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1.
Environ Health Prev Med ; 26(1): 35, 2021 Mar 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33743595

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Body mass-independent parameters might be more appropriate for assessing cardiometabolic abnormalities than weight-dependent indices in Asians who have relatively high visceral adiposity but low body fat. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA)-measured trunk-to-peripheral fat ratio is one such body mass-independent index. However, there are no reports on relationships between DXA-measured regional fat ratio and cardiometabolic risk factors targeting elderly Asian men. METHODS: We analyzed cross-sectional data of 597 elderly men who participated in the baseline survey of the Fujiwara-kyo Osteoporosis Risk in Men (FORMEN) study, a community-based single-center prospective cohort study conducted in Japan. Whole-body fat and regional fat were measured with a DXA scanner. Trunk-to-appendicular fat ratio (TAR) was calculated as trunk fat divided by appendicular fat (sum of arm and leg fat), and trunk-to-leg fat ratio (TLR) as trunk fat divided by leg fat. RESULTS: Both TAR and TLR in the group of men who used ≥ 1 medication for hypertension, dyslipidemia, or diabetes ("user group"; N = 347) were significantly larger than those who did not use such medication ("non-user group"; N = 250) (P < 0.05). After adjusting for potential confounding factors including whole-body fat, both TAR and TLR were significantly associated with low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglyceride, fasting serum insulin, and the insulin resistance index in the non-user group and non-overweight men in the non-user group (N = 199). CONCLUSION: The trunk-to-peripheral fat ratio was associated with cardiometabolic risk factors independently of whole-body fat mass. Parameters of the fat ratio may be useful for assessing cardiometabolic risk factors, particularly in underweight to normal-weight populations.


Assuntos
Adiposidade/fisiologia , Gordura Intra-Abdominal , Absorciometria de Fóton , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Gordura Intra-Abdominal/anatomia & histologia , Gordura Intra-Abdominal/diagnóstico por imagem , Japão , Masculino , Osteoporose/etiologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Tórax/anatomia & histologia , Tórax/diagnóstico por imagem
2.
J Urol ; 205(1): 122-128, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32718204

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Evidence suggests that visceral fat quantity may be associated with post-prostatectomy outcomes and risk of prostate cancer related death. We evaluated whether increased fat volume, normalized to prostate size, is associated with decreased risk of disease progression. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients enrolled on a prospective active surveillance trial for at least 6 months who had magnetic resonance imaging within 2 years of enrollment were eligible. The surveillance protocol included a standardized followup regimen consisting of biennial prostate specific antigen and examination and yearly biopsy. Clinicopathological characteristics were collected at baseline. Three fat measurements were taken using prostate magnetic resonance imaging, including subcutaneous, linear periprostatic (pubic symphysis to prostate) and volumetrically defined periprostatic. Progression was defined as increase in Gleason grade group. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards models were used to evaluate fat volumes normalized by prostate size (stratified into tertiles). RESULTS: A total of 175 patients were included in the study. Average age was 62.5 years (SD 7.4) and average prostate specific antigen was 5.4 ng/dl (SD 3.9). Median followup was 42 months (IQR 18-60) and 50 patients (28.6%) had progression. Compared to the lowest tertile, the highest tertile of volumetric periprostatic fat measurement (HR 2.63, 95% CI 1.23-5.60, p=0.01) and linear periprostatic fat measurement (HR 2.30, 95% CI 1.01-5.22, p=0.05) were associated with worsened progression-free survival, while subcutaneous fat measurement (p=0.97) was not. Importantly, the model did not substantively change when accounting for patient body mass index and other factors. CONCLUSIONS: Increased periprostatic fat volume, normalized to prostate size, may be associated with shortened progression-free survival in men with prostate cancer on active surveillance.


Assuntos
Adiposidade/fisiologia , Gordura Intra-Abdominal/fisiopatologia , Próstata/patologia , Neoplasias da Próstata/mortalidade , Conduta Expectante/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso , Biópsia/estatística & dados numéricos , Progressão da Doença , Seguimentos , Humanos , Gordura Intra-Abdominal/diagnóstico por imagem , Calicreínas/sangue , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gradação de Tumores , Tamanho do Órgão , Intervalo Livre de Progressão , Estudos Prospectivos , Próstata/diagnóstico por imagem , Antígeno Prostático Específico/sangue , Neoplasias da Próstata/sangue , Neoplasias da Próstata/diagnóstico , Neoplasias da Próstata/patologia , Medição de Risco/métodos , Medição de Risco/estatística & dados numéricos , Gordura Subcutânea/diagnóstico por imagem , Gordura Subcutânea/fisiopatologia
3.
Metabolism ; 114: 154429, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33166579

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The systemic function of CETP has been well characterized. CETP plasma activity reduces HDL cholesterol and thus increases the risk of atherosclerosis. Here, we investigated whether CETP expression modulate adiposity. METHODS: Body adiposity and energy metabolism related assays and gene/protein expression were compared in CETP transgenic and non-transgenic mice and in hamsters treated with CETP neutralizing antibody. RESULTS: We found that transgenic mice expressing human CETP present less white adipose tissue mass and lower leptinemia than nontransgenic (NTg) littermates. No differences were found in physical activity, food intake, fat fecal excretion, lipogenesis or exogenous lipid accumulation in adipose depots. Nonetheless, adipose lipolysis rates and whole-body energy expenditure were elevated in CETP mice. In accordance, lipolysis-related gene expression and protein content were increased in visceral and brown adipose tissue (BAT). In addition, we verified increased BAT temperature and oxygen consumption. These results were confirmed in two other animal models: 1) hamsters treated with CETP neutralizing antibody and 2) an independent line of transgenic mice expressing simian CETP. CONCLUSIONS: These findings reveal a novel anti-adipogenic role for CETP.


Assuntos
Tecido Adiposo Marrom/metabolismo , Adiposidade/fisiologia , Proteínas de Transferência de Ésteres de Colesterol/metabolismo , Lipólise/fisiologia , Fígado/metabolismo , Animais , Anticorpos Neutralizantes , Proteínas de Transferência de Ésteres de Colesterol/genética , Cricetinae , Ingestão de Alimentos/fisiologia , Metabolismo Energético/fisiologia , Leptina/sangue , Camundongos , Camundongos Transgênicos , Atividade Motora/fisiologia
4.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(24)2020 Dec 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33322275

RESUMO

Nutritional environment in the perinatal period has a great influence on health and diseases in adulthood. In rodents, litter size reduction reproduces the effects of postnatal overnutrition in infants and reveals that postnatal overfeeding (PNOF) not only permanently increases body weight but also affects the cardiovascular function in the short- and long-term. In addition to increased adiposity, the metabolic status of PNOF rodents is altered, with increased plasma insulin and leptin levels, associated with resistance to these hormones, changed profiles and levels of circulating lipids. PNOF animals present elevated arterial blood pressure with altered vascular responsiveness to vasoactive substances. The hearts of overfed rodents exhibit hypertrophy and elevated collagen content. PNOF also induces a disturbance of cardiac mitochondrial respiration and produces an imbalance between oxidants and antioxidants. A modification of the expression of crucial genes and epigenetic alterations is reported in hearts of PNOF animals. In vivo, a decreased ventricular contractile function is observed during adulthood in PNOF hearts. All these alterations ultimately lead to an increased sensitivity to cardiac pathologic challenges such as ischemia-reperfusion injury. Nevertheless, caloric restriction and physical exercise were shown to improve PNOF-induced cardiac dysfunction and metabolic abnormalities, drawing a path to the potential therapeutic correction of early nutritional programming.


Assuntos
Obesidade/metabolismo , Hipernutrição/complicações , Hipernutrição/metabolismo , Adiposidade/fisiologia , Animais , Peso Corporal/fisiologia , Feminino , Coração/fisiologia , Insulina/sangue , Leptina/sangue , Tamanho da Ninhada de Vivíparos , Masculino , Obesidade/etiologia , Hipernutrição/sangue , Gravidez , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Ratos Wistar
5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33352637

RESUMO

Whereas in adults, physical inactivity is strongly related to obesity and hypertension, in young children the evidence is inconsistent and scarce. We examined the association between physical activity (PA) behaviours at 5-6 years of age and adiposity and blood pressure (BP) at 10-11 years in 947 children (51% boys) from the Groningen Expert Center for Kids with Obesity (GECKO) Drenthe cohort. Sedentary time (ST) and light, moderate, and vigorous PA were assessed using accelerometry (ActiGraph GT3X, wear time > 600 min/day, ≥3 days). Body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), and systolic and diastolic BP were measured at 5-6 and 10-11 years of age and standardized as age- and sex-adjusted (and height-adjusted, for BP) z-scores. Adjusted linear and logistic regression models showed that most PA behaviours were not related to standardized BMI or WC, overweightness/obesity, abdominal overweightness/obesity, standardized systolic or diastolic BP, pulse pressure, or prehypertension at 10-11 years of age. Only if children spent more time in vigorous PA was WC slightly lower (B (95% CI) = -0.08 (-0.16, -0.01) SD, stdß = -0.068) and the increase in WC over the years was less (B (95% CI) = -0.10 (-0.18, -0.01) SD; stdß = -0.083). To conclude, at this very young age, PA behaviours are not a strong predictor for overweightness/obesity or hypertension later in childhood.


Assuntos
Adiposidade/fisiologia , Pressão Sanguínea/fisiologia , Exercício Físico , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Comportamento Sedentário , Acelerometria , Animais , Índice de Massa Corporal , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Atividades de Lazer , Masculino , Atividade Motora , Países Baixos/epidemiologia , Obesidade/prevenção & controle , Sobrepeso/epidemiologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Circunferência da Cintura
7.
Arch Osteoporos ; 15(1): 145, 2020 09 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32945990

RESUMO

Osteocalcin, the osteoblast-derived protein, has been shown to be modulated in patients with problematic glucose metabolism. Our systematic review and meta-analysis found that in humans, higher blood osteocalcin level is associated with lower body indices of fat. PURPOSE/INTRODUCTION: Osteocalcin (OC) was found to be inversely correlated with measures of glucose and energy metabolism, with some groups suggesting the undercarboxylated form (ucOC) to be metabolically active, although the link is not clear, especially in humans. Given obesity is a major risk factor for metabolic disorders, we aimed to assess the correlation between OC and two measures of body weight: body mass index (BMI) and percentage body fat (%BF). METHODS: MEDLINE and EMBASE were searched to identify observational studies in adult populations that reported the crude correlation coefficients (r) between OC and BMI and %BF. Pool r were obtained using random-effects models. RESULTS: Fifty-one publications were included in this analysis. Both total OC (TOC) (pooled r = - 0.151, 95% CI - 0.17, - 0.130; I2 = 52%) and ucOC (pooled r = - 0.060, 95% CI - 0.103, - 0.016; I2 = 54%) were inversely correlated with BMI. The pooled r between TOC and BMI in Caucasian-and-other-regions (r = - 0.187) were stronger than those in Asian populations (r = - 0.126; intra-group p = 0.002; R2 = 0.21). The mean/median BMI of the reported cohort was the major contributor to between-study heterogeneity in correlation between TOC/ucOC and BMI (R2 = 0.28 and 0.77, respectively). Both TOC and ucOC were also inversely correlated with %BF (TOC: pooled r = - 0.185, 95% CI - 0.257 to - 0.112; ucOC: pooled r = - 0.181, 95% CI - 0.258 to - 0.101). CONCLUSION: Higher OC and ucOC were correlated with lower BMI and %BF. The inverse correlations between TOC/ucOC and BMI appear to be affected by ethnicity and obesity status.


Assuntos
Adiposidade/fisiologia , Índice de Massa Corporal , Peso Corporal/fisiologia , Estudos Observacionais como Assunto , Osteocalcina/sangue , Adulto , Humanos , Obesidade/epidemiologia
8.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237887, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32817652

RESUMO

The effects of High-Intensity Functional Training (HIFT) on body composition and the relationship of the latter with performance are not well defined. In this work we investigated, by means of Dual-energy X-ray Absorptiometry, the relative proportions of fat-, lean soft tissue-, and mineral mass in CrossFit® (CF, a popular mode of HIFT) participants (n = 24; age, 28.2 ± 3.39 y; BMI, 25.3 ± 2.04 kg/m2) with at least 1 year of CF training experience and weekly amount of training > 10 h/w (n = 13; Higher Training, HT) or < 10 h/w (n = 11; Lower Training, LT) as well as age- matched and BMI-matched physically active controls (CHT, CLT). Performance was assessed in the "Fran" workout. Data were analyzed by one-way or repeated measures ANOVA where needed. Association between variables was assessed with the Pearson's correlation coefficient r. Partial correlation was used where needed. Results showed that HT performed better than LT in the "Fran" (P < 0.001) and they had higher whole-body bone mineral density (P = 0.026) and higher lean soft mass (P = 0.002), and borderline lower percent fat mass (P = 0.050). The main difference between CF participants (HT, LT) and their respective controls (CHT, CLT) was a lower adiposity in the former. In CF participants, performance positively correlated with appendicular lean soft tissue mass (P = 0.030). It can be concluded that, in CF participants, a higher amount of weekly training improves most notably lean body mass and increases performance in association with increased skeletal muscle mass. CF participation is especially effective in reducing fat mass vs. age- and BMI-matched physically active controls.


Assuntos
Composição Corporal/fisiologia , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Treinamento Intervalado de Alta Intensidade/métodos , Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia , Absorciometria de Fóton , Tecido Adiposo , Adiposidade/fisiologia , Adulto , Braço/fisiologia , Glicemia , Índice de Massa Corporal , Peso Corporal , Densidade Óssea , Capilares/fisiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Músculo Esquelético/anatomia & histologia , Adulto Jovem
9.
Life Sci ; 259: 118218, 2020 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32784057

RESUMO

AIMS: The balance between various CD4+ T cell subsets through highly regulated differentiation of naïve T cells is critical to ensure proper immune response, disruption of which may cause autoimmunity and cancers. miR-10a has been reported to regulate the fate of naïve T cells. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) derived exosomes are known effective immunomodulators and ideal vehicles for delivery of microRNAs. This study was aimed to examine the impacts of miR-10a on CD4+ cell fate upon exosomal delivery in combination with immunomodulatory effects of MSCs. MAIN METHODS: Exosomes isolated form adipose tissue derived mesenchymal stem cells (AD-MSC-Exo) were transfected with miR-10a and added to naïve T cells purified from mouse spleen. AD-MSC-Exos were characterized and the efficacy of miR-10a delivery was evaluated. The expression levels of T-bet, GATA3, RORγt, and Foxp3 and the secreted levels of IFN-γ, IL-4, IL-17, and TGF-ß respectively specific to Th1, Th2, Th17 and Treg, were assessed by qPCR and ELISA. KEY FINDINGS: Being transferred by AD-MSC-Exo, miR-10a was effectively induced in CD4+ T cells. Upon treatment with miR-10a loaded exosomes, the expression levels of RORγt and Foxp3 were enhanced and that of T-bet was reduced. Similarly, the secreted levels of IL-17, and TGF-ß were increased and that of IFN-γ was decreased. SIGNIFICANCE: Our data indicate that miR-10a loaded exosomes, promote Th17 and Tregs response while reduce that of Th1. Promotion of both Th17 and Tregs in concert, mediated by the combined effect of miR-10a and MSC-Exo, indicate new therapeutic potentials, particularly in line with novel anti-tumor immunotherapeutic strategies.


Assuntos
Exossomos/imunologia , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/imunologia , MicroRNAs/imunologia , Linfócitos T Reguladores/imunologia , Células Th17/imunologia , Adiposidade/fisiologia , Adulto , Animais , Diferenciação Celular/fisiologia , Técnicas de Cocultura , Exossomos/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/citologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , MicroRNAs/genética , Baço/citologia , Baço/imunologia , Linfócitos T Reguladores/citologia , Células Th17/classificação
10.
PLoS Med ; 17(8): e1003234, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32764760

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In common with many other low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), rural to urban migrants in India are at increased risk of obesity, but it is unclear whether this is due to increased energy intake, reduced energy expenditure, or both. Knowing this and the relative contribution of specific dietary and physical activity behaviours to greater adiposity among urban migrants could inform policies for control of the obesity epidemic in India and other urbanising LMICs. In the Indian Migration Study, we previously found that urban migrants had greater prevalence of obesity and diabetes compared with their nonmigrant rural-dwelling siblings. In this study, we investigated the relative contribution of energy intake and expenditure and specific diet and activity behaviours to greater adiposity among urban migrants in India. METHODS AND FINDINGS: The Indian Migration Study was conducted between 2005 and 2007. Factory workers and their spouses from four cities in north, central, and south of India, together with their rural-dwelling siblings, were surveyed. Self-reported data on diet and physical activity was collected using validated questionnaires, and adiposity was estimated from thickness of skinfolds. The association of differences in dietary intake, physical activity, and adiposity between siblings was examined using multivariable linear regression. Data on 2,464 participants (median age 43 years) comprised of 1,232 sibling pairs (urban migrant and their rural-dwelling sibling) of the same sex (31% female) were analysed. Compared with the rural siblings, urban migrants had 18% greater adiposity, 12% (360 calories/day) more energy intake, and 18% (11 kilojoules/kg/day) less energy expenditure (P < 0.001 for all). Energy intake and expenditure were independently associated with increased adiposity of urban siblings, accounting for 4% and 6.5% of adiposity difference between siblings, respectively. Difference in dietary fat/oil (10 g/day), time spent engaged in moderate or vigorous activity (69 minutes/day), and watching television (30 minutes/day) were associated with difference in adiposity between siblings, but no clear association was observed for intake of fruits and vegetables, sugary foods and sweets, cereals, animal and dairy products, and sedentary time. The limitations of this study include a cross-sectional design, systematic differences in premigration characteristics of migrants and nonmigrants, low response rate, and measurement error in estimating diet and activity from questionnaires. CONCLUSIONS: We found that increased energy intake and reduced energy expenditure contributed equally to greater adiposity among urban migrants in India. Policies aimed at controlling the rising prevalence of obesity in India and potentially other urbanising LMICs need to be multicomponent, target both energy intake and expenditure, and focus particularly on behaviours such as dietary fat/oil intake, time spent on watching television, and time spent engaged in moderate or vigorous intensity physical activity.


Assuntos
Adiposidade/fisiologia , Dieta/tendências , Ingestão de Energia/fisiologia , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , População Rural/tendências , Migrantes , População Urbana/tendências , Adulto , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos Transversais , Dieta/efeitos adversos , Gorduras na Dieta/efeitos adversos , Metabolismo Energético/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Índia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Autorrelato
11.
Pediatrics ; 146(3)2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32859735

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Food insecurity has been associated with obesity, but previous studies are inconsistent and few included infants. We examined associations between household food security and infant adiposity and assessed the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) and Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) as effect modifiers. We hypothesized that infants from food-insecure households would have greater adiposity, with attenuation by WIC and SNAP. METHODS: We repeatedly measured 666 infants from the southeastern United States in 2013-2017. We categorized households as high, marginal, low, or very low using the US Household Food Security Survey Module. Outcomes were BMI z score, subscapular and triceps skinfold-for-age z score, the sum of subscapular and triceps skinfolds, the ratio of subscapular and triceps skinfolds, and BMI z score ≥1 (at risk for overweight). We used covariate-adjusted repeated-measures linear and logistic regressions. RESULTS: Of infants, 68.6% were Black and 60.5% had household incomes <$20 000. Interactions between food security and WIC and/or SNAP were not significant. Compared with infants from high food security households, infants from very low food security households had higher BMI z scores (0.18 U; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.01 to 0.35), higher subscapular skinfold-for-age z scores (0.31 U; 95% CI 0.04 to 0.59), a higher sum of subscapular and triceps skinfolds (0.53 mm; 95% CI 0.002 to 1.07), and greater odds of being at risk for overweight (odds ratio 1.55; 95% CI 1.14 to 2.10). Infants from low food security households had greater odds of being at risk for overweight (odds ratio 1.72; 95% CI 1.17 to 2.10). CONCLUSIONS: In larger and longer studies, researchers should examine food security and adiposity in young children.


Assuntos
Adiposidade/fisiologia , Características da Família , Abastecimento de Alimentos/economia , Inquéritos Nutricionais/economia , Obesidade Pediátrica/economia , Obesidade Pediátrica/epidemiologia , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Assistência Alimentar/economia , Assistência Alimentar/tendências , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Inquéritos Nutricionais/tendências , Obesidade Pediátrica/diagnóstico , Sudeste dos Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
12.
Obesity (Silver Spring) ; 28(11): 2040-2048, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32677752

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to assess the association between adipose tissue distribution and severity of clinical course in patients with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2. METHODS: For this retrospective study, 143 hospitalized patients with confirmed coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) who underwent an unenhanced abdominal computed tomography (CT) scan between January 1, 2020, and March 30, 2020, were included. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to identify the risk factors associated with the severity of COVID-19 infection. RESULTS: There were 45 patients who were identified as critically ill. High visceral to subcutaneous adipose tissue area ratio (called visceral adiposity) (odds ratio: 2.47; 95% CI: 1.05-5.98, P = 0.040) and low mean attenuation of skeletal muscle (called high intramuscular fat [IMF] deposition) (odds ratio: 11.90; 95% CI: 4.50-36.14; P < 0.001) were independent risk factors for critical illness. Furthermore, visceral adiposity or high IMF deposition increased the risk of mechanical ventilation (P = 0.013, P < 0.001, respectively). High IMF deposition increased the risk of death (P = 0.012). CONCLUSIONS: COVID-19 patients with visceral adiposity or high IMF deposition have higher risk for critical illness. Therefore, patients with abdominal obesity should be monitored more carefully when hospitalized.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Obesidade Abdominal/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Gordura Subcutânea/fisiopatologia , Adiposidade/fisiologia , Idoso , Estado Terminal , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco
13.
Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab ; 319(2): E427-E437, 2020 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32663100

RESUMO

Menopause is often accompanied by visceral obesity. With the aim of exploring the consequences of ovarian failure on visceral fat, we evaluated the effects of ovariectomy and estrogen replacement on the proteome/phosphoproteome and on the fatty acid profile of the retroperitoneal adipose depot (RAT) of rats. Eighteen 3-mo-old female Wistar rats were either ovariectomized or sham operated and fed with standard chow for 3 mo. A subgroup of ovariectomized rats received estradiol replacement. RAT samples were analyzed with data-independent acquisitions LC-MS/MS, and pathway analysis was performed with the differentially expressed/phosphorylated proteins. RAT lipid profile was analyzed by gas chromatography. Ovariectomy induced high adiposity and insulin resistance and promoted alterations in protein expression and phosphorylation. Pathway analysis showed that five pathways were significantly affected by ovariectomy, namely, metabolism of lipids (including fatty acid metabolism and mitochondrial fatty acid ß-oxidation), fatty acyl-CoA biosynthesis, innate immune system (including neutrophil degranulation), metabolism of vitamins and cofactors, and integration of energy metabolism (including ChREBP activates metabolic gene expression). Lipid profile analysis showed increased palmitic and palmitoleic acid content. The analysis of the data indicated that ovariectomy favored lipogenesis whereas it impaired fatty acid oxidation and induced a proinflammatory state in the visceral adipose tissue. These effects are consistent with the findings of high adiposity, hyperleptinemia, and impaired insulin sensitivity. The observed alterations were partially attenuated by estradiol replacement. The data point to a role of disrupted lipid metabolism in adipose tissue in the genesis of obesity after menopause.


Assuntos
Tecido Adiposo Branco/metabolismo , Gordura Intra-Abdominal/metabolismo , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/fisiologia , Ovariectomia , Proteômica , Adiposidade/fisiologia , Animais , Estradiol/administração & dosagem , Terapia de Reposição de Estrogênios , Ácidos Graxos/análise , Feminino , Resistência à Insulina/fisiologia , Gordura Intra-Abdominal/química , Obesidade , Pós-Menopausa , Ratos , Ratos Wistar
14.
Aliment Pharmacol Ther ; 52(4): 600-618, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32621329

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Recent advances in evaluation of body composition show body mass index to be inadequate in differentiating between body compartments in cirrhosis. Given the limitations of body mass index, body composition evaluation using computed tomography has been increasingly used as a non-invasive clinical tool with prognostic value. Another factor influencing prognosis includes sex-specific differences in body composition that are seen in cirrhosis. AIM: To review current knowledge regarding the frequency and clinical implications of abnormal body composition features in cirrhosis. METHODS: We searched PubMed database and limited the literature search to full-text papers published in English. Studies using inappropriate landmarks or demarcation of body composition components on computed tomography images were eliminated. RESULTS: Sarcopenia is a well established factor affecting morbidity and mortality in cirrhosis. Other important body composition components that have been overlooked thus far include subcutaneous adipose tissue and visceral adipose tissue. Female patients with cirrhosis and low subcutaneous adiposity have a higher risk of mortality, whereas male patients with high visceral adiposity have a higher risk of hepatocellular carcinoma and recurrence following liver transplantation. Increased adipose tissue radiodensity has been associated with risk of decompensation and mortality. CONCLUSIONS: Further evaluation of body composition abnormalities may help with development of targeted therapeutic strategies and improve outcome in patients with cirrhosis. Moreover, recognition of these abnormalities could improve prioritisation for liver transplantation as our current method based solely on liver function might lead to risk misclassification.


Assuntos
Composição Corporal/fisiologia , Cirrose Hepática/complicações , Cirrose Hepática/diagnóstico , Adiposidade/fisiologia , Índice de Massa Corporal , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/diagnóstico , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/epidemiologia , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/etiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Gordura Intra-Abdominal/patologia , Gordura Intra-Abdominal/fisiologia , Cirrose Hepática/mortalidade , Neoplasias Hepáticas/complicações , Neoplasias Hepáticas/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Hepáticas/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Hepáticas/etiologia , Masculino , Mortalidade , Músculo Esquelético/patologia , Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia , Obesidade/complicações , Obesidade/diagnóstico , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Prognóstico , Fatores de Risco , Gordura Subcutânea/patologia , Gordura Subcutânea/fisiologia
15.
PLoS Med ; 17(7): e1003223, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32692748

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Smokers have lower risk of obesity, which some consider a "beneficial" side effect of smoking. However, some studies suggest that smoking is simultaneously associated with higher central adiposity and, more specifically, ectopic adipose deposition. Little is known about the association of smoking with intermuscular adipose tissue (IMAT), an ectopic adipose depot associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk and a key determinant of muscle quality and function. We tested the hypothesis that smokers have higher abdominal IMAT and lower lean muscle quality than never smokers. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We measured abdominal muscle total, lean, and adipose volumes (in cubic centimeters) and attenuation (in Hounsfield units [HU]) along with subcutaneous (SAT) and visceral adipose tissue (VAT) volumes using computed tomography (CT) in 3,020 middle-aged Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) participants (age 42-58, 56.3% women, 52.6% white race) at the year 25 (Y25) visit. The longitudinal CARDIA study was initiated in 1985 with the recruitment of young adult participants (aged 18-30 years) equally balanced by female and male sex and black and white race at 4 field centers located in Birmingham, AL, Chicago, IL, Minneapolis, MN, and Oakland, CA. Multivariable linear models included potential confounders such as physical activity and dietary habits along with traditional CVD risk factors. Current smokers had lower BMI than never smokers. Nevertheless, in the fully adjusted multivariable model with potential confounders, including BMI and CVD risk factors, adjusted mean (95% CI) IMAT volume was 2.66 (2.55-2.76) cm3 in current smokers (n = 524), 2.36 (2.29-2.43) cm3 in former smokers (n = 944), and 2.23 (2.18-2.29) cm3 in never smokers (n = 1,552) (p = 0.007 for comparison of former versus never smoker, and p < 0.001 for comparison of current smoker versus never and former smoker). Moreover, compared to participants who never smoked throughout life (41.6 [41.3-41.9] HU), current smokers (40.4 [39.9-40.9] HU) and former smokers (40.8 [40.5-41.2] HU) had lower lean muscle attenuation suggesting lower muscle quality in the fully adjusted model (p < 0.001 for comparison of never smokers with either of the other two strata). Among participants who had ever smoked, pack-years of smoking exposure were directly associated with IMAT volume (ß [95% CI]: 0.017 [0.010-0.025]) (p < 0.001). Despite having less SAT, current smokers also had higher VAT/SAT ratio than never smokers. These findings must be viewed with caution as residual confounding and/or reverse causation may contribute to these associations. CONCLUSIONS: We found that, compared to those who never smoked, current and former smokers had abdominal muscle composition that was higher in adipose tissue volume, a finding consistent with higher CVD risk and age-related physical deconditioning. These findings challenge the belief that smoking-associated weight loss or maintenance confers a health benefit.


Assuntos
Gordura Abdominal/diagnóstico por imagem , Fumar , Adiposidade/fisiologia , Adulto , Pressão Sanguínea , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Gordura Intra-Abdominal/diagnóstico por imagem , Estilo de Vida , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia , Obesidade Abdominal/diagnóstico por imagem , Fatores de Risco , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
16.
Metabolism ; 110: 154317, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32673651

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Overall obesity has recently been established as an independent risk factor for critical illness in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The role of fat distribution and especially that of visceral fat, which is often associated with metabolic syndrome, remains unclear. Therefore, this study aims at investigating the association between fat distribution and COVID-19 severity. METHODS: Thirty patients with COVID-19 and a mean age of 65.6 ±â€¯13.1 years from a level-one medical center in Berlin, Germany, were included in the present cross-sectional analysis. COVID-19 was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) from nasal and throat swabs. A severe clinical course of COVID-19 was defined by hospitalization in the intensive care unit (ICU) and/or invasive mechanical ventilation. Fat was measured at the level of the first lumbar vertebra on routinely acquired low-dose chest computed tomography (CT). RESULTS: An increase in visceral fat area (VFA) by ten square centimeters was associated with a 1.37-fold higher likelihood of ICU treatment and a 1.32-fold higher likelihood of mechanical ventilation (adjusted for age and sex). For upper abdominal circumference, each additional centimeter of circumference was associated with a 1.13-fold higher likelihood of ICU treatment and a 1.25-fold higher likelihood of mechanical ventilation. CONCLUSIONS: Our proof-of-concept study suggests that visceral adipose tissue and upper abdominal circumference specifically increase the likelihood of COVID-19 severity. CT-based quantification of visceral adipose tissue and upper abdominal circumference in routine chest CTs may therefore be a simple tool for risk assessment in COVID-19 patients.


Assuntos
Adiposidade/fisiologia , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/etiologia , Gordura Intra-Abdominal/fisiologia , Pneumonia Viral/etiologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Gordura Intra-Abdominal/diagnóstico por imagem , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Projetos Piloto , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
17.
Obesity (Silver Spring) ; 28(7): 1245-1253, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32475048

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate the effect of exercise intensity on visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and liver fat reduction in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) over 3 months and the maintenance of improvements over 12 months. METHODS: Forty-two participants with CAD were randomized to three sessions/week of either 4 × 4-minute high-intensity interval training (HIIT) or 40 minutes of usual care moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT) for a 4-week supervised cardiac rehabilitation program, followed by three home-based sessions/week for 11 months. Liver fat (as intrahepatic lipid) and VAT were measured via magnetic resonance techniques. Data are mean change (95% CI). RESULTS: HIIT and MICT significantly reduced VAT over 3 months (-350 [-548 to -153] cm3 vs. -456 [-634 to -278] cm3 ; time × group effect: P = 0.421), with further improvement over 12 months (-545 [-818 to -271] cm3 vs. -521 [-784 to -258] cm3 ; time × group effect: P = 0.577) and no differences between groups. Both groups improved liver fat over 3 months, with HIIT tending to show greater reduction than MICT (-2.8% [-4.0% to -1.6%] vs. -1.4% [-2.4% to -0.4%]; time × group effect: P = 0.077). After 12 months, improvements were maintained to a similar degree. Higher exercise intensity predicted liver fat reduction (ß = -0.3 [-0.7 to 0.0]; P = 0.042). CONCLUSIONS: HIIT and MICT reduced VAT over 3 and 12 months. For liver fat, HIIT tended to provide a slightly greater reduction compared with MICT. These findings support HIIT as a beneficial adjunct or alternative to MICT for reducing visceral and liver fat in patients with CAD.


Assuntos
Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Reabilitação Cardíaca/métodos , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/terapia , Treinamento Intervalado de Alta Intensidade/métodos , Gordura Intra-Abdominal/patologia , Fígado/metabolismo , Adiposidade/fisiologia , Idoso , Composição Corporal/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Gordura Intra-Abdominal/metabolismo , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Cooperação do Paciente , Resultado do Tratamento
18.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0234316, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32520942

RESUMO

Handgrip strength (HGS) is a well-established indicator of muscle strength and can help to identify risk of sarcopenic obesity in children. This study explores the relationship between adiposity and muscular strength in healthy Chilean adolescents. Adolescents (n = 491) aged 10-17 were selected from five schools in Santiago, Chile. HGS was determined by dynamometry. Anthropometry (weight, height, waist and mid arm circumference), physical activity and socioeconomic status were also measured. Relative HGS (RHGS) was calculated by dividing maximum HGS of the dominant hand by body-mass index (BMI) and low RHGS was categorized as <25th percentile by sex. Logistic regression was used to determine the relationship between two markers of adiposity (abdominal obesity category by waist circumference and nutritional status measured by BMI category) and low RHGS, adjusting for possible confounding variables. Participants were on average 13.6y (2.4), 32.8% were overweight or obese and 37.5% were at risk of or had abdominal obesity. RHGS was 1.25 kg/kg/m2 overall, with a significant difference by sex (1.51 for boys versus 1.14 for girls). In adjusted analyses, boys and girls with risk of abdominal obesity, had 3.3 (1.6-6.6) and 4.1 (1.8-9.3) increased odds of low RHGS, respectively, compared to boys and girls with normal waist circumference. Those with abdominal obesity compared to normal WC, had 8.5 (3.4-21.4) and 6.5 (2.0-21.3) increased odds of low RHGS for boys and girls, respectively. We observed similar associations for BMI category. In our sample of healthy adolescents, higher adiposity related to greater odds of low muscle strength measured by dynamometry. Considering the demographic shift from a young to an aging population in many countries, along with the increasing prevalence of obesity beginning in childhood, understanding how adiposity relates to low muscle strength is of growing importance.


Assuntos
Força da Mão/fisiologia , Sobrepeso/epidemiologia , Obesidade Pediátrica/epidemiologia , Adiposidade/fisiologia , Adolescente , Índice de Massa Corporal , Peso Corporal , Criança , Chile/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Avaliação Nutricional , Estado Nutricional , Obesidade Abdominal/epidemiologia , Obesidade Pediátrica/metabolismo , Obesidade Pediátrica/fisiopatologia , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Circunferência da Cintura/fisiologia
19.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 9422, 2020 06 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32523012

RESUMO

Infant adiposity may be related to later metabolic health. Maternal metabolite profiling reflects both genetic and environmental influences and allows elucidation of metabolic pathways associated with infant adiposity. In this multi-ethnic Asian cohort, we aimed to (i) identify maternal plasma metabolites associated with infant adiposity and other birth outcomes and (ii) investigate the maternal characteristics associated with those metabolites. In 940 mother-offspring pairs, we performed gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and identified 134 metabolites in maternal fasting plasma at 26-28 weeks of gestation. At birth, neonatal triceps and subscapular skinfold thicknesses were measured by trained research personnel, while weight and length measures were abstracted from delivery records. Gestational age was estimated from first-trimester dating ultrasound. Associations were assessed by multivariable linear regression, with p-values corrected using the Benjamini-Hochberg approach. At a false discovery rate of 5%, we observed associations between 28 metabolites and neonatal sum of skinfold thicknesses (13 amino acid-related, 4 non-esterified fatty acids, 6 xenobiotics, and 5 unknown compounds). Few associations were observed with gestational duration, birth weight, or birth length. Maternal ethnicity, pre-pregnancy BMI, and diet quality during pregnancy had the strongest associations with the specific metabolome related to infant adiposity. Further studies are warranted to replicate our findings and to understand the underlying mechanisms.


Assuntos
Adiposidade/fisiologia , Biomarcadores/sangue , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Materna/fisiologia , Adulto , Peso ao Nascer/fisiologia , Índice de Massa Corporal , Dieta/métodos , Feminino , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Obesidade/sangue , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Gravidez , Estudos Prospectivos , Pregas Cutâneas
20.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 2922, 2020 06 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32523103

RESUMO

The conversion of white adipocytes to thermogenic beige adipocytes represents a potential mechanism to treat obesity and related metabolic disorders. However, the mechanisms involved in converting white to beige adipose tissue remain incompletely understood. Here we show profound beiging in a genetic mouse model lacking the transcriptional repressor Krüppel-like factor 3 (KLF3). Bone marrow transplants from these animals confer the beige phenotype on wild type recipients. Analysis of the cellular and molecular changes reveal an accumulation of eosinophils in adipose tissue. We examine the transcriptomic profile of adipose-resident eosinophils and posit that KLF3 regulates adipose tissue function via transcriptional control of secreted molecules linked to beiging. Furthermore, we provide evidence that eosinophils may directly act on adipocytes to drive beiging and highlight the critical role of these little-understood immune cells in thermogenesis.


Assuntos
Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Eosinófilos/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição Kruppel-Like/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/fisiologia , Adiposidade/genética , Adiposidade/fisiologia , Animais , Células COS , Chlorocebus aethiops , Imunoprecipitação da Cromatina , Citometria de Fluxo , Fatores de Transcrição Kruppel-Like/genética , Masculino , Camundongos , Obesidade/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Software
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