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1.
Einstein (Sao Paulo) ; 18: eAO4784, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31553356

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of three types of muscular resistance training on adiposity, inflammation levels and insulin activity in Swiss mice with fat-rich diet-induced obesity. METHODS: Lean and obese male Swiss mice were selected and allocated to one of eight groups comprising eight mice each, as follows: standard diet + no training; standard diet + muscular resistance training; standard diet + hypertrophy training; standard diet + strength training; high-fat diet + no training; high-fat diet + muscular resistance training; high-fat diet + hypertrophy training; high-fat diet + strength training. The training protocol consisted of stair climbing for a 10-week period. Blood samples were collected for lactate analysis, glucose level measurement and insulin tolerance test. After euthanasia, adipose tissues were removed and weighed for adiposity index determination. Fragments of epididymal adipose tissue were then embedded for histological analysis or homogenized for tumor necrosis factor alpha level determination using the ELISA method. RESULTS: Ausency of differences in total training volume and blood lactate levels overall emphasize the similarity between the different resistance training protocols. Body weight loss, reduced adipocyte area and lower adiposity index were observed in trained obese mice, regardless of training modality. Different training protocols also improved insulin sensitivity and reduced inflammation levels. CONCLUSION: Resistance training protocols were equally effective in reducing body fat, inflammation levels and insulin resistance in obese mice.


Assuntos
Adiposidade/fisiologia , Hipertrofia/fisiopatologia , Inflamação/fisiopatologia , Resistência à Insulina/fisiologia , Exercícios de Alongamento Muscular/métodos , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Condicionamento Físico Animal/fisiologia , Tecido Adiposo Branco/fisiopatologia , Animais , Glicemia/análise , Peso Corporal/fisiologia , Dieta Hiperlipídica , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Obesos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Treinamento de Resistência/métodos , Fatores de Tempo , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/análise
2.
Chin J Physiol ; 62(5): 217-225, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31670286

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to evaluate the association between adiposity parameters and fasting serum levels of appetite-regulating peptides: leptin, neuropeptide Y (NPY), desacyl ghrelin, peptide YY(1-36), obestatin, cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART), and agouti-related protein in 30 healthy, non-obese subjects. Thirty European Caucasian adult participants were included in the study (17 men and 13 women). Body composition (body fat and lean body mass) was determined using bioelectrical impedance analysis. Concentrations of peptides in serum were assessed using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Women had higher level of leptin (P < 0.001), with no other differences for analyzed peptides. We have found a significant correlation between serum concentrations of CART and NPY (P < 0.001). Fasting leptin level was associated with age (P = 0.002), waist circumference (P < 0.001), and lean body mass (P < 0.001). Levels of ghrelin were lower in participants with dyslipidemia (P = 0.009). Levels of obestatin (P = 0.008) and leptin (P = 0.02) were higher in participants with insulin resistance. Associations between body fat and appetite-regulating peptides are more complex than simple feedback loops. Leptin is probably the first signal in the pathway that regulates body fat content, as of all analyzed peptides leptin was the only one that was associated with body composition or anthropometric measurements.


Assuntos
Adiposidade , Adulto , Proteína Relacionada com Agouti , Apetite , Jejum , Feminino , Grelina , Humanos , Leptina , Masculino , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso , Neuropeptídeo Y , Peptídeo YY
3.
Zhonghua Gan Zang Bing Za Zhi ; 27(10): 754-759, 2019 Oct 20.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31734988

RESUMO

Objective: To explore the relationship between liver controlled attenuation parameters (CAP) and body fat mass and its distribution. Methods: From May to December 2018, 978 adult patients visited at the fatty liver center of the Third People's Hospital of Changzhou were treated. The patient's liver controlled attenuation parameters were measured by transient elastography and the body fat mass and its distribution were measured by bioelectrical impedance technology. Pearson's correlation coefficient was adopted to describe the correlation between liver CAP value and body mass index (BMI), body fat mass index (BFMI), trunk fat mass index (TFMI), limbs fat mass index (LFMI) and visceral fat area (VFA). Receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) and area under the curve (AUC) were used to evaluate BMI, BFMI, TFMI, LFMI and VFA to differentiate the cut-off points and efficacy of CAP for diagnosing grading of fatty liver changes in S0-1 and S2-3. Results: In 653 cases of male, S0 ~ S3 accounted for 4.90%, 3.37%, 22.36% and 69.37%, respectively, and in 325 cases of females, S0 ~ S3 accounted for 7.38%, 6.46%, 13.23% and 72.92%, respectively. Female patients had more visceral, trunk and limbs fat than male (P < 0.01). Body mass, body fat mass, body fat percentage, BMI, BFMI, TFMI, LFMI, and VFA were increased in male and female patients with increasing liver fat grade (P < 0.01). CAP values ​​of male and female patients were positively correlated with BMI, BFMI, TFMI, LFMI and VFA. Percentage of body fat mass increased with increasing liver fat grade (male: F = 13.42, P < 0.001; female: F = 3.22, P = 0.023); while limb fat mass percentage did not increase with liver fat grade (Male: F = 1.13, P = 0.34; female: F = 1.05, P = 0.37). Hepatic steatosis grading (S0 ~ 1 or S2 ~ 3) diagnosed with CAP were distinguished through BMI, BFMI, TFMI, LFMI and VFA. AUC was 0.80 ~ 0.82 in males (P < 0.01), and 0.75 ~ 0.78 in females (P < 0.01). Conclusion: The liver CAP value is positively correlated with the body's limbs, trunk and visceral fat, and has a strong correlation with trunk and visceral fat. BMI, BFMI, TFMI, LFMI and VFA up to some extent can identify the CAP diagnosis of grading of fatty liver changes in S0-1 and S2-3.


Assuntos
Adiposidade , Técnicas de Imagem por Elasticidade , Fígado Gorduroso/diagnóstico por imagem , Tecido Adiposo , Adulto , Biópsia , Índice de Massa Corporal , Feminino , Humanos , Fígado/diagnóstico por imagem , Masculino , Análise Multivariada , Curva ROC
4.
Eur J Endocrinol ; 181(5): 473-480, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31491743

RESUMO

Objective: To evaluate whether brown adipose tissue (BAT) activity is altered in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), and whether BAT activity correlates with plasma levels of irisin, a myokine that can induce BAT formation. Design: We performed a cross-sectional study including women with PCOS (n = 45) and a healthy control group (n = 25) matched by age and body mass index (BMI). Methods: BAT activity was measured using 18F-FDG positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET-CT) and plasma irisin levels were measured by a validated enzyme immunoassay. Results: Total BAT activity was significantly reduced in women with PCOS (maximal standardized uptake value (SUVmax): median 7.4 g/mL, interquartile range 0.9-15.4) compared to controls (median 13.0 g/mL, interquartile range 4.7-18.4, P = 0.047). However, this difference was no longer significant after adjustment for waist circumference, a surrogate marker of central adiposity. In the PCOS group, BAT activity correlated negatively with BMI (Spearman's r = -0.630, P = 0.000) and waist circumference (r = -0.592, P = 0.000) but not with plasma irisin levels. Conclusions: BAT activity was reduced in women with PCOS possibly due to increased central adiposity. In PCOS women, BAT activity did not correlate with plasma irisin levels.


Assuntos
Tecido Adiposo Marrom/fisiopatologia , Síndrome do Ovário Policístico/fisiopatologia , Tecido Adiposo Marrom/diagnóstico por imagem , Adiposidade , Adolescente , Adulto , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Fibronectinas/sangue , Fluordesoxiglucose F18 , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Síndrome do Ovário Policístico/diagnóstico por imagem , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons , Resultado do Tratamento , Circunferência da Cintura , Adulto Jovem
5.
Nat Med ; 25(9): 1390-1395, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31501611

RESUMO

Visceral adipose tissue (VAT)-fat stored around the internal organs-has been suggested as an independent risk factor for cardiovascular and metabolic disease1-3, as well as all-cause, cardiovascular-specific and cancer-specific mortality4,5. Yet, the contribution of genetics to VAT, as well as its disease-related effects, are largely unexplored due to the requirement for advanced imaging technologies to accurately measure VAT. Here, we develop sex-stratified, nonlinear prediction models (coefficient of determination = 0.76; typical 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.74-0.78) for VAT mass using the UK Biobank cohort. We performed a genome-wide association study for predicted VAT mass and identified 102 novel visceral adiposity loci. Predicted VAT mass was associated with increased risk of hypertension, heart attack/angina, type 2 diabetes and hyperlipidemia, and Mendelian randomization analysis showed visceral fat to be a causal risk factor for all four diseases. In particular, a large difference in causal effect between the sexes was found for type 2 diabetes, with an odds ratio of 7.34 (95% CI = 4.48-12.0) in females and an odds ratio of 2.50 (95% CI = 1.98-3.14) in males. Our findings bolster the role of visceral adiposity as a potentially independent risk factor, in particular for type 2 diabetes in Caucasian females. Independent validation in other cohorts is necessary to determine whether the findings can translate to other ethnicities, or outside the UK.


Assuntos
Adiposidade/genética , Doenças Cardiovasculares/genética , Gordura Intra-Abdominal/metabolismo , Doenças Metabólicas/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/patologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/genética , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/patologia , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Hipertensão/genética , Hipertensão/metabolismo , Hipertensão/patologia , Gordura Intra-Abdominal/patologia , Masculino , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana , Doenças Metabólicas/epidemiologia , Doenças Metabólicas/patologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/genética , Obesidade/metabolismo , Obesidade/patologia , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Fatores de Risco , Caracteres Sexuais
6.
Endocrinology ; 160(10): 2485-2494, 2019 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31386147

RESUMO

27-Hydroxycholesterol (27HC) is an abundant cholesterol metabolite and has detrimental effects on the cardiovascular system, whereas its impact on adiposity is not well known. In this study, we found that elevations in 27HC cause increased body weight gain in mice fed a high-fat/high-cholesterol diet in an estrogen receptor α-dependent manner. Regardless of diet type, body fat mass was increased by 27HC without changes in food intake or fat absorption. 27HC did not alter energy expenditure in mice fed a normal chow diet and increased visceral white adipose mass by inducing hyperplasia but not hypertrophy. Although 27HC did not augment adipocyte terminal differentiation, it increased the adipose cell population that differentiates to mature adipocytes. RNA sequencing analysis revealed that 27HC treatment of mice fed a normal chow diet induces inflammatory gene sets similar to those seen after high-fat/high-cholesterol diet feeding, whereas there was no overlap in inflammatory gene expression among any other 27HC administration/diet change combination. Histological analysis showed that 27HC treatment increased the number of total and M1-type macrophages in white adipose tissues. Thus, 27HC promotes adiposity by directly affecting white adipose tissues and by increasing adipose inflammatory responses. Lowering serum 27HC levels may lead to an approach targeting cholesterol to prevent diet-induced obesity.


Assuntos
Adipogenia/efeitos dos fármacos , Adiposidade/efeitos dos fármacos , Gorduras na Dieta/efeitos adversos , Hidroxicolesteróis , Obesidade/induzido quimicamente , Animais , Família 7 do Citocromo P450/genética , Família 7 do Citocromo P450/metabolismo , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Gorduras na Dieta/farmacologia , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Inflamação/induzido quimicamente , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Esteroide Hidroxilases/genética , Esteroide Hidroxilases/metabolismo
7.
Endocr Pract ; 25(11): 1176-1183, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31414910

RESUMO

Objective: Obesity has become a major worldwide health challenge. Macrosomic infants are more likely to experience type 2 diabetes mellitus, obesity and hypertension in adulthood. However, whether macrosomia increases the risk of maternal adiposity later in life is still unknown. Methods: One thousand nine hundred eighty-six unrelated parous women of Chinese Han ancestry aged from 40 to 76 years were enrolled. Self-reported information about reproductive status, including age at menarche, number of children, previous delivery of macrosomic infants, and body weight before and after pregnancy were obtained from personal interview by trained interviewers using a standard questionnaire. Macrosomia was defined as birth weight greater than 4,000 g. Adiposity indexes were measured or calculated. Results: Prior delivery of macrosomia was associated with an increased risk of having obesity in parous women with normal weight before pregnancy (odds ratio [OR] = 1.840; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.028, 3.294; P = .040), as well as a higher risk of overweight/obesity in parous women with normal weight after pregnancy (OR = 1.777; 95% CI 1.131, 2.794; P = .013). In addition, previous delivery of macrosomia was related with 1.919 (95% CI 1.207, 3.050; P = .006) times higher risk of overweight/obesity in parous women with normal weight before and after pregnancy. Conclusion: The present study suggests that prior delivery of macrosomia may be an independent risk factor for adiposity later in life in parous women with normal weight before and/or after pregnancy. Abbreviations: BMI = body mass index; CI = confidence interval; OR = odds ratio; WC = waist circumference; WHR = waist-to-hip ratio; WHtR = waist-to-height ratio.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Macrossomia Fetal , Adiposidade , Adulto , Idoso , Índice de Massa Corporal , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade , Razão de Chances , Gravidez , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco
8.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(33): e16811, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31415396

RESUMO

Glucocorticoids used to treat acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) are associated with cytotoxicity and obesity. The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of high-proportion medium chain triglyceride (MCT) on body fat distribution and levels of leptin and adiponectin during chemotherapy of children with ALL.New-onset ALL children treated at the Guangzhou Women and Children's Medical Center between March 2016 and March 2017 were enrolled. Children were divided into the MCT and control groups. For the MCT group, high-proportion MCT nutrition preparation was added to the diet, while no MCT was added for the control group. The MCT group was further divided into subgroups A and B based on the amount of supplement. Waist circumference, hip circumference, waist-to-hip ratio, bone marrow concentrations of leptin and adiponectin, and leptin-to-adiponectin ratio were measured before and on days 19 and 46 of chemotherapy. Body weight and body mass index (BMI) were measured on admission and discharge.Waist circumference in the control group increased by day 46 (P = .047), but did not change in the MCT group. The BMI of the children in the control group was higher than those in the MCT group on admission (P = .003), but not different at discharge. No significant differences in hip circumference, leptin levels, adiponectin levels, and body weight were observed between the 2 groups.This preliminary study suggests that short-term supplementation of high-proportion MCT nutrition preparation may help reduce the centripetal distribution of adipose induced by the application of glucocorticoids in children with ALL. This will have to be confirmed in future studies.


Assuntos
Adiponectina/sangue , Adiposidade/efeitos dos fármacos , Suplementos Nutricionais , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras/fisiopatologia , Triglicerídeos/farmacologia , Distribuição da Gordura Corporal , Índice de Massa Corporal , Peso Corporal , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Glucocorticoides/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Leptina/sangue , Masculino , Obesidade/induzido quimicamente , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras/sangue , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras/tratamento farmacológico , Circunferência da Cintura
9.
Int J Sports Med ; 40(10): 619-624, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31365945

RESUMO

Based on the high financial and logistical costs associated with the assessment of body composition with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), this study determined which field method has the best correlation with DXA data, and developed an equation to estimate fat-free mass (FFM) using the field anthropometric data in international soccer players. A total of 17 international soccer players participated in this study. DXA values provided a criterion measure of FFM. Correlation coefficients, biases, limits of agreement, and differences were used as validity measures, and regression analyses were used to develop the prediction equation. All field methods used to obtain FFM data showed positive correlations (r from 0.90-0.96) with DXA. Only the equation developed by Deurenberg et al. [6] showed no differences from DXA with a low bias. The main strength of this study was providing a valid and accurate equation to estimate FFM specifically in international soccer players.


Assuntos
Adiposidade , Atletas , Composição Corporal , Absorciometria de Fóton , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Impedância Elétrica , Humanos , Masculino , Análise de Regressão , Pregas Cutâneas , Futebol
10.
Adv Clin Exp Med ; 28(10): 1403-1408, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31469950

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Echocardiographic epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) thickness is defined as the thickness of the low-isoechoic area on the free wall of the right ventricle in the parasternal long-axis and short-axis views. Recent studies have suggested that it might support current risk stratification strategies in identifying an increased risk of metabolic syndrome. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study is to explore a new measurement site which can better reflect EAT thickness and to assess its value in predicting metabolic syndrome. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A total of 975 Chinese adults were measured for EAT thickness on the right ventricular anterior free wall (EAT-rv) and on the anterior interventricular groove (EAT-ivg) with echocardiography. The correlation between EAT thickness and metabolic syndrome was analyzed, as was the agreement between epicardial adipose volume (EAV) and EAT thickness. Independent risk factors of EAT thickness were identified and the predictive value of EAT thickness was assessed. RESULTS: Epicardial adipose tissue thickness was higher in older participants and those with obesity, diabetes, hypertension, hypertriglyceridemia, and metabolic syndrome, and it was lower in male participants. The EAT-ivg was higher in the participants with hypo-high-density-lipoprotein cholesterolemia than in those without the disorder, but the EAT-rv values were not statistically different. The kappa value was 0.524 between EAT-rv and EAV, and 0.783 between EAT-ivg and EAV. Advanced age, large waist circumference and female gender were independent risk factors of high EAT-ivg, while high-density-lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol was a protective factor. The EAT-ivg was associated with metabolic syndrome. The area under the curve of EAT-ivg applied in predicting metabolic syndrome was greater than that of EAT-rv (0.715 vs 0.648). CONCLUSIONS: The EAT-ivg was more consistent with EAV than EAT-rv, was independently associated with metabolic syndrome and had a higher value in predicting metabolic syndrome than EAT-rv. Therefore, the anterior interventricular groove can serve as a new measurement site which better reflects EAT thickness.


Assuntos
Tecido Adiposo/diagnóstico por imagem , Ecocardiografia/métodos , Síndrome Metabólica , Pericárdio/diagnóstico por imagem , Adiposidade , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Fatores de Risco
11.
Cas Lek Cesk ; 158(3-4): 112-117, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31416317

RESUMO

This study aimed to describe sedentary behaviour in detail and assess its association with adiposity in older adult women. Data from 314 community-dwelling women (mean age 66.6 ± 6.5 years) from Czech Republic, Poland, and Slovakia were analyzed. Fat mass percentage was used as an indicator of adiposity, measured by bioelectrical impedance analysis. The patterns of sedentary behaviour were monitored using an accelerometer, and 1-9, 10-29 and 30 min. bouts were analyzed. We performed a multiple linear regression analysis to assess the association between variables. There was a significant association of fat mass percentage with time spent in bouts with a duration 10-29 min. (β = 0,03, p < 0,01) and the frequency of all analyzed bouts (β ranging -0,08-0,6; p < 0,05) which was independent of age, physical activity, demographic, socio-economic and health factors. Our results suggest that the sedentary behaviour patterns are significantly associated with adiposity. Reducing of sedentary time should be considered when planning a prevention programs or interventions.


Assuntos
Adiposidade , Comportamento Sedentário , Acelerometria , Idoso , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos Transversais , República Tcheca , Feminino , Humanos , Vida Independente , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polônia , Eslováquia
12.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(35): 9727-9737, 2019 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31398034

RESUMO

The present study aimed to search for chicken abdominal fat deposition-related polymorphisms within RB1 and to provide functional evidence for significantly associated genetic variants. Association analyses showed that 11 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in intron 17 of RB1, were significantly associated with both abdominal fat weight (P < 0.05) and abdominal fat percentage (P < 0.05). Functional analysis revealed that the A allele of g.32828A>G repressed the transcriptional efficiency of RB1 in vitro, through binding nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-KB) and SRY-related HMG box protein 2 (SOX2). Furthermore, RB1 mRNA expression levels in the abdominal fat tissue of individuals with the A/A genotype of g.32828A>G were lower than those of individuals with the G/G genotype. Collectively, we propose that the intronic SNP g.32828A>G of RB1 is an obesity-associated variant that directly affects binding with NF-KB and SOX2, leading to changes in RB1 expression which in turn may influence chicken abdominal fat deposition.


Assuntos
Adiposidade , Proteínas Aviárias/metabolismo , Galinhas/metabolismo , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Proteína do Retinoblastoma/genética , Proteína do Retinoblastoma/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição SOX/metabolismo , Gordura Abdominal/metabolismo , Alelos , Animais , Proteínas Aviárias/genética , Sítios de Ligação , Galinhas/genética , Galinhas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Íntrons , NF-kappa B/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Ligação Proteica , Fatores de Transcrição SOX/genética
13.
Gynecol Oncol ; 155(1): 69-74, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31409486

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Adiposity has been hypothesized to interfere with the activity of bevacizumab (BEV), an anti-angiogenic agent. Measurements of adiposity, BMI, surface fat area (SFA), and visceral fat area (VFA) were investigated as prognostic of oncologic outcomes among patients treated with chemotherapy, with or without BEV, on GOG 218, a prospective phase III trial. METHOD: Pretreatment computed tomography (CT) for 1538 GOG 218 participants were analyzed. Proportional hazards models assessed association between adiposity and overall survival (OS) adjusted for other prognostic factors. The predictive value of adiposity as a function of BEV treatment was assessed in 1019 patients randomized to either chemotherapy (CT) + placebo (P) → P or CT + BEV → BEV. RESULTS: After adjusting for prognostic factors, SFA was not associated with the overall hazard of death (p = 0.981). There was a non-significant 0.1% (p = 0.062) increase in hazard of death associated with a unit increase in VFA. When comparing the treatment HRs for patients who did and did not receive BEV, there was no association with SFA (p = 0.890) or VFA (p = 0.106). A non-significant 0.8% increase in the hazard of death with unit increase in BMI (p = 0.086) was observed. BMI values were not predictive of a longer survival for patients with BEV vs placebo (p = 0.606). CONCLUSION: Measures of adiposity strongly correlated to one another but were not predictive of efficacy for BEV. VFA is a weak prognostic factor.


Assuntos
Tecido Adiposo/patologia , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Carcinoma Epitelial do Ovário/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma Epitelial do Ovário/patologia , Neoplasias Ovarianas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Ovarianas/patologia , Adiposidade , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Inibidores da Angiogênese/administração & dosagem , Bevacizumab/administração & dosagem , Carcinoma Epitelial do Ovário/diagnóstico por imagem , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/patologia , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Neoplasias Ovarianas/diagnóstico por imagem , Prognóstico , Intervalo Livre de Progressão , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
14.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1193: 135-154, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31368102

RESUMO

Obesity is multifactorial and complex. Remarkable progress has been made recently in search for polygenic obesity through genome-wide association study (GWAS), but biology of polygenic effects on obesity is largely poor. This review summarizes the available evidence and provides an overview of the links between ALDH2 variants and adiposity, which were firstly and mainly derived from studies of polygenic obesity and also indirectly investigated by using cell lines and mice. The genetic association studies have observed consistent associations of ALDH2 variants with obesity-related traits including BMI, waist circumference (WC), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), and visceral fat accumulation. In consideration of ALDH2 variants with enzyme activity and alcohol consumption behavior in physiological mechanism studies, we proposed a model by which the physiological and behavioral consequences of alcohol consumption serve as an intermediary process between polymorphisms in ALDH2 and obesity.


Assuntos
Aldeído-Desidrogenase Mitocondrial/genética , Obesidade/genética , Adiposidade/genética , Animais , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Camundongos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Circunferência da Cintura , Relação Cintura-Quadril
15.
Clin Obes ; 9(5): e12331, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31293064

RESUMO

Researchers, policymakers and clinicians commonly use height and weight to determine body mass index (BMI) and classify weight status. Self-report measures are widely used but often result in misreported height and weight and, consequentially, underestimation of BMI and-potentially-weight status misclassification. The purpose of this study was to examine differences in objective and self-reported height, weight and BMI values and to find whether discordance is associated with other anthropometric measures, fitness and physical activity. Data were collected from college students through: (a) a pre-consultation online questionnaire where participants self-reported gender, height and weight; (b) an objective fitness assessment that assessed height, weight, body fat percentage, abdominal girth and predicted aerobic fitness; and (c) a post-assessment electronic survey that assessed physical activity. Parametric and non-parametric analyses examined differences between groups. Objective and self-reported height and weight data were collected from 1061 participants, 224 of whom also provided physical activity data. Women significantly under-reported weight (P = .003, η2 = 0.02), and both genders over-reported height (P < .001, η2 ≥ 0.07), resulting in a significant difference between BMIs calculated using the different measures (P < .001, η2 ≥ 0.07) and the weight status misclassification of ~15% of participants. Significant differences were found in anthropometrics, fitness and physical activity based on reporting differences for weight (P ≤ .015) and BMI (P ≤ .015). Students demonstrated a tendency to under-report weight and over-report height, resulting in weight status misclassification. Those who under-reported weight tended to be in poorer health as indicated by lower aerobic fitness and higher abdominal girth and body fat percentage in particular. Further research is required to establish the link between under-reporting weight and over-reporting physical activity.


Assuntos
Estatura , Índice de Massa Corporal , Peso Corporal , Exercício , Aptidão Física , Autorrelato/estatística & dados numéricos , Adiposidade , Adulto , Composição Corporal , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores Sexuais , Estudantes , Inquéritos e Questionários , Universidades , Circunferência da Cintura , Adulto Jovem
16.
Diabetes Res Clin Pract ; 155: 107798, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31330161

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Lipid accumulation product (LAP) index and Visceral Adiposity Index (VAI) are simple calculations to measure fat accumulation and visceral fat respectively. We aim to study the use of LAP index and VAI as diagnostic parameter and predictor of T2DM. METHODS: We analysed the baseline and longitudinal data from the Indonesian Ministry of Health Cohort Study of Non-communicable Diseases Risk Factors in West Java, comprising 846 men and 2437 women aged 25-65 years. At baseline, the odds ratio for the diagnosis of prediabetes and T2DM among subjects with high LAP Index and VAI was analysed using logistic regression analysis. In the longitudinal analysis, LAP index and VAI as predictor of prediabetes and T2DM was analysed with cox regression analysis. RESULT: Worsening glycemia status was associated with an increased LAP index and VAI (p < 0.001). Subjects with high VAI had an increased OR of having T2DM in both men [OR, 95%CI, 2.29(1.15-4.56), p = 0.018] and women [1.95(1.49-2.54), p < 0.001)]. Association of high LAP with T2DM was found only in women [OR, 95%CI, 2.11(1.16-1.52), p < 0.001]. In terms of T2DM prediction, only women [RR, 95% CI, 2.59 (1.05-6.39), p = 0.038)], with high VAI had an increased risk of T2DM in the future. High LAP index was not associated with an in increased risk of T2DM in the future in both sexes. CONCLUSION: High LAP index was associated with an increased risk of T2DM diagnosis in women but it could not predict the development of T2DM. High VAI was associated with an increased risk of T2DM diagnosis in both sexes, however, it could only predict the development of T2DM in women.


Assuntos
Adiposidade , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/diagnóstico , Produto da Acumulação Lipídica , Doenças não Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Obesidade Abdominal/complicações , Adulto , Idoso , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/etiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Indonésia/epidemiologia , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Fatores de Risco
17.
Physiol Rev ; 99(4): 1701-1763, 2019 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31339053

RESUMO

Obesity is increasingly prevalent and is associated with substantial cardiovascular risk. Adipose tissue distribution and morphology play a key role in determining the degree of adverse effects, and a key factor in the disease process appears to be the inflammatory cell population in adipose tissue. Healthy adipose tissue secretes a number of vasoactive adipokines and anti-inflammatory cytokines, and changes to this secretory profile will contribute to pathogenesis in obesity. In this review, we discuss the links between adipokine dysregulation and the development of hypertension and diabetes and explore the potential for manipulating adipose tissue morphology and its immune cell population to improve cardiovascular health in obesity.


Assuntos
Tecido Adiposo/fisiopatologia , Pressão Sanguínea , Diabetes Mellitus/fisiopatologia , Hipertensão/fisiopatologia , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Adipocinas/metabolismo , Tecido Adiposo/imunologia , Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Adiposidade , Animais , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus/imunologia , Diabetes Mellitus/metabolismo , Humanos , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Hipertensão/imunologia , Hipertensão/metabolismo , Mediadores da Inflamação/metabolismo , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Obesidade/imunologia , Obesidade/metabolismo , Fenótipo , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Transdução de Sinais , Sistema Nervoso Simpático/metabolismo , Sistema Nervoso Simpático/fisiopatologia
18.
Hypertension ; 74(3): 687-696, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31327268

RESUMO

Metabolic syndrome is a cause of coronary artery disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Camk2n1 resides in genomic loci for blood pressure, left ventricle mass, and type 2 diabetes mellitus, and in the spontaneously hypertensive rat model of metabolic syndrome, Camk2n1 expression is cis-regulated in left ventricle and fat and positively correlates with adiposity. Therefore, we knocked out Camk2n1 in spontaneously hypertensive rat to investigate its role in metabolic syndrome. Compared with spontaneously hypertensive rat, Camk2n1-/- rats had reduced cardiorenal CaMKII (Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent kinase II) activity, lower blood pressure, enhanced nitric oxide bioavailability, and reduced left ventricle mass associated with altered hypertrophic networks. Camk2n1 deficiency reduced insulin resistance, visceral fat, and adipogenic capacity through the altered cell cycle and complement pathways, independent of CaMKII. In human visceral fat, CAMK2N1 expression correlated with adiposity and genomic variants that increase CAMK2N1 expression associated with increased risk of coronary artery disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Camk2n1 regulates multiple networks that control metabolic syndrome traits and merits further investigation as a therapeutic target in humans.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Transporte/genética , Hipertensão/genética , Hipertrofia Ventricular Esquerda/genética , Síndrome Metabólica/fisiopatologia , Adiposidade/genética , Animais , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/genética , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/fisiopatologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Hipertensão/fisiopatologia , Hipertrofia Ventricular Esquerda/fisiopatologia , Síndrome Metabólica/genética , Distribuição Aleatória , Ratos , Ratos Endogâmicos SHR , Medição de Risco , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
20.
Diabetes Res Clin Pract ; 154: 17-26, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31228493

RESUMO

AIMS: We examined the longitudinal association between change in body composition directly measured by computed tomography (CT) and future insulin sensitivity. METHODS: This was a prospective study with 10 years of follow-up with 297 Japanese-American without diabetes. Intra-abdominal fat area (IAFA) and abdominal subcutaneous fat area (SCFA), and thigh SCFA were measured by CT. Insulin sensitivity was calculated by HOMA-IR and the Matsuda index. RESULTS: Baseline and change in IAFA were significantly and independently associated with change in HOMA-IR and Matsuda index during follow-up. In multivariate analysis, IAFA and 10-year change in IAFA (Δ IAFA) was significantly and positively associated with 10-year HOMA-IR (p < 0.001) and significantly and negatively associated with 10-year Matsuda index (p < 0.001). The association with Matsuda index though was non-linear and best modeled as a quadratic function (Δ IAFA +â€¯Δ IAFA2). No significant associations in multivariate analyses were seen between thigh SCFA and insulin sensitivity or abdominal SCFA and HOMA-IR but an increase in abdominal SCFA was associated with diminished insulin sensitivity measured by the Matsuda index. CONCLUSIONS: An increase in visceral adiposity predicts diminished insulin sensitivity over 10 years of follow-up independent of the size of this adipose depot at baseline.


Assuntos
Adiposidade , Americanos Asiáticos/estatística & dados numéricos , Resistência à Insulina , Gordura Intra-Abdominal/diagnóstico por imagem , Gordura Subcutânea Abdominal/diagnóstico por imagem , Coxa da Perna/diagnóstico por imagem , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco
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