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1.
Bioprocess Biosyst Eng ; 45(1): 1-12, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34373951

RESUMO

Synthetic coloring agents have been broadly utilized in several industries such as food, pharmaceuticals, cosmetic and textile. Recent surveys on the potential of teratogenicity and carcinogenicity of synthetic dyes have expressed concerns regarding their use in foods. Worldwide, food industries have need for safe, natural and new colorings to add variety to foods and make them appealing to consumers. Natural colorings not only expand the marketability of the food product, but also add further healthful features such as antibacterial, antioxidant, anticancer and antiviral properties. Novel microbial strains should be explored to meet the increasing global search of natural pigments and suitable techniques must be developed for the marketable production of new pigments, using microbial cultures, viz., fungi, and bacteria. To address the issue of the natural coloring agents, this review presents the recent trends in several studies of microbial pigments, their biological properties and industrial applications.


Assuntos
Corantes/metabolismo , Aditivos Alimentares/metabolismo , Pigmentos Biológicos/metabolismo
2.
J Sci Food Agric ; 102(3): 1271-1280, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34358347

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Forty crossbred steers were supplemented with different doses (from 0 control to 6000 mg/animal/day) of natural additive blend containing clove essential oil, cashew oil, castor oil, and a microencapsulated blend of eugenol, thymol, and vanillin for 80 days. Carcass characteristics, drip loss, and antioxidant activity were evaluated 24 h post mortem on longissimus thoracis, and the effects of aging (until 14 days) were evaluated for water losses (thawing/aging and cooking), texture, color, and lipid oxidation. RESULTS: The use of the natural additive blend did not modify (P > 0.05) carcass characteristics but did, however, modify body composition (P < 0.05). Drip losses were unaffected by the treatments tested (P > 0.05). There was an observed quadratic effect (P < 0.05) on losses from thawing/aging on the first day of storage. Regarding the effects of natural additives on cooking losses, there was a quadratic effect (P < 0.05) among the treatments on day 7 of aging. Differences between days of aging were only observed with control treatment. Shear force was similar among treatments on days 1 and 7 of aging. On day 14 a linear effect (P < 0.05) was observed. Also, a linear effect (P < 0.05) appeared on meat lightness, meat from the control group being clearer on day 1. No changes were observed in redness among treatments or days of storage (P > 0.05). Yellowness was not modified by the treatments (P > 0.05)but only by the days of storage in control and the lowest dosage used. CONCLUSION: The blend of natural additives has potential use in pasture feeding and could improve meat quality. However, doses should be adjusted. © 2021 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Anacardium/metabolismo , Ração Animal/análise , Óleo de Rícino/metabolismo , Bovinos/metabolismo , Aditivos Alimentares/metabolismo , Carne/análise , Syzygium/metabolismo , Matadouros , Animais , Benzaldeídos/metabolismo , Bovinos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Eugenol/metabolismo , Aditivos Alimentares/análise , Músculo Esquelético/química , Músculo Esquelético/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Timol/metabolismo
3.
J Sci Food Agric ; 102(2): 505-513, 2022 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34143439

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Flaxseed is a rich source of protein, omega-3 fatty acids, lignans, and dietary fiber. However, it also contains phytic acid, which inhibits mineral absorption and has the potential to adversely affect the properties of bread. Microfluidization prevents these negative effects, reduces the amount of phytic acid, and improves functional properties. In this study, the possibility of using full-fat and defatted flaxseed flours as well as microfluidized flaxseed flours in bread formulation was investigated. For this purpose, crude and microfluidized flaxseed flours were added to the bread in different proportions (0, 25, 50, and 75 g kg-1 ), and the effects of the partial replacement of wheat flour with flaxseed flours on the functional, quality, and sensory properties of breads were analyzed. The effects of the microfluidization process on the antioxidant properties, phenolic, dietary fiber, and phytic acid content of flaxseed were also observed. RESULT: Flaxseed flours increased the dietary fiber, phenolic contents, and antioxidant activities of breads. The crumb color became darker with increasing level of flaxseed flours, and their addition also detrimentally affected the sensory properties of breads. It was seen that the microfluidization process has beneficial effects on functional properties of full-fat and defatted flaxseed flours, as well as on their quality characteristics. CONCLUSION: The study showed that flaxseed flour is a rich source of functional compounds, and it is even possible to further improve these functional properties with microfluidization treatment. Microfluidized flaxseed flour can also be used as a promising alternative functional food to enrich breads. © 2021 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Pão/análise , Linho/química , Aditivos Alimentares/química , Fibras na Dieta/análise , Fibras na Dieta/metabolismo , Linho/metabolismo , Farinha/análise , Aditivos Alimentares/metabolismo , Manipulação de Alimentos , Humanos , Ácido Fítico/análise , Ácido Fítico/metabolismo , Sementes/química , Sementes/metabolismo , Paladar , Triticum/química , Triticum/metabolismo
4.
Nutrients ; 13(9)2021 Aug 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34578952

RESUMO

Leiomyoma is the most common benign uterine tumor in reproductive-age women. Increasing numbers of studies are focusing on the effects of environmental exposure on the incidence and progression of tumors. One major step taken in the food industry is the addition of food preservatives to maintain freshness. Butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) is a synthetic phenolic antioxidant, which is widely used as an additive to develop fat-soluble characteristics, as well as in cosmetics and rubber. Previous studies also highlighted that BHT may be related to increased fibrosis capacity and carcinogenic effects. In this study, we explored the effects of the commonly used food additive BHT on leiomyoma progression, and the related mechanism. The exposure of the ELT-3 leiomyoma cell line to BHT for 48 h increased the proliferative effect. Since leiomyoma progression is related to increases in extracellular matrix (ECM) accumulation and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP), BHT could effectively increase ECM-related protein expression, as well as MMP-2 and MMP-9 protein expression. This increase in ECM, in response to BHT, may be linked to the activation of the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway. Through PI3K inhibition, BHT's effect on leiomyoma progression could be partially modulated. These results suggest the harmful effect of BHT exposure on leiomyoma progression may relate to PI3K modulation. However, an in vivo study is necessary to confirm these findings.


Assuntos
Hidroxitolueno Butilado/metabolismo , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Matriz Extracelular/metabolismo , Aditivos Alimentares/metabolismo , Leiomioma/metabolismo , Neoplasias Uterinas/metabolismo , Hidroxitolueno Butilado/efeitos adversos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Progressão da Doença , Matriz Extracelular/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Aditivos Alimentares/efeitos adversos , Humanos
5.
Carbohydr Polym ; 273: 118597, 2021 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34560997

RESUMO

Curdlan is widely applied in the food and pharmaceutical industries. This review focuses on the biosynthetic pathways, regulatory mechanisms and metabolic engineering strategies for curdlan production. Firstly, curdlan biosynthesis is discussed. Furthermore, various strategies to increase curdlan production are summarized from four aspects, including the overexpression of genes for curdlan biosynthesis, weakening/knockdown of genes from competing pathways, increasing the supply of curdlan precursors, and optimization of fermentation conditions. Moreover, the emerging and advanced applications of curdlan are introduced. Finally, the challenges that are frequently encountered during curdlan biosynthesis are noted with a discussion of directions for curdlan production.


Assuntos
beta-Glucanas/metabolismo , Animais , Bactérias/metabolismo , Vias Biossintéticas , Fermentação , Aditivos Alimentares/química , Aditivos Alimentares/metabolismo , Aditivos Alimentares/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Engenharia Metabólica , beta-Glucanas/química , beta-Glucanas/uso terapêutico
6.
Biomolecules ; 11(8)2021 07 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34439782

RESUMO

Chlorophyllides can be found in photosynthetic organisms. Generally, chlorophyllides have a-, b-, c-, d-, and f-type derivatives, and all chlorophyllides have a tetrapyrrole structure with a Mg ion at the center and a fifth isocyclic pentanone. Chlorophyllide a can be synthesized from protochlorophyllide a, divinyl chlorophyllide a, or chlorophyll. In addition, chlorophyllide a can be transformed into chlorophyllide b, chlorophyllide d, or chlorophyllide f. Chlorophyllide c can be synthesized from protochlorophyllide a or divinyl protochlorophyllide a. Chlorophyllides have been extensively used in food, medicine, and pharmaceutical applications. Furthermore, chlorophyllides exhibit many biological activities, such as anti-growth, antimicrobial, antiviral, antipathogenic, and antiproliferative activity. The photosensitivity of chlorophyllides that is applied in mercury electrodes and sensors were discussed. This article is the first detailed review dedicated specifically to chlorophyllides. Thus, this review aims to describe the definition of chlorophyllides, biosynthetic routes of chlorophyllides, purification of chlorophyllides, and applications of chlorophyllides.


Assuntos
Técnicas Biossensoriais/métodos , Química Farmacêutica/métodos , Clorofila/análogos & derivados , Clorofilídeos/síntese química , Aditivos Alimentares/química , Protoclorifilida/metabolismo , Anti-Infecciosos/síntese química , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/biossíntese , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/síntese química , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/farmacologia , Antivirais/síntese química , Antivirais/farmacologia , Técnicas Biossensoriais/instrumentação , Clorofila/biossíntese , Clorofila/farmacologia , Clorofilídeos/biossíntese , Clorofilídeos/farmacologia , Técnicas Eletroquímicas , Aditivos Alimentares/metabolismo , Humanos , Luz , Estrutura Molecular , Fotossíntese/fisiologia , Plantas/química , Plantas/metabolismo
7.
Food Funct ; 12(17): 8181-8195, 2021 Sep 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34291785

RESUMO

This study aims to evaluate the colour texture, flow, viscoelastic, sensory, and simulated mastication properties, in the presence and absence of artificial saliva, of texture-modified Spanish sauce at different temperatures (25 °C, 37 °C and/or 55 °C). Sauce texture was modified using five hydrocolloids (modified starch (MS), guar gum (GG), tara gum (TG), sodium carboxymethylcellulose (CMC), and chia seed mucilage (CSM) as an alternative texturing agent), achieving two well-differentiated consistencies: honey-like and pudding-like. The MS, GG, TG and CSM sauces showed greater consistency, firmness, stiffness, and resistance to flow than the CMC samples. Furthermore, the internal structure of CMC sauces was the most affected by temperature changes. The addition of saliva decreased the apparent viscosity, consistency, and adhesiveness of the sauces. Among the samples studied, the GG and CSM texture-modified sauces would be suitable for dysphagic patients because of their good elasticity, relatively high resistance to deformation and structural stability, as well as better resistance to salivary α-amylase action. However, CSM sauces obtained the lowest sensory attribute scores. This work opens the door to the use of CSM as a texturing agent and demonstrates the importance of considering not only the hydrocolloid type and consistency level, but also the administration temperature of dysphagia-oriented products. Selecting a suitable texturing agent is of great importance for safe and easy swallowing by dysphagic patients.


Assuntos
Mastigação , Paladar , Adulto , Afasia/metabolismo , Feminino , Aditivos Alimentares/metabolismo , Qualidade dos Alimentos , Galactanos/metabolismo , Humanos , Masculino , Mananas/metabolismo , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gomas Vegetais/metabolismo , Reologia , Saliva/metabolismo , Viscosidade , Adulto Jovem
8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34043492

RESUMO

Rhodotorula mucilaginosa is an antagonistic yeast for which our research team has recently reported interesting biocontrol activities against blue mould decay of apples and a strong ability to decrease the patulin concentration in vivo. However, the possible mechanisms of patulin degradation by R. mucilaginosa and the toxicity of patulin degradation products remain unclear. In this study, the effect of R. mucilaginosa on patulin degradation and toxicity of degradation products were investigated, the results showed that viable cells of R. mucilaginosa are essential to patulin degradation. Also, R. mucilaginosa eliminated patulin without adsorbing it through its cell wall. The extracellular metabolites of R. mucilaginosa stimulated by patulin showed little degradation activity for patulin. Cycloheximide addition into the medium significantly decreased the patulin degradation capacity of R. mucilaginosa cells. The main patulin degradation product by R. mucilaginosa was ascladiol, which was proved non-toxic to human hepatoma (HepG2) cells at 0.625-10 g/mL. Furthermore, toxicological analysis using a confocal laser scanning microscope revealed that the degradation product induced cellular apoptosis to a lesser extent than patulin itself. This result offers an innovative method to detoxify patulin and limit the risks of patulin in fruits and vegetables using R. mucilaginosa.


Assuntos
Fungos/metabolismo , Furanos/toxicidade , Patulina/metabolismo , Rhodotorula/metabolismo , Cicloeximida/metabolismo , Aditivos Alimentares/metabolismo , Contaminação de Alimentos , Frutas/microbiologia , Fungos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Células Hep G2 , Humanos , Malus/microbiologia , Metaboloma , Medição de Risco
9.
Food Funct ; 12(11): 4825-4841, 2021 Jun 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33949580

RESUMO

Large yellow croaker roe phospholipids (LYCRPLs) have great nutritional value because they are rich in docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), which is an n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-3 PUFA). In previous research, we studied the effect of LYCRPLs on the inhibition of triglyceride accumulation at the cellular level. However, its lipid regulation effect in rats on a high-fat diet and its influence on the gut microbiota has not yet been clarified. In this study, a high-fat diet was used to induce the lipid metabolism disorder in SD rats, and simvastatin, low-dose, medium-dose and high-dose LYCRPLs were given by intragastric administration for 8 weeks. The rats' body weight, food intake, organ index, blood biochemical indicators, epididymal fat tissue and liver histopathology were compared and analyzed. High-throughput 16S rRNA gene sequencing technology and bioinformatics analysis technology were also used to analyze the diversity of gut microbiota in rats. We found that LYCRPLs can significantly regulate lipid metabolism, and improve the gut microbiota disorder induced in rats by a high-fat diet. These results can lay a foundation for the study of the regulation mechanism of LYCRPLs lipid metabolism, and also provide a theoretical basis for the development of LYCRPLs as functional food additives and excipients with hypolipidemic effects.


Assuntos
Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Ácidos Docosa-Hexaenoicos/farmacologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Transtornos do Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/tratamento farmacológico , Perciformes/metabolismo , Fosfolipídeos/farmacologia , Animais , Peso Corporal , Aditivos Alimentares/metabolismo , Alimento Funcional , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Transtornos do Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/induzido quimicamente , Fígado/metabolismo , Masculino , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Triglicerídeos/metabolismo
10.
Food Chem ; 356: 129627, 2021 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33839531

RESUMO

Homopolysaccharides (HoPS) produced by lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are highly versatile, biocompatible and safe compounds. In this work, six HoPS from different species of Weisella and Leuconostoc were identified as thermally stable dextrans, with endothermic crystalline deformations between 214 and 239 °C. These dextrans proved to have greater solubility and capacities to retain water and oil than similar polymers in other reports. Furthermore, a surface morphology study presented cubic grumps, stratify mesh with irregular grumps, and highly compact filaments. Assays in vitro revealed moderate antioxidant, browning and foaming activities as well as technological properties, such as anti-syneresis, emulsifying and flocculating activities, even at low concentrations. Taking into account bipolymers' microstructure, functionalities and performance in both, aqueous and hydrophobic matrixes, plus their capacity to maintain themselves at elevated temperatures, we consider these HoPS beneficial and natural food additives.


Assuntos
Aditivos Alimentares/química , Lactobacillales/química , Polissacarídeos/química , Emulsões , Aditivos Alimentares/metabolismo , Interações Hidrofóbicas e Hidrofílicas , Lactobacillales/metabolismo , Solubilidade , Água/química
11.
Biomolecules ; 11(5)2021 04 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33922830

RESUMO

Food-derived bioactive peptides are being used as important functional ingredients for health-promoting foods and nutraceuticals in recent times in order to prevent and manage several diseases thanks to their biological activities. Bioactive peptides are specific protein fractions, which show broad applications in cosmetics, food additives, nutraceuticals, and pharmaceuticals as antimicrobial, antioxidant, antithrombotic, and angiotensin-I-converting enzyme (ACE)-inhibitory ingredients. These peptides can preserve consumer health by retarding chronic diseases owing to modulation or improvement of the physiological functions of human body. They can also affect functional characteristics of different foods such as dairy products, fermented beverages, and plant and marine proteins. This manuscript reviews different aspects of bioactive peptides concerning their biological (antihypertensive, antioxidative, antiobesity, and hypocholesterolemic) and functional (water holding capacity, solubility, emulsifying, and foaming) properties. Moreover, the properties of several bioactive peptides extracted from different foods as potential ingredients to formulate health promoting foods are described. Thus, multifunctional properties of bioactive peptides provide the possibility to formulate or develop novel healthy food products.


Assuntos
Aditivos Alimentares/química , Aditivos Alimentares/farmacologia , Promoção da Saúde/métodos , Anti-Infecciosos/química , Anti-Hipertensivos/química , Antioxidantes/química , Suplementos Nutricionais , Aromatizantes/química , Aditivos Alimentares/metabolismo , Promoção da Saúde/tendências , Humanos , Peptídeos/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/metabolismo , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia
12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33861173

RESUMO

The occurrence of secondary metabolites and co-contaminants in dairy cow feed samples (n = 115), concentrate, roughage, and mixed feed, collected from Ratchaburi and Kanjanaburi provinces, Thailand, between August 2018 and March 2019 were investigated using LC-MS/MS based multi-toxin method. A total of 113 metabolites were found in the samples. Fungal metabolites were the predominant compounds, followed by plant metabolites. Among major mycotoxins, zearalenone and fumonisins were most frequently detected in concentrate and mixed feed samples, while deoxynivalenol and aflatoxin B1 were found at the frequency lower than 50%. Other metabolites, produced by Aspergillus, Fusarium, Penicillium, and Alternaria species, occurred in the samples. Flavoglaucin, 3-nitropropionic acid, averufin, and sterigmatocystin were the most prevalent Aspergillus metabolites. Common Fusarium metabolites occurring in the samples included moniliformin, beauvericin, and enniatins. For Penicillium metabolites, mycophenolic acid, questiomycin A, quinolactacin A, oxaline, citrinin, and dihydrocitrinone were frequently detected. The toxic Alternaria metabolites, alternariol, and alternariol monomethyl ether showed the high incidence in the samples. Plant metabolites were commonly found, mainly cyanogenic compounds and isoflavones, from cassava and soybean meal used as feed ingredients. Overall, 96.6% of feed samples contained at least two metabolites, in a range from 2 to 69. According to co-contamination of mycotoxins found in feed samples, zearalenone were mostly found in combination with fumonisin B1, deoxynivalenol, and aflatoxin B1. Fumonisin B1 co-occurred with aflatoxin B1 and deoxynivalenol. The mixtures of deoxynivalenol and aflatoxin B1, and of zearalenone, fumonisin B1 and deoxynivalenol were also found. Due to known individual toxicity of fungal and plant metabolites and possible additive or synergistic toxic effects of multi-mycotoxins, the occurrence of these metabolites and co-contaminants should be monitored continuously to ensure food safety through the dairy supply chain.


Assuntos
Ração Animal/análise , Aditivos Alimentares/análise , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Micotoxinas/análise , Alternaria/metabolismo , Animais , Bovinos , Aditivos Alimentares/metabolismo , Inocuidade dos Alimentos , Fumonisinas/química , Fusarium/metabolismo , Humanos , Metaboloma , Micotoxinas/metabolismo , Penicillium/metabolismo , Metabolismo Secundário , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Tailândia , Tricotecenos/química , Zearalenona/química
13.
J Sci Food Agric ; 101(13): 5599-5607, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33709436

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The majority of studies with essential oils in foods focus mainly on improving the shelf life of products; however, the present study goes further and demonstrates not only the effect of essential oil on conservation properties, but also the effect of free and encapsulated orange essential oil (OEO) on the technological, sensorial and digestibility properties of bakery products. RESULTS: OEO was encapsulated into ß-cyclodextrin (ß-CD) by inclusion complex formation (ß-CD/OEO 97.4% of encapsulation efficiency). OEO demonstrated in vitro antifungal activity against Aspergillus flavus (inhibition zone of 11.33 mm on mycelial growth). In situ antifungal activity against A. flavus confirmed that free OEO can effectively delay the fungal growth, unlike encapsulated OEO. Regarding texture profile and starch digestibility: cake with ß-CD/OEO showed lower hardness (31.64 N) and lower starch digestibility (69.10%) than cake with free OEO (44.30 N; 82.10%, respectively) and the addition of OEO (both free and encapsulated) decreased the adhesiveness of the cakes. Cake with free OEO showed a higher intensity of orange aroma, being preferred by 60% of panelists, whereas cake with ß-CD/OEO presented a very slight orange taste and aroma. CONCLUSION: The encapsulation of OEO into ß-CD improved the crumb texture of cakes and promoted a lower starch digestibility in the cakes. On the other hand, the encapsulation process was not effective under the conditions tested (OEO concentration and baking temperatures), compromising the action of the OEO as a natural flavoring and preservative agent. © 2021 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Aspergillus flavus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Aditivos Alimentares/química , Óleos Voláteis/química , Óleos Vegetais/química , Triticum/microbiologia , Antifúngicos/química , Antifúngicos/metabolismo , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Aspergillus flavus/efeitos dos fármacos , Digestão , Aditivos Alimentares/metabolismo , Aditivos Alimentares/farmacologia , Humanos , Odorantes/análise , Óleos Voláteis/metabolismo , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Óleos Vegetais/metabolismo , Óleos Vegetais/farmacologia , Amido/metabolismo , Paladar , Triticum/metabolismo
14.
Food Chem ; 353: 129488, 2021 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33714793

RESUMO

Synthetic phenolic antioxidants can interact with peroxides produced by food. This paper reviews correlation between BHA, BHT and TBHQ metabolism and harms they cause and provides a theoretical basis for rational use of BHA, BHT and TBHQ in food, and also put some attention on the transformation and metabolic products of PG. We introduce BHA, BHT, TBHQ, PG and their possible metabolic pathways, and discuss possible harms and their specific mechanisms responsible. Excessive addition or incorrect use of synthetic phenolic antioxidants results in carcinogenicity, cytotoxicity, oxidative stress induction and endocrine disrupting effects, which warrant attention. BHA carcinogenicity is related to production of metabolites TBHQ and TQ, and cytotoxic effect of BHA is the main cause of apoptosis induction. BHT carcinogenicity depends on DNA damage degree, and tumour promotion is mainly related to production of quinone methylation metabolites. TBHQ carcinogenicity is related to induction of metabolite TQ and enzyme CYP1A1.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/síntese química , Fenóis/química , Animais , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Antioxidantes/toxicidade , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Hidroxianisol Butilado/química , Hidroxianisol Butilado/metabolismo , Hidroxianisol Butilado/toxicidade , Hidroxitolueno Butilado/química , Hidroxitolueno Butilado/metabolismo , Hidroxitolueno Butilado/toxicidade , Aditivos Alimentares/química , Aditivos Alimentares/metabolismo , Aditivos Alimentares/toxicidade , Humanos , Hidroquinonas/química , Hidroquinonas/metabolismo , Hidroquinonas/toxicidade
15.
Carbohydr Polym ; 258: 117651, 2021 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33593539

RESUMO

Intestinal mucins glycosylation is regulated by host cues and environmental signals from the microbiome and diets. However, the mechanisms responsible for the dialogue between these three factors and mucin glycosylation in the digestive environment of the host are not well understood. In this review, the dynamic alterations of mucin glycosylation induced by immune responses to gut diseases are summarized. The various types of interactions between mucin glycans and gut microbes, including adhesins, glycosidases, metabolic products and surface components, are discussed. The mechanisms that determine how dietary components (fat, fiber, prebiotics, protein, and food additives) affect intestinal mucin glycosylation and maintain mucosal homeostasis are identified. A potential framework for individualized dietary recommendations is proposed for the prevention of abnormal mucin glycosylation driven by immune dysregulation, gut microbiome alterations and other factors. This review may provide a basis for future research on glycosylation-inspired therapies for gut diseases.


Assuntos
Dieta , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Glicosilação , Mucinas/metabolismo , Polissacarídeos/química , Ração Animal , Animais , Fibras na Dieta/metabolismo , Aditivos Alimentares/metabolismo , Homeostase , Humanos , Sistema Imunitário , Inflamação , Mucosa Intestinal/metabolismo , Camundongos , Prebióticos , Coelhos
17.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(3)2021 Jan 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33572788

RESUMO

Cyclodextrins (CDs) are cyclic oligomers broadly used in food manufacturing as food additives for different purposes, e.g., to improve sensorial qualities, shelf life, and sequestration of components. In this review, the latest advancements of their applications along with the characteristics of the uses of the different CDs (α, ß, γ and their derivatives) were reviewed. Their beneficial effects can be achieved by mixing small amounts of CDs with the target material to be stabilized. Essentially, they have the capacity to form stable inclusion complexes with sensitive lipophilic nutrients and constituents of flavor and taste. Their toxicity has been also studied, showing that CDs are innocuous in oral administration. A review of the current legislation was also carried out, showing a general trend towards a wider acceptance of CDs as food additives. Suitable and cost-effective procedures for the manufacture of CDs have progressed, and nowadays it is possible to obtain realistic prices and used them in foods. Therefore, CDs have a promising future due to consumer demand for healthy and functional products.


Assuntos
Ciclodextrinas/química , Aditivos Alimentares/química , Indústria Alimentícia , Animais , Ciclodextrinas/metabolismo , Ciclodextrinas/toxicidade , Aditivos Alimentares/metabolismo , Aditivos Alimentares/toxicidade , Indústria Alimentícia/métodos , Qualidade dos Alimentos , Humanos , Modelos Moleculares , Água/química
18.
J Agric Food Chem ; 69(4): 1283-1290, 2021 Feb 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33464890

RESUMO

The substantial application of organophosphate triesters (tri-OPEs) may lead to a concentration escalation of their major metabolites, organophosphate diesters (di-OPEs) in animal-derived and plant-derived animal protein supplement feeds (APFs). APFs are major food for raised animals and may bring OPEs into the food supply. In the present study, the concentrations of Σ8di-OPEs in animal-derived and plant-derived APFs were in the range of 1.98-182 ng/g dw (average: 39.2 ng/g dw). Meat meal had the highest average concentrations of di-OPEs (52.1 ng/g dw), followed by blood meal (49.9 ng/g), feather meal (23.3 ng/g dw), and plant-derived feeds (18.3 ng/g dw). The concentrations of di-OPEs were at the same order of magnitude as those of tri-OPEs in APFs. Bis(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate (BDCIPP) was the major contributor in blood meal, feather meal, and plant-derived APFs, while dimethyl phosphate dominated in meat meal. The ratios of di-OPEs/tri-OPEs (Rdi/tri) displayed large variability, ranging from 0 for the bis(2-chloroethyl) phosphate-tris(2-chloroethyl) phosphate pair to 175 for the BDCIPP-tris(1,3-dichloroisopropyl) phosphate pair, which indicated that the metabolism capacities and environmental sources for di-OPEs are diverse in APFs. Different Rdi/tri between APFs and similar food matrices implied that di-OPEs may have different environmental sources. The similar Rdi/tri values for some of the di-/tri-OPE pairs among APFs and dust samples indicated that dust may be a direct exogenous source of OPE exposure in some APF matrices. Future studies should simultaneously focus on tri- and di-OPEs, together of which may reflect the actual exposure to OPEs through the food supply.


Assuntos
Ração Animal/análise , Ésteres/análise , Aditivos Alimentares/análise , Organofosfatos/análise , Animais , China , Ésteres/metabolismo , Plumas/química , Retardadores de Chama/análise , Aditivos Alimentares/metabolismo , Abastecimento de Alimentos , Organofosfatos/metabolismo
19.
J Sci Food Agric ; 101(11): 4464-4472, 2021 Aug 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33432585

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Owing to recent changes in consumer eating behaviours as well as potential cost savings for processors, pulse ingredients are finding more application in the meat processing industry. In this study, pea ingredients (pea fibre, FB; pea starch, ST; pea flour, PF) and chickpea flour (CF) were used, at 4% addition level, as fat replacers in low-fat breakfast sausages. The impact of these substitutions on processing and sensory characteristics of breakfast sausage was evaluated. RESULTS: While reduction in fat content in breakfast sausage resulted in some detrimental changes in cooking as well as textural characteristics of the product, addition of binders significantly improved these attributes in low-fat breakfast sausages. Overall, treatment formulation did not significantly affect the pH and the instrumental colour attributes of cooked breakfast sausage. Addition of all binders resulted in reduced cooking loss and increased moisture retention in low-fat breakfast sausage (P < 0.05), whereas, FB and ST were significantly more effective in improving water holding capacity of low-fat breakfast sausage. Furthermore, while both FB and ST increased the hardness, cohesiveness and chewiness parameters of low-fat breakfast sausage (P < 0.05), PF and CF had no impact. Generally, the consumer overall liking and flavour acceptability of FB and ST in low-fat breakfast sausage were significantly higher than those of PF and CF. CONCLUSION: The use of ST or FB as a fat replacer in breakfast sausages offers processors improved cook yield without negatively impacting the important sensory attributes of breakfast sausages. © 2021 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Consumidor , Substitutos da Gordura/metabolismo , Aditivos Alimentares/metabolismo , Produtos da Carne/análise , Animais , Desjejum , Cicer/química , Cicer/metabolismo , Cor , Substitutos da Gordura/análise , Gorduras/análise , Gorduras/metabolismo , Farinha/análise , Aditivos Alimentares/análise , Preferências Alimentares , Humanos , Ervilhas/química , Ervilhas/metabolismo , Amido/análise , Amido/metabolismo , Suínos , Paladar
20.
J Sci Food Agric ; 101(2): 542-547, 2021 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32662091

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cereal bars are a sweet-tasting, nutritious, and enjoyable source of vitamins, minerals, and fiber. Ingredients can be added to the formulation to improve certain characteristics, such as protein content. Some of these ingredients are derived from yeast from fermentation processes. This study aimed to add value to the residue resulting from the wine fermentation process (wine lees) by applying it in the formulation of cereal bars. RESULTS: Three formulations of cereal bars with different concentrations of autolyzed yeast biomass were developed. The effect of the addition of biomass was investigated by chemical and sensorial analysis. The cereal bar with the highest concentration of autolyzed biomass (5%) showed the highest protein content (73.4 g kg-1 ). The findings regarding acceptance obtained by sensory analysis showed that the samples with 2.5% and 5% autolyzed biomass pleased consumers. CONCLUSIONS: Formulations of autolyzed biomass-based cereal bars have increased protein content as the autolyzed biomass concentration has increased. Moreover, the acceptance of the cereal bars with autolyzed biomass in concentrations of 2.5% and 5% was satisfactory. The use of wine lees in food products is therefore a possible way of adding value to this residue, including, for example, a significant increase in protein. © 2020 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Aditivos Alimentares/análise , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/química , Vinho/análise , Biomassa , Cor , Comportamento do Consumidor , Fibras na Dieta/análise , Fibras na Dieta/metabolismo , Fermentação , Aditivos Alimentares/metabolismo , Manipulação de Alimentos , Humanos , Valor Nutritivo , Proteínas/análise , Proteínas/metabolismo , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo , Paladar
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