Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 13.782
Filtrar
1.
BMC Endocr Disord ; 21(1): 144, 2021 Jul 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34217276

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although obesity, defined by body mass index (BMI), has been associated with a higher risk of hospitalisation and more severe course of illness in Covid-19 positive patients amongst the British population, it is unclear if this translates into increased mortality. Furthermore, given that BMI is an insensitive indicator of adiposity, the effect of adipose volume on Covid-19 outcomes is also unknown. METHODS: We used the UK Biobank repository, which contains clinical and anthropometric data and is linked to Public Health England Covid-19 healthcare records, to address our research question. We performed age- and sex- adjusted logistic regression and Chi-squared test to compute the odds for Covid-19-related mortality as a consequence of increasing BMI, and other more sensitive indices of adiposity such as waist:hip ratio (WHR) and percent body fat, as well as concomitant cardiometabolic illness. RESULTS: 13,502 participants were tested for Covid-19 (mean age 70 ± 8 years, 48.9% male). 1582 tested positive (mean age 68 ± 9 years, 52.8% male), of which 305 died (mean age 75 ± 6 years, 65.5% male). Increasing adiposity was associated with higher odds for Covid-19-related mortality. For every unit increase in BMI, WHR and body fat, the odds of death amongst Covid19-positive participants increased by 1.04 (95% CI 1.01-1.07), 10.71 (95% CI 1.57-73.06) and 1.03 (95% CI 1.01-1.05), respectively (all p < 0.05). Referenced to Covid-19 positive participants with a normal weight (BMI 18.5-25 kg/m2), Covid-19 positive participants with BMI > 35 kg/m2 had significantly higher odds of Covid-19-related death (OR 1.70, 95% CI 1.06-2.74, p < 0.05). Covid-19-positive participants with metabolic (diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidaemia) or cardiovascular morbidity (atrial fibrillation, angina) also had higher odds of death. CONCLUSIONS: Anthropometric indices that are more sensitive to adipose volume and its distribution than BMI, as well as concurrent cardiometabolic illness, are associated with higher odds of Covid-19-related mortality amongst the UK Biobank cohort that tested positive for the infection. These results suggest adipose volume may contribute to adverse Covid-19-related outcomes associated with obesity.


Assuntos
Adiposidade/fisiologia , COVID-19/mortalidade , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Síndrome Metabólica/epidemiologia , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Bancos de Espécimes Biológicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Índice de Massa Corporal , COVID-19/complicações , COVID-19/patologia , Fatores de Risco Cardiometabólico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/complicações , Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Estudos de Coortes , Bases de Dados Factuais , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/mortalidade , Feminino , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos , Masculino , Síndrome Metabólica/complicações , Síndrome Metabólica/mortalidade , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Morbidade , Mortalidade , Obesidade/complicações , Obesidade/mortalidade , Fatores de Risco , SARS-CoV-2/fisiologia , Reino Unido/epidemiologia
2.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(12)2021 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34203825

RESUMO

Obesity is closely related to insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes genesis. The liver is a key organ to glucose homeostasis since insulin resistance in this organ increases hepatic glucose production (HGP) and fasting hyperglycemia. The protein-tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) may dephosphorylate the IR and IRS, contributing to insulin resistance in this organ. Aerobic exercise is a great strategy to increase insulin action in the liver by reducing the PTP1B content. In contrast, no study has shown the direct effects of strength training on the hepatic metabolism of PTP1B. Therefore, this study aims to investigate the effects of short-term strength exercise (STSE) on hepatic insulin sensitivity and PTP1B content in obese mice, regardless of body weight change. To achieve this goal, obese Swiss mice were submitted to a strength exercise protocol lasting 15 days. The results showed that STSE increased Akt phosphorylation in the liver and enhanced the control of HGP during the pyruvate tolerance test. Furthermore, sedentary obese animals increased PTP1B content and decreased IRS-1/2 tyrosine phosphorylation; however, STSE was able to reverse this scenario. Therefore, we conclude that STSE is an important strategy to improve the hepatic insulin sensitivity and HGP by reducing the PTP1B content in the liver of obese mice, regardless of changes in body weight.


Assuntos
Peso Corporal , Resistência à Insulina , Condicionamento Físico Animal , Proteína Tirosina Fosfatase não Receptora Tipo 1/metabolismo , Adiposidade , Animais , Regulação para Baixo , Glucose/metabolismo , Insulina/metabolismo , Fígado/metabolismo , Camundongos Obesos , Treinamento de Força , Transdução de Sinais
3.
Acta Biomed ; 92(3): e2021078, 2021 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34212929

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIM: This study aims to quantify abdominal visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) using T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and assess the extent of its concordance with VAT surface-area measured by a state-of-the-art segmental multi-frequency bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) device. A comparison between manual and semi-automated segmentation was conducted. Further, abdominal VAT and SAT sex-based comparison in healthy Arab adults was piloted. METHODS: A cross-sectional design was followed to recruit subjects. Abdominal VAT and SAT were determined on T2-weighted MRI manually and semi-automatically. Body composition was assessed using a BIA machine. Statistical differences between the abdominal VAT areas defined by BIA, manual, and semi-automated MRI were compared. Correlation between all methods was assessed, and statistical differences between sex abdominal VAT/SAT defined areas were compared. RESULTS: A total of 165 abdominal T2-weighted MR images taken for 55 overweight/obese adult subjects were analyzed Differences between manual and semi-automated MRI-obtained abdominal VAT and SAT were found statistically significant (P<0.001) for all subjects. Mean abdominal VAT using the BIA technique was found to correlate significantly with manually and semi-automated T2-weighted MRI defined VAT (r=0.7436; P<0.001 and r=0.8275; P<0.001, respectively). Abdominal VAT was significantly (P<0.001) different between male and female subjects accumulating at different abdominal levels. CONCLUSION: Semi-automatic segmentation showed a stronger significant correlation with BIA compared to manual segmentation, implying a more reliable quantification of abdominal VAT/SAT. Segmental BIA technique may serve as a feasible and convenient assessment tool for the visceral adiposity in obese subjects.


Assuntos
Adiposidade , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Impedância Elétrica , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Obesidade
4.
BMC Endocr Disord ; 21(1): 144, 2021 Jul 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1295459

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although obesity, defined by body mass index (BMI), has been associated with a higher risk of hospitalisation and more severe course of illness in Covid-19 positive patients amongst the British population, it is unclear if this translates into increased mortality. Furthermore, given that BMI is an insensitive indicator of adiposity, the effect of adipose volume on Covid-19 outcomes is also unknown. METHODS: We used the UK Biobank repository, which contains clinical and anthropometric data and is linked to Public Health England Covid-19 healthcare records, to address our research question. We performed age- and sex- adjusted logistic regression and Chi-squared test to compute the odds for Covid-19-related mortality as a consequence of increasing BMI, and other more sensitive indices of adiposity such as waist:hip ratio (WHR) and percent body fat, as well as concomitant cardiometabolic illness. RESULTS: 13,502 participants were tested for Covid-19 (mean age 70 ± 8 years, 48.9% male). 1582 tested positive (mean age 68 ± 9 years, 52.8% male), of which 305 died (mean age 75 ± 6 years, 65.5% male). Increasing adiposity was associated with higher odds for Covid-19-related mortality. For every unit increase in BMI, WHR and body fat, the odds of death amongst Covid19-positive participants increased by 1.04 (95% CI 1.01-1.07), 10.71 (95% CI 1.57-73.06) and 1.03 (95% CI 1.01-1.05), respectively (all p < 0.05). Referenced to Covid-19 positive participants with a normal weight (BMI 18.5-25 kg/m2), Covid-19 positive participants with BMI > 35 kg/m2 had significantly higher odds of Covid-19-related death (OR 1.70, 95% CI 1.06-2.74, p < 0.05). Covid-19-positive participants with metabolic (diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidaemia) or cardiovascular morbidity (atrial fibrillation, angina) also had higher odds of death. CONCLUSIONS: Anthropometric indices that are more sensitive to adipose volume and its distribution than BMI, as well as concurrent cardiometabolic illness, are associated with higher odds of Covid-19-related mortality amongst the UK Biobank cohort that tested positive for the infection. These results suggest adipose volume may contribute to adverse Covid-19-related outcomes associated with obesity.


Assuntos
Adiposidade/fisiologia , COVID-19/mortalidade , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Síndrome Metabólica/epidemiologia , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Bancos de Espécimes Biológicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Índice de Massa Corporal , COVID-19/complicações , COVID-19/patologia , Fatores de Risco Cardiometabólico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/complicações , Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Estudos de Coortes , Bases de Dados Factuais , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/mortalidade , Feminino , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos , Masculino , Síndrome Metabólica/complicações , Síndrome Metabólica/mortalidade , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Morbidade , Mortalidade , Obesidade/complicações , Obesidade/mortalidade , Fatores de Risco , SARS-CoV-2/fisiologia , Reino Unido/epidemiologia
5.
Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis ; 31(7): 2156-2164, 2021 06 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34059384

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Obesity-related cardiometabolic risk factors associate with COVID-19 severity and outcomes. Epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) is associated with cardiometabolic disturbances, is a source of proinflammatory cytokines and a marker of visceral adiposity. We investigated the relation between EAT characteristics and outcomes in COVID-19 patients. METHODS AND RESULTS: This post-hoc analysis of a large prospective investigation included all adult patients (≥18 years) admitted to San Raffaele University Hospital in Milan, Italy, from February 25th to April 19th, 2020 with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection who underwent a chest computed tomography (CT) scan for COVID-19 pneumonia and had anthropometric data available for analyses. EAT volume and attenuation (EAT-At, a marker of EAT inflammation) were measured on CT scan. Primary outcome was critical illness, defined as admission to intensive care unit (ICU), invasive ventilation or death. Cox regression and regression tree analyses were used to assess the relationship between clinical variables, EAT characteristics and critical illness. One-hundred and ninety-two patients were included (median [25th-75th percentile] age 60 years [53-70], 76% men). Co-morbidities included overweight/obesity (70%), arterial hypertension (40%), and diabetes (16%). At multivariable Cox regression analysis, EAT-At (HR 1.12 [1.04-1.21]) independently predicted critical illness, while increasing PaO2/FiO2 was protective (HR 0.996 [95% CI 0.993; 1.00]). CRP, plasma glucose on admission, EAT-At and PaO2/FiO2 identified five risk groups that significantly differed with respect to time to death or admission to ICU (log-rank p < 0.0001). CONCLUSION: Increased EAT attenuation, a marker of EAT inflammation, but not obesity or EAT volume, predicts critical COVID-19. TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT04318366.


Assuntos
Adiposidade , COVID-19/diagnóstico por imagem , Gordura Intra-Abdominal/diagnóstico por imagem , Obesidade/diagnóstico por imagem , Radiografia Torácica , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Idoso , COVID-19/mortalidade , COVID-19/fisiopatologia , COVID-19/terapia , Feminino , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos , Gordura Intra-Abdominal/fisiopatologia , Itália , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/mortalidade , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Pericárdio , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco
6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34072554

RESUMO

Body-fat distribution is a primary risk factor for insulin resistance and cardiovascular disease. Visceral fat explains only a portion of this risk. The link between upper-body fat and insulin resistance is uncertain. Furthermore, upper-body fat is not clearly defined. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) can accurately quantify body fat. In this study, we explored the relationship between non-visceral upper-body adiposity and insulin resistance and other markers of metabolic syndrome. Fat proportions in the upper body, leg, and visceral regions were quantified by using DXA in 2547 adult Newfoundlanders aged 19 and older. Adjusting for remaining fat regions, we performed partial correlation analysis for each body region and insulin resistance defined by the Homeostatic Model of Assessment (HOMA). Similarly, partial correlation analysis was also performed between each fat region and other markers of metabolic syndrome, including high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL), triglycerides (TG), body mass index (BMI), and blood pressure. Major confounding factors, including age, caloric intake, and physical activity, were statistically controlled by using partial correlation analysis. Interactions between sex, menopausal status, and medication status were also tested. Arm adiposity was correlated with HOMA-IR (R = 0.132, p < 0.001) and HOMA-ß (R = 0.134, p < 0.001). Visceral adiposity was correlated with HOMA-IR (R = 0.230, p < 0.001) and HOMA-ß (R = 0.160, p < 0.001). No significant correlation between non-visceral trunk adiposity and insulin resistance was found. Non-visceral trunk adiposity was negatively correlated with HDL in men (R = -0.110, p < 0.001) and women (R = -0.117, p < 0.001). Non-visceral trunk adiposity was correlated with TG (total: R = 0.079, p < 0.001; men: R = 0.105, p = 0.012; women: R = 0.078, p = 0.001). In menopausal women, leg adiposity was negatively correlated with HOMA-IR (R = -0.196, p < 0.001) and HOMA-ß (R = -0.101, p = 0.012). Upper-body adiposity in the arms is an independent contributor to insulin resistance. Upper-body adiposity in the non-visceral trunk region is an independent contributor to metabolic syndrome. Leg adiposity is protective against metabolic syndrome in women.


Assuntos
Resistência à Insulina , Adiposidade , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Gordura Intra-Abdominal , Masculino , Terra Nova e Labrador/epidemiologia , Obesidade/epidemiologia
7.
Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis ; 31(7): 2156-2164, 2021 06 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1249046

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Obesity-related cardiometabolic risk factors associate with COVID-19 severity and outcomes. Epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) is associated with cardiometabolic disturbances, is a source of proinflammatory cytokines and a marker of visceral adiposity. We investigated the relation between EAT characteristics and outcomes in COVID-19 patients. METHODS AND RESULTS: This post-hoc analysis of a large prospective investigation included all adult patients (≥18 years) admitted to San Raffaele University Hospital in Milan, Italy, from February 25th to April 19th, 2020 with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection who underwent a chest computed tomography (CT) scan for COVID-19 pneumonia and had anthropometric data available for analyses. EAT volume and attenuation (EAT-At, a marker of EAT inflammation) were measured on CT scan. Primary outcome was critical illness, defined as admission to intensive care unit (ICU), invasive ventilation or death. Cox regression and regression tree analyses were used to assess the relationship between clinical variables, EAT characteristics and critical illness. One-hundred and ninety-two patients were included (median [25th-75th percentile] age 60 years [53-70], 76% men). Co-morbidities included overweight/obesity (70%), arterial hypertension (40%), and diabetes (16%). At multivariable Cox regression analysis, EAT-At (HR 1.12 [1.04-1.21]) independently predicted critical illness, while increasing PaO2/FiO2 was protective (HR 0.996 [95% CI 0.993; 1.00]). CRP, plasma glucose on admission, EAT-At and PaO2/FiO2 identified five risk groups that significantly differed with respect to time to death or admission to ICU (log-rank p < 0.0001). CONCLUSION: Increased EAT attenuation, a marker of EAT inflammation, but not obesity or EAT volume, predicts critical COVID-19. TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT04318366.


Assuntos
Adiposidade , COVID-19/diagnóstico por imagem , Gordura Intra-Abdominal/diagnóstico por imagem , Obesidade/diagnóstico por imagem , Radiografia Torácica , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Idoso , COVID-19/mortalidade , COVID-19/fisiopatologia , COVID-19/terapia , Feminino , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos , Gordura Intra-Abdominal/fisiopatologia , Itália , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/mortalidade , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Pericárdio , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco
8.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(9)2021 May 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34067001

RESUMO

Investigations into the mechanisms regulating obesity are frantic and novel translational approaches are needed. The raccoon dog (Nyctereutes procyonoides) is a canid species representing a promising model to study metabolic regulation in a species undergoing cycles of seasonal obesity and fasting. To understand the molecular mechanisms of metabolic regulation in seasonal adaptation, we analyzed key central nervous system and peripheral signals regulating food intake and metabolism from raccoon dogs after autumnal fattening and winter fasting. Expressions of neuropeptide Y (NPY), orexin-2 receptor (OX2R), pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) and leptin receptor (ObRb) were analyzed as examples of orexigenic and anorexigenic signals using qRT-PCR from raccoon dog hypothalamus samples. Plasma metabolic profiles were measured with 1H NMR-spectroscopy and LC-MS. Circulating hormones and cytokines were determined with canine specific antibody assays. Surprisingly, NPY and POMC were not affected by the winter fasting nor autumn fattening and the metabolic profiles showed a remarkable equilibrium, indicating conserved homeostasis. However, OX2R and ObRb expression changes suggested seasonal regulation. Circulating cytokine levels were not increased, demonstrating that the autumn fattening did not induce subacute inflammation. Thus, the raccoon dog developed seasonal regulatory mechanisms to accommodate the autumnal fattening and prolonged fasting making the species unique in coping with the extreme environmental challenges.


Assuntos
Adiposidade , Jejum/metabolismo , Metaboloma , Cães Guaxinins/metabolismo , Estações do Ano , Tecido Adiposo/irrigação sanguínea , Tecido Adiposo/patologia , Animais , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Peso Corporal , Análise Discriminante , Feminino , Hormônios/sangue , Hipotálamo/metabolismo , Inflamação/patologia , Análise dos Mínimos Quadrados , Limite de Detecção , Análise Multivariada , Peptídeos/genética , Peptídeos/metabolismo , Espectroscopia de Prótons por Ressonância Magnética , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Cães Guaxinins/sangue , Receptores de Peptídeos/metabolismo
9.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 1232, 2021 06 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34174845

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We aimed to assess the associations between adiposity distribution and cardiometabolic risk factors among overweight and obese adults in China, and to demonstrate the sex differences in these associations. METHODS: A total of 1221 participants (455 males and 766 females) were included in this study. Percentage of body fat (PBF) of the whole body and regional areas, including arm, thigh, trunk, android, and gynoid, were measured by the dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry method. Central adiposity was measured by waist circumference. Clustered cardiometabolic risk was defined as the presence of two or more of the six cardiometabolic risk factors, namely, high triglyceride, low high density lipoprotein, elevated glucose, elevated blood pressure, elevated high sensitivity C-reactive protein, and low adiponectin. Linear regression models and multivariate logistic regression models were used to assess the associations between whole body or regional PBF and cardiometabolic risk factors. RESULTS: In females, except arm adiposity, other regional fat (thigh, trunk, android, gynoid) and whole-body PBF are significantly associated with clustered cardiometabolic risk, adjusting for age, smoking, alcohol drinking, physical activity, and whole-body PBF. One-SD increase in Z scores of the thigh and gynoid PBF were significantly associated with 80 and 78% lower odds of clustered cardiometabolic risk (OR: 0.20, 95%CI: 0.12-0.35 and OR: 0.22, 95%CI: 0.12-0.41). Trunk, android and whole-body PBF were significantly associated with higher odds of clustered risk with OR of 1.90 (95%CI:1.02-3.55), 2.91 (95%CI: 1.75-4.85), and 2.01 (95%CI: 1.47-2.76), respectively. While in males, one-SD increase in the thigh and gynoid PBF are associated with 94% (OR: 0.06, 95%CI: 0.02-0.23) and 83% lower odds (OR: 0.17, 95%CI: 0.05-0.57) of clustered cardiometabolic risk, respectively. Android and whole-body PBF were associated with higher odds of clustered cardiometabolic risk (OR: 3.39, 95%CI: 1.42-8.09 and OR: 2.45, 95%CI: 1.53-3.92), but the association for trunk PBF was not statistically significant (OR: 1.16, 95%CI: 0.42-3.19). CONCLUSIONS: Adiposity distribution plays an important role in the clustered cardiometabolic risk in participants with overweight and obese and sex differences were observed in these associations. In general, central obesity (measured by android PBF) could be the best anthropometric measurement for screening people at risk for CVD risk factors for both men and women. Upper body fat tends to be more detrimental to cardiometabolic health in women than in men, whereas lower body fat is relatively more protective in men than in women.


Assuntos
Adiposidade , Doenças Cardiovasculares , Absorciometria de Fóton , Adulto , Índice de Massa Corporal , Fatores de Risco Cardiometabólico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , China/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Sobrepeso/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Caracteres Sexuais
10.
Arch Osteoporos ; 16(1): 89, 2021 06 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34091788

RESUMO

Calcium and phosphorus intake showed a significant negative relationship with osteosarcopenia and osteosarcopenic adiposity in Korean adults aged 50 years or older. PURPOSE: Osteosarcopenic adiposity (OSA) is a syndrome accompanied by low bone mass, low muscle mass, and adiposity, and the association of the individual OSA components with dietary factors is considerable. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between the intake of dietary calcium and phosphorus and individual and/or combined bone-, muscle-, and fat mass-related abnormalities in body composition (components of OSA). METHODS: This study investigated the relationship between OSA-related components and the intake of calcium and phosphorus in subjects aged 50 years and older (n = 7007) using the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) from 2008 to 2011. RESULTS: After adjusting for various confounding factors that affect OSA, the groups with a low calcium intake (below the median value) had a significantly higher risk of osteosarcopenia (OR = 1.768, 95% CI: 1.018-3.073; p = 0.0432) and OSA (OR = 1.505, 95% CI: 1.040-2.180; p = 0.0304) compared to the groups with a high calcium intake (equal to or above the median value). In addition, phosphorus intake showed a significant negative relationship with sarcopenic adiposity. CONCLUSION: In conclusion, the intake of calcium is associated with a lower risk of osteosarcopenia and OSA in Korean adults aged 50 years and older. These results will serve as baseline data on mineral intake for the management of multiple OSA-related components.


Assuntos
Adiposidade , Cálcio na Dieta , Adulto , Idoso , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Fósforo , República da Coreia
11.
J Sport Health Sci ; 10(3): 360-367, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33993922

RESUMO

PURPOSE: This study was aimed to analyze the mediation role of cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) on the association between fatness and cardiometabolic risk scores (CMRs) in European adolescents. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted in adolescents (n = 525; 46% boys; 14.1 ± 1.1 years old, mean ± SD) from 10 European cities involved in the Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence study. CRF was measured by means of the shuttle run test, while fatness measures included body mass index (BMI), waist to height ratio, and fat mass index estimated from skinfold thicknesses. A clustered CMRs was computed by summing the standardized values of homeostasis model assessment, systolic blood pressure, triglycerides, total cholesterol/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio, and leptin. RESULTS: Linear regression models indicated that CRF acted as an important and partial mediator in the association between fatness and CMRs in 12-17-year-old adolescents (for BMI: coefficients of the indirect role ß = 0.058 (95% confidence interval (95%CI): 0.023-0.101), Sobel test z = 3.11 (10.0% mediation); for waist to height ratio: ß = 4.279 (95%CI: 2.242-7.059), z =3.86 (11.5% mediation); and for fat mass index: ß = 0.060 (95%CI: 0.020-0.106), z = 2.85 (9.4% mediation); all p < 0.01). CONCLUSION: In adolescents, the association between fatness and CMRs could be partially decreased with improvements to fitness levels; therefore, CRF contribution both in the clinical field and public health could be important to consider and promote in adolescents independently of their fatness levels.


Assuntos
Adiposidade , Fatores de Risco Cardiometabólico , Aptidão Cardiorrespiratória/fisiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Adolescente , Pressão Sanguínea/fisiologia , Índice de Massa Corporal , Colesterol/sangue , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Estilo de Vida Saudável , Humanos , Leptina/sangue , Modelos Lineares , Lipoproteínas HDL/sangue , Masculino , Exame Físico , Pregas Cutâneas , Triglicerídeos/sangue , Razão Cintura-Estatura
12.
Clin Nutr ESPEN ; 43: 163-168, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1174154

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Body mass index (BMI) has previously been shown to increase mortality and disease severity in patients with COVID-19, but the pooled effect estimate was heterogeneous. Although BMI is widely used as an indicator, it cannot distinguish visceral from subcutaneous fat. This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to investigate the association between visceral adiposity, subcutaneous fat, and severe COVID-19. METHODS: We performed a systematic literature search using the databases: PubMed, Embase, and EuropePMC. Data on visceral fat area (VTA), subcutaneous fat area (SFA), and total fat area (TFA) were collected. The outcome of interest was severe COVID-19. We used a REML random-effects model to pool the mean differences and odds ratio (OR). RESULTS: There were 5 studies comprising of 539 patients. Patients with severe COVID-19 have a higher VTA (mean difference 41.7 cm2 [27.0, 56.4], p < 0.001; I2: 0%) and TFA (mean difference 64.6 cm2 [26.2, 103.1], p = 0.001; I2: 0%). There was no significant difference in terms of SFA between patients with severe and non-severe COVID-19 (mean difference 9.3 cm2 [-4.9, 23.4], p = 0.199; I2: 1.2%). Pooled ORs showed that VTA was associated with severe COVID-19 (OR 1.9 [1.1, 2.2], p = 0.002; I2: 49.3%). CONCLUSION: Visceral adiposity was associated with increased COVID-19 severity, while subcutaneous adiposity was not. PROSPERO ID: CRD42020215876.


Assuntos
Índice de Massa Corporal , COVID-19/metabolismo , Gordura Intra-Abdominal/metabolismo , Obesidade/metabolismo , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Gordura Subcutânea/metabolismo , Adiposidade , Idoso , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Comorbidade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/complicações , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Obesidade Abdominal/complicações , Obesidade Abdominal/epidemiologia , Obesidade Abdominal/metabolismo , SARS-CoV-2
14.
BMC Res Notes ; 14(1): 160, 2021 Apr 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33931129

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Previously we observed that maternal multiple micronutrient supplementation in pregnancy was associated with increased offspring size at birth and adiposity, as well as with maternal gestational diabetes risk, in the Cambridge Baby Growth Study. In this study we therefore investigated whether folic acid supplementation specifically is associated with similar changes, to test the hypothesis that folic acid supplementation mediates such changes. RESULTS: The majority of mothers who reported supplementing with folic acid in pregnancy (n = 776 in total, 526 of which took multiple micronutrient preparations) did so either from pre- (n = 139) or post-conception (n = 637) largely for all or just the first half of pregnancy. A minority of mothers (n = 198) reported not supplementing with folic acid. Folic acid supplementation in pregnancy was not associated with birth weight [ß' = - 0.003, p = 0.9], height [ß' = - 0.013, p = 0.6], head circumference [ß' = 0.003, p = 0.09] or adiposity (ponderal index [ß' = 0.020, p = 0.5], skinfolds thicknesses [ß' = - 0.029 to + 0.008, p = 0.4-0.9]). Neither was it associated with the development of maternal gestational diabetes (risk ratio 1.2 [0.6‒2.2], p = 0.6). These results suggest that folic acid supplementation in pregnancy did not mediate the previously observed increases in offspring size at birth and adiposity, or the raised gestational diabetes risk, in response to supplementation with multiple micronutrients.


Assuntos
Adiposidade , Micronutrientes , Peso ao Nascer , Estudos de Coortes , Suplementos Nutricionais , Feminino , Ácido Fólico , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Gravidez
15.
Clin Nutr ESPEN ; 43: 163-168, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34024509

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Body mass index (BMI) has previously been shown to increase mortality and disease severity in patients with COVID-19, but the pooled effect estimate was heterogeneous. Although BMI is widely used as an indicator, it cannot distinguish visceral from subcutaneous fat. This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to investigate the association between visceral adiposity, subcutaneous fat, and severe COVID-19. METHODS: We performed a systematic literature search using the databases: PubMed, Embase, and EuropePMC. Data on visceral fat area (VTA), subcutaneous fat area (SFA), and total fat area (TFA) were collected. The outcome of interest was severe COVID-19. We used a REML random-effects model to pool the mean differences and odds ratio (OR). RESULTS: There were 5 studies comprising of 539 patients. Patients with severe COVID-19 have a higher VTA (mean difference 41.7 cm2 [27.0, 56.4], p < 0.001; I2: 0%) and TFA (mean difference 64.6 cm2 [26.2, 103.1], p = 0.001; I2: 0%). There was no significant difference in terms of SFA between patients with severe and non-severe COVID-19 (mean difference 9.3 cm2 [-4.9, 23.4], p = 0.199; I2: 1.2%). Pooled ORs showed that VTA was associated with severe COVID-19 (OR 1.9 [1.1, 2.2], p = 0.002; I2: 49.3%). CONCLUSION: Visceral adiposity was associated with increased COVID-19 severity, while subcutaneous adiposity was not. PROSPERO ID: CRD42020215876.


Assuntos
Índice de Massa Corporal , COVID-19/metabolismo , Gordura Intra-Abdominal/metabolismo , Obesidade/metabolismo , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Gordura Subcutânea/metabolismo , Adiposidade , Idoso , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Comorbidade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/complicações , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Obesidade Abdominal/complicações , Obesidade Abdominal/epidemiologia , Obesidade Abdominal/metabolismo , SARS-CoV-2
16.
BMJ Open ; 11(5): e044769, 2021 05 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34035099

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To investigate associations of parent-reported sleep characteristics with adiposity levels in a biethnic sample of young children. DESIGN: A cross-sectional observational study. SETTING: The Born in Bradford 1000 study, UK. PARTICIPANTS: Children aged approximately 18 months (n=209; 40.2% South Asian; 59.8% white) and 36 months (n=162; 40.7% South Asian; 59.3% white). PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES: Children's body mass index (BMI) z-score, sum of two-skinfolds (triceps and subscapular) and waist circumference. Adjusted regression was used to quantify associations of sleep parameters with adiposity stratified by ethnicity and age group. The results are beta coefficients (95% CIs) and unless otherwise stated represent the difference in outcomes for every 1-hour difference in sleep parameters. RESULTS: The average sleep onset time was markedly later in South Asian (21:26±68 min) than white children (19:41±48 min). Later sleep onset was associated with lower BMI z-score (-0.3 (-0.5 to -0.0)) and sum of two-skinfolds (-1.5 mm (-2.8 mm to -0.2 mm)) in white children aged 18 months and higher BMI z-score in South Asian children aged 36 months (0.3 (0.0-0.5)). Longer sleep duration on weekends than weekdays was associated with higher BMI z-score (0.4 (0.1-0.8)) and waist circumference (1.2 cm (0.3-2.2 cm)) in South Asian children aged 18 months, and later sleep onset on weekends than weekdays was associated with larger sum of two-skinfolds (1.7 mm (0.3-3.1 mm)) and waist circumference (1.8 cm (0.6-2.9 cm)). Going to sleep ≥20 min later on weekends than weekdays was associated with lower waist circumference in white children aged 18 months (-1.7 cm (-3.2 cm to -0.1 cm)). CONCLUSIONS: Sleep timing is associated with total and central adiposity in young children but associations differ by age group and ethnicity. Sleep onset times and regular sleep schedules may be important for obesity prevention.


Assuntos
Adiposidade , Obesidade , Índice de Massa Corporal , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez , Sono , Circunferência da Cintura
18.
Life Sci ; 278: 119550, 2021 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33932442

RESUMO

AIMS: Vitamin (Vit) D regulates various organic processes, including adipose tissue morphofunction and lipid metabolism. Studies indicate that Vit D bioavailability is reduced in obesity, which could contribute to obesity development; however, the effects of Vit D supplementation on increased adiposity in western diet (WD)-obese rats (an experimental model that better resembles the obesogenic human obesity condition) have not been studied, to date. Thus, we hypothesized that Vit D supplementation following the induction of obesity in WD rats might reduce their body weight (BW) and adiposity. MAIN METHODS: Male Wistar rats were fed on a standard chow [control (CTL) group] or a WD to induce obesity (WD group), from 21 to 59 days of age. Subsequently, from 60 to 90-days, half of the CTL and of the WD rats were randomly submitted, or not, to oral Vit D supplementation (CTL-VD and WD-VD groups, respectively). KEY FINDINGS: At 91 days of age, WD rats were obese, displaying higher abdominal circumference and white fat stores, dyslipidemia, hyperleptinemia and greater plasma levels of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α. Vit D supplementation decreased BW gain, abdominal fat deposition and ameliorated the plasma lipid profile in WD-VD rats. These effects were accompanied by reductions in leptinemia and in circulating TNF-α levels in these rodents. SIGNIFICANCE: Vit D supplementation, following the induction of obesity, may represent a good strategy to attenuate BW gain and abdominal adiposity, and ameliorate the plasma lipid profile in WD rats. These effects may be mediated, at least in part, by reductions in circulating levels of leptin and TNF-α.


Assuntos
Adiposidade/efeitos dos fármacos , Dieta Ocidental/efeitos adversos , Obesidade/tratamento farmacológico , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/sangue , Vitamina D/uso terapêutico , Vitaminas/uso terapêutico , Animais , Peso Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Lipídeos/sangue , Masculino , Obesidade/sangue , Obesidade/etiologia , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Ratos Wistar
19.
Obesity (Silver Spring) ; 29(6): 1036-1045, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34029449

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to examine associations of changes in leptin and adiponectin concentrations from birth to age 12 years with adolescent adiposity and cardiometabolic risk in the Health Outcomes and Measures of Environment (HOME) Study, a prospective birth cohort (Cincinnati, Ohio; N = 166). METHODS: Adiposity and cardiometabolic risk factors were assessed at age 12 years using anthropometry, dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry, and fasting serum biomarkers. Cardiometabolic risk scores were calculated by summing age- and sex- standardized z scores for individual cardiometabolic risk factors. RESULTS: Most serum adipocytokine concentrations at birth were not associated with adiposity or cardiometabolic risk outcomes. Leptin and adiponectin concentrations at age 12 years were associated with all outcomes in the expected direction. Adolescents with increasing (ß: 4.2; 95% CI: 3.2 to 5.2) and stable (ß: 2.2; 95% CI: 1.2 to 3.2) leptin concentrations from birth to age 12 years had higher cardiometabolic risk scores than adolescents with decreasing concentrations (reference group). Adolescents with increasing (e.g., fat mass index = ß: -1.04; 95% CI: -1.27 to -0.80) and stable (ß: 0.66; 95% CI: -0.92 to -0.40) adiponectin/leptin ratios had more favorable adiposity outcomes than adolescents with decreasing ratios. CONCLUSIONS: In this cohort, changes in leptin concentrations and adiponectin/leptin ratios over childhood were associated with adiposity and cardiometabolic risk scores, indicating that adipocytokine concentrations are potential biomarkers for predicting excess adiposity and cardiometabolic risk in adolescence.


Assuntos
Adipocinas/sangue , Adiposidade , Fatores de Risco Cardiometabólico , Adipocinas/análise , Adiposidade/fisiologia , Adolescente , Saúde do Adolescente/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores Etários , Biomarcadores/sangue , Índice de Massa Corporal , Doenças Cardiovasculares/sangue , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Triagem Neonatal/métodos , Ohio/epidemiologia , Obesidade Pediátrica/sangue , Obesidade Pediátrica/epidemiologia , Obesidade Pediátrica/etiologia , Prognóstico , Fatores de Risco
20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33946657

RESUMO

Phthalates are ubiquitous environmental chemicals with endocrine disrupting properties and potentially obesogenic effects. We hypothesised that antenatal phthalate exposure may influence growth and adiposity patterns in girls through childhood into adolescence. Among 1342 Raine Study singleton females, 462 had maternal serum and at least one outcome available up to 20 years of age. Individuals' maternal serum collected at 18 and 34 weeks gestation was pooled and analyzed for concentrations of 32 metabolites of 15 phthalate diesters. Cox regression and linear models were used to determine associations between maternal phthalate levels and age at menarche, change in height and weight z-scores between birth and two years, height from birth to 20 years, BMI from two to 20 years, deviation from mid-parental height at age 20 and DEXA scan measures at age 20. Weak negative associations were detected with some phthalate metabolites and change in height and weight z-score during infancy. Weak positive associations between some of the high molecular weight phthalate metabolites and height z-score were detected during childhood. While still within the normal range, age at menarche was slightly delayed in girls with higher prenatal exposure to the higher molecular weight phthalate metabolites. We derived some associations between prenatal phthalate exposure with early growth patterns and age at menarche.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ambientais , Ácidos Ftálicos , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal , Adiposidade , Adolescente , Adulto , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Exposição Ambiental , Poluentes Ambientais/toxicidade , Feminino , Humanos , Exposição Materna/efeitos adversos , Menarca , Ácidos Ftálicos/toxicidade , Gravidez , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/induzido quimicamente , Adulto Jovem
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...