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1.
J Sports Sci ; 38(1): 38-45, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31613185

RESUMO

To help inform strategies aimed at increasing muscular fitness levels, we examined factors associated with childhood muscular fitness (strength and power) that preceded the recently observed secular decline. Data were available from a nationally representative sample of Australian children aged 7-15 years in 1985 (n = 8469). Muscular fitness measures included strength (right and left grip, shoulder extension and flexion, and leg strength) and power (standing long jump distance). Anthropometric (adiposity, fat-free mass), cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF), flexibility, speed capability, physical activity (individual and parental), dietary quality and intake (fruit, vegetable, protein) and sociodemographic (area-level socioeconomic status (SES), school type) data were available. Statistical analyses included sex-stratified linear regression. Of all examined factors, measures of adiposity, fat-free mass, CRF, flexibility and speed capability were associated with muscular fitness at levels that met Cohen's threshold for important effects (r-squared = 0.02 to 0.28). These findings highlight the multifactorial relationship between muscular fitness and its determinants. Collectively, these factors were powerful in explaining muscular strength (females: r-squared = 0.32; males: r-squared = 0.41) and muscular power (females: r-squared = 0.36; males: r-squared = 0.42). These findings highlight modifiable and environmental factors that could be targeted to increase childhood muscular fitness.


Assuntos
Força Muscular/fisiologia , Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia , Aptidão Física/fisiologia , Adiposidade/fisiologia , Adolescente , Austrália , Índice de Massa Corporal , Aptidão Cardiorrespiratória/fisiologia , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Dieta , Meio Ambiente , Exercício/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Fenótipo , Classe Social
2.
J Sports Sci ; 38(1): 114-120, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31665975

RESUMO

Sedentary time (ST) has been inconsistently associated with adiposity and cardiorespiratory fitness in children in previous studies. We studied cross-sectional associations of ST, light physical activity (LPA), and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) with fat mass index (FMI) and cardiorespiratory fitness (estimated VO2max). Associations were evaluated with and without considering pattern of ST by bout length. We measured ST and activity by a wrist-worn accelerometer, FMI by bioelectrical impedance, and VO2max by Pacer test in 443 children (51.2% girls, 10.2 ± 0.6 years). Isotemporal substitution regression models estimated the effects of substituting ST, LPA, and MVPA on FMI and VO2max. Further models repeated analyses separating ST into short (<10 min) and long (≥10 min) bouts. Only replacing ST or LPA with MVPA was consistently associated with lower FMI and greater VO2max. When separated by bout length, only one unique association was found where replacing long ST bouts with short ST bouts was associated with lower FMI in girls only. In conclusion, activity pattern is associated with adiposity in girls and fitness in boys and girls. Separating ST into long and short ST bouts may be of minimal importance when assessing associations with adiposity and fitness using wrist-worn accelerometry in children.


Assuntos
Acelerometria/instrumentação , Adiposidade/fisiologia , Aptidão Cardiorrespiratória , Exercício/fisiologia , Monitores de Aptidão Física , Comportamento Sedentário , Índice de Massa Corporal , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Consumo de Oxigênio/fisiologia , Fatores de Tempo
3.
Br J Sports Med ; 54(5): 279-285, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30626597

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To test a physical activity intervention (MOVI-KIDS) on obesity indicators, physical fitness and blood pressure (BP) in children. METHODS: A crossover randomised cluster trial was conducted, which comprised 1434 children (4-7 years old) from 21 schools in the provinces of Cuenca and Ciudad Real in the Castilla-La Mancha region of Spain. The intervention consisted of three 60 min sessions/week on weekdays between October 2013 and May 2014. Changes in anthropometric variables, physical fitness and BP parameters were measured. The analyses used were mixed regression models to adjust for baseline covariates under cluster randomisation. RESULTS: There was no significant improvement in overweight/obesity with the intervention compared with the control group in both sexes. Further, the intervention did not alter other adiposity indicators or BP parameters. Improvements in cardiorespiratory fitness were seen in girls (1.19; 95% CI 0.31 to 2.08; p=0.008), but not in boys. Finally, there was an improvement in velocity/agility in both girls (-2.51 s; 95% CI -3.98 to -1.05; p=0.001) and boys (-2.35 s; 95% CI -3.71 to -0.98; p=0.001), and in muscular strength in both girls (0.66; 95% CI 0.03 to 1.28; p=0.038) and boys (1.26; 95% CI 0.03 to 1.28; p<0.001). CONCLUSION: MOVI-KIDS was not successful in reducing the adiposity and maintained BP levels at previous healthy values in children. The intervention, however, showed significant improvements in cardiorespiratory fitness in girls, and muscular strength and velocity/agility in boys and girls. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT01971840; Post-results.


Assuntos
Adiposidade/fisiologia , Aptidão Cardiorrespiratória/fisiologia , Educação Física e Treinamento/métodos , Pressão Sanguínea , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Cross-Over , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Destreza Motora/fisiologia , Força Muscular/fisiologia , Sobrepeso/prevenção & controle , Obesidade Pediátrica/prevenção & controle , Instituições Acadêmicas , Fatores Sexuais , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Espanha
4.
Int J Cancer ; 146(6): 1541-1552, 2020 03 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31187481

RESUMO

Adiposity increases estrogen receptor (ER)-positive postmenopausal breast cancer risk. While mechanisms underlying this relationship are uncertain, dysregulated sex-steroid hormone production and insulin signaling are likely pathways. Our aim was to quantify mediating effects of fasting insulin and free estradiol in the adiposity and ER-positive postmenopausal breast cancer association. We used data from a case-cohort study of sex hormones and insulin signaling nested within the Melbourne Collaborative Cohort Study. Eligible women, at baseline, were not diagnosed with cancer, were postmenopausal, did not use hormone therapy and had no history of diabetes or diabetes medication use. Women with ER-negative disease or breast cancer diagnosis within the first follow-up year were excluded. We analyzed the study as a cumulative sampling case-control study with 149 cases and 1,029 controls. Missing values for insulin and free estradiol were multiply imputed with chained equations. Interventional direct (IDE) and indirect (IIE) effects were estimated using regression-based multiple-mediator approach. For women with body mass index (BMI) >30 kg/m2 compared to women with BMI 18.5-25 kg/m2 , the risk ratio (RR) of breast cancer was 1.75 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.05-2.91). The estimated IDE (RR) not through the mediators was 1.03 (95% CI 0.43-2.48). Percentage mediated effect through free estradiol was 72% (IIE-RR 1.56; 95% CI 1.11-2.19). There was no evidence for an indirect effect through insulin (IIE-RR 1.12; 95% CI 0.68-1.84; 28% mediated). Our results suggest that circulating free estradiol plays an important mediating role in the adiposity-breast cancer relationship but does not explain all of the association.


Assuntos
Adiposidade/fisiologia , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Estradiol/sangue , Insulina/metabolismo , Pós-Menopausa/metabolismo , Adulto , Idoso , Índice de Massa Corporal , Neoplasias da Mama/sangue , Neoplasias da Mama/metabolismo , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Jejum/sangue , Jejum/fisiologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pós-Menopausa/sangue , Receptores Estrogênicos/metabolismo , Medição de Risco , Vitória/epidemiologia , Circunferência da Cintura/fisiologia
5.
Einstein (Sao Paulo) ; 18: eAO4784, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31553356

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of three types of muscular resistance training on adiposity, inflammation levels and insulin activity in Swiss mice with fat-rich diet-induced obesity. METHODS: Lean and obese male Swiss mice were selected and allocated to one of eight groups comprising eight mice each, as follows: standard diet + no training; standard diet + muscular resistance training; standard diet + hypertrophy training; standard diet + strength training; high-fat diet + no training; high-fat diet + muscular resistance training; high-fat diet + hypertrophy training; high-fat diet + strength training. The training protocol consisted of stair climbing for a 10-week period. Blood samples were collected for lactate analysis, glucose level measurement and insulin tolerance test. After euthanasia, adipose tissues were removed and weighed for adiposity index determination. Fragments of epididymal adipose tissue were then embedded for histological analysis or homogenized for tumor necrosis factor alpha level determination using the ELISA method. RESULTS: Ausency of differences in total training volume and blood lactate levels overall emphasize the similarity between the different resistance training protocols. Body weight loss, reduced adipocyte area and lower adiposity index were observed in trained obese mice, regardless of training modality. Different training protocols also improved insulin sensitivity and reduced inflammation levels. CONCLUSION: Resistance training protocols were equally effective in reducing body fat, inflammation levels and insulin resistance in obese mice.


Assuntos
Adiposidade/fisiologia , Hipertrofia/fisiopatologia , Inflamação/fisiopatologia , Resistência à Insulina/fisiologia , Exercícios de Alongamento Muscular/métodos , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Condicionamento Físico Animal/fisiologia , Tecido Adiposo Branco/fisiopatologia , Animais , Glicemia/análise , Peso Corporal/fisiologia , Dieta Hiperlipídica , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Obesos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Treinamento de Resistência/métodos , Fatores de Tempo , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/análise
6.
Rev Saude Publica ; 53: 103, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31800914

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To explore the association between adiposity, major depressive disorder and generalized anxiety disorder, and to assess the role of inflammation, diet quality and physical activity in this association. METHODS: We used data from 2,977 individuals from the 1993 Pelotas Cohort (Brazil) who attended the 18- and 22-year follow-ups. We assessed general obesity using body mass index, fat mass index, and abdominal obesity using waist circumference. Major Depressive Disorder and generalized anxiety disorder were assessed using the mini-international neuropsychiatric interview. C-reactive protein and interleukin-6 (IL-6) levels were used as a measure of inflammation; diet quality was estimated using the revised diet quality index, and physical activity was assessed by the International physical activity questionnaire (IPAQ, min/day). The association between adiposity and major depressive disorder and generalized anxiety disorder was assessed using logistic regression, and the natural indirect effect via the mediators was estimated using G-computation. RESULTS: General obesity assessed by body mass index (OR: 2.3; 95% CI:1.13; 4.85), fat mass index (OR: 2.6; 95%CI: 1.37; 4.83), and abdominal obesity (OR: 2.5; 95%CI: 1.18; 5.39) were associated with higher odds of major depressive disorder, whereas major depressive disorder was only associated with obesity assessed by body mass index (OR=1.9; 95% CI: 1.09; 3.46). Obesity and generalized anxiety disorder were not associated. C-reactive protein, diet quality and physical activity did not mediate the effect of obesity on major depressive disorder, and C-reactive protein mediated about 25% of the effect of major depressive disorder on adiposity. CONCLUSIONS: Depression, but not generalized anxiety disorder, is associated with adiposity in both directions, with a stronger evidence for the direction obesity-depression. Inflammation explains part of the effect of major depressive disorder on obesity but not the other way around. Further research should explore other mechanisms that could be involved in the association between obesity and depression.


Assuntos
Adiposidade/fisiologia , Transtornos de Ansiedade/fisiopatologia , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/fisiopatologia , Dieta , Exercício/psicologia , Obesidade/psicologia , Adolescente , Antropometria , Brasil , Proteína C-Reativa/análise , Estudos de Coortes , Exercício/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Interleucina-6/sangue , Estilo de Vida , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Obesidade Abdominal/psicologia , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica , Valores de Referência , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
7.
Rev Med Chil ; 147(6): 733-740, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31859826

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In people with asthma, adiposity is associated with more symptoms and less control of the disease whereas on those without asthma adiposity is associated with a higher risk of developing the disease. AIM: To investigate the association between asthma and adiposity markers in Chilean adults. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Data from 5,499 adults older than 15-years-old from the Chilean National Health Survey 20162017 were analyzed. Quintiles of body-mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) were used as a proxy of adiposity. The association between asthma and quintiles of BMI and WC was determined by logistic regression. RESULTS: A higher BMI and WC was associated with a higher odds for asthma. This trend remained significant even after adjusting the models for socio-demographic factors, physical activity and smoking (Odds Ratio [OR] BMI: 1.13 [95% confidence intervals (CI): 1.04; 1.22], p < 0.01 and OR WC: 1.15 [95% IC: 1.06; 1.25], p < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: A higher BMI and WC were positively associated with asthma.


Assuntos
Asma/etiologia , Obesidade/complicações , Adiposidade/fisiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Asma/epidemiologia , Asma/fisiopatologia , Índice de Massa Corporal , Chile/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Valores de Referência , Fatores de Risco , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Fumar/epidemiologia , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Circunferência da Cintura
8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31569569

RESUMO

Background: To investigate the relationship between fat content and the cross-sectional area of psoas and thigh muscles, and clinical severity in patients with Parkinson's disease. Materials and Methods: Twenty-five patients and 20 age- and sex-matched normal controls were recruited. All subjects underwent MRI study to determine the fat content of the bilateral psoas and thigh muscles. Muscle quality was measured by grasp, walking speed, and cross-sectional area. All patients underwent clinical surveys to evaluate disease severity and frailty, and analyses of the correlations between muscle quality and disease severity were performed. Results: Compared with the controls, patients exhibited higher fatty content in the measured muscles. The higher fat infiltration of measured muscles was significantly correlated with increased disease severity and frailty in patients. The fat fraction of the bilateral medial compartment of the thigh was correlated with the Unified Parkinson Disease Rating Scale-I results and the fat fraction of the bilateral anterior compartment of the thigh was correlated with weakness and exhaustion in patients. Conclusions: Decreased quality in psoas and thigh muscles is prominent in Parkinson's disease which is further associated with disease severity and frailty. Awareness of the risk of sarcopenia and associated sequelae might improve patient care and outcomes.


Assuntos
Adiposidade/fisiologia , Composição Corporal , Fragilidade/fisiopatologia , Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia , Doença de Parkinson/fisiopatologia , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Músculo Esquelético/diagnóstico por imagem , Músculos Psoas/diagnóstico por imagem , Músculos Psoas/fisiologia , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Taiwan , Coxa da Perna
9.
Biomed Res Int ; 2019: 5897478, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31531358

RESUMO

Background: Smoking is the second leading cause of death. Limited studies are available about smoking and overall diet quality. The current study was aimed at finding an association of s-KAP (smoking-related knowledge, attitude, and practices) with nutritional status and diet quality. Methodology: The current study was a cross-sectional community-based study conducted in Jurong city, China. Validated questionnaires were used for the collection of data regarding s-KAP and dietary intake. Correlation and multivariate linear regression analysis were used for the association of s-KAP scores with diet quality scores and nutritional status. Results: The total numbers of participants were 7998 with a mean age of 59.3±11.4 years, including 38.5% males and 41.5% females. s-KAP scores were categorized into two groups, i.e., High s-KAP group and low s-KAP group. The High s-KAP group had significantly higher (P<0.05) diet scores and BMI but lower (P<0.05) WC (waist circumference) and WHR (waist to hip ratio) than the Low s-KAP group. Independent positive association (P<0.05) of s-KAP scores with diet scores was observed after the adjustment for age, gender, physical activity, alcohol consumptions, monthly income, and anthropometric measures (BMI, WC, and WHR). Similarly, smoking was positively associated (P<0.05) with diet scores after adjustment for covariates. Conclusion: In conclusion, the higher s-KAP scores indicated more knowledge regarding the harmful consequences of the smoking outcomes, positive attitude, less smoking practices, and having a good plan to quit smoking. Individuals with high s-KAP scores had good diet quality and lower adiposity measures. Furthermore, s-KAP scores and smoking status were having an independent positive association with diet scores.


Assuntos
Dieta/efeitos adversos , Dieta/estatística & dados numéricos , Estado Nutricional/fisiologia , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Adiposidade/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Índice de Massa Corporal , China , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Renda/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos e Questionários , Circunferência da Cintura/fisiologia , Relação Cintura-Quadril/métodos , Relação Cintura-Quadril/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
10.
Eur J Endocrinol ; 181(4): 451-459, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31430720

RESUMO

Objectives: Adipose tissue (AT) density measurement may provide information about AT quality among people living with HIV. We assessed AT density and evaluated relationships between AT density and immunometabolic biomarker concentrations in men with HIV. Design: Cross-sectional analysis of men enrolled in the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study. Methods: Abdominal visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) density (Hounsfield units, HU; less negative = more dense) were quantified from computed tomography (CT) scans. Multivariate linear regression models described relationships between abdominal AT density and circulating biomarker concentrations. Results: HIV+ men had denser SAT (-95 vs -98 HU HIV-, P < 0.001), whereas VAT density was equivalent by HIV serostatus men (382 HIV-, 462 HIV+). Historical thymidine analog nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (tNRTI) use was associated with denser SAT but not VAT. In adjusted models, a 1 s.d. greater SAT or VAT density was associated with higher levels of adiponectin, leptin, HOMA-IR and triglyceride:HDL cholesterol ratio and lower hs-CRP concentrations in HIV- men. Conversely, in HIV+ men, each s.d. greater SAT density was not associated with metabolic parameter improvements and was significantly (P < 0.05) associated with higher systemic inflammation. Trends toward higher inflammatory biomarker concentrations per 1 s.d. greater VAT density were also observed among HIV+ men. Conclusions: Among men living with HIV, greater SAT density was associated with greater systemic inflammation independent of SAT area. AT density measurement provides additional insight into AT density beyond measurement of AT quantity alone, and may have implications for metabolic disease risk.


Assuntos
Adiposidade/fisiologia , Soropositividade para HIV/sangue , Soropositividade para HIV/diagnóstico , HIV-1/metabolismo , Gordura Subcutânea/metabolismo , Biomarcadores/sangue , Estudos de Coortes , Estudos Transversais , Infecções por HIV/sangue , Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Soropositividade para HIV/imunologia , HIV-1/imunologia , Humanos , Inflamação/sangue , Inflamação/diagnóstico , Inflamação/virologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
11.
Med Hypotheses ; 131: 109317, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31443772

RESUMO

The major change in the United States and European diets associated with the increased rates of obesity was an increased consumption of refined carbohydrates. A feature of refined carbohydrates is their predisposition to cause increased fluctuations in plasma insulin and glucose levels and postprandial reactive hypoglycaemia. As the central nervous system is dependent on a stable supply of glucose this threatens the central nervous system functioning and these fluctuations also have a negative impact on the cardiovascular system. Phenotypic plasticity enables organisms to use adaptive phenotypes already in existence such as the increased insulin resistance and increased adiposity associated with pregnancy or the insulin resistance associated with infection, trauma and burns or to evolve new phenotypes to adapt to variations in the environment. This paper explores the evidence that increased insulin resistance that is commonly associated with increased adiposity possibly because of shared locations on the genome is a phenotypic plastic adaptation to the increased consumption of refined carbohydrates and their predisposition to cause increased fluctuations in plasma insulin and plasma glucose and post-prandial reactive hypoglycaemia both of which have negative impacts on the metabolism. Obesity, that is a relatively stable state of increased adiposity and insulin resistance has adaptive and defensive features to these fluctuations in plasma insulin and glucose in that metabolic disorders associated with refined carbohydrate consumption are often mitigated and modified as exemplified by the obesity paradox.


Assuntos
Adaptação Fisiológica , Carboidratos da Dieta/efeitos adversos , Resistência à Insulina/fisiologia , Modelos Biológicos , Obesidade/etiologia , Adiposidade/fisiologia , Animais , Glicemia/análise , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Países em Desenvolvimento , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/etiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/genética , Dieta/efeitos adversos , Dieta/tendências , Comportamento Alimentar , Feminino , Humanos , Hipoglicemia/sangue , Hipoglicemia/fisiopatologia , Recém-Nascido , Insulina/sangue , Masculino , Camundongos , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Obesidade/terapia , Período Pós-Prandial , Gravidez , Perda de Peso
12.
Med Hypotheses ; 131: 109308, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31443779

RESUMO

Adiposity is a chronic disease and one of the major modifiable risk factors for the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Its prevalence in the world could be considered epidemic with 80% of patients with T2DM being obese. Novel antidiabetic drugs, such as glucagone-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) agonists have demonstrated benefitial effect on weight reduction. Nevertheless, in the last decades the need for new therapeutic strategies in the management of adiposity have emerged. Both adiposity and T2DM have negative effect on hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis. Conversely, it has been known that sex hormone replacement therapy improves metabolic parameters in hypogonadal subjects. Recent research has found potential therapeutic effect of combination therapies with sex hormones and GLP-1 agonists in reducing body weight. Based on the aforementioned, we hypothesize that there is a possible synergistic effect of GLP-1 agonists and sex hormones on body mass reduction in patients with type 2 diabetes. The possible additional effect of sex hormones on weight loss could contribute to more effective treatment of T2DM and its complications.


Assuntos
Adiposidade/fisiologia , Fármacos Antiobesidade/farmacologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Peptídeo 1 Semelhante ao Glucagon/agonistas , Hormônios Esteroides Gonadais/farmacologia , Hipoglicemiantes/farmacologia , Modelos Biológicos , Perda de Peso , Fármacos Antiobesidade/uso terapêutico , Depressores do Apetite/farmacologia , Depressores do Apetite/uso terapêutico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/prevenção & controle , Sinergismo Farmacológico , Estradiol/sangue , Feminino , Glucagon/metabolismo , Peptídeo 1 Semelhante ao Glucagon/fisiologia , Hormônios Esteroides Gonadais/fisiologia , Humanos , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Insulina/metabolismo , Masculino , Ciclo Menstrual/fisiologia , Sobrepeso/sangue , Sobrepeso/tratamento farmacológico , Sobrepeso/epidemiologia , Pâncreas/efeitos dos fármacos , Pâncreas/embriologia , Fatores de Risco , Taxa Secretória/efeitos dos fármacos , Testosterona/sangue , Perda de Peso/efeitos dos fármacos
13.
Diabetes Res Clin Pract ; 157: 107812, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31401149

RESUMO

AIMS: Increased adiposity confers elevated risk for diabetic kidney disease (DKD) progression in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). This 3-year prospective study examined whether worsening of metabolic control e.g. development of uncontrolled diabetes mediated the relationship between increased adiposity and DKD deterioration. METHODS: T2DM subjects who had adequately controlled diabetes (HbA1c < 8%) at initial recruitment were analysed (N = 853). HbA1c ≥ 8% at follow-up was classified as development of uncontrolled T2DM. Absolute changes in body weight (ΔWeight), body mass index (ΔBMI), and body fat mass (ΔBFM) were calculated by subtracting baseline from follow-up values. DKD deterioration (outcome) was defined as an increase in the composite ranking of relative risk by glomerular filtration rate and albuminuria levels (Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes 2009). RESULTS: Subjects with deteriorated DKD displayed lower reduction in body composition at follow-up than those who remained stable or/improved (all P < 0.05). In separate regression models, ΔWeight (risk ratio (RR):1.04, 95% CI:1.01-1.06), ΔBMI (RR:1.07, 95% CI:1.01-1.13), and ΔBFM (RR:1.03, 95% CI:1.01-1.06) were independently associated with worsened DKD. The associations were attenuated after accounting for the loss of glycaemic control. Binary mediation analysis revealed that the development of uncontrolled diabetes explained 41.7%, 45.4% and 39.7%, respectively, of the effects of ΔWeight, ΔBMI and ΔBFM on the outcome. CONCLUSIONS: Among T2DM individuals who had adequately-controlled T2DM at initial recruitment, the relationship between gain in adiposity and DKD deterioration is mediated by the development of poor glycaemic control over time. Therefore, preventing worsening adiposity and hyperglycaemia is pivotal to impede DKD progression.


Assuntos
Adiposidade/fisiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Nefropatias Diabéticas/fisiopatologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Adulto Jovem
14.
Niger J Physiol Sci ; 34(1): 17-25, 2019 Jun 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31449267

RESUMO

Ethnic variations exist in the relationship of adiposity indices with metabolic syndrome (MetS).  There are however, limited studies on the usefulness of body adiposity index (BAI) and visceral adiposity index (VAI) among Hausas of Kano, Northern Nigeria.  The aim of the study was to determine the relationship of measures of adiposity to the components of MetS in Hausas of Kano. The study included 465 (266 males and 199 females) subjects, with mean age of 34.4 years and 32.0 years for males and females respectively. Anthropometric measures were obtained using standard protocols. Visceral adiposity was estimated using sex specific VAI.  Fasting blood sample was obtained for serum analyses of lipid profiles, glucose, protein and uric acid. Pearson's correlation was used to test the association between adiposity measures with MetS indices while Student's t test was used for group comparison. The results of the study showed that the adiposity indices significantly correlate with metabolic syndrome indices. Visceral adiposity index was superior to other adiposity measures and Waist to hip ratio was the strongest anthropometric correlate of MetS components. In conclusion, WHR is the strongest anthropometric correlate of MetS components. Body adiposity index, NC and HC are weaker adiposity tools. Visceral adiposity index is superior to all other adiposity tools.


Assuntos
Adiposidade/fisiologia , Antropometria/métodos , Síndrome Metabólica/diagnóstico , Síndrome Metabólica/epidemiologia , Obesidade/diagnóstico , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Síndrome Metabólica/sangue , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nigéria/epidemiologia , Obesidade/sangue , Relação Cintura-Quadril/métodos , Adulto Jovem
15.
Clin Obes ; 9(5): e12327, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31237080

RESUMO

The purpose of our scoping review was to determine if children and young people with cerebral palsy (CP) have elevated total or regional body fat compared to children and young people without CP. Databases (Ovid MEDLINE, Embase Ovid, CINHAL and Scopus) were systematically searched from 1 January 1993 to 7 December 2018 in order to identify articles that compared weight status, total body fat or regional body fat (eg, abdominal) between children and young people (0-21 years) with and without CP. Extracted data included country, subject characteristics, group sample sizes and matching strategies, methods/measures for weight status/fat depot, fat depot(s) assessed and key findings. Twenty-two studies were included. Of these, 19 studies examined total body fat; the most common method was use of anthropometrics and the more common measures were body mass index and skin-fold thickness. Twelve studies examined at least one regional fat depot; the most common method was use of anthropometrics and the most common measure was skin-fold thickness. Findings were inconsistent across studies. Further, among 10 studies that examined total and regional body fat depots, 8 found differences across fat depots within the same children and young people (eg, no difference in total body fat but higher abdominal fat). This review provides a summary of inconsistent findings from published studies on body fat comparisons between children and young people with vs without CP, highlights limitations for evaluating body fat for children with CP and discusses future research directions.


Assuntos
Tecido Adiposo , Composição Corporal/fisiologia , Paralisia Cerebral/fisiopatologia , Adiposidade/fisiologia , Adolescente , Índice de Massa Corporal , Peso Corporal , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , MEDLINE , Masculino , Pregas Cutâneas , Adulto Jovem
16.
Eat Weight Disord ; 24(4): 661-670, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31243740

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Adolescent men have been identified as a risk population to develop eating disorders and other psychopathologies as drive for muscularity (DM) recently considered as muscularity-oriented disordered eating. It is important to identify risk factors as precursors of these pathologies. The aim of this study was to determine the risk of developing disordered eating behaviors (DEB) and DM and its relationship with anthropometric indicators and physical activity (PA) in adolescent men (high-school students, age 15-19) from Hidalgo, Mexico. METHODS: A cross sectional, descriptive, and correlational field study was carried out in a non-probabilistic sample of 267 Mexican adolescents aged 15-19 years. Participants completed measures of DM, DEB, and PA. Each subject was weighted and heighted to calculate body mass index (BMI), body fat percentage, and fat-free mass index (FFMI). RESULTS: Adolescents in the DM risk category (OR 8.28, CI 2.71-25.22) had significantly greater odds of developing DEB, while adolescents with higher BMI scores (OR 1.28, CI 1.14-1.45) tended to be more likely of developing DEB. The results showed that DEB and moderate PA were associated with DM; adolescents who engaged in DEB had an 8.64 times (CI 3.05-24.52) higher risk of developing DM. Participants classified in the category of highest moderate PA (OR 2.66, CI 1.26-5.59) had significantly greater odds of developing DM. CONCLUSION: Important percentages of the risk of developing DEB and DM were determined in Mexican adolescent men. In agreement with other findings, there were no associations between anthropometric indicators and DM. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: V, descriptive cross-sectional study.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Composição Corporal/fisiologia , Impulso (Psicologia) , Exercício/psicologia , Comportamento Alimentar/psicologia , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/psicologia , Músculo Esquelético , Adiposidade/fisiologia , Adolescente , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Masculino , México , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
17.
PLoS One ; 14(6): e0219077, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31247010

RESUMO

The objective was to verify the association between body composition from 18 to 22 years and pulmonary function at 22 years of age. This longitudinal analysis was conducted with a Brazilian birth cohort data. The outcomes were the forced expiratory volume in the first second and forced vital capacity (FVC), measured at 22 years follow-up. Main exposures: obesity (body mass index ≥ 30kg/m2), and highest tertiles of fat mass (FM) and fat mass index (air displacement plethysmography) measured at 18 and 22 years-old follow-ups. The reference category (not exposed) was defined by those individuals who were not classified in the highest adiposity categories mentioned, in both ages. Multivariable linear regressions stratified by sex were used. The sample comprised 3,511 participants. Those who belonged to the highest adiposity categories in 18 and 22 years follow-ups showed lower pulmonary function at 22 years when compared to those who were not classified in the higher adiposity categories in both ages (reference category); those in the highest tertile of FM showed a mean FVC -313mL (95%CI -421; -206) and -259mL (95%CI -336; -182) in men and women, compared to the reference category, respectively. Those who changed from the higher to the lower adiposity categories (from 18 to 22 years) showed pulmonary function similar to the reference, and those who presented the opposite body composition trajectory, showed decreased pulmonary function results at 22 years, mainly among women. We concluded that high body adiposity in two follow-ups and especially contemporary adiposity was associated with lower pulmonary function at 22 years.


Assuntos
Composição Corporal/fisiologia , Volume Expiratório Forçado/fisiologia , Capacidade Vital/fisiologia , Adiposidade/fisiologia , Adolescente , Índice de Massa Corporal , Brasil , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Estudos Longitudinais , Pulmão/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Análise Multivariada , Obesidade/complicações , Obesidade/patologia , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Pletismografia , Fatores de Risco , Espirometria , Adulto Jovem
18.
Diabetes Res Clin Pract ; 153: 166-175, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31150725

RESUMO

AIM: Excessive visceral adiposity is a major risk factor for developing insulin resistance and systemic low-grade inflammation. Ramadan diurnal fasting (RDF) is a religious ritual practiced by more than one billion Muslim throughout the world. It has been considered as one of the most common types of complementary and integrative health practices. The aim of this study is to examine the impact of RDF on visceral adiposity, circulating adipokines and glucoregulatory markers in patients with overweight or obesity. METHODS: Overweight and obese subjects (n = 61; 23 men and 38 women) were included in the study. Body weight, visceral fat tissue area (measured by 3D-MRI), glucoregulatory factors, serum adipokines concentrations, dietary intake, and physical activity were assessed one week before and at the end of the lunar month of Ramadan. RESULTS: From baseline, body weight and visceral fat tissue area serum total cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL-cholesterol, and systolic blood pressure significantly decreased (P < 0.05 for each) at the end of Ramadan. The serum levels of adiponectin, IL-6, TNF-α, and IGF-1 significantly decreased (P < 0.05 for each), but serum visfatin, leptin, apelin, IL-10, and IL-10/IL-6 ratio significantly increased (P < 0.05 for each) at the end of Ramadan. Changes in visceral adiposity significantly correlated with changes in plasma glucose (r = 0.4, P < 0.5) and resistin (r = 0.44, P < 0.001) at the end of Ramadan. CONCLUSION: RDF lowers visceral adiposity, body weight and variably affects adipokines without adversely affecting markers of glucose homeostasis in individuals with overweight or obesity.


Assuntos
Adipocinas/sangue , Adiposidade/fisiologia , Jejum , Obesidade/sangue , Sobrepeso/sangue , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Islamismo , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos
19.
Mayo Clin Proc ; 94(6): 985-994, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31079962

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the extent to which 2 measures of physical fitness-walking pace and handgrip strength-are associated with life expectancy across different levels of adiposity, as the relative importance of physical fitness and adiposity on health outcomes is still debated. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Usual walking pace (self-defined as slow, steady/average, brisk), dynamometer-assessed handgrip strength, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, and body-fat percentage determined at baseline in the UK Biobank prospective cohort study (March 13, 2006, to January 31, 2016). Life expectancy was estimated at 45 years of age. RESULTS: The median age and BMI of the 474,919 participants included in this analysis were 58.2 years and 26.7 kg/m2, respectively; over a median follow-up of 6.97 years, 12,823 deaths occurred. Participants reporting brisk walking pace had longer life expectancies across all levels of BMIs, ranging from 86.7 to 87.8 years in women and 85.2 to 86.8 years in men. Conversely, subjects reporting slow walking pace had shorter life expectancies, being the lowest observed in slow walkers with a BMI less than 20 kg/m2 (women: 72.4 years; men: 64.8 years). Smaller, less consistent differences in life expectancy were observed between participants with high and low handgrip strength, particularly in women. The same pattern of results was observed for waist circumference or body-fat percentage. CONCLUSION: Brisk walkers were found to have longer life expectancies, which was constant across different levels and indices of adiposity. These findings could help clarify the relative importance of physical fitness and adiposity on mortality.


Assuntos
Adiposidade/fisiologia , Bancos de Espécimes Biológicos , Força da Mão/fisiologia , Expectativa de Vida/tendências , Caminhada/estatística & dados numéricos , Índice de Massa Corporal , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Reino Unido
20.
Arch Endocrinol Metab ; 63(4): 358-368, 2019 Apr 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31038591

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To establish percentile curves for measures and indices of body composition by age and sex and compare them with data from other ethnic groups. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Cross-sectional, population-based study with adults aged 20-59 years (n = 689). Percentile curves adjusted by a third degree polynomial function were constructed for skeletal mass index (SMI), fat mass index, body fat, and load-capacity metabolic indices (LCMI) based on dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). RESULTS: SMIweight and SMIBMI showed decline from the third decade of life in both sexes, whereas SMIheight was not able to identify lean mass loss over the ages studied. There was a slight drop at the end of the fifth decade (50-59 years) in men. Among Americans and Chinese, the 50th percentile curve of SMIheight showed an earlier decline. The estimates of adiposity and LCMI curves peaked between 40-49 years and Americans and Chinese maintained an upward curve throughout adulthood. CONCLUSION: The data and curves showed that the SMI adjusted for BMI and body weight were more adequate in detecting the decline of lean mass in adults due to aging. In contrast, SMIheight had a positive correlation with age and its curve increased throughout the evaluated age groups. The results contribute to the evaluation to the nutritional status of adults and to the prevention and treatment of outcomes related to adiposity and deficit lean mass.


Assuntos
Composição Corporal/fisiologia , Absorciometria de Fóton/métodos , Adiposidade/fisiologia , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Estatura/fisiologia , Índice de Massa Corporal , Peso Corporal , Brasil , Estudos Transversais , Grupos Étnicos , Feminino , Gráficos de Crescimento , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia , Estado Nutricional , Valores de Referência , Fatores Sexuais , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
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