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1.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(35): e21327, 2020 Aug 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32871862

RESUMO

The prevalence of type 2 diabetes (T2D) has increased recently in Qatar. Body mass index (BMI) is a predictor of T2D in many populations. However, BMI is based on height and weight measurements and not on body adiposity. Therefore, the utility of BMI for predicting the risk of T2D has been questioned. Visceral adiposity appears to be a better predictor of T2D.This study aimed to assess the relative effectiveness of visceral adiposity index (VAI) and body adiposity index (BAI), in comparison with BMI, for T2D among Qatari adults.A random sample of 1103 adult Qatari nationals and long term residents over 20 years old were included in this study. This data were obtained from the Qatar Biobank (QBB). We performed a multivariate logistic regression to examine the association between VAI, BAI, BMI, and T2D, and computed z-scores for VAI, BAI and BMI.VAI z-scores showed the strongest association with the risk of T2D (OR, 1.44; 95% CI: 1.24-1.68) compared with the z-scores for BAI (OR, 1.15; 95% CI: 0.93-1.43) and BMI (OR, 1.33; 95% CI: 1.11-1.59). ROC curve analysis showed that VAI was a stronger predictor than BAI and BMI (P < .0001). Subgroup analysis indicated that the association was stronger between VAI and T2D in Qatari women than in men.VAI was a stronger and an independent predictor of T2D compared to BAI and BMI among the Qatari adult population. Therefore, VAI could be a useful tool for predicting the risk of T2D among Qatari adults.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Gordura Intra-Abdominal/patologia , Obesidade Abdominal/complicações , Adiposidade , Adulto , Algoritmos , Antropometria/métodos , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Gordura Intra-Abdominal/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Prevalência , Catar/epidemiologia
2.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(38): e22036, 2020 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32957321

RESUMO

Studies about the effects of metabolically healthy obesity on cardiovascular disease (CVD) have yielded conflicting results. These heterogeneous results could be due to the limited usefulness of BMI in measuring general adiposity, as body mass index (BMI) does not accurately reflect body composition. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of body shape on CVD outcomes across different obesity phenotypes, and to provide an explanation for the heterogeneous effects of metabolically healthy obese (MHO) phenotype on CVD.We analyzed data from the Korean Genome and Epidemiology Study, a population-based cohort study conducted between 2001 and 2012. We divided the participants into 4 groups: metabolically healthy non-obese (MHNO), MHO, metabolically unhealthy non-obese (MUNO), and metabolically unhealthy obese (MUO). To assess body shape, we calculated the z-score of the log-transformed a body shape index (LBSIZ). We computed Pearson correlation coefficients to examine the association of LBSIZ with muscle mass index, percentage of total fat mass (%Total FM), and percentage of abdominal fat mass (%Abdominal FM). We also used Cox proportional hazards regression to evaluate the effect of LBSIZ on CVD events according to the obesity phenotypes.A total of 9460 participants were assessed in this study. The incidence of CVD was 8.53 cases per 1000 person-year. LBSIZ showed strong positive correlation with %Total FM and %Abdominal FM, but negative correlation with muscle mass index. In Cox regression, MHO individuals did not show increased risk of CVD compared with MHNO individuals (hazard ratio [HR], 1.29; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.96-1.73). However, MHO individuals in the 3rd (HR, 2.40; 95% CI, 1.28-4.51) and 4th (HR, 3.67; 95% CI, 1.99-6.74) quarters of LBSIZ showed significantly higher risk of CVD compared with MHNO individuals in the 1st quarter of LBSIZ. Moreover, LBSIZ showed a linear relationship with CVD among MHO individuals.While the MHO individuals showed similar CVD risk to the MHNO individuals, CVD risk increases with LBSIZ among the MHO individuals. LBSIZ appears to be a useful measure for CVD risk assessment in clinical practice and epidemiologic studies, especially for MHO patients.


Assuntos
Composição Corporal/fisiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Obesidade Metabolicamente Benigna/epidemiologia , Obesidade Metabolicamente Benigna/patologia , Adiposidade , Adulto , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Glicemia , Índice de Massa Corporal , Pesos e Medidas Corporais , Fumar Cigarros/epidemiologia , Feminino , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Nível de Saúde , Humanos , Incidência , Lipídeos/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fenótipo , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , República da Coreia/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Socioeconômicos
3.
Georgian Med News ; (304-305): 37-43, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32965247

RESUMO

AIM OF STUDY: The aim of study was to study the changes in the parameters of fibrinolytic and antifibrinolytic systems in patients with alcoholic liver cirrhosis (ALC), depending on the combination with adiposity and decompensation of the disease.; The subject of the study were 104 patients with ALC, 16 women and 88 men aged 34 to 65 years; among them there were 66 patients with ALC associated with adiposity (group I), 38 patients with ALC (group II). Control subjects were 20 practically healthy volunteers (4 women and 16 men). The indicators of circulating blood biomarkers of fibrinolytic and antifibrinolytic systems were measured by the immuno-assay method.; Patients in both groups showed an increase of tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA), type 1 plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI-1), and plasma-α2-antiplasmin (PAP) complexes, especially in combination with concomitant adiposity. These changes were increasing with worsening of the disease according to Child-Pugh score. The levels of PAI-1A were more pronounced than tPA levels, all this was accompanied by a decrease in the tPA / PAI-1 index in patients of groups I and II compared to healthy subjects: for Child-Pugh class A - by 35.95% and 16.85% (p<0.05); for Child-Pugh class B - by 35.95% and 22.47% (p<0.05); Child-Pugh class C - by 35.95% and 24.72% (p<0.05). The levels of PAP in patients of groups I and II were higher compared to healthy subjects for Child-Pugh class A by 71.78% and 29.17% (p<0.05); class B - by 100.16% and 58.93% (p<0.05); class C - by 144.30% and 86.24% (p<0.05). It is also evidenced by the increasing D-dimers.; The increase in tPA, PAI-1, D-dimers and decrease in the tPA/PAI-1 index can predict the risk of thrombogenic state in patients with ALC, especially with concomitant adiposity.


Assuntos
Antifibrinolíticos , Ativador de Plasminogênio Tecidual , Adiposidade , Adulto , Idoso , Criança , Feminino , Fibrinólise , Humanos , Cirrose Hepática Alcoólica , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inibidor 1 de Ativador de Plasminogênio
4.
J Transl Med ; 18(1): 299, 2020 08 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32746930

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Obesity and steatosis are associated with COVID-19 severe pneumonia. Elevated levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines and reduced immune response are typical of these patients. In particular, adipose tissue is the organ playing the crucial role. So, it is necessary to evaluate fat mass and not simpler body mass index (BMI), because BMI leaves a portion of the obese population unrecognized. The aim is to evaluate the relationship between Percentage of Fat Mass (FM%) and immune-inflammatory response, after 10 days in Intensive Care Unit (ICU). METHODS: Prospective observational study of 22 adult patients, affected by COVID-19 pneumonia and admitted to the ICU and classified in two sets: (10) lean and (12) obese, according to FM% and age (De Lorenzo classification). Patients were analyzed at admission in ICU and at 10th day. RESULTS: Obese have steatosis, impaired hepatic function, compromise immune response and higher inflammation. In addition, they have a reduced prognostic nutritional index (PNI), nutritional survival index for ICU patients. CONCLUSION: This is the first study evaluating FM% in COVID-19 patient. We underlined obese characteristic with likely poorly prognosis and an important misclassification of obesity. A not negligible number of patients with normal BMI could actually have an excess of adipose tissue and therefore have an unfavorable outcome such as an obese. Is fundamental personalized patients nutrition basing on disease phases.


Assuntos
Adiposidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Infecções por Coronavirus/fisiopatologia , Cuidados Críticos/métodos , Estado Nutricional , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/fisiopatologia , Tecido Adiposo/patologia , Tecido Adiposo/fisiopatologia , Adulto , Betacoronavirus , Índice de Massa Corporal , Feminino , Humanos , Inflamação , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Masculino , Avaliação Nutricional , Obesidade/complicações , Pandemias , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos
5.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4150, 2020 08 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32811819

RESUMO

The systemic decline in autophagic activity with age impairs homeostasis in several tissues, leading to age-related diseases. A mechanistic understanding of adipocyte dysfunction with age could help to prevent age-related metabolic disorders, but the role of autophagy in aged adipocytes remains unclear. Here we show that, in contrast to other tissues, aged adipocytes upregulate autophagy due to a decline in the levels of Rubicon, a negative regulator of autophagy. Rubicon knockout in adipocytes causes fat atrophy and hepatic lipid accumulation due to reductions in the expression of adipogenic genes, which can be recovered by activation of PPARγ. SRC-1 and TIF2, coactivators of PPARγ, are degraded by autophagy in a manner that depends on their binding to GABARAP family proteins, and are significantly downregulated in Rubicon-ablated or aged adipocytes. Hence, we propose that age-dependent decline in adipose Rubicon exacerbates metabolic disorders by promoting excess autophagic degradation of SRC-1 and TIF2.


Assuntos
Adipócitos/metabolismo , Envelhecimento/fisiologia , Autofagia/genética , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intracelular/metabolismo , Doenças Metabólicas/metabolismo , Adipócitos/patologia , Adipogenia/genética , Tecido Adiposo/citologia , Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Adiposidade/genética , Animais , Proteínas Reguladoras de Apoptose/metabolismo , Autofagia/fisiologia , Fígado Gorduroso/genética , Fígado Gorduroso/metabolismo , Técnicas de Inativação de Genes , Glucose/genética , Glucose/metabolismo , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intracelular/genética , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/genética , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Proteínas Associadas aos Microtúbulos/metabolismo , Coativador 1 de Receptor Nuclear/metabolismo , Coativador 2 de Receptor Nuclear/metabolismo , PPAR gama/metabolismo
6.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(34): e21136, 2020 Aug 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32846753

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The aim of the study was to conduct a systematic review to comprehensively evaluate the relationship between pistachio intake and obesity. METHODS: We searched 6 databases and acquired parameters from randomized controlled trials regarding obesity, including body weight, body mass index (BMI), and waist circumference. A fixed-effect model was applied to the meta-analysis for the weighted mean difference (WMD) between a diet with pistachios and a control diet. RESULTS: Eleven trials including a total of 1593 subjects met the inclusion criteria. Compared to the group on a control diet, the pistachio diet group showed lower BMI values (WMD: -0.18 kg/m; 95% confidence interval [CI]: -0.26, -0.11 kg/m; I = 29.8%) and no differences in body weight (WMD: -0.22 kg; 95% CI: -0.50, 0.07 kg; I = 0.0%) or waist circumference (WMD: 0.76 cm; 95% CI: -0.11, 1.63 cm; I = 7.0%). CONCLUSION: A diet with pistachios reduced BMI and had no significant effects on body weight and waist circumference.


Assuntos
Adiposidade , Dieta , Nozes , Obesidade/prevenção & controle , Pistacia , Humanos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
7.
Pediatrics ; 146(3)2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32796097

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To explore the longitudinal association of neonatal adiposity (fat mass percentage) with BMI trajectories and childhood overweight and obesity from ages 2 to 6 years. METHODS: We studied 979 children from the Healthy Start cohort. Air displacement plethysmography was used to estimate fat mass percentage. Child weight and recumbent length or standing height were abstracted from medical records. Overweight and obesity were defined as BMI levels ≥85th percentile for age and sex. Mixed-effects models were used to examine the association between neonatal fat mass percentage and BMI trajectories from age 2 to 6 years. We tested for effect modification by sex, race and/or ethnicity, and breastfeeding duration. We estimated the proportion of children classified as overweight or obese at specific levels of neonatal fat mass percentage (mean ± SD). RESULTS: The mean neonatal adiposity level was 9.1% ± 4.0%. Child BMI levels differed by neonatal adiposity. Each SD increase in neonatal adiposity resulted in a 0.12 higher overall BMI level between ages 2 to 6 years (95% confidence interval: 0.03 to 0.20; P < .01), and this association was not modified by offspring sex, race and/or ethnicity, or breastfeeding duration. Increasing neonatal adiposity was associated with an increasing proportion of childhood overweight and obesity by age 5 years (P = .02). CONCLUSIONS: We provide novel evidence that higher neonatal adiposity is significantly associated with higher overall BMI levels and an increased likelihood of overweight or obesity from ages 2 to 6 years. Because various prenatal exposures may specifically influence offspring fat accretion, neonatal adiposity may be a useful surrogate end point for prenatal interventions aimed at reducing future childhood overweight and obesity.


Assuntos
Adiposidade , Índice de Massa Corporal , Obesidade Pediátrica/etiologia , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Composição Corporal , Tamanho Corporal , Aleitamento Materno , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Sobrepeso/diagnóstico , Sobrepeso/etiologia , Obesidade Pediátrica/diagnóstico , Obesidade Pediátrica/etnologia , Pletismografia/métodos , Gravidez , Prevalência , Fatores Sexuais
9.
PLoS Med ; 17(8): e1003234, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32764760

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In common with many other low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), rural to urban migrants in India are at increased risk of obesity, but it is unclear whether this is due to increased energy intake, reduced energy expenditure, or both. Knowing this and the relative contribution of specific dietary and physical activity behaviours to greater adiposity among urban migrants could inform policies for control of the obesity epidemic in India and other urbanising LMICs. In the Indian Migration Study, we previously found that urban migrants had greater prevalence of obesity and diabetes compared with their nonmigrant rural-dwelling siblings. In this study, we investigated the relative contribution of energy intake and expenditure and specific diet and activity behaviours to greater adiposity among urban migrants in India. METHODS AND FINDINGS: The Indian Migration Study was conducted between 2005 and 2007. Factory workers and their spouses from four cities in north, central, and south of India, together with their rural-dwelling siblings, were surveyed. Self-reported data on diet and physical activity was collected using validated questionnaires, and adiposity was estimated from thickness of skinfolds. The association of differences in dietary intake, physical activity, and adiposity between siblings was examined using multivariable linear regression. Data on 2,464 participants (median age 43 years) comprised of 1,232 sibling pairs (urban migrant and their rural-dwelling sibling) of the same sex (31% female) were analysed. Compared with the rural siblings, urban migrants had 18% greater adiposity, 12% (360 calories/day) more energy intake, and 18% (11 kilojoules/kg/day) less energy expenditure (P < 0.001 for all). Energy intake and expenditure were independently associated with increased adiposity of urban siblings, accounting for 4% and 6.5% of adiposity difference between siblings, respectively. Difference in dietary fat/oil (10 g/day), time spent engaged in moderate or vigorous activity (69 minutes/day), and watching television (30 minutes/day) were associated with difference in adiposity between siblings, but no clear association was observed for intake of fruits and vegetables, sugary foods and sweets, cereals, animal and dairy products, and sedentary time. The limitations of this study include a cross-sectional design, systematic differences in premigration characteristics of migrants and nonmigrants, low response rate, and measurement error in estimating diet and activity from questionnaires. CONCLUSIONS: We found that increased energy intake and reduced energy expenditure contributed equally to greater adiposity among urban migrants in India. Policies aimed at controlling the rising prevalence of obesity in India and potentially other urbanising LMICs need to be multicomponent, target both energy intake and expenditure, and focus particularly on behaviours such as dietary fat/oil intake, time spent on watching television, and time spent engaged in moderate or vigorous intensity physical activity.


Assuntos
Adiposidade/fisiologia , Dieta/tendências , Ingestão de Energia/fisiologia , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , População Rural/tendências , Migrantes , População Urbana/tendências , Adulto , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos Transversais , Dieta/efeitos adversos , Gorduras na Dieta/efeitos adversos , Metabolismo Energético/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Índia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Autorrelato
10.
Pediatrics ; 146(3)2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32859735

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Food insecurity has been associated with obesity, but previous studies are inconsistent and few included infants. We examined associations between household food security and infant adiposity and assessed the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) and Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) as effect modifiers. We hypothesized that infants from food-insecure households would have greater adiposity, with attenuation by WIC and SNAP. METHODS: We repeatedly measured 666 infants from the southeastern United States in 2013-2017. We categorized households as high, marginal, low, or very low using the US Household Food Security Survey Module. Outcomes were BMI z score, subscapular and triceps skinfold-for-age z score, the sum of subscapular and triceps skinfolds, the ratio of subscapular and triceps skinfolds, and BMI z score ≥1 (at risk for overweight). We used covariate-adjusted repeated-measures linear and logistic regressions. RESULTS: Of infants, 68.6% were Black and 60.5% had household incomes <$20 000. Interactions between food security and WIC and/or SNAP were not significant. Compared with infants from high food security households, infants from very low food security households had higher BMI z scores (0.18 U; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.01 to 0.35), higher subscapular skinfold-for-age z scores (0.31 U; 95% CI 0.04 to 0.59), a higher sum of subscapular and triceps skinfolds (0.53 mm; 95% CI 0.002 to 1.07), and greater odds of being at risk for overweight (odds ratio 1.55; 95% CI 1.14 to 2.10). Infants from low food security households had greater odds of being at risk for overweight (odds ratio 1.72; 95% CI 1.17 to 2.10). CONCLUSIONS: In larger and longer studies, researchers should examine food security and adiposity in young children.


Assuntos
Adiposidade/fisiologia , Características da Família , Abastecimento de Alimentos/economia , Inquéritos Nutricionais/economia , Obesidade Pediátrica/economia , Obesidade Pediátrica/epidemiologia , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Assistência Alimentar/economia , Assistência Alimentar/tendências , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Inquéritos Nutricionais/tendências , Obesidade Pediátrica/diagnóstico , Sudeste dos Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
12.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237598, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32790787

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Obesity is a leading comorbidity in psoriatic disease, including both psoriasis (PsO) and psoriatic arthritis (PsA), and is associated with adverse metabolic and cardiovascular (CV) outcomes. Anthropometric parameters, such as weight, body mass index (BMI) and waist-to-hip ratio, have been extensively reported in psoriatic disease. However, the associations of body composition and fat distribution with psoriasis have not yet been fully defined. OBJECTIVES: To identify whether patients with psoriatic disease, including psoriatic arthritis, have altered body composition compared with the general population, and to review existing modalities for the assessment of body composition. METHODS: Electronic searches of the literature were conducted in PubMed, Medline (Ovid®), Embase (Ovid®), Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) and Google Scholar. Titles and abstracts were reviewed by two authors independently against a set of prespecified inclusion/exclusion criteria. The research question was answered with a systematic literature review and results were summarized narratively. RESULTS: Twenty-five full text articles met the inclusion criteria and were included in the final narrative analysis. The studies were of heterogeneous design and used a range of objective measures to assess body composition, including simple anthropometric measures, bioimpedance analysis (BIA), dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and computed tomography (CT). Few studies met all the quality assessment criteria. Clinical heterogeneity prevented meta-analysis. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with psoriatic disease reveal defined body composition changes that are independent of obesity and the customary metabolic syndrome, including higher overall body fat, visceral fat and sarcopenia. These findings emphasize that patients with psoriatic disease should be screened for abnormal adipose effects beyond their weight and body mass index (BMI). Our findings show that the last decade has seen an exciting expansion of research interest in the development and validation of new modalities for the assessment of body composition. There is no consensus on the optimal assessment method of body composition for this diverse group; hence there is a need for validation of existing modalities and standardization of assessment tools.


Assuntos
Adiposidade , Composição Corporal , Índice de Massa Corporal , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Psoríase/epidemiologia , Comorbidade , Humanos
13.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237708, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32817646

RESUMO

Parental high-fat diet (HFD) programs for obesity and hypertension in female offspring in rats, but it is unknown how the pregnancies of these offspring are impacted. Therefore, the hypothesis was tested that parental HFD exaggerates obesity and hypertension during pregnancy of the offspring. Wistar Hannover rat dams (the parental, P generation) were maintained on normal-fat diet (NFD) or HFD from weaning and were kept on respective diets through pregnancy and lactation. Their offspring (the first filial, F1 generation) were weaned onto the same diet as the P generation, or they were changed to the other diet to determine if combined HFD in the P and F1 generations exaggerates body weight and blood pressure levels during pregnancy in these offspring. This diet paradigm resulted in the following groups of pregnant F1 offspring: P-NFD/F1-NFD, P-HFD/F1-NFD, P-NFD/F1-HFD, and P-HFD/F1-HFD. Maternal body and adipose tissue weights were greatest in the P-HFD/F1-HFD group compared to the other 3 groups by the end of pregnancy. Plasma leptin and conscious mean arterial blood pressure were not significantly different between any group, although there was a main effect for increased blood pressure in the F1-HFD groups. Circulating levels of the antihypertensive pregnancy factor, placental growth factor (PlGF), were assessed. Although average PlGF levels were similar among all groups, correlative studies revealed that lower levels of PlGF were associated with higher blood pressure only in the P-HFD/F1-HFD group. In summary, HFD feeding from the P generation exaggerated HFD-induced body and adipose tissue weights in the pregnant offspring.


Assuntos
Hipertensão/sangue , Leptina/sangue , Obesidade/sangue , Fator de Crescimento Placentário/sangue , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/sangue , Adiposidade/genética , Animais , Pressão Sanguínea/genética , Peso Corporal/genética , Dieta Hiperlipídica , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão/genética , Hipertensão/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Herança Materna/genética , Obesidade/genética , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Gravidez , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/fisiopatologia , Ratos , Desmame
14.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237887, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32817652

RESUMO

The effects of High-Intensity Functional Training (HIFT) on body composition and the relationship of the latter with performance are not well defined. In this work we investigated, by means of Dual-energy X-ray Absorptiometry, the relative proportions of fat-, lean soft tissue-, and mineral mass in CrossFit® (CF, a popular mode of HIFT) participants (n = 24; age, 28.2 ± 3.39 y; BMI, 25.3 ± 2.04 kg/m2) with at least 1 year of CF training experience and weekly amount of training > 10 h/w (n = 13; Higher Training, HT) or < 10 h/w (n = 11; Lower Training, LT) as well as age- matched and BMI-matched physically active controls (CHT, CLT). Performance was assessed in the "Fran" workout. Data were analyzed by one-way or repeated measures ANOVA where needed. Association between variables was assessed with the Pearson's correlation coefficient r. Partial correlation was used where needed. Results showed that HT performed better than LT in the "Fran" (P < 0.001) and they had higher whole-body bone mineral density (P = 0.026) and higher lean soft mass (P = 0.002), and borderline lower percent fat mass (P = 0.050). The main difference between CF participants (HT, LT) and their respective controls (CHT, CLT) was a lower adiposity in the former. In CF participants, performance positively correlated with appendicular lean soft tissue mass (P = 0.030). It can be concluded that, in CF participants, a higher amount of weekly training improves most notably lean body mass and increases performance in association with increased skeletal muscle mass. CF participation is especially effective in reducing fat mass vs. age- and BMI-matched physically active controls.


Assuntos
Composição Corporal/fisiologia , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Treinamento Intervalado de Alta Intensidade/métodos , Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia , Absorciometria de Fóton , Tecido Adiposo , Adiposidade/fisiologia , Adulto , Braço/fisiologia , Glicemia , Índice de Massa Corporal , Peso Corporal , Densidade Óssea , Capilares/fisiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Músculo Esquelético/anatomia & histologia , Adulto Jovem
15.
Arch Cardiovasc Dis ; 113(8-9): 551-563, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32753124

RESUMO

Obesity is a major risk factor for atrial fibrillation. It also influences the natural history of the disease, leading to more persistent forms and poorer ablation outcomes. This article reviews atrial fibrillation ablation in the obese population, focusing on outcomes, complications and periprocedural management. Through an analysis of the possible pathophysiological mechanism linking obesity and atrial fibrillation, we identify potential strategies to improve post-ablation outcomes in this challenging population.


Assuntos
Técnicas de Ablação , Fibrilação Atrial/cirurgia , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Técnicas de Ablação/efeitos adversos , Adiposidade , Animais , Fibrilação Atrial/diagnóstico , Fibrilação Atrial/epidemiologia , Fibrilação Atrial/fisiopatologia , Índice de Massa Corporal , Frequência Cardíaca , Humanos , Obesidade/diagnóstico , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Resultado do Tratamento , Ganho de Peso
17.
Metabolism ; 110: 154317, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32673651

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Overall obesity has recently been established as an independent risk factor for critical illness in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The role of fat distribution and especially that of visceral fat, which is often associated with metabolic syndrome, remains unclear. Therefore, this study aims at investigating the association between fat distribution and COVID-19 severity. METHODS: Thirty patients with COVID-19 and a mean age of 65.6 ±â€¯13.1 years from a level-one medical center in Berlin, Germany, were included in the present cross-sectional analysis. COVID-19 was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) from nasal and throat swabs. A severe clinical course of COVID-19 was defined by hospitalization in the intensive care unit (ICU) and/or invasive mechanical ventilation. Fat was measured at the level of the first lumbar vertebra on routinely acquired low-dose chest computed tomography (CT). RESULTS: An increase in visceral fat area (VFA) by ten square centimeters was associated with a 1.37-fold higher likelihood of ICU treatment and a 1.32-fold higher likelihood of mechanical ventilation (adjusted for age and sex). For upper abdominal circumference, each additional centimeter of circumference was associated with a 1.13-fold higher likelihood of ICU treatment and a 1.25-fold higher likelihood of mechanical ventilation. CONCLUSIONS: Our proof-of-concept study suggests that visceral adipose tissue and upper abdominal circumference specifically increase the likelihood of COVID-19 severity. CT-based quantification of visceral adipose tissue and upper abdominal circumference in routine chest CTs may therefore be a simple tool for risk assessment in COVID-19 patients.


Assuntos
Adiposidade/fisiologia , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/etiologia , Gordura Intra-Abdominal/fisiologia , Pneumonia Viral/etiologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Gordura Intra-Abdominal/diagnóstico por imagem , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Projetos Piloto , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
18.
Gene ; 758: 144957, 2020 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32683081

RESUMO

Leptin receptor (LEPR) gene play a pivotal role in the regulation of fat deposition and energy homeostasis. This study investigated the presence and frequency of polymorphisms of bovine LEPR gene and determine whether the polymorphisms are associated with the fat deposition in two Chinese beef cattle breeds. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reactions identified that the expression of LEPR gene was highest in the liver and subcutaneous fat. Four single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were identified including g.24169C > T, g.24256T > A, g.24267 G > C and g.24413T > A. A greater backfat thickness was associated with the AA genotype of g.24256T > A compared to the TT genotype. A greater intramuscular fat content was associated with the GG genotype of g.24267 G > C compared to the CC genotype. Both g.24169C > T and g.24413T > A were not correlated with fat deposition. These results indicated that the SNP g.24256T > A and g.24267 G > C of LEPR gene may be useful markers for genetic improvement of fat deposition in Chinese beef cattle breeds.


Assuntos
Adiposidade/genética , Distribuição da Gordura Corporal , Receptores para Leptina/genética , Receptores para Leptina/metabolismo , Animais , Bovinos , Frequência do Gene/genética , Estudos de Associação Genética , Genótipo , Leptina/metabolismo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética
19.
PLoS Med ; 17(7): e1003223, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32692748

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Smokers have lower risk of obesity, which some consider a "beneficial" side effect of smoking. However, some studies suggest that smoking is simultaneously associated with higher central adiposity and, more specifically, ectopic adipose deposition. Little is known about the association of smoking with intermuscular adipose tissue (IMAT), an ectopic adipose depot associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk and a key determinant of muscle quality and function. We tested the hypothesis that smokers have higher abdominal IMAT and lower lean muscle quality than never smokers. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We measured abdominal muscle total, lean, and adipose volumes (in cubic centimeters) and attenuation (in Hounsfield units [HU]) along with subcutaneous (SAT) and visceral adipose tissue (VAT) volumes using computed tomography (CT) in 3,020 middle-aged Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) participants (age 42-58, 56.3% women, 52.6% white race) at the year 25 (Y25) visit. The longitudinal CARDIA study was initiated in 1985 with the recruitment of young adult participants (aged 18-30 years) equally balanced by female and male sex and black and white race at 4 field centers located in Birmingham, AL, Chicago, IL, Minneapolis, MN, and Oakland, CA. Multivariable linear models included potential confounders such as physical activity and dietary habits along with traditional CVD risk factors. Current smokers had lower BMI than never smokers. Nevertheless, in the fully adjusted multivariable model with potential confounders, including BMI and CVD risk factors, adjusted mean (95% CI) IMAT volume was 2.66 (2.55-2.76) cm3 in current smokers (n = 524), 2.36 (2.29-2.43) cm3 in former smokers (n = 944), and 2.23 (2.18-2.29) cm3 in never smokers (n = 1,552) (p = 0.007 for comparison of former versus never smoker, and p < 0.001 for comparison of current smoker versus never and former smoker). Moreover, compared to participants who never smoked throughout life (41.6 [41.3-41.9] HU), current smokers (40.4 [39.9-40.9] HU) and former smokers (40.8 [40.5-41.2] HU) had lower lean muscle attenuation suggesting lower muscle quality in the fully adjusted model (p < 0.001 for comparison of never smokers with either of the other two strata). Among participants who had ever smoked, pack-years of smoking exposure were directly associated with IMAT volume (ß [95% CI]: 0.017 [0.010-0.025]) (p < 0.001). Despite having less SAT, current smokers also had higher VAT/SAT ratio than never smokers. These findings must be viewed with caution as residual confounding and/or reverse causation may contribute to these associations. CONCLUSIONS: We found that, compared to those who never smoked, current and former smokers had abdominal muscle composition that was higher in adipose tissue volume, a finding consistent with higher CVD risk and age-related physical deconditioning. These findings challenge the belief that smoking-associated weight loss or maintenance confers a health benefit.


Assuntos
Gordura Abdominal/diagnóstico por imagem , Fumar , Adiposidade/fisiologia , Adulto , Pressão Sanguínea , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Gordura Intra-Abdominal/diagnóstico por imagem , Estilo de Vida , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia , Obesidade Abdominal/diagnóstico por imagem , Fatores de Risco , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
20.
Toxicol Lett ; 332: 42-55, 2020 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32629074

RESUMO

Obesity is associated with several female reproductive complications, such as polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). The exact mechanism of this relationship remains unclear. Few previous studies using diet containing refined carbohydrate (HCD) leading to obesity have been performed and it is unclear if HCD is linked with reproductive dysfunctions. In this investigation, we assessed whether subchronic HCD exposure results in reproductive and other irregularities. Female rats were fed with HCD for 15 days and metabolic outcomes and reproductive tract morphophysiology were assessed. We further assessed reproductive tract inflammation, oxidative stress (OS) and fibrosis. HCD rats displayed metabolic impairments, such as an increase in body weight/adiposity, adipocyte hypertrophic, abnormal lipid profile, glucose tolerance and insulin resistance (IR) and hyperleptinemia. Improper functioning of the HCD reproductive tract was observed. Specifically, irregular estrous cyclicity, high LH levels and abnormal ovarian morphology coupled with reduction in primordial and primary follicle numbers was observed, suggesting ovarian reserve depletion. Improper follicular development and a reduction in antral follicles, corpora lutea and granulosa layer area together with an increase in cystic follicles were apparent. Uterine atrophy and reduction in endometrial gland (GE) number was observed in HCD rats. Reproductive tract inflammation, OS and fibrosis were seen in HCD rats. Further, strong positive correlations were observed between body weight/adiposity and IR with estrous cycle length, cystic follicles, ovarian reserve, GE and other abnormalities. Thus, these data suggest that the subchronic HCD exposure led to PCOS-like features, impaired ovarian reserve, GE number, and other reproductive abnormalities in female rats.


Assuntos
Carboidratos da Dieta/toxicidade , Reserva Ovariana/efeitos dos fármacos , Ovário/metabolismo , Síndrome do Ovário Policístico/induzido quimicamente , Adiposidade/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Peso Corporal , Dieta , Ciclo Estral/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Fibrose , Intolerância à Glucose/sangue , Intolerância à Glucose/induzido quimicamente , Resistência à Insulina , Leptina/sangue , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Folículo Ovariano/efeitos dos fármacos , Ovário/patologia , Estresse Oxidativo , Síndrome do Ovário Policístico/metabolismo , Síndrome do Ovário Policístico/patologia , Ratos , Ratos Wistar
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