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1.
Nutrients ; 13(7)2021 Jul 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34371845

RESUMO

Because the world's population is deficient in dietary calcium, it is important to search for new sources of this essential mineral for the bones and the entire body. One of the innovative foods that could act as such a source is pumpkin enriched with calcium lactate by means of osmotic dehydration. Providing the body with easily absorbable calcium may have beneficial effects on the reconstruction of bone tissue. Postmenopausal osteoporosis is associated with body weight and fat mass gain, and the aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of consuming enriched pumpkin on the levels of adipokines and cytokines produced by the adipose tissue. This study was conducted on 12-month-old female Wistar rats that received nutritional intervention for 12 weeks. After termination of the rats, the levels of leptin, adiponectin, interleukin 31 and interleukin 33 in serum and adipose tissue were determined, and the femurs were examined histopathologically. It was demonstrated that calcium-enriched pumpkin reduced bone marrow femoral adipocytes and also markedly decreased serum leptin levels in groups of rats after ovariectomy, which was associated with a decrease of fat content. Additionally, it seems that calcium-enriched pumpkin may reduce body weight gain often observed after menopause.


Assuntos
Cálcio na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Cucurbita , Alimentos Fortificados , Leptina/sangue , Osteoporose Pós-Menopausa/dietoterapia , Adiponectina/sangue , Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Humanos , Interleucinas/sangue , Osteoporose Pós-Menopausa/sangue , Ovariectomia , Ratos , Ratos Wistar
2.
Front Public Health ; 9: 678681, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34368053

RESUMO

Aim: This case-control study aimed to investigate the interrelations of body measurements and selected biomarkers in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Methods: We recruited 98 patients with T2DM and 98 controls from 2016 to 2018 in Taiwan. Body measurements were obtained using a three-dimensional body surface scanning system. Four biomarkers related to insulin resistance, adipokines, and inflammation were assayed. A multiple logistic regression model was used to perform multivariable analyses. Results: Four body measurements, namely waist circumference (odds ratio, OR = 1.073; 95% confidence interval, CI = 1.017-1.133), forearm circumference (OR = 1.227; 95% CI = 1.002-1.501), thigh circumference (OR = 0.841; 95% CI = 0.73-0.969), and calf circumference (OR = 1.25; 95% CI = 1.076-1.451), were significantly associated with T2DM. Leptin (OR = 1.09; 95% CI = 1.036-1.146) and adiponectin (OR = 0.982; 95% CI = 0.967-0.997) were significantly associated with T2DM. Six body measurement combinations, namely body mass index, waist-to-hip ratio, waist-to-height ratio, waist-to-thigh ratio, forearm-to-thigh ratio, and calf-to-thigh ratio (CTR), were significantly associated with T2DM. CTR had the strongest linear association with T2DM. Moderating effects of significant biomarkers, namely leptin and adiponectin, were observed. Participants with high leptin-to-adiponectin ratios and in the fourth CTR quartile were 162.2 times more prone to develop T2DM. Conclusions: We concluded that a combination of leptin and adiponectin modulated the strength of the association between body measurements and T2DM while providing clues for high-risk group identification and mechanistic conjectures of preventing T2DM.


Assuntos
Adiponectina , Antropometria , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Leptina , Adiponectina/sangue , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Humanos , Leptina/sangue , Taiwan , Circunferência da Cintura
3.
BMC Geriatr ; 21(1): 442, 2021 07 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34315434

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Adiponectin and zinc alpha2-glycoprotein (ZAG) are associated with frailty. This study aims to further examine the association of adiponectin with ZAG. METHODS: Outpatients aged 65 years or older with chronic disease followed up in a hospital-based program were recruited for a comprehensive geriatric assessment. We excluded outpatients who were bedridden, residing in a nursing home, with expected life expectancy less than 6 months, or with severe hearing or communication impairment. Plasma ZAG and adiponectin levels were measured. Association between plasma ZAG and adiponectin levels was analyzed by univariate and multivariable linear regression analyses. RESULTS: A total of 189 older adults were enrolled (91 men and 98 women, mean age: 77.2 ± 6.1 years). Log-transformed plasma ZAG level was 1.82 ± 0.11 µg/mL, and it was significantly higher in men than that in women (1.85 ± 0.12 vs 1.79 ± 0.10 µg/mL, P = .0006). Log-transformed plasma adiponectin level was 1.00 ± 0.26 µg/mL, and there was no significant gender difference (P = .195). Overall, plasma ZAG level positively correlated with plasma adiponectin level in the multivariable linear regression analysis (P = .0085). The gender-specific significance, however, was less clear: this relationship was significant in men (P = .0049) but not in women (P = .2072). To be more specific by frailty phenotype components, plasma adiponectin was positively correlated with weight loss (P = .0454) and weakness (P = .0451). CONCLUSIONS: Both of ZAG and adiponectin may be potential frailty biomarkers. Plasma ZAG is an independent factor of plasma adiponectin, especially in older male adults.


Assuntos
Adipocinas/sangue , Adiponectina , Fragilidade , Adiponectina/sangue , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Avaliação Geriátrica , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores Sexuais , Perda de Peso
4.
Nutrients ; 13(6)2021 May 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34070968

RESUMO

Future deep space astronauts must maintain adequate nutrition despite highly stressful, isolated, confined and dangerous environments. The present case-study investigated appetite regulating hormones, nutrition status, and physical and emotional stress in a space analog condition: an explorer conducting a 93-day unsupported solo crossing of Antarctica. Using the dried blood spot (DBS) method, the subject drew samples of his blood on a regular basis during the expedition. The DBSs were later analyzed for the appetite regulating hormones leptin and adiponectin. Energy intake and nutritional status were monitored by analysis of albumin and globulin (including their ratio). Interleukin-6 (IL-6) was also analyzed and used as an energy sensor. The results showed a marked reduction in levels of the appetite-reducing hormone, leptin, and the appetite stimulating hormone, adiponectin, during both extreme physical and psychological strain. Nutrition status showed a variation over the expedition, with below-normal levels during extreme psychological strain and levels abutting the lower bounds of the normal range during a phase dominated by extreme physical hardship. The IL-6 levels varied substantially, with levels above the normal range except during the recovery phase. It was concluded that a daily intake of 5058 to 5931 calories seemed to allow recovery of both appetite and nutritional status between extreme physical and psychological hardship during a long Arctic expedition. Furthermore, IL-6 may be a sensor in the muscle-liver, muscle-fat and muscle-brain crosstalk. These results may help guide nutrition planning for future astronaut crews, mountaineers and others involved in highly demanding missions.


Assuntos
Adiponectina/sangue , Regulação do Apetite , Expedições , Leptina/sangue , Estado Nutricional , Adulto , Regiões Antárticas , Apetite , Temperatura Baixa , Ingestão de Energia , Exercício Físico , Humanos , Interleucina-6/sangue , Masculino , Angústia Psicológica , Albumina Sérica/análise , Soroglobulinas/análise
5.
Kardiologiia ; 61(5): 65-70, 2021 May 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34112077

RESUMO

Objectives    Recent studies demonstrated that elevated adiponectin levels predicted an increased risk of atrial fibrillation (AF) and stroke; however, a causal relationship is yet to be unknown. Reduced left atrium (LA) functions detected by two-dimensional echocardiographic speckle tracking (2D-STE) can predict AF development. We aimed to investigate the relationship between adiponectin level and LA functions in hypertensive and diabetic patients at high risk for incident AF.Material and methods    The study consisted of 80 hypertensive diabetic patients. All patients underwent echocardiography, and venous blood samples were taken. The relationship between adiponectin levels and LA functions was analyzed.Results    We divided patients into two groups according to the mean adiponectin level (13.63 ng / ml). In the high adiponectin group, the mean age (p=0.001) and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol (p=0.015) were higher, whereas estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) (p=0.036) and hemoglobin (p=0.014) levels were lower. Although LA maximum volume, LA minimum volume, and LA pre-A volume were higher in the group with high adiponectin levels, they did not reach a statistical significance. Peak early diastolic LA strain (S-LAe) (p=0.048) and strain rate (SR-LAe) (p=0.017) were lower in this group. Multivariate logistic regression analysis demonstrated that age (p=0.003) and hemoglobin (p=0.006) were predictors of elevated adiponectin levels. On the contrary, S-LAe, HDL cholesterol, and eGFR lost their statistical significance.Conclusion    In patients with HT and DM, elevated adiponectin level is associated with impaired LA mechanical functions. Increased age and hemoglobin level are independent predictors of elevated adiponectin levels.


Assuntos
Adiponectina/sangue , Fibrilação Atrial , Remodelamento Atrial , Função do Átrio Esquerdo , Átrios do Coração/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos
6.
Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis ; 31(8): 2426-2435, 2021 07 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34154890

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: At the same BMI, Asian populations develop cardiometabolic complications earlier than Western populations. We hypothesized that a different secretion of the adipocyte-derived hormones leptin and adiponectin plays a role and investigated the associations of the two hormones with the metabolic syndrome (MetS) in an Indonesian and a Dutch population. METHODS AND RESULTS: We performed cross-sectional analyses of the Netherlands Epidemiology of Obesity Study (n = 6602) and the SUGAR Scientific Programme Indonesia-Netherlands Study (n = 1461). We examined sex-stratified associations of leptin and adiponectin with MetS, using multivariate logistic regression including adjustment for total body fat. The mean (SD) leptin (mcg/L) were 4.7 (6.0) in Indonesian men, 18.6 (12.0) in Indonesian women, 9.1 (7.7) in Dutch men, and 23.4 (17.4) in Dutch women. The mean (SD) adiponectin (mg/L) were 5.7 (5.4), 7.5 (7.1), 6.6 (3.3), and 11.3 (4.9), respectively. Within the same BMI category, leptin concentrations were similar in the two populations, whereas adiponectin was lower in the Indonesian population. Per SD of leptin, adjusted prevalence odds ratios (ORs, 95%CI) of MetS were 0.9 (0.6-1.2) in Indonesian men, 1.1 (0.9-1.4) in Indonesian women, 2.2 (1.6-2.8) in Dutch men, and 1.2 (1.0-1.5) in Dutch women. Per SD of adiponectin, the ORs were 0.9 (0.7-1.2), 0.8 (0.7-1.0), 0.6 (0.6-0.8), and 0.4 (0.4-0.5), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Despite lower adiponectin levels, adiponectin was not related to the MetS in the Indonesian population and can not explain their increased cardiometabolic risk at the same BMI.


Assuntos
Adiponectina/sangue , Leptina/sangue , Síndrome Metabólica/sangue , Adiposidade , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Biomarcadores/sangue , Índice de Massa Corporal , Fatores de Risco Cardiometabólico , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Indonésia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Síndrome Metabólica/diagnóstico , Síndrome Metabólica/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Países Baixos/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Medição de Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Adulto Jovem
7.
J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol ; 212: 105925, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34089834

RESUMO

There is some evidence for ameliorating effect of vitamin D on glycemic and lipidemic status which are likely to be mediated through other molecules including adiponectin. However, the overall results have been controversial. This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of vitamin D supplementation on serum adiponectin concentration. MEDLINE, PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library, and Google Scholar were searched and 402 studies were found in a preliminary search. After screening of titles and abstracts nine studies were selected. Pooled data showed no significant effect on adiponectin concentrations (mean difference (MD) 0.37, 95 % CI: -0.1 to 0.87). However, there was a significant effect in a subgroup of participants who had diabetes (MD: 0.03, 95 % CI: 0.00 to 0.05, p = 0.029). The treatment effect on adiponectin concentrations was significant in those trials that used supplementation on a daily basis (MD: 0.03, 95 % CI: 0.00 to 0.05, p = 0.028) and vitamin D plus calcium (MD: 0.04, 95 % CI: 0.01 to 0.07, p = 0.014). The meta-regression revealed a significant association between BMI and age of participants at baseline and the treatment effect (B, -0.144, 95 % CI: -0.276 to -0.011, p = 0.033 and B, -0.043, 95 % CI: -0.075 to -0.012, p = 0.006). The results of this meta-analysis study indicates that vitamin D may be considered an adiponectin secretagogue in subjects with diabetes and this effect may be potentiated if vitamin D intake is on daily basis and in combination with calcium but can be weakened by increasing BMI.


Assuntos
Adiponectina/sangue , Secretagogos/farmacologia , Vitamina D/farmacologia , Vitaminas/farmacologia , Humanos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
8.
Cancer Causes Control ; 32(8): 871-881, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33999316

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Obesity is a known risk factor for colorectal cancer (CRC) and adenoma. Obese individuals have higher circulating concentrations of certain endocrine and immune factors produced by adipocytes thought to partially underlie the association between obesity and colorectal neoplasia. Thus, we evaluated the association of plasma concentrations of adiponectin, leptin, and soluble tumor necrosis factor receptor-2 (sTNFR2) with CRC and adenoma. METHODS: We ascertained 193 CRC cases and 193 matched controls, and 131 colorectal adenoma cases and 131 matched controls who had had an endoscopy nested in the CLUE II cohort of Washington County, MD. Plasma markers were measured using ELISA. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated from conditional logistic regression for quartiles of the plasma markers separately for CRC and adenoma. RESULTS: Adjusting for leptin and adiponectin, sTNFR2 was positively associated with CRC only in men (Q4 vs. Q1: OR = 3.14, 95% CI 1.11-8.86), which was unchanged adjusting for BMI (3.46, 95% CI 1.19-10.06). Leptin and adiponectin were not associated with CRC risk overall or in men or women. Adiponectin, leptin, and sTNFR2 were not associated with adenoma risk overall or in men or women. CONCLUSION: In this study, leptin and adiponectin were not associated with colorectal carcinogenesis and thus do not appear to underlie the association between obesity and colorectal carcinogenesis. sTNFR2, which we measured as a correlate of TNF-α, was positively associated with CRC in men adjusting for BMI, suggesting that TNF-α may influence colorectal carcinogenesis independent of adipocyte production.


Assuntos
Adenoma/sangue , Adipocinas/sangue , Neoplasias Colorretais/diagnóstico , Adiponectina/sangue , Idoso , Biomarcadores/sangue , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Leptina/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/complicações , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/sangue
9.
Cancer Epidemiol ; 73: 101958, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34020315

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Leptin and adiponectin are adipokines which have been commonly implicated in carcinogenesis. As such, many studies have investigated the association of circulating leptin and adiponectin levels with colorectal cancer (CRC) risk. However, the results remained inconsistent. METHODS: In this work, we performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to precisely examine the association between circulating levels of leptin and adiponectin and CRC risk. A systematic literature search was performed in PubMed/MEDLINE, Scopus, Web of Science, and EMBASE databases from inception until October 2020. The pooled effect size was then estimated by calculating the odds ratio (OR). RESULTS: A total of 23 records (comprising 26 studies) were included in the meta-analysis. The overall analysis found that circulating levels of leptin and adiponectin were not significantly associated with CRC risk (P > 0.05). Interestingly, subgroup analysis revealed that a higher level of adiponectin was significantly associated with an increased CRC risk among overweight individuals (OR = 1.16; 95 % CI: 1.02, 1.32), and a decreased CRC risk among normal weight individuals (OR = 0.76; 95 % CI: 0.62, 0.92). Besides, a higher level of adiponectin was also significantly associated with a decreased risk of CRC in men (OR = 0.76; 95 % CI: 0.59, 0.98). CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, circulating leptin level was not associated with CRC risk, but that of adiponectin was associated with CRC risk only in specific subgroups.


Assuntos
Adiponectina , Neoplasias Colorretais , Leptina , Adiponectina/sangue , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Neoplasias Colorretais/sangue , Neoplasias Colorretais/epidemiologia , Humanos , Leptina/sangue , Risco
10.
PLoS One ; 16(5): e0248980, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34043633

RESUMO

AIM: Growth differentiation factor 15 (GDF15) increases in serum during pregnancy to levels not seen in any other physiological state and is suggested to be involved in pregnancy-induced nausea, weight regulation and glucose metabolism. The main action of GDF15 is regulated through a receptor of the brainstem, i.e., through exposure of GDF15 in both blood and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). The aim of the current study was to measure GDF15 in both CSF and serum during pregnancy, and to compare it longitudinally to non-pregnant levels. METHODS: Women were sampled at elective caesarean section (n = 45, BMI = 28.1±5.0) and were followed up 5 years after pregnancy (n = 25). GDF15, insulin and leptin were measured in CSF and serum. Additional measurements included plasma glucose, and serum adiponectin and Hs-CRP. RESULTS: GDF15 levels were higher during pregnancy compared with follow-up in both CSF (385±128 vs. 115±32 ng/l, P<0.001) and serum (73789±29198 vs. 404±102 ng/l, P<0.001). CSF levels correlated with serum levels during pregnancy (P<0.001), but not in the non-pregnant state (P = 0.98). Both CSF and serum GDF15 were highest in women carrying a female fetus (P<0.001). Serum GDF15 correlated with the homeostatic model assessment for beta-cell function and placental weight, and CSF GDF15 correlated inversely with CSF insulin levels. CONCLUSION: This, the first study to measure CSF GDF15 during pregnancy, demonstrated increased GDF15 levels in both serum and CSF during pregnancy. The results suggest that effects of GDF15 during pregnancy can be mediated by increases in both CSF and serum levels.


Assuntos
Fator 15 de Diferenciação de Crescimento/sangue , Adiponectina/sangue , Adulto , Glicemia/análise , Proteína C-Reativa/análise , Cesárea , Feminino , Seguimentos , Fator 15 de Diferenciação de Crescimento/líquido cefalorraquidiano , Humanos , Insulina/sangue , Leptina/sangue , Placenta/fisiologia , Gravidez
11.
PLoS One ; 16(5): e0238555, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33979354

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Plasma omentin levels have been shown to be associated with circulating adiponectin concentrations and cardiometabolic disease-related outcomes. In this study, we aim to examine the association of omentin gene polymorphism with serum adiponectin levels and cardiometabolic health status using a genetic approach, and investigate whether these associations are modified by lifestyle factors. METHODS: The study included 945 normal glucose tolerant and 941 unrelated individuals with type 2 diabetes randomly selected from the Chennai Urban Rural Epidemiology Study (CURES), in southern India. Study participants were classified into cardiometabolically healthy and unhealthy, where cardiometabolically healthy were those without hypertension, diabetes, and dyslipidemia. Fasting serum adiponectin levels were measured by radioimmunoassay. The omentin A326T (rs2274907) single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) was screened by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism and direct sequencing. RESULTS: The 'A' allele of the omentin SNP was significantly associated with lower adiponectin concentrations after adjusting for age, sex, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC) and cardiometabolic health status (p = 1.90 x 10-47). There was also a significant association between circulating adiponectin concentrations and cardiometabolic health status after adjusting for age, sex, BMI, WC and Omentin SNP (p = 7.47x10-10). However, after adjusting for age, sex, BMI, WC and adiponectin levels, the association of 'A' allele with cardiometabolic health status disappeared (p = 0.79) suggesting that adiponectin serves as a mediator of the association between omentin SNP and cardiometabolic health status. There were no significant interactions between the SNP and dietary factors on adiponectin levels and cardiometabolic health status (p>0.25, for all comparisons). CONCLUSIONS: Our findings show that adiponectin might function as a mechanistic link between omentin SNP and increased risk of cardiometabolic diseases independent of common and central obesity in Asian Indians. Before strategies to promote adiponectin modulation could be implemented, further studies are required to confirm the molecular mechanisms involved in this triangular relationship between omentin gene, adiponectin and cardiometabolic diseases.


Assuntos
Adiponectina/sangue , Citocinas/sangue , Citocinas/genética , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/genética , Lectinas/sangue , Lectinas/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Adulto , Glicemia/metabolismo , Índice de Massa Corporal , Feminino , Proteínas Ligadas por GPI/sangue , Proteínas Ligadas por GPI/genética , Técnicas de Genotipagem , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Fragmento de Restrição/genética , Adulto Jovem
12.
Eur J Endocrinol ; 185(1): 87-97, 2021 May 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33914701

RESUMO

Objective: We aimed to examine prospective associations between circulating fatty acids in early pregnancy and incident gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) among Chinese pregnant women. Methods: Analyses were based on two prospective nested case-control studies conducted in western China (336 GDM cases and 672 matched controls) and central China (305 cases and 305 matched controls). Fasting plasma fatty acids in early pregnancy (gestational age at enrollment: 10.4 weeks(s.d., 2.0)) and 13.2 weeks (1.0), respectively) were determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and GDM was diagnosed based on the International Association of Diabetes in Pregnancy Study Groups criteria during 24-28 weeks of gestation. Multiple metabolic biomarkers (HOMA-IR (homeostatic model assessment for insulin resistance), HbA1c, c-peptide, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, adiponectin, leptin, and blood lipids) were additionally measured among 672 non-GDM controls at enrollment. Results: Higher levels of saturated fatty acids (SFAs) 14:0 (pooled odds ratio, 1.41 for each 1-s.d. increase; 95% CI: 1.25, 1.59) and 16:0 (1.19; 1.05, 1.35) were associated with higher odds of GDM. Higher levels of n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) 18:2n-6 were strongly associated with lower odds of GDM (0.69; 0.60, 0.80). In non-GDM pregnant women, higher SFAs 14:0 and 16:0 but lower n-6 PUFA 18:2n-6 were generally correlated with unfavorable metabolic profiles. Conclusions: We documented adverse associations of 14:0 and 16:0 but a protective association of 18:2n-6 with GDM among Chinese pregnant women. Our findings highlight the distinct roles of specific fatty acids in the onset of GDM.


Assuntos
Glicemia/metabolismo , Diabetes Gestacional/sangue , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-6/sangue , Ácidos Graxos/sangue , Resistência à Insulina , Adiponectina/sangue , Adulto , Peptídeo C/sangue , Proteína C-Reativa/metabolismo , Estudos de Casos e Controles , China , Diabetes Gestacional/metabolismo , Jejum , Ácidos Graxos Monoinsaturados/sangue , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/sangue , Feminino , Hemoglobina A Glicada/metabolismo , Humanos , Leptina/sangue , Gravidez , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
13.
Nutrients ; 13(5)2021 Apr 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33925808

RESUMO

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) remains a major problem for people with type 2 diabetes (T2DM), and the leading cause of death worldwide. We aimed to determine cardiovascular benefits of weight loss with or without remission of diabetes, and to assess utility of plasma biomarkers. 29 people with T2DM were studied at baseline and after dietary weight loss. Change in plasma adipokines and lipid related markers was examined in relation to weight loss, diabetes remission, 10-year cardiovascular risk (QRISK), and duration of diabetes. QRISK decreased markedly after weight loss (18.9 ± 2.2 to 11.2 ± 1.6%, p < 0.0001) in both responders and non-responders, but non-responders remained at higher risk (15.0 ± 2.0 vs. 5.8 ± 1.6%, p < 0.0001). At baseline, plasma GDF-15 was higher in longer diabetes duration (1.19 ± 0.14 vs. 0.82 ± 0.09 ng/mL, p = 0.034), as was the QRISK (22.8 ± 2.6 vs. 15.3 ± 3.4%, p = 0.031). Leptin, GDF-15 and FGF-21 decreased whereases adiponectin increased after weight loss in responders and non-responders. However, the level of FGF-21 remained higher in non-responders (0.58 [0.28-0.71] vs. 0.25 [0.15-0.42] ng/mL, p = 0.007). QRISK change correlated with change in plasma VLDL1-TG (r = 0.489, p = 0.007). There was a positive correlation between rise in HDL cholesterol and the decrease in leptin (r = 0.57, p = 0.001), or rise in adiponectin (r = 0.58, p = 0.001) levels. In conclusion, weight loss markedly decreases cardiometabolic risk particularly when remission of diabetes is achieved. Leptin, adiponectin, GDF-15 and FGF-21 changes were related to weight loss not remission of diabetes. Normalization of 10-year cardiovascular risk and heart age is possible after substantial dietary weight loss and remission of T2DM.


Assuntos
Restrição Calórica , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/dietoterapia , Perda de Peso , Adiponectina/sangue , Biomarcadores/sangue , Glicemia , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Fatores de Crescimento de Fibroblastos/genética , Fatores de Crescimento de Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Fator 15 de Diferenciação de Crescimento/genética , Fator 15 de Diferenciação de Crescimento/metabolismo , Humanos , Insulina , Leptina/sangue , Leptina/metabolismo , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco
14.
Physiol Rep ; 9(7): e14843, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33904656

RESUMO

Hypoadiponectinemia is speculated to play a key role in the relationship between obesity and COVID-19 respiratory failure. However, only one study has examined adiponectin levels in COVID-19 patients, and none have investigated adiponectin levels strictly in patients with acute respiratory failure. In this study, we performed a retrospective case-control study of adipokine levels in patients with acute respiratory failure caused by either COVID-19 or other viral/bacterial source. All patients with COVID-19 respiratory failure in the University of Virginia Biorepository and Tissue Research database were included. We also selected patients with non-COVID-19 infectious respiratory failure from the same biorepository to serve as a comparison cohort. Plasma adipokine levels were measured on three occasions during the first 72 hours of hospitalization. Twelve patients with COVID-19 respiratory failure and 17 patients with other infectious respiratory failure were studied. Adiponectin levels were significantly lower in patients with COVID-19 respiratory failure, even after adjustment for age, sex, BMI, and other covariates. In conclusion, adiponectin levels appear to be reduced in COVID-19 respiratory failure. Larger studies are needed to confirm this report.


Assuntos
Adiponectina/sangue , COVID-19/sangue , Idoso , Biomarcadores/sangue , COVID-19/diagnóstico , Bases de Dados Factuais , Regulação para Baixo , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Tempo
15.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(8)2021 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33920997

RESUMO

Deregulation of adiponectin is found in systemic autoimmune rheumatic diseases (SARDs). Its expression is downregulated by various inflammatory mediators, but paradoxically, elevated serum levels are present in SARDs with high inflammatory components, such as rheumatoid arthritis and systemic lupus erythematosus. Circulating adiponectin is positively associated with radiographic progression in rheumatoid arthritis as well as with cardiovascular risks and lupus nephritis in systemic lupus erythematosus. However, in SARDs with less prominent inflammation, such as systemic sclerosis, adiponectin levels are low and correlate negatively with disease activity. Regulators of adiponectin gene expression (PPAR-γ, Id3, ATF3, and SIRT1) and inflammatory cytokines (interleukin 6 and tumor necrosis factor α) are differentially expressed in SARDs and could therefore influence total adiponectin levels. In addition, anti-inflammatory therapy could also have an impact, as tocilizumab treatment is associated with increased serum adiponectin. However, anti-tumor necrosis factor α treatment does not seem to affect its levels. Our review provides an overview of studies on adiponectin levels in the bloodstream and other biological samples from SARD patients and presents some possible explanations why adiponectin is deregulated in the context of therapy and gene regulation.


Assuntos
Adiponectina/metabolismo , Doenças Autoimunes/metabolismo , Doenças Reumáticas/metabolismo , Adiponectina/sangue , Adiponectina/química , Adiponectina/genética , Animais , Doenças Autoimunes/sangue , Doenças Autoimunes/terapia , Citocinas/metabolismo , Humanos , Modelos Biológicos , Doenças Reumáticas/sangue , Doenças Reumáticas/terapia , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo
16.
Vet J ; 271: 105652, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33840485

RESUMO

Metabolic and endocrine disorders, such as dyslipidemia, are common in donkeys. Negative energy balance due to fasting, stressful conditions, or disease is a major trigger for fat mobilization often leading to dyslipidemia. The hormonal response to fasting has not been well characterized in donkeys. Therefore, this work aimed to study variations in insulin, glucagon, leptin, total adiponectin, ghrelin, and insulin-like growth factor-1 concentrations, insulin-to-glucagon (IGR) and glucagon-to-insulin (GIR) molar ratios, and lipid and carbohydrate parameters during a 66 h fasting period in 8 adult donkeys, and to determine differences depending on body condition. Obese donkeys developed earlier lipid mobilization (increased plasma total triglyceride and total cholesterol concentrations) compared to non-obese donkeys. Plasma glucose and leptin concentrations decreased in obese animals. After 60 h fasting, obese donkeys showed a significant increase in glucagon and decrease in leptin. GIR significantly increased, while insulin and IGR decreased in both groups. These findings support faster lipid mobilization in response to negative energy status in obese donkeys during fasting, which could be linked to greater glucagonemia and could explain the predisposition of these animals to dyslipidemia.


Assuntos
Dislipidemias/veterinária , Metabolismo Energético/fisiologia , Equidae/sangue , Jejum/sangue , Obesidade/veterinária , Adiponectina/sangue , Animais , Glicemia/análise , Dislipidemias/sangue , Dislipidemias/etiologia , Feminino , Grelina/sangue , Glucagon/sangue , Insulina/sangue , Fator de Crescimento Insulin-Like I/análise , Leptina/sangue , Lipídeos/sangue , Obesidade/sangue
17.
J Dig Dis ; 22(4): 214-221, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33675573

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Adiponectin is an adipokine that has anti-steatotic, anti-inflammatory and anti-fibrotic effects. The impact of these different activities impact on the development and progression of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is not well understood. The aim of this study was to evaluate both liver and serum adiponectin levels in patients with and without NAFLD and determine any clinical correlations. METHODS: Liver tissue and serum samples were collected from patients undergoing liver biopsy between April 2014 and July 2020, and categorized based on histopathological diagnosis into hepatic steatosis (HS), non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), and hepatitis control (HC). A Luminex xMAP assay was performed on both liver and serum samples to measure adiponectin levels. Statistical analysis compared liver adiponectin (LA) and serum adiponectin (SA) levels between groups. RESULTS: A total of 48 participants were included in the analysis. The mean LA level was lowest in the HS group, followed by the NASH group and the HC group (P = 0.036). The mean SA level was 3.61 µg/mL for the NAFLD group and was significantly lower than that in the HC (7.51 µg/mL; P = 0.001). CONCLUSION: Adiponectin levels are lower in NAFLD compared to HC in both serum and liver tissue. LA levels in patients with HS were significantly lower than in both the NASH and HC groups, suggesting that adiponectin is related to inflammation in the liver and probably reflects its role in the pathogenesis of NAFLD.


Assuntos
Adiponectina/sangue , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica , Adiponectina/metabolismo , Hepatite , Humanos , Fígado/metabolismo , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/diagnóstico
18.
Biomolecules ; 11(2)2021 02 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33669910

RESUMO

Adiponectin, leptin, and resistin are adipocytokines whose levels are elevated in blood and synovial fluid from patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). However, their role in RA pathogenesis is unclear. Here, we examined whether adipocytokines are associated with circulating chemokines, markers of inflammation and RA disease activity in patients with untreated newly diagnosed RA. Plasma levels of 15 chemokines, adiponectin, leptin, and resistin were measured using flow cytometry bead-based immunoassay or enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in a cohort of 70 patients with untreated newly diagnosed RA. Markers of inflammation and disease activity were also assessed in all patients. Positive association was found between total adiponectin and CXCL10 (ß = 0.344, p = 0.021), CCL2 (ß = 0.342, p = 0.012), and CXCL9 (ß = 0.308, p = 0.044), whereas high-molecular weight (HMW) adiponectin associated only with CXCL9 (ß = 0.308, p = 0.033). Furthermore, both total and HMW adiponectin were associated with C-reactive protein (ß = 0.485, p = 0.001; ß = 0.463, p = 0.001) and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ß = 0.442, p = 0.001; ß = 0.507, p < 0.001). Leptin and resistin were not associated with plasma chemokines, markers of inflammation, or disease activity scores. Our study shows an association between circulating adiponectin and pro-inflammatory chemokines involved in RA pathogenesis as well as markers of inflammation in a well-characterized cohort of patients with untreated newly diagnosed RA.


Assuntos
Adipocinas/metabolismo , Adiponectina/sangue , Artrite Reumatoide/sangue , Artrite Reumatoide/diagnóstico , Leptina/sangue , Resistina/sangue , Adipocinas/sangue , Adulto , Quimiocinas/sangue , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Inflamação , Leptina/metabolismo , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Tretinoína/metabolismo
19.
FASEB J ; 35(4): e21345, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33715219

RESUMO

Obesity is common in the middle aged population and it increases the risks of diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, certain cancers, and dementia. Yet, its etiology remains incompletely understood. Here, we show that ectopic expression of HB-EGF, an important regulator of neurogenesis, in Nestin+ neuroepithelial progenitors with the Cre-LoxP system leads to development of spontaneous middle age obesity in male mice accompanied by hyperglycemia and insulin resistance. The Nestin-HB-EGF mice show decreases in food uptake, energy expenditure, and physical activity, suggesting that reduced energy expenditure underlies the pathogenesis of this obesity model. However, HB-EGF expression in appetite-controlling POMC or AgRP neurons or adipocytes fails to induce obesity. Mechanistically, HB-EGF suppresses expression of Hypocretin/Orexin, an orexigenic neuropeptide hormone, in the hypothalamus of middle aged Nestin-HB-EGF mice. Hypothalamus Orexin administration alleviates the obese and hyperglycemic phenotypes in Nestin-HB-EGF mice. This study uncovers an important role for HB-EGF in regulating Orexin expression and energy expenditure and establishes a midlife obesity model whose pathogenesis involves age-dependent changes in hypothalamus neurons.


Assuntos
Fator de Crescimento Semelhante a EGF de Ligação à Heparina/metabolismo , Nestina/metabolismo , Células-Tronco Neurais/metabolismo , Obesidade/metabolismo , Orexinas/metabolismo , Adiponectina/sangue , Envelhecimento , Animais , Composição Corporal , Fator de Crescimento Semelhante a EGF de Ligação à Heparina/genética , Humanos , Insulina/sangue , Leptina/sangue , Camundongos , Nestina/genética , Orexinas/genética
20.
Clin Nutr ; 40(4): 1503-1509, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33743285

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Denervation of renal sympathetic nerves (RDN) is an invasive endovascular procedure introduced as an antihypertensive treatment with a potential beneficial effect on insulin resistance (IR). We have previously demonstrated a reduction in blood pressure (BP) six months after RDN, but severe hepatic and peripheral IR, assessed by glucose tracer and two step hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp (HEC), did not improve. The aim of the current study was to evaluate IR and adipokines profiles in relation to BP and arterial stiffness changes two years after RDN. METHODS: In 20 non-diabetic patients with true treatment-resistant hypertension, ambulatory and office BP were measured after witnessed intake of medications prior to, six and 24 months after RDN. Arterial stiffness index (AASI) was calculated from ambulatory BP. Insulin sensitivity (IS) was assessed using an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), the Homeostasis Model Assessment (HOMA-IR), HOMA-Adiponectin Model Assessment (HOMA-AD), the Quantitative Insulin Sensitivity Check Index (QUICKI), the Triglyceride and Glucose Index (TyG) and the Leptin-to-Adiponectin Ratio (LAR). These surrogate indices of IS were compared with tracer/HEC measurements to identify which best correlated in this group of patients. RESULTS: All measured metabolic variables and IS surrogate indices remained essentially unchanged two years after RDN apart from a significant increase in HOMA-AD. OGTT peak at 30 min correlated best with reduction in endogenous glucose release (EGR) during low insulin HEC (r = -0.6, p = 0.01), whereas HOMA-IR correlated best with whole-body glucose disposal (WGD) (r = -0.6, p = 0.01) and glucose infusion rate (r = -0.6, p = 0.01) during high insulin HEC. BP response was unrelated to IS prior to RDN. Nocturnal systolic BP and arterial stiffness before RDN correlated positively with a progression in hepatic IR at six-month follow-up. CONCLUSION: IR, adiponectin and leptin did not improve two years after RDN. There was no correlation between baseline IS and BP response. Our study does not support the notion of a beneficial metabolic effect of RDN in patients with treatment resistant hypertension.


Assuntos
Denervação , Hipertensão/cirurgia , Resistência à Insulina/fisiologia , Rim/inervação , Fatores de Tempo , Adiponectina/sangue , Biomarcadores/sangue , Glicemia/metabolismo , Pressão Sanguínea , Feminino , Seguimentos , Técnica Clamp de Glucose , Teste de Tolerância a Glucose , Indicadores Básicos de Saúde , Humanos , Hipertensão/sangue , Insulina/sangue , Leptina/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Período Pós-Operatório , Resultado do Tratamento , Rigidez Vascular
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