifest after birth and obesity subsequently develops despite normal food intake, intestinal nutrient absorption and locomotor activity. In summary, our data identify p62 as a master regulator of BAT function in that it controls the Ucp1 pathway through regulation of ATF2 genomic binding.


Assuntos
Fator 2 Ativador da Transcrição/metabolismo , Proteína Sequestossoma-1/metabolismo , Proteínas Quinases p38 Ativadas por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Adipogenia/fisiologia , Tecido Adiposo Marrom/diagnóstico por imagem , Tecido Adiposo Marrom/metabolismo , Tecido Adiposo Branco/diagnóstico por imagem , Tecido Adiposo Branco/metabolismo , Animais , Núcleo Celular/metabolismo , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Obesidade/metabolismo , Coativador 1-alfa do Receptor gama Ativado por Proliferador de Peroxissomo/metabolismo , Tomografia Computadorizada com Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons , Ligação Proteica , Proteína Sequestossoma-1/genética , Proteína Desacopladora 1/metabolismo
18.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 2117, 2020 04 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32355218

RESUMO

White adipose tissue plays an important role in physiological homeostasis and metabolic disease. Different fat depots have distinct metabolic and inflammatory profiles and are differentially associated with disease risk. It is unclear whether these differences are intrinsic to the pre-differentiated stage. Using single-cell RNA sequencing, a unique network methodology and a data integration technique, we predict metabolic phenotypes in differentiating cells. Single-cell RNA-seq profiles of human preadipocytes during adipogenesis in vitro identifies at least two distinct classes of subcutaneous white adipocytes. These differences in gene expression are separate from the process of browning and beiging. Using a systems biology approach, we identify a new network of zinc-finger proteins that are expressed in one class of preadipocytes and is potentially involved in regulating adipogenesis. Our findings gain a deeper understanding of both the heterogeneity of white adipocytes and their link to normal metabolism and disease.


Assuntos
Adipócitos Brancos/citologia , Adipogenia , Diferenciação Celular/genética , Análise de Célula Única , Transcrição Genética , Células Cultivadas , Análise por Conglomerados , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Redes Reguladoras de Genes , Glucose/metabolismo , Humanos , Consumo de Oxigênio , Fenótipo , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Mapeamento de Interação de Proteínas , Análise de Sequência de RNA , Biologia de Sistemas
19.
Cell Prolif ; 53(6): e12831, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32441391

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: AF4/FMR2 family member 1 (AFF1), known as a central scaffolding protein of super elongation complex (SEC), regulates gene transcription. We previously reported that AFF1 inhibited osteogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stromal/stem cells (hMSCs). However, its role in adipogenic differentiation has not been elucidated. MATERIALS AND METHODS: hMSCs and 3T3-L1 pre-adipocytes were cultured and induced for adipogenic differentiation. Small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) were applied to deplete AFF1 while lentiviruses expressing HA-Aff1 were used for overexpression. Oil Red O staining, triglyceride (TAG) quantification, quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR), Western blot analysis, immunofluorescence staining, RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) analysis and ChIP-qPCR were performed. To evaluate the adipogenesis in vivo, BALB/c nude mice were subcutaneously injected with Aff1-overexpressed 3T3-L1 pre-adipocytes. RESULTS: AFF1 depletion leads to an enhanced adipogenesis in both hMSCs and 3T3-L1 pre-adipocytes. Overexpression of Aff1 in 3T3-L1 cells results in the reduction of adipogenic differentiation and less adipose tissue formation in vivo. Mechanistically, AFF1 binds to the promoter region of Tgm2 gene and regulates its transcription. Overexpression of Tgm2 largely rescues adipogenic differentiation of Aff1-deficient cells. CONCLUSIONS: Our data indicate that AFF1 inhibits adipogenic differentiation by regulating the transcription of TGM2.


Assuntos
Adipogenia/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ligação ao GTP/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Proteínas Nucleares/metabolismo , Fatores de Elongação da Transcrição/metabolismo , Transglutaminases/genética , Células 3T3-L1 , Animais , Células Cultivadas , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Proteínas de Ligação ao GTP/biossíntese , Proteínas de Ligação ao GTP/metabolismo , Humanos , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/citologia , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Camundongos Nus , Proteínas Nucleares/genética , Células-Tronco/metabolismo , Transcrição Genética , Fatores de Elongação da Transcrição/genética , Transglutaminases/biossíntese , Transglutaminases/metabolismo
20.
Sci Total Environ ; 728: 138759, 2020 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32403013

RESUMO

Bisphenol S (BPS) has been increasingly used as a substitute for bisphenol A (BPA), a known endocrine disruptor. Early-life exposure to BPA affects fetal development and the risk of obesity in adolescence and adulthood. However, the effects of fetal exposure BPS in later life are unknown. This study aimed to investigate the effects of prenatal BPS exposure on adiposity in adult F1 mice. Pregnant C57BL/6 N mice were exposed to BPS (0, 0.05, 0.5, 5, and 50 mg/kg/d) via drinking water from gestation day 9 until delivery. Thereafter, two groups of offspring (6 weeks old) were either administered a standard diet (STD) or a high-fat diet (HFD) for 4 weeks until euthanasia. The body weight and gonadal white adipose tissue (gWAT) mass were determined, and the energy expenditure for the adiposity phenotype was computed especially for male mice, followed by histological analysis of the gWAT. Thereafter, the expression levels of adipogenic marker genes (Pparg, Cebpa, Fabp4, Lpl, and Adipoq) were analyzed in the gWAT via reverse-transcription PCR analysis. BPS-exposed male mice displayed apparent gWAT hypertrophy, consistent with the significant increase in adipocyte size in the gWAT and upregulation of Pparg and its direct target genes among HFD mice in comparison with the control mice. These results suggest that prenatal BPS exposure potentially increases the susceptibility to HFD-induced adipogenesis in male adult mice.


Assuntos
Adipogenia , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal , Animais , Compostos Benzidrílicos , Dieta Hiperlipídica , Feminino , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Fenóis , Gravidez , Sulfonas
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