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1.
Molecules ; 26(16)2021 Aug 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34443613

RESUMO

Adipogenesis is a complex process in which cell commitment and mitotic clonal expansion (MCE) are in-sequence crucial events leading to terminal adipocyte differentiation. The molecules able to block some key signals in this cascade can hamper adipogenesis becoming promising agents to counteract hyperplasia and hypertrophy of adipose tissue. Mono- and di-caffeoylquinic acid isomers are biologically active polyphenols, displaying in vitro and in vivo antioxidant, hepatoprotective, anti-diabetic and anti-obesity properties. Among these isomers, 3,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid (DCQA) has been reported to inhibit lipid accumulation in adipose cells more successfully than others. Thus, we investigated DCQA effects and molecular mechanisms on 3T3-L1 pre-adipocytes induced to differentiate with a hormonal cocktail (MDI). Oil Red O incorporation assessed that DCQA pre-treatment inhibited lipid accumulation in 3T3-L1 cells induced to differentiate for 10 days. At this time, an increased phosphorylation of both AMP-activated kinase and acetyl-CoA carboxylase, as well as a strong decrease in fatty acid synthase protein level, were registered by immunoblotting, thereby suggesting that DCQA treatment can reduce fatty acid anabolism in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Furthermore, BrdU incorporation assay, performed 48 h after hormonal stimulation, revealed that DCQA treatment was also able to hinder the 3T3-L1 cell proliferation during the MCE, which is an essential step in the adipogenic process. Thus, we focused our attention on early signals triggered by the differentiation stimuli. In the first hours after hormonal cocktail administration, the activation of ERK1/2 and Akt kinases, or CREB and STAT3 transcription factors, was not affected by DCQA pre-treatment. Whereas 24 h after MDI induction, DCQA pre-treated cells showed increased level of the transcription factor Nrf2, that induced the expression of the antioxidant enzyme heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1). In control samples, the expression level of HO-1 was reduced 24 h after MDI induction in comparison with the higher amount of HO-1 protein found at 2 h. The HO-1 decrease was functional by allowing reactive oxygen species to boost and allowing cell proliferation induction at the beginning of MCE phase. Instead, in DCQA-treated cells the HO-1 expression was maintained at high levels for a further 24 h; in fact, its expression decreased only 48 h after MDI stimulation. The longer period in which HO-1 expression remained high led to a delay of the MCE phase, with a subsequent inhibition of both C/EBP-α expression and adipocyte terminal differentiation. In conclusion, DCQA counteracting an excessive adipose tissue expansion may become an attractive option in obesity treatment.


Assuntos
Adipócitos/citologia , Adipócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Diferenciação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Ácido Clorogênico/análogos & derivados , Regulação Enzimológica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Heme Oxigenase-1/metabolismo , Mitose/efeitos dos fármacos , Células 3T3-L1 , Adipócitos/metabolismo , Adipogenia/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Ácido Clorogênico/farmacologia , Camundongos
2.
Nutrients ; 13(7)2021 Jul 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34371822

RESUMO

Tetranectin (TN), a plasminogen-binding protein originally involved in fibrinolysis and bone formation, was later identified as a secreted adipokine from human and rat adipocytes and positively correlated with adipogenesis and lipid metabolism in adipocytes. To elucidate the nutritional regulation of adipogenic TN from diets containing different sources of fatty acids (saturated, n-6, n-3) in adipocytes, we cloned the coding region of porcine TN from a cDNA library and analyzed tissue expressions in weaned piglets fed with 2% soybean oil (SB, enriched in n-6 fatty acids), docosahexaenoic acid oil (DHA, an n-3 fatty acid) or beef tallow (BT, enriched in saturated and n-9 fatty acids) for 30 d. Compared with tissues in the BT- or SB-fed group, expression of TN was reduced in the adipose, liver and lung tissues from the DHA-fed group, accompanied with lowered plasma levels of triglycerides and cholesterols. This in vivo reduction was also confirmed in porcine primary differentiated adipocytes supplemented with DHA in vitro. Then, promoter analysis was performed. A 1956-bp putative porcine TN promoter was cloned and transcription binding sites for sterol regulatory-element binding protein (SREBP)-1c or forkhead box O proteins (FoxO) were predicted on the TN promoter. Mutating binding sites on porcine TN promoters showed that transcriptional suppression of TN by DHA on promoter activity was dependent on specific response elements for SREBP-1c or FoxO. The inhibited luciferase promoter activity by DHA on the TN promoter coincides with reduced gene expression of TN, SREBP-1c, and FoxO1 in human embryonic kidney HEK293T cells supplemented with DHA. To conclude, our current study demonstrated that the adipogenic TN was negatively regulated by nutritional modulation of DHA both in pigs in vivo and in humans/pigs in vitro. The transcriptional suppression by DHA on TN expression was partly through SREBP-1c or FoxO. Therefore, down-regulation of adipogenic tetranectin associated with fibrinolysis and adipogenesis may contribute to the beneficial effects of DHA on ameliorating obesity-induced metabolic syndromes such as atherosclerosis and adipose dysfunctions.


Assuntos
Adipogenia/efeitos dos fármacos , Ácidos Docosa-Hexaenoicos/farmacologia , Fatores de Transcrição Forkhead/metabolismo , Lectinas Tipo C/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas de Ligação a Elemento Regulador de Esterol/metabolismo , Adipócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Fibrinólise/efeitos dos fármacos , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição/genética , Suínos
3.
Eur J Endocrinol ; 185(4): 539-552, 2021 Aug 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34342596

RESUMO

Objective: Sex steroid hormones like estrogens have a key role in the regulation of energy homeostasis and metabolism. In transwomen, gender-affirming hormone therapy like estradiol (in combination with antiandrogenic compounds) could affect metabolism as well. Given that the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms are not fully understood, this study assessed circulating estradiol-driven microRNAs (miRs) in transwomen and their regulation of genes involved in metabolism in mice. Methods: Following plasma miR-sequencing (seq) in a transwomen discovery (n = 20) and validation cohort (n = 30), we identified miR-224 and miR-452. Subsequent systemic silencing of these miRs in male C57Bl/6 J mice (n = 10) was followed by RNA-seq-based gene expression analysis of brown and white adipose tissue in conjunction with mechanistic studies in cultured adipocytes. Results: Estradiol in transwomen lowered plasma miR-224 and -452 carried in extracellular vesicles (EVs) while their systemic silencing in mice and cultured adipocytes increased lipogenesis (white adipose) but reduced glucose uptake and mitochondrial respiration (brown adipose). In white and brown adipose tissue, differentially expressed (miR target) genes are associated with lipogenesis (white adipose) and mitochondrial respiration and glucose uptake (brown adipose). Conclusion: This study identified an estradiol-drive post-transcriptional network that could potentially offer a mechanistic understanding of metabolism following gender-affirming estradiol therapy.


Assuntos
Micropartículas Derivadas de Células/genética , Estradiol/fisiologia , MicroRNAs/genética , Transexualidade , Adipócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Adipócitos/fisiologia , Adipogenia/efeitos dos fármacos , Adipogenia/genética , Adulto , Animais , Micropartículas Derivadas de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Micropartículas Derivadas de Células/metabolismo , Estudos de Coortes , Regulação para Baixo/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação para Baixo/genética , Metabolismo Energético/efeitos dos fármacos , Metabolismo Energético/genética , Estradiol/sangue , Estradiol/farmacologia , Vesículas Extracelulares/genética , Vesículas Extracelulares/metabolismo , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Homeostase/efeitos dos fármacos , Terapia de Reposição Hormonal , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Interferência de RNA/efeitos dos fármacos , Pessoas Transgênero , Transexualidade/genética , Transexualidade/metabolismo , Adulto Jovem
4.
Chem Biol Interact ; 346: 109595, 2021 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34302803

RESUMO

Glycyrrhizic acid (GA), a major constituent of the root of licorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra), and has various biological activities, including anti-obesity property. However, the molecular mechanism of anti-adipogenic effect of GA is still unclear. In this study, we investigated the anti-adipogenic effects of GA in mouse adipocytic 3T3-L1 cells and elucidated its underlying molecular mechanism. GA decreased the intracellular triglyceride level. The expression levels of the adipogenic and lipogenic genes were lowered by treatment with GA in a concertation-dependent manner. In contrast, GA did not affect the lipolytic gene expression and the released glycerol level. GA suppressed the early stage of adipogenesis when it was added for 0-3 h after initiation of adipogenesis. Moreover, GA reduced the mRNA levels of CCAAT/enhancer binding protein (C/EBP) ß and C/EBPδ, both of which activate the early stage of adipogenesis. Furthermore, GA decreased phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase [ERK: p44/42 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)] in the early stage of adipogenesis. In addition, a MAPK kinase (MEK) inhibitor, PD98059 reduced the C/EBPß and C/EBPδ gene expression. These results indicate that GA suppressed the early stage of adipogenesis through repressing the MEK/ERK-mediated C/EBPß and C/EBPδ expression in 3T3-L1 cells. Thus, GA has an anti-adipogenic ability and a possible agent for treatment of obesity.


Assuntos
Adipogenia/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteína beta Intensificadora de Ligação a CCAAT/metabolismo , Proteína delta de Ligação ao Facilitador CCAAT/metabolismo , Diferenciação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Ácido Glicirrízico/farmacologia , Células 3T3-L1 , Animais , Proteína beta Intensificadora de Ligação a CCAAT/genética , Proteína delta de Ligação ao Facilitador CCAAT/genética , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação para Baixo/efeitos dos fármacos , MAP Quinases Reguladas por Sinal Extracelular/metabolismo , Flavonoides/farmacologia , Transportador de Glucose Tipo 4/metabolismo , Lipólise/efeitos dos fármacos , Camundongos , Quinases de Proteína Quinase Ativadas por Mitógeno/antagonistas & inibidores , Quinases de Proteína Quinase Ativadas por Mitógeno/metabolismo , PPAR gama/metabolismo , Fosforilação/efeitos dos fármacos , Triglicerídeos/metabolismo
5.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 13(13): 17489-17498, 2021 07 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34232916

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Obesity is becoming a major global health issue and is mainly induced by the accumulation of adipose tissues mediated by adipogenesis, which is reported to be regulated by peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) and CCAAT enhancer-binding protein α (C/EBPα). Trichostatin A (TSA) is a novel histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDACI) that was recently reported to exert multiple pharmacological functions. The present study will investigate the inhibitory effect of TSA on adipogenesis, as well as the underlying mechanism. METHODS: The adipogenesis of 3T3-L1 cells was induced by stimulation with a differentiation cocktail (DMI) medium for 8 days. MTT assay was used to measure the cell viability and Oil Red O staining was used to evaluate the adipogenesis of 3T3-L1 cells. The total level of triglyceride and released glycerol were detected to evaluate the lipolysis during 3T3-L1 adipogenesis. The expression levels of Leptin, fatty acid-binding protein 4 (FABP4), and sterol regulatory element-binding protein (SREBP1C) were determined by qRT-PCR. qRT-PCR assay was utilized to detect the expression levels of PPARγ and C/EBPα in 3T3-L1 cells. A high-fat diet (HFD) was used to construct an obese mice model, followed by the treatment with TSA. HE staining was conducted to evaluate the pathological state of adipose tissues. Body weights and the weights of adipose tissues were recorded to evaluate the anti-obesity property of TSA. RESULTS: Firstly, the promoted lipid accumulation induced by DMI incubation was significantly reversed by the treatment with TSA in a dose-dependent manner. The elevated expression levels of Leptin, FABP4, SREBP1C, PPARγ, and C/EBPα induced by the stimulation with DMI incubation were dramatically inhibited by the introduction of TSA, accompanied by the upregulation of phosphorylated AMP-activated protein kinase (p-AMPK). Secondly, the inhibitory effect of TSA against the expression level of PPARγ and lipid accumulation was greatly abolished by an AMPK inhibitor. Lastly, the increased body weights and visceral adipocyte tissue weight, as well as the enlarged size of adipocytes induced by HFD were pronouncedly reversed by the administration of TSA. CONCLUSION: TSA inhibited adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes by activating the AMPK pathway.


Assuntos
Adipócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Adipogenia/efeitos dos fármacos , Fármacos Antiobesidade/farmacologia , Inibidores de Histona Desacetilases/farmacologia , Ácidos Hidroxâmicos/farmacologia , Células 3T3-L1 , Tecido Adiposo/patologia , Animais , Peso Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Dieta Hiperlipídica , Proteínas de Ligação a Ácido Graxo/genética , Glicerol/metabolismo , Leptina/metabolismo , Lipólise/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Obesos , Obesidade/genética , Triglicerídeos/metabolismo
6.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 13(26): 30306-30316, 2021 Jul 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34156811

RESUMO

Much attention has been paid to understanding the individual effects of surface chemistry or topography on cell behavior. However, the synergistic influence of both surface chemistry and surface topography on differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) should also be addressed. Here, gold nanoparticles were immobilized in an increasing number density manner to achieve a surface topography gradient; a thin film rich in amine (-NH2) or methyl (-CH3) chemical groups was plasma-polymerized to adjust the surface chemistry of the outermost layer (ppAA and ppOD, respectively). hMSCs were cultured on these model substrates with defined surface chemistry and surface topography gradient. The morphology and focal adhesion (FA) formation of hMSCs were first examined. hMSC differentiation was then co-induced in osteogenic and adipogenic medium, as well as in the presence of extracellular-signal-regulated kinase1/2 (ERK1/2) and RhoA/Rho-associated protein kinase (ROCK) inhibitors. The results show that the introduction of nanotopography could enhance FA formation and osteogenesis but inhibited adipogenesis on both ppAA and ppOD surfaces, indicating that the surface chemistry could regulate hMSC differentiation, in a surface topography-dependent manner. RhoA/ROCK and ERK1/2 signaling pathways may participate in this process. This study demonstrated that surface chemistry and surface topography can jointly affect cell morphology, FA formation, and thus osteogenic/adipogenic differentiation of hMSCs. These findings highlight the importance of the synergistic effect of different material properties on regulation of cell response, which has important implications in designing functional biomaterials.


Assuntos
Adipogenia/efeitos dos fármacos , Diferenciação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/metabolismo , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Osteogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Ouro/química , Humanos , Propriedades de Superfície
7.
Cell Prolif ; 54(8): e13083, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34165214

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Nodakenin (NK) is a coumarin glucoside that is found in the roots of Angelicae gigas. A limited number of studies have been conducted on the pharmacological activities of NK. Although NK is an important natural resource having anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects, no investigation has been conducted to examine the effects of NK on obesity and obesity-induced inflammation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The present study investigated the therapeutic effects of NK treatment on obesity and its complications, and its mechanism of action using differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes and high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obese mice. Oil red O staining, western blot assay, qRT-PCR assay, siRNA transfection, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, H&E staining, immunohistochemistry, molecular docking and immunofluorescence staining were utilized. RESULTS: Treatment with NK demonstrated anti-adipogenesis effects via the regulation of adipogenic transcription factors and genes associated with triglyceride synthesis in differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Compared with the control group, the group administered NK showed a suppression in weight gain, dyslipidaemia and the development of fatty liver in HFD-induced obese mice. In addition, NK administration inhibited adipogenic differentiation and obesity-induced inflammation and oxidative stress via the suppression of the VLDLR and MEK/ERK1/2 pathways. This is the first study that has documented the interaction between NK and VLDLR structure. CONCLUSION: These results demonstrate the potential of NK as a natural product-based therapeutic candidate for the treatment of obesity and its complications by targeting adipogenesis and adipose tissue inflammation-associated markers.


Assuntos
Cumarínicos/farmacologia , Glucosídeos/farmacologia , Receptores de LDL/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Células 3T3-L1 , Adipogenia/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Diferenciação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Colesterol/sangue , Dieta Hiperlipídica , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Proteína Quinase 1 Ativada por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Proteína Quinase 3 Ativada por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Obesidade/patologia , Interferência de RNA , RNA Interferente Pequeno/metabolismo , Receptores de LDL/antagonistas & inibidores , Receptores de LDL/genética , Ganho de Peso/efeitos dos fármacos
8.
FASEB J ; 35(7): e21730, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34110631

RESUMO

Adipose tissue macrophages (ATMs) represent the most abundant leukocytes in adipose tissue (AT). An increase in number and a phenotypical switch of ATMs during the development of obesity contribute to chronic inflammation and metabolic disorders, which have been regarded as potential therapeutic targets to restore AT homeostasis. Emodin has been shown to exert strong anti-inflammatory property via acting on macrophages in a range of disease models. However, whether emodin exerts a beneficial effect on obesity via modulating ATMs has not been reported. In high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obese mice, emodin significantly inhibited the increase of body weight and lipid accumulation in ATs. Emodin apparently reduced glucose and insulin levels and ameliorated serum lipid profiles in HFD-fed mice. Moreover, the local and systemic inflammation was dramatically alleviated by emodin. We next discovered that M2 macrophage percentage was greatly increased by emodin although total ATMs was not altered, which resulted in a net increase of M2 macrophages in AT. In vitro studies confirmed that emodin promoted the polarization of macrophages towards M2. Gene ontology (GO) analysis showed that myeloid leukocyte differentiation and activation were among the most significant biological processes in emodin-treated ATMs. We further identified that TREM2 was the most dramatically upregulated molecule by emodin and emodin-induced M2 macrophage polarization was dependent on TREM2. Furthermore, silencing TREM2 apparently abrogated the effect of emodin on AT inflammation and adipogenesis. We, for the first time, disclosed that emodin inhibited obesity by promoting M2 macrophage polarization via TREM2, suggesting that emodin may be explored as a clinical and translational candidate in preventing obesity and its related metabolic diseases.


Assuntos
Tecido Adiposo/efeitos dos fármacos , Emodina/farmacologia , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Lipídeos/fisiologia , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Células 3T3-L1 , Adipogenia/efeitos dos fármacos , Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Dieta Hiperlipídica , Inflamação/metabolismo , Insulina/metabolismo , Ativação de Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Masculino , Glicoproteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Obesos , Obesidade/metabolismo
9.
Life Sci ; 282: 119668, 2021 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34087283

RESUMO

AIMS: Berteroin (5-methylthiopentyl isothiocyanate) is a naturally occurring sulforaphane analog containing a non-oxidized sulfur atom in cruciferous vegetables. The objectives of the present study were to determine the effects of berteroin on lipid metabolism in hepatocytes and adipocytes and to elucidate the mechanisms involved. MAIN METHODS: The effect of berteroin on lipid metabolism were evaluated in liver X receptor α agonist-stimulated HepG2 cells and adipocyte differentiation-induced 3T3-L1 cells using MTT assay, western blot, real time polymerase chain reaction, oil red O staining, and triglyceride assay. KEY FINDINGS: T0901317 treatment increased the expression of sterol regulatory element binding protein (SREBP)-1c, a major transcription factor that mediates lipogenesis, and berteroin pretreatment significantly inhibited the expressions of T0901317-induced SREBP-1c and lipogenic genes. Especially, berteroin had a greater inhibitory effect on T0901317-induced SREBP-1c activation than sulforaphane, AICAR, or metformin. Berteroin also markedly suppressed lipid droplet formations and triglyceride accumulations caused by both T0901317 stimulation in HepG2 hepatocytes and differentiation induction in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. However, berteroin significantly increased the expression of mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation-related genes (carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1 (CPT-1) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator-1α) and the phosphorylation of adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) in HepG2 cells. Interestingly, effects of berteroin on the expressions of SREBP-1c protein and CPT-1 mRNA were remarkably prevented by compound C (an AMPK inhibitor). SIGNIFICANCE: Our results suggest berteroin-inhibited hepatic lipid accumulation and adipocyte differentiation might be mediated by AMPK activation and that berteroin might be useful for the prevention, amelioration, and treatment of metabolic diseases, including hepatic steatosis.


Assuntos
Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por AMP/metabolismo , Adipogenia/efeitos dos fármacos , Isotiocianatos/farmacologia , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Células 3T3-L1 , Adipócitos/citologia , Adipócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Adipócitos/metabolismo , Animais , Células Hep G2 , Humanos , Fígado/metabolismo , Camundongos
10.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(9)2021 May 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34063048

RESUMO

Pazopanib is a multikinase inhibitor with anti-tumor activity. As of now, the anti-obesity effect and mode of action of pazopanib are unknown. In this study, we investigated the effects of pazopanib on lipid accumulation, lipolysis, and expression of inflammatory cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 in differentiating and differentiated 3T3-L1 cells, a murine preadipocyte. Of note, pazopanib at 10 µM markedly decreased lipid accumulation and triglyceride (TG) content during 3T3-L1 preadipocyte differentiation with no cytotoxicity. Furthermore, pazopanib inhibited not only expression of CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein-α (C/EBP-α), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPAR-γ), and perilipin A but also phosphorylation of signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT)-3 during 3T3-L1 preadipocyte differentiation. In addition, pazopanib treatment increased phosphorylation of cAMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and its downstream effector ACC during 3T3-L1 preadipocyte differentiation. However, in differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes, pazopanib treatment did not stimulate glycerol release and hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) phosphorylation, hallmarks of lipolysis. Moreover, pazopanib could inhibit tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α-induced expression of COX-2 in both 3T3-L1 preadipocytes and differentiated cells. In summary, this is the first report that pazopanib has strong anti-adipogenic and anti-inflammatory effects in 3T3-L1 cells, which are mediated through regulation of the expression and phosphorylation of C/EBP-α, PPAR-γ, STAT-3, ACC, perilipin A, AMPK, and COX-2.


Assuntos
Adipócitos/citologia , Adipócitos/metabolismo , Diferenciação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Ciclo-Oxigenase 2/metabolismo , Indazóis/farmacologia , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacologia , Pirimidinas/farmacologia , Sulfonamidas/farmacologia , Células 3T3-L1 , Adenilato Quinase/metabolismo , Adipócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Adipogenia/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Proteína alfa Estimuladora de Ligação a CCAAT/metabolismo , Morte Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Ácido Graxo Sintases/metabolismo , Glicerol/metabolismo , Leptina/metabolismo , Camundongos , PPAR gama/metabolismo , Perilipina-1/metabolismo , Fosforilação/efeitos dos fármacos , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Resistina/metabolismo , Fator de Transcrição STAT3/metabolismo , Esterol Esterase/metabolismo , Triglicerídeos/metabolismo , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/farmacologia
11.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(10)2021 May 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34069744

RESUMO

Bisphenol A (BPA) is an endocrine-disrupting chemical used in the production of plastics, and is linked to developmental, reproductive, and metabolic disorders including obesity. Manufacturers have begun using 'BPA-free' alternatives instead of BPA in many consumer products. However, these alternatives have had much less testing and oversight, yet they are already being mass-produced and used across industries from plastics to food-contact coatings. Here, we used human female adipose-derived stem cells (hASCs), a type of adult mesenchymal stem cell, to compare the effects of BPA and BPA alternatives on adipogenesis or fat cell development in vitro. We focused on two commonly used BPA replacements, bisphenol AF (BPAF) and tetramethyl bisphenol F (TMBPF; monomer of the new valPure V70 food-contact coating). Human ASCs were differentiated into adipocytes using chemically defined media in the presence of control differentiation media with and without 17ß-estradiol (E2; 10 µM), or with increasing doses of BPA (0, 0.1 and 1 µM), BPAF (0, 0.1, 1 and 10 nM), or TMBPF (0, 0.01 and 0.1 µM). After differentiation, the cells were stained and imaged to visualize and quantify the accumulation of lipid vacuoles and number of developing fat cells. Treated cells were also examined for cell viability and apoptosis (programmed cell death) using the respective cellular assays. Similar to E2, BPA at 0.1 µM and BPAF at 0.1 nM, significantly increased adipogenesis and lipid production by 20% compared to control differentiated cells (based on total lipid vacuole number to cell number ratios), whereas higher levels of BPA and BPAF significantly decreased adipogenesis (p < 0.005). All tested doses of TMBPF significantly reduced adipogenesis and lipid production by 30-40%, likely at least partially through toxic effects on stem cells, as viable cell numbers decreased and apoptosis levels increased throughout differentiation. These findings indicate that low, environmentally-relevant doses of BPA, BPAF, and TMBPF have significant effects on fat cell development and lipid accumulation, with TMBPF having non-estrogenic, anti-adipogenic effects. These and other recent results may provide a potential cellular mechanism between exposure to bisphenols and human obesity, and underscore the likely impact of these chemicals on fat development in vivo.


Assuntos
Adipócitos/metabolismo , Adipogenia/efeitos dos fármacos , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/efeitos dos fármacos , Adipócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Adipogenia/fisiologia , Tecido Adiposo/efeitos dos fármacos , Células-Tronco Adultas/efeitos dos fármacos , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Compostos Benzidrílicos/efeitos adversos , Diferenciação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Disruptores Endócrinos/toxicidade , Estradiol/farmacologia , Feminino , Humanos , Obesidade/metabolismo , Fenóis/efeitos adversos , Células-Tronco/efeitos dos fármacos
12.
Chem Biol Interact ; 343: 109491, 2021 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33945810

RESUMO

Inhibition of adipocyte differentiation can be used as a strategy for preventing adipose tissue expansion and, consequently, for obesity management. Since reactive oxygen species (ROS) have emerged as key modulators of adipogenesis, the effect of menadione (a synthetic form of vitamin K known to induce the increase of intracellular ROS) on 3T3-L1 preadipocyte differentiation was studied. Menadione (15 µM) increased ROS and lipid peroxidation, generating mild oxidative stress without affecting cell viability. Menadione drastically inhibited adipogenesis, accompanied by decreased intracellular lipid accumulation and diminished expression of the lipo/adipogenic markers peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)γ, fatty acid synthase (FAS), CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein (C/EBP) α, fatty acid binding protein (FABP) 4, and perilipin. Menadione treatment also increased lipolysis, as indicated by augmented glycerol release and reinforced by the increased expression of hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL). Additionally, menadione increased the inhibitory phosphorylation of acetyl-CoA-carboxylase (ACC), which results in the inhibition of fatty acid synthesis. As a consequence, triglyceride content was decreased. Menadione also inhibited the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt pathway. Further, treatment with increased concentration of insulin, a potent physiological activator of the PI3K/Akt pathway, rescued the normal level of expression of PPARγ, the master regulator of adipogenesis, and overcame the restraining effect of menadione on the differentiation capacity of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. Our study reveals novel antiadipogenic action for menadione, which is, at least in part, mediated by the PI3K/Akt pathway signaling and raises its potential as a therapeutic agent in the treatment or prevention of adiposity.


Assuntos
Adipogenia/efeitos dos fármacos , Vitamina K 3/farmacologia , Células 3T3-L1 , Animais , Diferenciação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Peroxidação de Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Camundongos , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Triglicerídeos/metabolismo
13.
Mar Drugs ; 19(5)2021 Apr 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33946320

RESUMO

The province of Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada, generates tons of shrimp processing by-product every year. Shrimp contains omega (n)-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and astaxanthin (Astx), a potent antioxidant that exists in either free or esterified form (Astx-E). In this study, shrimp oil (SO) was extracted from the shrimp processing by-product using the Soxhlet method (hexane:acetone 2:3). The extracted SO was rich in phospholipids, n-3 PUFA, and Astx-E. The 3T3-L1 preadipocytes were differentiated to mature adipocytes in the presence or absence of various treatments for 8 days. The effects of SO were then investigated on fat accumulation, and the mRNA expression of genes involved in adipogenesis and lipogenesis in 3T3-L1 cells. The effects of fish oil (FO), in combination with Astx-E, on fat accumulation, and the mRNA expression of genes involved in adipogenesis and lipogenesis were also investigated. The SO decreased fat accumulation, compared to untreated cells, which coincided with lower mRNA expression of adipogenic and lipogenic genes. However, FO and FO + Astx-E increased fat accumulation, along with increased mRNA expression of adipogenic and lipogenic genes, and glucose transporter type 4 (Glut-4), compared to untreated cells. These findings have demonstrated that the SO is a rich source of n-3 PUFA and Astx-E, and has the potential to elicit anti-adipogenic effects. Moreover, the SO and FO appear to regulate adipogenesis and lipogenesis via independent pathways in 3T3-L1 cells.


Assuntos
Adipócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Adipogenia/efeitos dos fármacos , Fármacos Antiobesidade/farmacologia , Ésteres/farmacologia , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/farmacologia , Lipogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Óleos/farmacologia , Penaeidae/metabolismo , Frutos do Mar , Células 3T3-L1 , Adipócitos/metabolismo , Adipogenia/genética , Animais , Fármacos Antiobesidade/isolamento & purificação , Ésteres/isolamento & purificação , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/isolamento & purificação , Manipulação de Alimentos , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Lipogênese/genética , Camundongos , Óleos/isolamento & purificação , Resíduos , Xantofilas/isolamento & purificação , Xantofilas/farmacologia
14.
Food Chem Toxicol ; 152: 112205, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33864839

RESUMO

PCB 180 is a typical non-dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyl (NDL-PCB). It is one of the most prevalent PCB-congeners found in human adipose tissue. However, the role of PCB 180 in obesity remains poorly understood. The aim of this study was to explore the adipogenic effect and mechanism of PCB 180. Significant enhancement in adipogenesis was observed when differentiating murine 3T3-L1 preadipocytes or human preadipocytes-visceral (HPA-v) that were exposed to PCB 180. Furthermore, exposure to PCB 180 during the first two days was critical to the adipogenic effect. According to results from sequential cell cycle analyses, cell counting, BrdU incorporation, and cyclin D1, cyclin B1, and p27 protein quantification, PCB 180 was found to enhance mitotic clonal expansion (MCE) during early adipogenic differentiation. Molecular mechanistic investigation revealed that PCB 180 promoted accumulation of the C/EBPß protein, a key regulator that controls MCE. Finally, it was found that PCB 180 mitigated degradation of the C/EBPß protein by repressing the SUMOylation and subsequent ubiquitination of C/EBPß by the upregulation of SENP2. In summary, it was shown for the first time that PCB 180 facilitated adipogenesis by alleviating C/EBPß protein SUMOylation. This result provides novel evidence regarding obesogenic effect of PCB 180.


Assuntos
Adipócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Adipogenia/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteína beta Intensificadora de Ligação a CCAAT/metabolismo , Diferenciação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Bifenilos Policlorados/toxicidade , Sumoilação/efeitos dos fármacos , Células 3T3-L1 , Animais , Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Cisteína Endopeptidases/metabolismo , Humanos , Camundongos , Ubiquitinação/efeitos dos fármacos
15.
Food Chem Toxicol ; 152: 112216, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33865937

RESUMO

Bisphenol F (BPF) and bisphenol S (BPS) are increasingly used as substitutes for bisphenol A (BPA), an endocrine disrupting chemical (EDC) with obesogenic activity. We investigated the in vitro effects of BPS and BPF on the adipogenesis of human adipose-derived stem cells (hASCs) exposed to different doses (0.01, 0.1, 1, 10 and 25 µM), stopping the adipogenic process at 7 or 14 days. Intracellular lipid accumulation was quantified by the Oil Red O assay, gene expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ), CCAT/enhancer-binding protein (C/EBPα), lipoprotein-lipase (LPL) and fatty acid binding protein 4 (FABP4), by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and protein levels by Western Blot. hASCs with BPF or BPS produced a linear dose-response increase in intracellular lipid accumulation and in gene expression of the adipogenic markers, confirmed by protein levels. Co-treatment ICI 182,780 significantly inhibited BPF- but not BPS-induced lipid accumulation. Given the affinity of bisphenols for diverse nuclear receptors, their obesogenic effects may result from a combination of pathways rather than a single mechanism. Further research is warranted on the manner in which chemicals interfere with adipogenic differentiation. To our best knowledge, this report shows for the first time the obesogenic potential of BPF in hASCs.


Assuntos
Adipogenia/efeitos dos fármacos , Compostos Benzidrílicos/toxicidade , Diferenciação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/efeitos dos fármacos , Fenóis/toxicidade , Sulfonas/toxicidade , Proteína alfa Estimuladora de Ligação a CCAAT/metabolismo , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Proteínas de Ligação a Ácido Graxo/metabolismo , Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Lipase Lipoproteica/metabolismo , PPAR gama/metabolismo
16.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun ; 557: 309-315, 2021 06 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33894419

RESUMO

Artemisinin derivatives could inhibit adipogenic differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes and prevent obesity in mice. However, the molecular mechanism remains largely unclear. Our research was designed to investigate the specific molecular target of artemisinin derivatives in adipogenic differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. Here, we revealed that in response to dihydroartemisinin (DHA) or artesunate (ATS), intracellular lipid was decreased in a concentration dependent manner as shown by BODIPY staining. Quantitative PCR analysis showed that expression of Cebpa, Pparg, Fabp4 and Plin was significantly decreased by DHA treatment in a concentration and time dependent manner. Also, DHA treatment remarkably downregulated expression of CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein α (C/EBPα) and nuclear receptor peroxisome proliferation-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) of adipogenic induced 3T3-L1 cells as assayed by western blotting. RNA-seq analysis identified thousands of differential expression genes (DEGs), among which CHOP expression was significantly improved in DHA treated cells. Upregulation of CHOP was verified by quantitative PCR and western blotting, respectively. Knockdown of CHOP by the specific shRNA revealed that the inhibition of adipogenesis by DHA was strongly blocked, resulting in restored lipid accumulation and expression of adipogenic molecules. In conclusions, the inhibitory effect of DHA on adipogenic differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes was exerted in a concentration and time dependent manner, which was mediated by expression of CHOP.


Assuntos
Adipogenia/efeitos dos fármacos , Artemisininas/farmacologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Fator de Transcrição CHOP/metabolismo , Células 3T3-L1 , Adipócitos/metabolismo , Adipogenia/genética , Animais , Artesunato/farmacologia , Proteína alfa Estimuladora de Ligação a CCAAT/genética , Proteína alfa Estimuladora de Ligação a CCAAT/metabolismo , Proteínas Estimuladoras de Ligação a CCAAT/metabolismo , Regulação para Baixo , Proteínas de Ligação a Ácido Graxo/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/genética , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Camundongos , PPAR gama/metabolismo , Perilipina-1/metabolismo , RNA Interferente Pequeno , RNA-Seq , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Fator de Transcrição CHOP/genética , Regulação para Cima
17.
Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab ; 320(6): E1148-E1157, 2021 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33870712

RESUMO

The cytokine interleukin 4 (IL-4) can increase beige adipogenesis in adult rodents. However, neonatal animals use a distinct adipocyte precursor compartment for adipogenesis as compared with adults. In this study, we address whether IL-4 can induce persistent effects on adipose tissue when administered subcutaneously in the interscapular region during the neonatal period in Sprague-Dawley rats. We injected IL-4 into neonatal male rats during postnatal days 1-6, followed by analysis of adipose tissue and adipocyte precursors at 2 wk and 10 wk of age. Adipocyte precursors were cultured and subjected to differentiation in vitro. We found that a short and transient IL-4 exposure in neonates upregulated uncoupling protein 1 (Ucp1) mRNA expression and decreased fat cell size in subcutaneous white adipose tissue (WAT). Adipocyte precursors from mature rats that had been treated with IL-4 as neonates displayed a decrease in adiponectin (Adipoq) but no change in Ucp1 expression, as compared with controls. Thus, neonatal IL-4 induces acute beige adipogenesis and decreases adipogenic differentiation capacity long term. Overall, these findings indicate that the neonatal period is critical for adipocyte development and may influence the later onset of obesity.NEW & NOTEWORTHY We used neonatal injections in rat to show that IL-4 decreases adipogenesis and increases browning of white fat. In adulthood, adipocyte precursors show persistently decreased adipogenesis but not increased browning. These studies in the neonate are the first, to our knowledge, to show that IL-4 can have long-lasting effects.


Assuntos
Adipogenia/efeitos dos fármacos , Envelhecimento/metabolismo , Interleucina-4/farmacologia , Adipócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Adipócitos/fisiologia , Tecido Adiposo Branco/efeitos dos fármacos , Tecido Adiposo Branco/metabolismo , Tecido Adiposo Branco/patologia , Envelhecimento/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Diferenciação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Cultivadas , Feminino , Masculino , Gravidez , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Fatores de Tempo
18.
Molecules ; 26(6)2021 Mar 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33799634

RESUMO

Cirsium brevicaule A. GRAY is a wild perennial herb, and its roots (CbR) have traditionally been used as both food and medicine on the Japanese islands of Okinawa and Amami. The present study evaluated the antiadipogenic effect of CbR using mouse embryonic fibroblast cell line 3T3-L1 from JCRB cell bank. Dried CbR powder was serially extracted with solvents of various polarities, and these crude extracts were tested for antiadipogenic activity. Treatment with the methanol extract of CbR showed a significant suppression of lipid accumulation in 3T3-L1 cells. Methanol extract of CbR was then fractionated and subjected to further activity analyses. The phenylpropanoid glycosidic molecule syringin was identified as an active compound. Syringin dose dependently suppressed lipid accumulation of 3T3-L1 cells without cytotoxicity, and significantly reduced the expressions of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma, the master regulator of adipogenesis, and other differentiation markers. It was demonstrated that syringin effectively enhanced the phosphorylation of the AMP-activated protein kinase and acetyl-CoA carboxylase. These results indicate that syringin attenuates adipocyte differentiation, adipogenesis, and promotes lipid metabolism; thus, syringin may potentially serve as a therapeutic candidate for treatment of obesity.


Assuntos
Adipogenia/efeitos dos fármacos , Cirsium/metabolismo , Glucosídeos/metabolismo , Fenilpropionatos/metabolismo , Células 3T3-L1 , Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por AMP/metabolismo , Adipócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Fármacos Antiobesidade/farmacologia , Proteína alfa Estimuladora de Ligação a CCAAT/metabolismo , Diferenciação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Glucosídeos/química , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Camundongos , Obesidade/metabolismo , PPAR gama/metabolismo , Fenilpropionatos/química , Fosforilação , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Proteína de Ligação a Elemento Regulador de Esterol 1/metabolismo
19.
Mar Drugs ; 19(3)2021 Mar 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33803687

RESUMO

This study shows a pilot scale protocol aimed to obtain an omega 3-enriched oil after the processing of farmed gilthead sea bream viscera (SBV); this was oil was tested in vitro for bioactivity, attesting to the possibility to turn waste into profit The quality of the oil, in terms of requirements for animal and human consumption, was assessed by determining some chemical parameters, such as peroxide value (PV), thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), ρ-anisidine (ρ-AV) content, total oxidation value (TOTOX), and phospholipids and free fatty acid (%), both in crude viscera oil (CVO) and refined viscera oil (RVO). Among the extraction conditions, the higher CVO yields were obtained at 60 °C for 10 min (57.89%) and at 80 °C for 10 min (67.5%), and the resulting oxidation levels were low when utilizing both extraction conditions. RVO, obtained from CVO extracted at 60 °C, showed the highest quality on the basis of the assessed parameters. The ethyl esters of the total fatty acid (TFA) contents extracted from RVO were enriched in the ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid fraction (PUFAE) up to almost 56% via short path distillation (SPD). Antioxidant activities and adipogenic properties were tested in vitro. PUFAE protected 3T3 L1 cells from oxidative stress and exerted an anti-adipogenic effect in Dicentrarchus labrax pre-adipocytes, attesting to the beneficial properties for both farmed fish and human health. These results could stimulate the adoption of solutions aimed to recover and utilize aquaculture by-products at a higher scale, turning "waste into profit" and indicating a strategy to reach more sustainable business models in aquaculture resource utilization according to the principles of the circular economy.


Assuntos
Adipócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Adipogenia/efeitos dos fármacos , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/farmacologia , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Dourada/metabolismo , Vísceras/metabolismo , Células 3T3-L1 , Adipócitos/metabolismo , Animais , Antioxidantes/isolamento & purificação , Aquicultura , Bass , Destilação , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/isolamento & purificação , Camundongos , Projetos Piloto , Resíduos
20.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(9)2021 Apr 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33925005

RESUMO

To elucidate the additive effects of an EP2 agonist, omidenepag (OMD) or butaprost (Buta) on the Rho-associated coiled-coil-containing protein kinase (ROCK) inhibitor, ripasudil (Rip) on adipose tissue, two- or three-dimension (2D or 3D) cultures of 3T3-L1 cells were analyzed by lipid staining, the mRNA expression of adipogenesis-related genes, extracellular matrix (ECM) molecules including collagen (Col) -1, -4 and -6, and fibronectin (Fn), and the sizes and physical properties of 3D organoids, as measured by a micro-squeezer. The results indicate that adipogenesis induced (1) an enlargement of the 3D organoids; (2) a substantial enhancement in lipid staining as well as the expression of the Pparγ, Ap2 and Leptin genes; (3) a significant softening of the 3D organoids, the effects of which were all enhanced by Rip except for Pparγ expression; and (4) a significant downregulation in Col1 and Fn, and a significant upregulation in Col4, Col6, the effects of which were unchanged by Rip. When adding the EP2 agonist to Rip, (1) the sizes of the 3D organoids were reduced substantially; (2) lipid staining was increased (OMD), or decreased (Buta); (3) the stiffness of the 3D organoids was substantially increased in Buta; (4-1) the expression of Pparγ was suppressed (2D, OMD) or increased (2D, Buta), and the expressions of Ap2 were downregulated (2D, 3D) and Leptin was increased (2D) or decreased (3D), (4-2) all the expressions of four ECM molecules were upregulated in 2D (2D), and in 3D, the expression of Col1, Col4 was upregulated. The collective findings reported herein indicate that the addition of an EP2 agonist, OMD or Buta significantly but differently modulate the Rip-induced effects on adipogenesis and the physical properties of 2D and 3D cultured 3T3-L1 cells.


Assuntos
Adipogenia/efeitos dos fármacos , Alprostadil/análogos & derivados , Glicina/análogos & derivados , Isoquinolinas/farmacologia , Pirazóis/farmacologia , Piridinas/farmacologia , Sulfonamidas/farmacologia , Quinases Associadas a rho/antagonistas & inibidores , Células 3T3-L1 , Alprostadil/farmacologia , Animais , Avaliação Pré-Clínica de Medicamentos , Interações Medicamentosas , Glicina/farmacologia , Camundongos , Organoides , Receptores de Prostaglandina E Subtipo EP2/agonistas
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