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1.
Food Chem ; 295: 630-636, 2019 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31174805

RESUMO

This work aimed to evaluate the in vitro effect of encapsulated oregano and clove essential oils on oil-in-water nanoemulsions against Zygosaccharomyces bailii. The antifungal efficacy of these nanoemulsions and their sensory acceptance were tested in salad dressings. Both essential oils were effective inhibitors against the target yeast, with minimal inhibitory and fungicidal concentrations of 1.75 mg/mL. In the in vitro assay done with the nanoemulsions, no yeast growth was observed for any tested essential oil concentration. In the salad dressings, all the formulations were able to reduce Z. bailii growth compared to the control, and only those samples with 1.95 mg/g of essential oil were capable of inhibiting yeast development after 4 inoculation days. The sensory acceptance of the dressing containing the nanoemulsions was similar to the control dressing in appearance, consistency and colour terms. These results evidence the antifungal activity of oregano and clove nanoemulsions against Z. bailii.


Assuntos
Emulsões/química , Eugenia/metabolismo , Nanoestruturas/química , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Origanum/metabolismo , Zygosaccharomyces/efeitos dos fármacos , Aditivos Alimentares/química , Aditivos Alimentares/farmacologia , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Óleos Voláteis/química , Água/química
2.
Vet J ; 249: 24-32, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31239161

RESUMO

This meta-analysis evaluated the use of potential dietary feed additives (pDFA) with antibacterial effects and their impact on the perfomance of weaned piglets. Twenty-three peer-reviewed in vivo studies, comprising 50 trials, were identified between January 2010 and January 2017. The pDFA in these studies could be grouped in 5 classes: antimicrobial peptides, chitosan, lysozyme, medium chain fatty acids/ triglycerides and plant extracts. Mixed-effect meta-analyses with type of pDFA as fixed effect were performed for the growth parameters 'average daily gain' (ADG) and 'feed conversion ratio' (FCR), which are the two most important and used economic performance parameters for farmers. For each class of pDFA, results of the meta-analysis showed significantly higher average daily gain in the group with pDFA compared to the negative control group, while no significant difference with the positive control group was observed. Furthermore, a positive effect on FCR was found, i.e. significantly less feed was needed to gain 1 kg of body weight in the group with pDFA compared to the negative control group. No significant differences with positive control groups were observed for each class of pDFA, except for plant extracts, where the FCR was also significantly reduced in the treatment group. These results suggest that pDFA could reduce the use of antimicrobials without significant negative effects on performance indicators.


Assuntos
Ração Animal , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Aditivos Alimentares/farmacologia , Suínos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Animais , Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Desmame , Ganho de Peso
3.
Vet Parasitol ; 269: 57-64, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31079829

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to compare the effect of non-GMO Saccharomyces cerevisiae fermentation products (SCFP) with that of a halofuginone treatment against Cryptosporidium parvum infection in pre-weaned calves on a commercial dairy farm. A total of 123 neonatal female calves, housed in individual hutches, were enrolled sequentially based on date of birth in 41 blocks of 3 animals each. Calves within each block were allocated to one of 3 treatments: remaining untreated, fed with SCFP (Diamond V SmartCare® at 1 g/d in milk and NutriTek® at 5 g/d in starter grain) for the first 63 days of life, or treated with halofuginone (0.1 mg/kg/d) for the first 7 days of life. Fecal samples collected on days 4-21 post-partum were examined for both Cryptosporidium oocysts and coproantigen. The presence and intensity of diarrhea were monitored by scoring daily for the first 4 weeks of life. Calves were weighed at 0, 21, 42 and 63 days of age. Almost all calves were Cryptosporidium-positive at least once during the study. Halofuginone significantly reduced the number of Cryptosporidium-positive fecal samples as compared to the two other groups. Based on the coproantigen scores, both halofuginone and SCFP feeding significantly reduced the intensity of Cryptosporidium infection as compared to the untreated group. Diarrhea was recorded in almost all calves at least once. Neither the proportion of diarrheic calves nor the intensity and duration of diarrhea differed among the 3 treatment groups significantly. The mean daily weight gain during the first 3 weeks of life was significantly lower in halofuginone treated calves than in both other groups; however, at the end of the study period the total weight gain did not significantly differ among the 3 treatment groups. In conclusion, the clinical results and weight gains of pre-weaning supplementation with the SCFP were neither better nor worse than the 7-day halofuginone treatment suggesting that the SCFP feeding may be from the clinical point of view a natural alternative measure, instead of halofuginone treatment, in bovine cryptosporidiosis.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos/prevenção & controle , Criptosporidiose/prevenção & controle , Cryptosporidium parvum/efeitos dos fármacos , Aditivos Alimentares/farmacologia , Piperidinas/farmacologia , Quinazolinonas/farmacologia , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/parasitologia , Estudos de Coortes , Criptosporidiose/parasitologia , Diarreia/parasitologia , Diarreia/prevenção & controle , Diarreia/veterinária , Fezes/parasitologia , Feminino , Fermentação , Estudos Longitudinais , Oocistos , Prevalência , Fatores de Tempo , Ganho de Peso/efeitos dos fármacos
4.
Anim Sci J ; 90(7): 903-912, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31012203

RESUMO

The value-added products in livestock industry is one of the key issues in order to maximize the revenue and to create a new business model. Numerous studies have suggested application of herbal plants as feed additives to increase health, productivity, and/or high-quality product in livestock. In this study, the first experiment was designed to develop in vitro evaluation system by using primary chicken myoblast (pCM) cells isolated from pectoralis major of 10-day-old male embryos. Subsequently, to evaluate effects of Korean Danggui Angelica gigas Nakai (AGN), we optimized the concentration of AGN root extract for treatment of primary pCM cells. After the treatment of AGN root extract, we compared proliferation and differentiation capacity, and also examined the gene expression. In the second experiment, the next generation sequencing analysis was performed to compare the different patterns of the global gene expression in pCM cells treated with AGN extract. Three up-regulated (pancreas beta cells, fatty acid metabolism and glycolysis) and one down-regulated (adipogenesis) gene sets were characterized suggesting that the AGN extract affected the metabolic pathways for the utilization of fat and glucose in chicken muscle cells. Furthermore, we validated the expression patterns of the up-regulated genes (GCLC, PTPN6, ISL1, SLC25A13, TGFBI, and YWHAH) in the AGN-treated pCM cells by quantitative RT-PCR. These results demonstrated that the treatment of AGN extract decreased proliferation and differentiation of pCM cells, and affected the metabolic pathways of glucose and fatty acids. Moreover, AGN extract derived from byproducts such as stem and leaf also showed the reduced proliferation patterns on AGN-treated pCM cells. Taken together, pCM cell-based in vitro assay system could be primarily and efficiently applied for evaluating the biofunctional efficacy of various feed additive candidates.


Assuntos
Angelica/química , Ração Animal , Diferenciação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Aditivos Alimentares/farmacologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento/genética , Mioblastos/metabolismo , Mioblastos/fisiologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Animais , Diferenciação Celular/genética , Proliferação de Células/genética , Células Cultivadas , Embrião de Galinha , Galinhas , Ácidos Graxos , Glucose/metabolismo , Masculino , Músculos Peitorais/embriologia , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação
5.
Benef Microbes ; 10(4): 473-482, 2019 Apr 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30931589

RESUMO

Effective cultivation methods, total cost, and biomass preservation are key factors that have a significant impact on the commercialisation and effectiveness of probiotics, such as Lactobacillus. Sugar polymers, milk and whey proteins have been suggested as good additives for industrial preparations. Alternative compounds, such as phytophenols, are a more attractive option, given their potential benefits to human health. The overall goal of this study was to determine if the addition of blueberry phytophenols improves the survival of Lactobacillus johnsonii N6.2 during the freeze-drying process. The addition of blueberry aqueous extract (BAE) stimulated the growth of L. johnsonii under aerobic conditions and improved the stationary phase survival of the bacteria. Furthermore, the addition of BAE to the culture media improved the endurance of L. johnsonii N6.2 to freeze-drying stress, as well as to storage at 4 °C for up to 21 weeks. Moreover, blueberry extract performed more effectively as a lyophilising additive compared to skim milk and microencapsulation with whey protein/sodium alginate. In sum, this study demonstrates that BAE is an effective additive to increase the growth and survival of L. johnsonii N6.2 when added to the culture medium and/or used as a lyophilising preservative. Moreover, BAE or other polyphenols sources might likely enhance growth and increase survival of more probiotic lactic acid bacterial strains.


Assuntos
Mirtilos Azuis (Planta) , Aditivos Alimentares , Liofilização , Lactobacillus johnsonii/fisiologia , Probióticos , Aerobiose , Mirtilos Azuis (Planta)/química , Aditivos Alimentares/química , Aditivos Alimentares/farmacologia , Armazenamento de Alimentos , Lactobacillus johnsonii/efeitos dos fármacos , Lactobacillus johnsonii/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Viabilidade Microbiana/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Polifenóis/química , Polifenóis/farmacologia
6.
J Food Sci ; 84(5): 990-1001, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30945309

RESUMO

Red chicory leaves are appreciated sensorially and their constituents contain bioactive properties. The objectives of this study were as follows: to use an experimental design to extract anthocyanins from red chicory in aqueous solution at pH 2.5; to determine the stability of the extracts in relation to temperature and pH; and to evaluate the antioxidant activity and in vitro cytotoxic effect of the lyophilized and purified extracts. The best extraction conditions for the bioactive compounds from red chicory were a temperature of 64.2 °C for 25 min; the anthocyanin content was 73.53 ± 0.13 mg per 100 g fresh weight basis sample. The EC50 (Half maximal effective concentration) value for the antioxidant activity assay in relation to DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) with optimized extract was 0.363, which corresponds to a concentration of 39.171 µmol/L of anthocyanins. The activation energy for the degradation reaction of the anthocyanins from the red chicory extract was 84.88 kJ/mol. The optimized extract, which was rich in anthocyanins, showed chemical and biological antioxidant activity (protection against erythrocyte hemolysis) and inhibited lipid peroxidation in vitro. The Cichorium intybus L. extracts interfered on the levels of reactive oxygen species generation and the crude extract did not present procarcinogenic effect. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: Red chicory is basically consumed as a part of traditional dishes worldwide. Here, we developed a process to extract and purify the anthocyanins from Cichorium intybus leaves and test the extracts in terms of the chemical composition, thermal stability, antioxidant activity, and antiproliferative effects. The anthocyanin-rich extract presented antioxidant activity in chemical and biological assays and low cytotoxicity and cytoprotective effects in relation to HepG2, HCT8, and Caco-2 cell lines. Additionally, the red chicory extract protected human erythrocytes against hemolysis. This extract may be used as a natural colorant/antioxidant in foods.


Assuntos
Antocianinas/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Chicória/química , Aditivos Alimentares/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Antocianinas/isolamento & purificação , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/isolamento & purificação , Antioxidantes/isolamento & purificação , Compostos de Bifenilo/metabolismo , Células CACO-2 , Carcinogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Eritrócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Aditivos Alimentares/isolamento & purificação , Células Hep G2 , Humanos , Peroxidação de Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Picratos/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/química , Folhas de Planta/química
7.
Food Chem ; 287: 280-286, 2019 Jul 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30857701

RESUMO

The effect of winter savory (Satureja montana L.) essential oil (SEO) and supercritical extracts (SE1; SE2) at concentrations of 0.075 and 0.150 µL/g on pH, lipid oxidation (TBARS), microbial growth and sensory quality of fresh pork sausages during storage were investigated. SEO, SE1 and SE2 improved oxidative and microbial stability of fresh pork sausages. The addition of SEO and SE1 at concentration of 0.150 µL/g affected the reduction of total Enterobacteriaeceae count to under 3 log cfu/g. Sausages produced with SE1 and SE2 had a higher scores for odor, flavor and overall acceptance compared to sausages treated with SEO and control sample. Therefore, the results of this paper revealed significant antioxidative and antimicrobial activity of SE1 and SE2, and consequently its high potential of utilization in processing of fresh pork sausages.


Assuntos
Aditivos Alimentares/química , Óleos Voláteis/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Carne Vermelha , Satureja/química , Animais , Antioxidantes , Enterobacteriaceae/efeitos dos fármacos , Aditivos Alimentares/farmacologia , Qualidade dos Alimentos , Humanos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Produtos da Carne/análise , Produtos da Carne/microbiologia , Odorantes/análise , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Oxirredução , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Carne Vermelha/análise , Carne Vermelha/microbiologia , Suínos , Paladar , Substâncias Reativas com Ácido Tiobarbitúrico/metabolismo
8.
Molecules ; 24(6)2019 Mar 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30889812

RESUMO

Nowadays, the agro-food industry generates high amounts of byproducts that may possess added value compounds with high functionality and/or bioactivity. Additionally, consumers' demand for healthier foodstuffs has increased over the last years, and thus the food industry has strived to answer this challenge. Byproducts are generally secondary products derived from primary agro-food production processes and represent an interesting and cheaper source of potentially functional ingredients, such as peptides, carotenoids, and phenolic compounds, thus promoting a circular economy concept. The existing body of work has shown that byproducts and their extracts may be successfully incorporated into foodstuffs, for instance, phenolic compounds from eggplant can be potentially used as a mulfitunctional food additive with antimicrobial, antioxidant, and food colorant properties. As such, the aim of this review is to provide insights into byproducts and their potential as new sources of foodstuffs additives.


Assuntos
Agricultura , Aditivos Alimentares/farmacologia , Alimentos , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Corantes de Alimentos , Legislação como Assunto
9.
Molecules ; 24(3)2019 Jan 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30696032

RESUMO

Betanin is the only betalain approved for use in food and pharmaceutical products as a natural red colorant. However, the antioxidant power and health-promoting properties of this pigment have been disregarded, perhaps due to the difficulty in obtaining a stable chemical compound, which impairs its absorption and metabolism evaluation. Herein, betanin was purified by semi-preparative HPLC-LC/MS and identified by LC-ESI(+)-MS/MS as the pseudomolecular ion m/z 551.16. Betanin showed significant stability up to -30 °C and mild stability at chilling temperature. The stability and antioxidant ability of this compound were assessed during a human digestion simulation and ex vivo colon fermentation. Half of the betanin amount was recovered in the small intestine digestive fluid and no traces were found after colon fermentation. Betanin high antioxidant ability was retained even after simulated small intestine digestion. Betanin, besides displaying an inherent colorant capacity, was equally effective as a natural antioxidant displaying peroxy-radical scavenger ability in pork meat. Betanin should be considered a multi-functional molecule able to confer an attractive color to frozen or refrigerated foods, but with the capacity to avoid lipid oxidation, thereby preserving food quality. Long-term supplementation by beetroot, a rich source of betanin, should be stimulated to protect organisms against oxidative stress.


Assuntos
Betacianinas/química , Aditivos Alimentares/química , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Betacianinas/isolamento & purificação , Betacianinas/farmacologia , Disponibilidade Biológica , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Estabilidade de Medicamentos , Aditivos Alimentares/isolamento & purificação , Aditivos Alimentares/farmacologia , Absorção Gastrointestinal , Humanos , Peroxidação de Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Conservantes Farmacêuticos/química , Conservantes Farmacêuticos/farmacologia , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização por Electrospray , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
10.
J Sci Food Agric ; 99(1): 464-472, 2019 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29926929

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sulfite is commonly used to preserve lamb burger meat in the EU. Nevertheless, its consumption has been related to certain health problems, which has increased consumer demand for sulfite-free products. Natural compounds with antioxidant and antimicrobial properties may be a feasible alternative to preserve lamb burger meat. This study evaluated the antimicrobial and antioxidant properties of carvacrol, green tea and their combination in preserving lamb burger meat. Their effect was also compared with that of 400 ppm sulfite. RESULTS: Lamb burger meat was mixed with different concentrations of the extracts, packaged aerobically and displayed for 8 days at 4 °C. Total polyphenols, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, colour, and microbial and sensory analyses were performed. Both green tea and carvacrol avoided lipid oxidation even at 300 ppm, while only carvacrol, which showed a concentration-dependent action, delayed discolouration and microbial growth. Carvacrol and green tea also limited the development of oxidation odour and flavour, but the former brought about herbal odours and flavours to the meat. On the other hand, sulfite provided a higher colour stability and lower microbial counts than both natural compounds but presented a higher lipid oxidation. CONCLUSION: Carvacrol seems to be a promising alternative to replace sulfite in lamb burger meat, whereas green tea should be combined with an antimicrobial agent. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos/análise , Antioxidantes/análise , Conservação de Alimentos/métodos , Conservantes de Alimentos/análise , Produtos da Carne/análise , Monoterpenos/análise , Extratos Vegetais/análise , Animais , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Bactérias/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Camellia sinensis/química , Aditivos Alimentares/análise , Aditivos Alimentares/farmacologia , Conservação de Alimentos/instrumentação , Conservantes de Alimentos/farmacologia , Produtos da Carne/microbiologia , Monoterpenos/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Ovinos , Sulfitos/análise , Chá/química
11.
Food Chem ; 274: 345-350, 2019 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30372949

RESUMO

Although enzymatic browning is important for the beneficial coloration of some foods, it also causes negative effects on safety, quality, and nutritional values of fruit and vegetable. Thus, anti-browning natural compounds have gained attention in the food industry. Xanthone-related compounds have been well-known for its biological activities, but their roles in enzymatic browning are unclear. We screened xanthone-related natural compounds for their anti-polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity and maclurin was selected for further experiments due to stronger PPO-inhibitory activity. Maclurin suppressed enzymatic browning in potato supernatant for long-term partly through direct binding to and inactivating PPO presumably by forming multiple hydrogen bonds and aromatic interactions with the binding pocket. In addition, maclurin elevated antioxidant capacity when added to potato supernatant. Considering the diverse health-promoting effects of antioxidants, maclurin can be applied as a functional food additive to block enzymatic browning and increase the antioxidant property of foods including beverages and soups.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Catecol Oxidase/metabolismo , Aditivos Alimentares/química , Aditivos Alimentares/farmacologia , Xantonas/química , Xantonas/farmacologia , Catecol Oxidase/antagonistas & inibidores , Cor , Oxirredução/efeitos dos fármacos , Solanum tuberosum/efeitos dos fármacos , Solanum tuberosum/metabolismo
12.
Biocontrol Sci ; 23(4): 157-165, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30584202

RESUMO

Scallop shells subjected to heat treatment exhibit antimicrobial activity, and heated scallop-shell powder (HSSP) has recently been reported to be effective for disinfecting food. However, because the main component of these shells is calcium oxide, there is a problem that scales of calcium carbonate (CaCO3) become established on the surface of equipment used for food processing. In this study, we thus investigated whether the addition of sugar to HSSP slurry suppressed CaCO3 scale generation and whether the sugar-supplemented HSSP could be applied to the disinfection and preservation of fresh lettuce. The results showed that glucose, sucrose, and sorbitol could suppress the scale generation in HSSP slurry. However, glucose and sucrose decreased the antibacterial activity of HSSP. Since the addition of sorbitol did not affect the antibacterial activity of HSSP slurry, it was used for subsequent experiments because of its low bioavailability. Sorbitol effectively suppressed scale formation by dissolving it before the addition of HSSP. The disinfection and preservative effects of sorbitol-supplemented HSSP ( S-HSSP) treatment on lettuce did not decrease compared with those upon HSSP treatment and were almost equal to or higher than those of sodium hypochlorite treatment at 200 mg/l. The addition of sorbitol solved the major problem of scale generation by HSSP containing CaO, which contributes to expansion of usage of heated shell powder, such as HSSP, in food processing.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Carbonato de Cálcio/análise , Aditivos Alimentares/farmacologia , Manipulação de Alimentos/métodos , Sorbitol/farmacologia , Animais , Desinfetantes/farmacologia , Desinfecção , Alimentos , Alface/microbiologia , Pectinidae , Pós/farmacologia
13.
Biocontrol Sci ; 23(4): 223-227, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30584209

RESUMO

Surface-acting agents are used as bread improvers in bread making to increase the specific loaf volume. We focused on the use of fatty acid salts as surface acting agents and new food additives. Fatty acid salts are the main components of soaps and display antibacterial activity. In this study, we investigated the mold-proofing activity and baking property with fatty acid salts. We examined the influence of fatty acid salts with different lengths of carbon chains on the dough expansion ability and found that the dough expansion ability increased significantly in the presence of more than 5% potassium myristate (C14K) . No significant difference was observed in the dough fermentation abilities between the control dough and C14K-treated dough, indicating of the absence of any effect of C14K on the fermentation ability. The antifungal test showed that C14K effectively inhibited fungal growth. Thus, C14K may serve as a promising bread improver.


Assuntos
Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Pão/microbiologia , Manipulação de Alimentos/métodos , Fungos/efeitos dos fármacos , Ácido Mirístico/farmacologia , Fermentação/efeitos dos fármacos , Aditivos Alimentares/farmacologia , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Fungos/crescimento & desenvolvimento
14.
J Agric Food Chem ; 66(45): 12088-12101, 2018 Nov 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30360622

RESUMO

This work aims to prepare ferulic acid alkyl esters (FAEs) through the lipase-catalyzed reaction between methyl ferulate and various fatty alcohols in deep eutectic solvents and ascertain their antibacterial activities and mechanisms. Screens of antibacterial effects of FAEs against Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 ( E. coli) and Listeria monocytogenes ATCC 19115 ( L. monocytogenes) revealed that hexyl ferulate (FAC6) exerted excellent bacteriostatic and bactericidal effects on E. coli and L. monocytogenes (minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC): 1.6 and 0.1 mM, minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC): 25.6 and 0.2 mM, respectively). The antibacterial mechanism of FAC6 against E. coli was systematically studied to facilitate its practical use as a food additive with multifunctionalities. The growth and time-kill curves implied the partial cell lysis and inhibition of the growth of E. coli caused by FAC6. The result related to propidium iodide uptake and cell constituents' leakage (K+, proteins, nucleotides, and ß-galactosidase) implied that bacterial cytomembranes were substantially compromised by FAC6. Variations on morphology and cardiolipin microdomains and membrane hyperpolarization of cells visually verified that FAC6 induced cell elongation and destructed the cell membrane with cell wall perforation. SDS-PAGE analysis and alterations of fluorescence spectra of bacterial membrane proteins manifested that FAC6 caused significant changes in constitutions and conformation of membrane proteins. Furthermore, it also could bind to minor grooves of E. coli DNA to form complexes. Meanwhile, FAC6 exhibited antibiofilm formation activity. These findings indicated that that FAC6 has promising potential to be developed as a multifunctional food additive.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Aditivos Alimentares/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/química , Biofilmes/efeitos dos fármacos , Ácidos Cumáricos/química , Ácidos Cumáricos/farmacologia , Escherichia coli/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Escherichia coli/fisiologia , Ésteres/química , Ésteres/farmacologia , Aditivos Alimentares/química , Listeria monocytogenes/efeitos dos fármacos , Listeria monocytogenes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana
15.
J Vet Med Sci ; 80(10): 1482-1489, 2018 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30111673

RESUMO

The bactericidal efficacies of 0.2% food additive grade calcium hydroxide (FdCa(OH)2) solution, a quaternary ammonium compound (QAC) diluted at 1:500 (QACx500) and their mixture-Mix500 (FdCa(OH)2 powder added at final concentration 0.2% to QACx500)-were investigated at two different temperatures (room temperature (RT) (25 ± 2°C) and 2°C), using varying contact time, with or without presence of organic materials (5% fetal bovine serum: FBS), either in suspension or on abiotic carrier (steel, rubber and plastic). In the suspension test, QACx500 could inactivate Salmonella Infantis at effective level (≥3 log reductions), within 30 sec and 5 sec, respectively, with or without 5% FBS at RT; however, at 2°C it required 30 min and 1 min, respectively. Mix500 revealed the same efficacy as QACx500 at RT, but, at 2°C it required 1 min and 30 sec, respectively with or without FBS. Whereas, 0.2% FdCa(OH)2 solution alone could inactivate S. Infantis within 1 min and 3 min, respectively at RT and 2°C, even with 5% FBS. In the carrier test, single disinfectant required bit more (3 or 5 min) contact time to reduce bacterial load (S. Infantis or Escherichia coli) down to the effective level on rubber surface than that on steel and plastic surface. However, Mix500 could inactivate both bacteria on carrier surfaces within 1 min, even at 2°C. Thus, synergistic effects were observed in the suspension test and the carrier test at both temperatures toward both bacteria.


Assuntos
Hidróxido de Cálcio/farmacologia , Desinfetantes/farmacologia , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Aditivos Alimentares/farmacologia , Compostos de Amônio Quaternário/farmacologia , Salmonella/efeitos dos fármacos , Hidróxido de Cálcio/química , Desinfetantes/química , Aditivos Alimentares/química , Plásticos , Compostos de Amônio Quaternário/química , Borracha , Aço
16.
Food Chem Toxicol ; 120: 321-327, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30033381

RESUMO

Animal studies have shown that titanium dioxide (TiO2) exposure affects arterial vasomotor function, whereas little is known about the effects in arteries from humans. This study investigated vasomotor responses after direct exposure of human subcutaneous arteries to food-grade TiO2 (E171) (14 or 140 µg/ml) for 30 min and 18 h. Vasomotor responses to bradykinin, 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT), sarafotoxin 6c (S6c) and nitroglycerin were recorded in wire-myographs. Vasoconstrictor responses to 5-HT were increased in arteries exposed to E171 for 18 h (P < 0.05). Furthermore, an increase in S6c responses was seen in low concentration E171 exposed arteries (30 min exposure; P < 0.05). The vasorelaxation response to nitroglycerin was increased in low concentration E171 exposed arteries (30 min exposure; P < 0.05). Vasorelaxation responses to bradykinin were unaffected after treatment with E171. There was no difference in gene expression levels of intercellular cell adhesion molecule 1, vascular cell adhesion molecule 1, 5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 1B, 5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 2A, endothelin receptor A and endothelin receptor B in E171 exposed arteries after exposure to TiO2 for 30 min or 18 h. In conclusion, this study shows that the same type of vasomotor dysfunction is found in artery segments of rats and humans following ex vivo exposure to E171.


Assuntos
Artérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Aditivos Alimentares/farmacologia , Titânio/farmacologia , Vasoconstrição/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Artérias/metabolismo , Artérias/fisiologia , Moléculas de Adesão Celular/metabolismo , Endotélio Vascular/efeitos dos fármacos , Endotélio Vascular/metabolismo , Endotélio Vascular/fisiologia , Humanos , Técnicas In Vitro , Nanopartículas Metálicas , Ratos , Receptores de Superfície Celular/metabolismo , Venenos de Víboras/metabolismo
17.
Molecules ; 23(7)2018 Jul 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30011894

RESUMO

The inconsistency of phytogenic feed additives' (PFA) effects on the livestock industry poses a risk for their use as a replacement for antibiotic growth promoters. The livestock market is being encouraged to use natural growth promotors, but information is limited about the PFA mode of action. The aim of this paper is to present the complexity of compounds present in essential oils (EOs) and factors that influence biological effects of PFA. In this paper, we highlight various controls and optimization parameters that influence the processes for the standardization of these products. The chemical composition of EOs depends on plant genetics, growth conditions, development stage at harvest, and processes of extracting active compounds. Their biological effects are further influenced by the interaction of phytochemicals and their bioavailability in the gastrointestinal tract of animals. PFA effects on animal health and production are also complex due to various EO antibiotic, antioxidant, anti-quorum sensing, anti-inflammatory, and digestive fluids stimulating activities. Research must focus on reliable methods to identify and control the quality and effects of EOs. In this study, we focused on available microencapsulation techniques of EOs to increase the bioavailability of active compounds, as well as their application in the animal feed additive industry.


Assuntos
Ração Animal , Aditivos Alimentares , Óleos Voláteis , Animais , Aditivos Alimentares/química , Aditivos Alimentares/farmacologia , Gado , Óleos Voláteis/química , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia
18.
J Food Sci ; 83(6): 1748-1756, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29771453

RESUMO

Intestinal parasitic infection is one of the main causes of acute undernutrition in children. Oral consumption of oregano essential oil (OEO) can reduce intestinal parasitic infections, however, its addition to therapeutic and supplementary foods is hampered by its undesirable flavor. The objective of this study was to develop a functional lipid-based nutrient supplement (LNS) containing OEO, which is stable, acceptable and provides targeted intestinal delivery of bioactive. ß-cyclodextrin (ß-CyD) inclusion complexes of OEO (ß-CyD-OEO), and carvacrol (ß-CyD-CV) (1:1 molar) were prepared using slurry complexation (-20 °C) method and characterized based on encapsulation efficiency, moisture content, morphology, and 2-phase in vitro digestion stability. Carvacrol (CV) content was measured using reverse phase HPLC-UV. LNS containing ß-CyD-OEO (27.2 mg encapsulate/20 g LNS) was formulated using Indian staples and ingredients. Discriminatory sensory tests (triangle) were performed with college students (n = 58) and low-income women (n = 25), with young children at home (1 to 6 years), living in Mehsana, India to evaluate differences between LNS with and without bioactive ingredient (ß-CyD-OEO only). Moisture of dried complexes ranged 9.1% to 9.7% d.b., whereas water activity 0.35 to 0.412. The complex size and encapsulation efficiency of ß-CyD-OEO and ß-CyD-CV were 1.5 to 7 µm and 4 to 20 µm, and 86.04 ± 4.48% and 81.39 ± 3.34%, respectively. The bioactive complexes were stable through the gastric and intestinal phases. Bioaccessibility of encapsulated CV ranged 6.0% to 7.7%. Sensory tests revealed no differences (P > 0.05) in color, aroma, and taste between LNS with and without ß-CyD-OEO complexes. Functionalization of LNS with ß-CyD-OEO is feasible based on in vitro stability and sensory studies. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: Despite its antiparasitic activities, the addition of oregano essential oil into foods is limited due to its strong flavor and volatility. In this study, we evaluated the encapsulation of oregano essential oil with ß-cyclodextrin and its addition into lipid-based nutrition supplements. The results revealed that complex encapsulation efficiency was above 80%. Also, the bioactive complexes were stable under in vitro gastrointestinal conditions. Sensory evaluation of LNS with and without encapsulated essential oil showed no difference in terms of color, aroma, and taste. The functional LNS can both address nutrient insufficiency as well as parasitic infection among malnourished populations in low-resource settings.


Assuntos
Suplementos Nutricionais , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Origanum/química , beta-Ciclodextrinas/farmacologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Antiparasitários/farmacologia , Fenômenos Químicos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Cor , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Aditivos Alimentares/farmacologia , Manipulação de Alimentos , Humanos , Índia , Lactente , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doenças Parasitárias/tratamento farmacológico , Olfato , Paladar , Adulto Jovem
19.
Meat Sci ; 143: 147-152, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29751221

RESUMO

The postmortem calpain-11 role in ostrich muscle was investigated. Pairs of ostrich muscle (Iliotibialis cranialis) were excised from 32 ostrich carcasses in 3-h postmortem and randomly assigned into four treatments. The muscle was cut into 2.5-cm thick meat cores. The cores were incubated in 30 mM CaCl2, 30 mM EDTA, 90 mM NaCl, or control. The cores from the left-side carcasses were sampled after 0, 1, 2, and 3 days of incubation at 5 °C, while the right-side meat cores were taken at 1-day and 3-day incubation for shear force measurements. The results showed that the decrease in unautolyzed and total activities of calpain-11, desmin content and shear force was more rapid in CaCl2-incubated samples than in control, NaCl- and EDTA-incubated samples. Thus, present results suggest that in the absence of calpain-1, calpain-11 with an extensive activation by adding exogenous Ca2+ could enhance the postmortem proteolysis and tenderization of ostrich muscle.


Assuntos
Proteínas Aviárias/metabolismo , Calpaína/metabolismo , Armazenamento de Alimentos , Carne/análise , Músculo Esquelético/química , Animais , Proteínas Aviárias/antagonistas & inibidores , Quelantes de Cálcio/farmacologia , Cloreto de Cálcio/química , Calpaína/antagonistas & inibidores , Desmina/metabolismo , Ácido Edético/farmacologia , Ativação Enzimática/efeitos dos fármacos , Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacologia , Aditivos Alimentares/química , Aditivos Alimentares/farmacologia , Isoenzimas/antagonistas & inibidores , Isoenzimas/metabolismo , Músculo Esquelético/efeitos dos fármacos , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Mudanças Depois da Morte , Proteólise/efeitos dos fármacos , Refrigeração , Resistência ao Cisalhamento , Struthioniformes , Taiwan
20.
Food Chem ; 259: 113-121, 2018 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29680033

RESUMO

The present study reports for the first time the identification and quantification of phenolic compounds, the antioxidant and antimicrobial activities as well as the in vitro radical scavenging activity and intestinal cell effects of A. arguta leaves extracts. Extractions were carried out under water, water:ethanol (50:50) and ethanol. The highest antioxidant activity were obtained in alcoholic extract (IC50 = 53.95 ±â€¯3.09 µg/mL for DPPH; 6628.42 ±â€¯382.49 µmol/mg dry weight basis for FRAP) while the phenolic profile confirmed by HPLC analysis revealed highest amounts of phenolic acids (hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives) and flavonoids (flavan-3-ol and flavonols derivatives). An excellent scavenging activity against reactive oxygen and nitrogen species were determined for all extracts as well as no adverse effects on Caco-2 and HT29-MTX cells in concentrations below 100 µg/mL and 1000 µg/mL, respectively. These results highlight the potentialities of hardy kiwi leaves valorization.


Assuntos
Actinidia/química , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Folhas de Planta/química , Anti-Infecciosos/química , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/análise , Células CACO-2 , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Flavonoides/análise , Flavonóis/análise , Aditivos Alimentares/química , Aditivos Alimentares/farmacologia , Células HT29 , Humanos , Fenóis/análise , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia
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