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1.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 13: 921067, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35937809

RESUMO

Background: Visceral obesity index (VAI) is an empirical mathematical model used to evaluate the distribution and function of fat. Some studies have shown that VAI may be associated with the development of insulin resistance. In view of the differences in insulin resistance among different ethnic groups, this study attempts to analyze the special relationship between VAI and insulin resistance in American adults. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study through NHANES database. A total of 27309 patients over the age of 18 from the United States took part in the survey. It was divided into two groups: the IR-positive group and the IR-negative group. The association of VAI with IR was evaluated by logistic regression analyses mainly, including univariate analysis, multivariate regression analysis, curve fitting analysis and subgroup analysis. Results: The results showed that in the full-adjusted model, there is a strong positive association between VAI level and insulin resistance (OR: 1.28 (1.2~1.37), P<0.001) and there is a threshold effect. Conclusions: This study suggests that higher VAI levels are associated with insulin resistance. VAI index may be used as a predictor of insulin resistance.


Assuntos
Resistência à Insulina , Obesidade Abdominal , Adiposidade , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Gordura Intra-Abdominal , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Obesidade Abdominal/complicações
2.
Elife ; 112022 Aug 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35938910

RESUMO

Background: Vitamin D supplements are widely prescribed to help reduce disease risk. However, this strategy is based on findings using conventional epidemiological methods which are prone to confounding and reverse causation. Methods: In this short report, we leveraged genetic variants which differentially influence body size during childhood and adulthood within a multivariable Mendelian randomization (MR) framework, allowing us to separate the genetically predicted effects of adiposity at these two timepoints in the lifecourse. Results: Using data from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC), there was strong evidence that higher childhood body size has a direct effect on lower vitamin D levels in early life (mean age: 9.9 years, range = 8.9-11.5 years) after accounting for the effect of the adult body size genetic score (beta = -0.32, 95% CI = -0.54 to -0.10, p=0.004). Conversely, we found evidence that the effect of childhood body size on vitamin D levels in midlife (mean age: 56.5 years, range = 40-69 years) is putatively mediated along the causal pathway involving adulthood adiposity (beta = -0.17, 95% CI = -0.21 to -0.13, p=4.6 × 10-17). Conclusions: Our findings have important implications in terms of the causal influence of vitamin D deficiency on disease risk. Furthermore, they serve as a compelling proof of concept that the timepoints across the lifecourse at which exposures and outcomes are measured can meaningfully impact overall conclusions drawn by MR studies. Funding: This work was supported by the Integrative Epidemiology Unit which receives funding from the UK Medical Research Council and the University of Bristol (MC_UU_00011/1).


Assuntos
Adiposidade , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana , Adiposidade/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Índice de Massa Corporal , Criança , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Vitamina D , Vitaminas
3.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 13: 910329, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35909550

RESUMO

Objective: To evaluate the association between Chinese visceral adiposity index (CVAI) and incident renal damage and compared its predictive power with that of other visceral obesity indices in patients with hypertension and abnormal glucose metabolism (AGM). Methods: This retrospective cohort consecutively included patients with hypertension and AGM who did not have renal damage at baseline. Renal damage was defined using the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and urine protein. Multivariable Cox regression analysis was used to evaluate the association between CVAI and incident renal damage. Restricted cubic splines were used to determine the shape of the association. The predictive power of the CVAI was examined and directly compared with other indices, including the VAI, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR), using the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) and C-index. Results: In total, 2,033 patients with hypertension and AGM were included. During a median follow-up of 2.6 years, the incidence of renal damage was 31.5, 48.9, 56.8, and 67.5/1,000 person-years across the quartiles of CVAI. Compared with the first quartile, the risk of renal damage was higher in the second (hazard ratio (HR) = 1.36 [95% CI: 0.93-1.97]), third (HR = 1.57 [95% CI: 1.09-2.27]), and fourth (HR = 1.65 [95% CI: 1.11-2.44]) quartiles (p for trend = 0.011). A linear dose-response association was observed. Sensitivity and subgroup analyses confirmed the robustness and consistency of the results. In terms of predictive power, the CVAI had the highest AUC and C-index values. Conclusions: CVAI is positively associated with renal damage risk in a linear dose-response pattern and has the best performance in predicting incident renal damage in patients with hypertension and AGM. The CVAI may serve as a reliable indicator for identifying patients at a high risk of renal damage.


Assuntos
Hipertensão , Obesidade Abdominal , Adiposidade , China/epidemiologia , Glucose , Humanos , Hipertensão/complicações , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Estudos Longitudinais , Obesidade Abdominal/complicações , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco
4.
BMC Pediatr ; 22(1): 484, 2022 Aug 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35962430

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Childhood obesity is one of the most important health problems in the present century. It is imperative to plan preventive programs through risk factor identification. The present study was conducted to examine the association between the dietary acid load (DAL) and anthropometric indices in a sample of Iranian children and adolescents. METHODS: In the current survey, students aged 11-18 years were recruited. To assess usual dietary intake, a validated self-administered 168-item food frequency questionnaire was used. Potential renal acid load (PRAL) and net endogenous acid production (NEAP) was used to estimate DAL. The association between DAL and anthropometric indices was evaluated using logistic regression and reported as an odds ratio (OR) with a 95% confidence interval (CI). RESULTS: In total, 456 students (267 girls), with a mean age of 14.44 years participated in the current study. After controlling for potential confounders, the PRAL was positively associated with the risk of obesity (OR = 4.56, 95% CI: 2.26, 9.17), abdominal obesity (OR = 12.64, 95% CI: 3.05, 52.27), and adiposity based on the percent of body fat (PBF) (OR = 3.58, 95% CI: 1.83, 6.99). The NEAP was also significantly associated with the risk of obesity (OR = 5.17, 95% CI: 2.56, 10.43), abdominal obesity (OR = 15.08, 95% CI: 3.35, 67.81), and adiposity based on PBF (OR = 4.53, 95% CI: 2.30, 8.92). CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that higher adherence to the acidogenic diet, expressed as DAL, was associated with a higher risk of general and central obesity among children and adolescents.


Assuntos
Adiposidade , Obesidade Pediátrica , Ácidos/análise , Adolescente , Criança , Dieta , Feminino , Humanos , Irã (Geográfico)/epidemiologia , Obesidade Abdominal/epidemiologia , Obesidade Abdominal/etiologia , Obesidade Pediátrica/epidemiologia , Obesidade Pediátrica/etiologia
5.
Respir Res ; 23(1): 185, 2022 Jul 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35831851

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sarcopenia is a well-established risk factor for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD), but its relationship with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) has not been fully determined. This study is aimed to investigate the association between sarcopenia and risk for ASCVD in patients with COPD, independent of central obesity and fat mass. METHODS: Data regarding 704 men with COPD (mean age: 63.4 years) were extracted from the 2008 to 2011 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys. Sarcopenia index and fat mass were assessed using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Sarcopenia was defined according to the presence of sarcopenia index values < 1 standard deviation from the cutoff (0.774) among the study participants. ASCVD risk was evaluated using American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association guidelines. High probability of ASCVD was defined as ASCVD risk > 20%. RESULTS: The quartile-stratified sarcopenia index was negatively associated with ASCVD risk (P < 0.001). ASCVD risk and prevalence of high ASCVD risk were significantly greater in sarcopenic participants than in non-sarcopenic participants, regardless of central obesity and fat mass (all P < 0.001). Multivariate regression analyses demonstrated an independent association between sarcopenia and ASCVD risk (estimated ± standard error = 3.63 ± 0.77%, P < 0.001) and high ASCVD risk (odds ratio [OR] = 2.32, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.05-5.15, P = 0.039). Furthermore, sarcopenia was an independent factor for high ASCVD risk in participants with moderate to very severe airflow limitation (OR = 2.97, 95% CI 1.06-8.36, P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Sarcopenia was significantly associated with an increased risk for ASCVD in men with COPD, independent of central obesity and fat mass. High ASCVD risk was significantly associated with sarcopenia, particularly in participants with moderate to very severe airflow limitation.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica , Sarcopenia , Absorciometria de Fóton , Adiposidade , Índice de Massa Corporal , Doenças Cardiovasculares/diagnóstico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco de Doenças Cardíacas , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Obesidade/diagnóstico , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Obesidade Abdominal/diagnóstico , Obesidade Abdominal/epidemiologia , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/diagnóstico , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Sarcopenia/diagnóstico por imagem , Sarcopenia/epidemiologia
6.
Nutrients ; 14(14)2022 Jul 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35889844

RESUMO

The main objective was to explore the relationship between the microbiota of human milk and adiposity in Mexican mothers during the first lactation stage. METHODS: Seventy lactating women were included. Adiposity by anthropometric measurements and by bioelectric impedance was obtained. The donation of human milk was requested, from which bacterial DNA was extracted and qPCR of the 16S region was performed. The Mann-Whitney U test, Spearman and Pearson correlations, and multiple linear regressions models were also calculated. RESULTS: The median percentage of Bacteroidetes had a direct and significant correlation with normal adiposity, current BMI, waist circumference, and body fat percentage. The correlation with current BMI became significantly inverse in women with BMI ≥ 25. In women with normal BMI, the percentage of Actinobacteria showed a direct and significant correlation with current BMI, waist circumference, and percentage of body fat. Multiple linear regressions showed that pre-pregnancy BMI was the variable with the highest predictive value with the Bacteroidetes phyla in normal BMI and in BMI ≥ 25. CONCLUSIONS: the adiposity of the woman before pregnancy and during lactation would have an important effect on the abundance of Bacteroidetes and Actinobacteria in human milk.


Assuntos
Actinobacteria , Obesidade Materna , Adiposidade , Bactérias , Bacteroidetes , Índice de Massa Corporal , Feminino , Firmicutes , Humanos , Lactação , Leite Humano , Obesidade/microbiologia , Gravidez
7.
Nutrients ; 14(14)2022 Jul 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35889883

RESUMO

The observation of correlations between obesity and chronic metabolic and cardiovascular diseases has led to the emergence of strong interests in "adipocyte biology", in particular in relation to a specific visceral adipose tissue that is the epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) and its pro-inflammatory role. In recent years, different imaging techniques frequently used in daily clinical practice have tried to obtain an EAT quantification. We provide a useful update on comorbidities related to chronic inflammation typical of cardiac adiposity, analyzing how the EAT assessment could impact and provide data on the patient prognosis. We assessed for eligibility 50 papers, with a total of 10,458 patients focusing the review on the evaluation of EAT in two main contexts: cardiovascular and metabolic diseases. Given its peculiar properties and rapid responsiveness, EAT could act as a marker to investigate the basal risk factor and follow-up conditions. In the future, EAT could represent a therapeutic target for new medications. The assessment of EAT should become part of clinical practice to help clinicians to identify patients at greater risk of developing cardiovascular and/or metabolic diseases and to provide information on their clinical and therapeutic outcomes.


Assuntos
Tecido Adiposo , Doença da Artéria Coronariana , Tecido Adiposo/diagnóstico por imagem , Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Adiposidade , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/metabolismo , Humanos , Inflamação/metabolismo , Gordura Intra-Abdominal/diagnóstico por imagem , Gordura Intra-Abdominal/metabolismo , Obesidade/metabolismo , Pericárdio/diagnóstico por imagem , Pericárdio/metabolismo , Fatores de Risco
8.
Nutrients ; 14(14)2022 Jul 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35889925

RESUMO

(1) Background: The relationship between obesity and asthma is still uncertain. This study aimed to investigate the effect of overweight/obesity on the pulmonary function of patients with new-onset pediatric asthma and explore the possible causative factors related to concomitant obesity and asthma. (2) Methods: Patients aged 5 to 17 years old with newly diagnosed mild to moderate asthma were recruited from June 2018 to May 2019, from a respiratory clinic in Shanghai, China. Participants were categorized into three groups: normal weight, overweight, and obese asthma. A family history of atopy and patients' personal allergic diseases were recorded. Pulmonary function, fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO), eosinophils, serum-specific immunoglobulins E (sIgE), serum total IgE (tIgE), and serum inflammatory biomarkers (adiponectin, leptin, Type 1 helper T, and Type 2 helper T cytokines) were tested in all participants. (3) Results: A total of 407 asthma patients (197 normal weight, 92 overweight, and 118 obese) were enrolled. There was a reduction in forced expiratory volume in the first second (FEV1)/forced vital capacity (FVC), FEV1/FVC%, and FEF25-75% in the overweight/obese groups. No difference was found between the study groups in the main allergy characteristics. Leptin levels were higher while adiponectin was lower in asthmatics with obesity. Higher levels of IL-16 were found in overweight/obese asthmatic individuals than in normal-weight individuals. (4) Conclusions: Obesity may have an effect on impaired pulmonary function. While atopic inflammation plays an important role in the onset of asthma, nonatopic inflammation (including leptin and adiponectin) increases the severity of asthma in overweight/obese patients. The significance of different levels of IL-16 between groups needs to be further studied.


Assuntos
Asma , Hipersensibilidade Imediata , Adiponectina , Adiposidade , Adolescente , Biomarcadores , Criança , Pré-Escolar , China , Volume Expiratório Forçado , Humanos , Inflamação/complicações , Interleucina-16 , Leptina , Obesidade/complicações , Sobrepeso/complicações
9.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 11(14): e025657, 2022 Jul 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35861827

RESUMO

Background Excess visceral adiposity is associated with increased risk of cardiometabolic disorders. Short-term well-controlled clinical trials suggest that regular avocado consumption favorably affects body weight, visceral adiposity, and satiety. Methods and Results The HAT Trial (Habitual Diet and Avocado Trial) was a multicenter, randomized, controlled parallel-arm trial designed to test whether consuming 1 large avocado per day for 6 months in a diverse group of free-living individuals (N=1008) with an elevated waist circumference compared with a habitual diet would decrease visceral adiposity as measured by magnetic resonance imaging. Secondary and additional end points related to risk factors associated with cardiometabolic disorders were assessed. The primary outcome, change in visceral adipose tissue volume during the intervention period, was not significantly different between the Avocado Supplemented and Habitual Diet Groups (estimated mean difference (0.017 L [-0.024 L, 0.058 L], P=0.405). No significant group differences were observed for the secondary outcomes of hepatic fat fraction, hsCRP (high-sensitivity C-reactive protein), and components of the metabolic syndrome. Of the additional outcome measures, modest but nominally significant reductions in total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol were observed in the Avocado Supplemented compared with the Habitual Diet Group. Changes in the other additional and post hoc measures (body weight, body mass index, insulin, very low-density lipoprotein concentrations, and total cholesterol:high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio) were similar between the 2 groups. Conclusions Addition of 1 avocado per day to the habitual diet for 6 months in free-living individuals with elevated waist circumference did not reduce visceral adipose tissue volume and had minimal effect on risk factors associated with cardiometabolic disorders. Registration URL: https://clinicaltrials.gov; Unique identifier: NCT03528031.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares , Dieta , Obesidade Abdominal , Persea , Adiposidade , Índice de Massa Corporal , Peso Corporal , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , HDL-Colesterol/metabolismo , LDL-Colesterol/metabolismo , Frutas , Humanos , Obesidade Abdominal/complicações
11.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 12375, 2022 Jul 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35858946

RESUMO

The limitations of BMI as a measure of adiposity and health risks have prompted the introduction of many alternative biomarkers. However, ranking diverse biomarkers from best to worse remains challenging. This study aimed to address this issue by introducing three new approaches: (1) a calculus-derived, normalized sensitivity score (NORSE) is used to compare the predictive power of diverse adiposity biomarkers; (2) multiple biomarkers are combined into multi-dimensional models, for increased sensitivity and risk discrimination; and (3) new visualizations are introduced that convey complex statistical trends in a compact and intuitive manner. Our approach was evaluated on 23 popular biomarkers and 6 common medical conditions using a large database (National Health and Nutrition Survey, NHANES, N ~ 100,000). Our analysis established novel findings: (1) regional composition biomarkers were more predictive of risk than global ones; (2) fat-derived biomarkers had stronger predictive power than weight-related ones; (3) waist and hip are always elements of the strongest risk predictors; (4) our new, multi-dimensional biomarker models yield higher sensitivity, personalization, and separation of the negative effects of fat from the positive effects of lean mass. Our approach provides a new way to evaluate adiposity biomarkers, brings forth new important clinical insights and sets a path for future biomarker research.


Assuntos
Adiposidade , Composição Corporal , Biomarcadores , Índice de Massa Corporal , Humanos , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Obesidade
12.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 13: 921997, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35846316

RESUMO

Purpose: The optimal adiposity index that is strongly associated with hypertension or prehypertension remains inconclusive in Chinese population. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between Chinese visceral adiposity index (CVAI) and hypertension and prehypertension, as well as to compare the discriminative power of CVAI, visceral adiposity index (VAI), body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), waist to height ratio (WHtR), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) with hypertension and prehypertension in Chinese general population. Patients and Methods: A total of 34732 participants from REACTION study were recruited. Multiple logistic regression analyses were performed to detect the association between adiposity indices (CVAI, VAI, BMI, WC, WHtR, WHR, LDL-C) and hypertension and prehypertension. Results: Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that compared with other obesity indices, CVAI remained significantly associated with hypertension and prehypertension (Hypertension: odds ratio (OR) 3.475, 95% confidence interval (CI) 3.158-3.824, p<0.001 in total subjects; OR 2.762, 95% CI 2.369-3.221, p<0.001 in men; OR 3.935, 95% CI 3.465-4.469, p<0.001 in women, Prehypertension: OR 2.747, 95% CI 2.460-3.068, p<0.001 in total subjects; OR 2.605, 95% CI 2.176-3.119, p<0.001 in men; OR 2.854, 95% CI 2.465-3.304, p<0.001 in women).In a stratified analysis, CVAI was significantly associated with hypertension and prehypertension at any level of blood glucose, age or estimated glomerular filtration rate(eGFR). Conclusion: CVAI is significantly associated with hypertension and prehypertension. CVAI shows the superior discriminative ability for hypertension and prehypertension compared with VAI, BMI, WC, WHtR, WHR and LDL-C in Chinese general population.


Assuntos
Hipertensão , Pré-Hipertensão , Adiposidade , China/epidemiologia , LDL-Colesterol , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão/diagnóstico , Masculino , Obesidade , Obesidade Abdominal/complicações , Obesidade Abdominal/epidemiologia , Pré-Hipertensão/complicações , Pré-Hipertensão/diagnóstico , Pré-Hipertensão/epidemiologia
13.
Physiol Behav ; 254: 113908, 2022 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35817124

RESUMO

Acute mental stress (AMS) increases heart rate (HR) and blood pressure. Since obesity can impair the cardiovascular reactivity to AMS, a better understanding of the mechanisms involved in this response is needed. We aimed to evaluate the cardiovascular reactivity to AMS in young men with normal or excess body fat. We also assessed the association between cardiovascular reactivity to AMS and cardiovascular risk factors, including autonomic modulation, carotid artery distensibility, physical activity levels, and sleep efficiency. Sixty-six young men (26.1 ± 4.1 years old) underwent anthropometric and body fat assessment (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry) and had right-carotid artery ultrasonography. Accelerometers assessed physical activity levels and sleep efficiency. AMS was induced through the Stroop color-word test while blood pressure, HR, and cardiac interval were measured. Analyses were performed in Normal and Excess fat groups divided by fat mass index (FMI). Continuous data was used for multiple linear regression analyses. An interaction between FMI and time for HR reactivity was observed. Cardiac interval variability analysis showed that only participants with normal fat displayed parasympathetic withdrawal during AMS (P < 0.05). Multiple linear regression analysis supported the role of adiposity and autonomic modulation in the HR reactivity to AMS and showed involvement of carotid distensibility and sleep efficiency (P < 0.05). Carotid distensibility was the only predictor for blood pressure reactivity (P < 0.05). Physical activity was not associated with AMS's cardiovascular reactivity. We conclude that increased adiposity is associated with reduced HR reactivity to AMS, which is possibly linked to an impaired parasympathetic withdrawal. Carotid distension and sleep efficiency seem to contribute to this response.


Assuntos
Adiposidade , Artérias Carótidas , Adulto , Frequência Cardíaca/fisiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Obesidade/diagnóstico por imagem , Sono , Adulto Jovem
14.
JAMA Netw Open ; 5(7): e2222106, 2022 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35881399

RESUMO

Importance: People conceived using assisted reproductive technology (ART) make up an increasing proportion of the world's population. Objective: To investigate the association of ART conception with offspring growth and adiposity from infancy to early adulthood in a large multicohort study. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cohort study used a prespecified coordinated analysis across 26 European, Asia-Pacific, and North American population-based cohort studies that included people born between 1984 and 2018, with mean ages at assessment of growth and adiposity outcomes from 0.6 months to 27.4 years. Data were analyzed between November 2019 and February 2022. Exposures: Conception by ART (mostly in vitro fertilization, intracytoplasmic sperm injection, and embryo transfer) vs natural conception (NC; without any medically assisted reproduction). Main Outcomes and Measures: The main outcomes were length / height, weight, and body mass index (BMI; calculated as weight in kilograms divided by height in meters squared). Each cohort was analyzed separately with adjustment for maternal BMI, age, smoking, education, parity, and ethnicity and offspring sex and age. Results were combined in random effects meta-analysis for 13 age groups. Results: Up to 158 066 offspring (4329 conceived by ART) were included in each age-group meta-analysis, with between 47.6% to 60.6% females in each cohort. Compared with offspring who were NC, offspring conceived via ART were shorter, lighter, and thinner from infancy to early adolescence, with differences largest at the youngest ages and attenuating with older child age. For example, adjusted mean differences in offspring weight were -0.27 (95% CI, -0.39 to -0.16) SD units at age younger than 3 months, -0.16 (95% CI, -0.22 to -0.09) SD units at age 17 to 23 months, -0.07 (95% CI, -0.10 to -0.04) SD units at age 6 to 9 years, and -0.02 (95% CI, -0.15 to 0.12) SD units at age 14 to 17 years. Smaller offspring size was limited to individuals conceived by fresh but not frozen embryo transfer compared with those who were NC (eg, difference in weight at age 4 to 5 years was -0.14 [95% CI, -0.20 to -0.07] SD units for fresh embryo transfer vs NC and 0.00 [95% CI, -0.15 to 0.15] SD units for frozen embryo transfer vs NC). More marked differences were seen for body fat measurements, and there was imprecise evidence that offspring conceived by ART developed greater adiposity by early adulthood (eg, ART vs NC difference in fat mass index at age older than 17 years: 0.23 [95% CI, -0.04 to 0.50] SD units). Conclusions and Relevance: These findings suggest that people conceiving or conceived by ART can be reassured that differences in early growth and adiposity are small and no longer evident by late adolescence.


Assuntos
Adiposidade , Sêmen , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Transferência Embrionária/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Gravidez , Técnicas de Reprodução Assistida/efeitos adversos
15.
J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab ; 35(8): 1069-1077, 2022 Aug 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35822712

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the relationships between adipose tissue distribution, insulin secretion and sensitivity, sleep-disordered breathing, and inflammation in obese adolescents. METHODS: Cross-sectional study of 56 obese adolescents who underwent anthropometric measures, dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, overnight polysomnography, oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and frequently sampled intravenous glucose tolerance test. Correlation and regression analyses were used to assess relationships between adiposity, insulin secretion and sensitivity, measures of sleep-disordered breathing (oxyhemoglobin nadir, SpO2; apnea hypopnea index, AHI; arousal index, AI; maximum end-tidal CO2; non-REM sleep duration), and inflammation (high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, hsCRP). RESULTS: Subjects (55% female) were mean (SD) 14.4 (2.1) years, with BMI Z-score of 2.3 (0.4). AHI was >5 in 10 (18%) subjects and 1< AHI ≤5 in 22 (39%). Visceral adipose tissue area (VAT) was positively correlated with OGTT 1 and 2 h insulin and 1 h glucose, and hsCRP (r=0.3-0.5, p≤0.007 for each). VAT was negatively correlated with sensitivity to insulin (r=-0.4, p=0.005) and SpO2 nadir (r=-0.3, p=0.04) but not with other sleep measures. After adjustment for BMI-Z, sex, population ancestry, age, and sleep measures, VAT remained independently associated with insulin measures and 1 h glucose, but no other measures of glycemia. SAT was not associated with measures of glycemia or insulin resistance. CONCLUSIONS: Among adolescents with obesity, visceral adiposity was associated with insulin resistance, SpO2 nadir, and inflammation. The independent association of visceral adiposity with insulin resistance highlights the potential role of VAT in obesity-related chronic disease.


Assuntos
Resistência à Insulina , Obesidade Pediátrica , Síndromes da Apneia do Sono , Adiposidade , Adolescente , Glicemia , Índice de Massa Corporal , Proteína C-Reativa/metabolismo , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Glucose , Humanos , Inflamação , Insulina/metabolismo , Masculino , Obesidade Pediátrica/complicações , Síndromes da Apneia do Sono/complicações
16.
Curr Opin Endocrinol Diabetes Obes ; 29(4): 303-309, 2022 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35776685

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This study aims to review bone marrow adipose tissue (BMAT) changes in people with diabetes, contributing factors, and interventions. RECENT FINDINGS: In type 1 diabetes (T1D), BMAT levels are similar to healthy controls, although few studies have been performed. In type 2 diabetes (T2D), both BMAT content and composition appear altered, and recent bone histomorphometry data suggests increased BMAT is both through adipocyte hyperplasia and hypertrophy. Position emission tomography scanning suggests BMAT is a major source of basal glucose uptake. BMAT is responsive to metabolic interventions. SUMMARY: BMAT is a unique fat depot that is influenced by metabolic factors and proposed to negatively affect the skeleton. BMAT alterations are more consistently seen in T2D compared to T1D. Interventions such as thiazolidinedione treatment may increase BMAT, whereas metformin treatment, weight loss, and exercise may decrease BMAT. Further understanding of the role of BMAT will provide insight into the pathogenesis of diabetic bone disease and could lead to targeted preventive and therapeutic strategies.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1 , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Adiposidade , Medula Óssea/metabolismo , Medula Óssea/patologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/patologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/metabolismo , Humanos , Obesidade/metabolismo
17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35886410

RESUMO

Adiposity rebound (AR), which is defined as a situation in which the body mass index (BMI) starts to increase after infancy, is a predictive marker of future development of type 2 diabetes. The patient was a 20-year-old male. He was born at 28 gestational weeks with a birthweight of 642 g (-3.20 standard deviation, small-for-gestational age [SGA]). AR during early childhood or obesity in later childhood was not observed. At the onset of type 2 diabetes (20 years of age), his BMI, body fat percentage, and body fat mass were within normal ranges (20.4, 18.4% and 10.8 kg, respectively). However, his muscle mass was 44.7 kg, with low muscle mass of the trunk and upper limbs, which was lower than the standard reference, indicating that myogenic insulin resistance was involved in the development of non-obese type 2 diabetes. This case report describes a patient with no presentation of AR and obesity during childhood, who was born extremely preterm SGA, developed non-obese type 2 diabetes with low muscle mass. We suggest that patients born extremely preterm SGA should be carefully observed for the development of type 2 diabetes, even if they did not have AR in early childhood or had not become obese.


Assuntos
Adiposidade , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Adiposidade/fisiologia , Adulto , Índice de Massa Corporal , Pré-Escolar , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Humanos , Lactente , Lactente Extremamente Prematuro , Recém-Nascido , Recém-Nascido Pequeno para a Idade Gestacional , Masculino , Obesidade , Adulto Jovem
18.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 11382, 2022 Jul 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35790777

RESUMO

This study aimed to compare compliance with 24-h movement guidelines across countries and examine the associations with markers of adiposity in adults from eight Latin American countries. The sample consisted of 2338 adults aged 18-65 years. Moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and sedentary behavior (SB) data were objectively measured using accelerometers. Sleep duration was self-reported using a daily log. Body mass index and waist circumference were assessed as markers of adiposity. Meeting the 24-h movement guidelines was defined as ≥ 150 min/week of MVPA; ≤ 8 h/day of SB; and between 7 and 9 h/day of sleep. The number of guidelines being met was 0.90 (95% CI 0.86, 0.93) with higher value in men than women. We found differences between countries. Meeting two and three movement guidelines was associated with overweight/obesity (OR: 0.75, 95% CI 0.58, 0.97 and OR: 0.69, 95% CI 0.51, 0.85, respectively) and high waist circumference (OR: 0.74, 95% CI 0.56, 0.97 and OR: 0.77, 95% CI 0.62, 0.96). Meeting MVPA and SB recommendations were related to reduced adiposity markers but only in men. Future research is needed to gain insights into the directionality of the associations between 24-h movement guidelines compliance and markers of adiposity but also the mechanisms underlying explaining differences between men and women.


Assuntos
Adiposidade , Exercício Físico , Adulto , Biomarcadores , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , América Latina/epidemiologia , Masculino , Obesidade/epidemiologia
19.
Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act ; 19(1): 83, 2022 Jul 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35836186

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In the current Physical Activity Guidelines (PAG) for moderate- and vigorous-intensity physical activity (MVPA), abrupt transition from ≥ 60 min/day [youth PAG] to ≥ 150 min/week (≥ 22 min/day on average) [adult PAG] during emerging adulthood is poorly justified. The aim of this study was to examine body fat mass changes according to whether meeting the youth and adult PAGs in late adolescence (age 18 years) to early adulthood (age 22 years). METHODS: The study sample included 2,099 participants (1,113 females) from the 1993 Pelotas (Brazil) Study. At ages 18 and 22 years, MVPA was measured using wrist-worn accelerometry and fat mass was measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. MVPA at age 18 was categorized into two groups: 0-59 or ≥ 60 min/day (no [N] or yes [Y] for meeting the youth recommendation, respectively). MVPA at age 22 was categorized into three groups: 0-21, 22-59, or ≥ 60 min/day (N, Y22, or Y60 for not meeting the adult recommendation, meeting the adult recommendation, or meeting the youth recommendation, respectively). The combination of these groups created six MVPA groups (N&N, N&Y22, N&Y60, Y&N, Y&Y22, and Y&Y60). Sex-specific multivariable linear regression analyses were conducted to estimate change in fat mass index (FMI) from age 18 to 22 years in the six MVPA groups. RESULTS: Among males, compared to Y&Y60 (FMI increase = 1.2 kg/m2 [95% CI = 1.0, 1.4]), Y&Y22 and Y&N had larger FMI increases (1.9 [1.6, 2.1] and 1.9 [1.2, 2.5], respectively). Among females, Y&Y60 and Y&Y22 had an equal FMI increase (1.6 [1.4, 1.9] for both groups), while Y&N had a larger FMI increase (2.4 [1.8, 3.0]). CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that among those who were active in late adolescence, engaging in ≥ 22 min/day of MVPA in adulthood is associated with lower body fat gain for females, but not for males.


Assuntos
Adiposidade , Exercício Físico , Adolescente , Adulto , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Obesidade , Adulto Jovem
20.
Nutrients ; 14(12)2022 Jun 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35745120

RESUMO

Previous studies have suggested that infants high in negative affect have higher levels of adiposity, arising in part via changes in nutrition (e.g., "feeding to soothe"). Few studies have examined whether positive affect shows similar or inverse associations with adiposity. The current study examined cross-sectional and longitudinal relationships between adiposity and observations of positive affect in both a social and a non-social context, using data from infants at four (n = 125) and 12 (n = 80) months of age. Our analyses did not find any cross-sectional associations between positive affect and adiposity (all p > 0.05). However, in the longitudinal analyses, positive affect in a non-social context, when observed at four months of age, was positively associated with weight-for-length at 12 months of age (zWFL; ß = 1.49, SE = 0.67, p = 0.03), while positive affect observed at four months of age in a social context was inversely associated with body fat percentage at 12 months of age (ß = -11.41, SE = 5.44, p = 0.04). These findings provide preliminary evidence that the p positive affect is related to adiposity in infancy and suggest that the direction of association (i.e., direct or inverse) may be specific to the context in which positive affect is measured. Future research should examine the role of nutritional status in any relationships between adiposity and emotion at this early stage.


Assuntos
Adiposidade , Obesidade , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Lactente , Estado Nutricional
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