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1.
J Food Sci ; 86(10): 4303-4315, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34496055

RESUMO

Polycaprolactone (PCL)was used via double emulsion/solvent evaporation technique for the encapsulation of polyphenols olive leaves (OLs) extracts. In this study, the PCL-microcapsules loaded with OLs polyphenols extract powder were characterized by scanning electron microscopy and fourier transform infrared spectrometry analysis. Their total phenolic (TPC), total flavonoid (TFC) contents, and antioxidant activities (DPPH, FRAP, and ABTS), and polyphenols stability were measured after oral, gastric, and intestinal steps of in vitro digestion. PCL-microcapsules were utilized in formulating novel functional yogurt containing 0, 25, 50, and 75 mg of TPC estimated as mg GAE (added as PCL-microcapsules) per 100g yogurt. All yogurt samples were evaluated for their pH, acidity, syneresis, viscosity, and color during storage. In vitro digestion significantly affected the phenolic composition in non-encapsulated extract whereas it had a lower impact on encapsulated phenolics. Higher protection was provided for encapsulated OLs extract and their higher release was observed at the intestinal phase. Unlike the undigested OLs extract, which had a TPC of 490 mg GAE/100 g, lower values of TPC (136 and 289 mg GAE/100 g) were obtained for non-encapsulated and encapsulated OLs extract, respectively, in the intestinal fluids. Yogurt with PCL-microcapsules had lower viscosity, syneresis, and color parameters, compared to control yogurt. Thus, OLs represent a valuable and cheap source of polyphenols that can be successfully applied in microencapsulated form, in formulating functional yogurt.


Assuntos
Olea , Extratos Vegetais , Polifenóis , Iogurte , Antioxidantes/química , Aditivos Alimentares/análise , Aditivos Alimentares/normas , Olea/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Folhas de Planta/química , Polifenóis/farmacologia , Iogurte/análise
2.
J Food Sci ; 86(10): 4354-4364, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34519038

RESUMO

This study investigated the effects of different yerba mate (YM) proportions (1.5, 2.5, and 4.5 g YM/100 g whole wheat flour (WWF) and particle sizes (245, 415.5, and 623.9 µm) on dough rheological properties, antioxidant activity, and bread characteristics. The addition of YM leaves led to a possible interaction between its phenolic compounds and the gluten network within the dough, without negative effects on dough formation. However, the larger YM particle size (623.9 µm) caused a weakening of the protein network, resulting in lower quality product compared to the other samples. Improved bread quality was found when the YM leaves were added at 2.5 g YM/100 g WWF. The total amount of phenolic compounds and the antioxidant activity increased as the proportion of YM increased in both flour and bread. Moreover, the phenolic compounds in 2.5 g YM/100 g WWF breads were stable during baking, showing no significant losses in the amount of phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity. These results suggest the YM can be successfully incorporated into baked product, improving its functional characteristics. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: This study evaluates the technological quality of bakery product made by incorporating yerba mate leaves in whole wheat flour. The results will contribute to the production of a bread with greater functional properties due to the presence of polyphenols and phytochemicals.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes , Pão , Aditivos Alimentares , Qualidade dos Alimentos , Ilex paraguariensis , Folhas de Planta , Pão/análise , Pão/normas , Farinha/análise , Aditivos Alimentares/normas , Ilex paraguariensis/química , Folhas de Planta/química , Triticum/química
3.
J Food Sci ; 86(9): 4026-4036, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34409609

RESUMO

Allicin, a chemical found in functional foods, has a variety of beneficial bioactivities but the unpleasent odor and unstability hinder its applications. Isolating products from cyclodextrin (CD) complexation, using ß-CD and its derivatives, is usually a time and energy-consuming process. Herein, a high-efficiency and eco-friendly preparation method of an inclusion (allicin@α-CD) formed by allicin and α-CD was designed, which turned liquid allicin into crystal particles with high-speed stirring (10,000 r/min) at 25°C for 10 min in water. In vivo and in vitro masking evaluations showed that the inclusion particles could decrease the unpleasant odor of allicin. Molecular docking and experimental characterization results illustrated that the main reason of odor masking was due to the disulfide and thiocarbonyl groups of allicin being partially encapsulated by the cavity of α-CD. Compared with the physical mixture, the stability of allicin in allicin@α-CD at 60°C for 10 days was 33-fold improved. Overall, this efficient strategy of inclusion provided a promising approach for the industrialization of allicin-related formulations. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: In this study, an environmentally friendly method of α-CD inclusion without the use of organic reagents was designed to solidify and stabilize allicin, which effectively masked the unpleasant odor and taste of allicin. It has contributed greatly to improving the compliance of consumers and provided a new and effective approach to broaden the application of allicin.


Assuntos
Aditivos Alimentares , Tecnologia de Alimentos , Odorantes , alfa-Ciclodextrinas , Cristalização , Dissulfetos/química , Aditivos Alimentares/química , Aditivos Alimentares/normas , Tecnologia de Alimentos/métodos , Humanos , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Odorantes/análise , Solubilidade , Ácidos Sulfínicos/química , alfa-Ciclodextrinas/química
4.
Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo) ; 69(1): 18-25, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33390516

RESUMO

Mogroside V is one of the characteristic and effective components of luohanguo extract, a food additive used as a sweetener in Japan as per Japan's Standards and Specifications for Food Additives (JSFA; 9th ed.). JSFA stipulates that the quantitative determination for mogroside V content in luohanguo extract applies HPLC using analytical standard mogroside V. However, no mogroside V reagents with proven purities are commercially available. Therefore the current JSFA determination method is not particularly suited for daily quality control operations involving luohanguo extract. In this study, we applied an alternative quantitative method using a single reference with relative molar sensitivity (RMS). It was possible to calculate the accurate RMS by an offline combination of 1H-quantitative NMR spectroscopy (1H-qNMR) and an HPLC/variable-wavelength detector (VWD). Using the RMS of mogroside V to a commercial certified reference material grade caffeine, the mogroside V contents in luohanguo extracts could be determined using HPLC/VWD without analytical standard mogroside V. There was no significant difference between the mogroside V contents in luohanguo extracts determined using the method employing single-reference caffeine with the RMS and using the JSFA method. The absolute calibration curve for the latter was prepared using an analytical standard mogroside V whose purity was determined by 1H-qNMR. These results demonstrate that our proposed method using a single reference with RMS is suitable for quantitative determination of mogroside V in luohanguo extract and can be used as an alternative method to the current assay method in JSFA.


Assuntos
Cafeína/análise , Cucurbitaceae/química , Aditivos Alimentares/análise , Extratos Vegetais/análise , Triterpenos/análise , Cafeína/normas , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/normas , Aditivos Alimentares/normas , Japão , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética/normas , Extratos Vegetais/normas , Controle de Qualidade , Triterpenos/normas
5.
Nutr Rev ; 79(6): 726-741, 2021 05 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32626902

RESUMO

Food additive intakes have increased with the increase in "ultra-processed" food consumption. Food additive emulsifiers have received particular research attention in recent years due to preliminary evidence of adverse gastrointestinal and metabolic health effects. In this review, the use of emulsifiers as food additives is discussed, and the current estimations of exposure to, and safety of, emulsifiers are critically assessed. Food additive emulsifier research is complicated by heterogeneity in additives considered to be emulsifiers and labelling of them on foods globally. Major limitations exist in estimating food additive emulsifier exposure, relating predominantly to a lack of available food occurrence and concentration data. Development of brand-specific food additive emulsifier databases are crucial to accurately estimating emulsifier exposure. Current research on the health effects of food additive emulsifiers are limited to in vitro and murine studies and small, acute studies in humans, and future research should focus on controlled human trials of longer duration.


Assuntos
Exposição Dietética , Emulsificantes , Aditivos Alimentares , Animais , Dieta , Exposição Dietética/legislação & jurisprudência , Exposição Dietética/estatística & dados numéricos , Emulsificantes/efeitos adversos , Aditivos Alimentares/efeitos adversos , Aditivos Alimentares/análise , Aditivos Alimentares/normas , Abastecimento de Alimentos/normas , Humanos
6.
Food Chem Toxicol ; 138: 111236, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32135216

RESUMO

With the Food Additives Amendment of 1958 the U.S. Congress established the pre-market approval requirement for food additives unless such food ingredients were "generally recognized as safe" (GRAS). Beginning in 2010 with the publication of an audit by the U.S. Government Accountability Office, the GRAS provision has received much attention from regulators and policy-makers, the media, and non-governmental organizations. This report provides an overview and update of the policies, procedures, and scope of the GRAS program for flavor ingredients sponsored by the Flavor and Extract Manufacturers Association of the United States (FEMA), and its alignment with the requirements for GRAS conclusions established by Congress and FDA.


Assuntos
Aromatizantes/normas , Aditivos Alimentares/normas , Inocuidade dos Alimentos , Indústria Alimentícia/normas , Humanos , Saúde Pública , Estados Unidos , United States Food and Drug Administration
8.
Ann Nutr Metab ; 73 Suppl 5: 1-4, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30508812

RESUMO

The 2018 Dietary Glutamate Workshop was organized and sponsored by the International Glutamate Technical Committee to provide a platform for a broad expert discussion on all relevant aspects of glutamate metabolism and safety in human nutrition. The participants reached a consensus with previous safety evaluations conducted by the global expert bodies, but contradicted the 2017 re-evaluation of dietary glutamates by the European Food Safety Authority, which proposed a group acceptable daily intake (ADI) of 30 mg/kg body weight per day. The participants of the Workshop concluded that the present knowledge on metabolism, kinetics, developmental and general toxicity of dietary glutamates did not warrant a change in the previous ADI of "not specified."


Assuntos
Dieta , Ácido Glutâmico/metabolismo , Nível de Efeito Adverso não Observado , Congressos como Assunto , Aditivos Alimentares/normas , Inocuidade dos Alimentos , Humanos
9.
Appl Environ Microbiol ; 84(19)2018 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30030233

RESUMO

Bacillus megaterium (n = 29), Bacillus velezensis (n = 26), Bacillus amyloliquefaciens (n = 6), Bacillus paralicheniformis (n = 28), and Bacillus licheniformis (n = 35) strains from different sources, origins, and time periods were tested for the MICs for nine antimicrobial agents by the CLSI-recommended method (Mueller-Hinton broth, 35°C, for 18 to 20 h), as well as with a modified CLSI method (Iso-Sensitest [IST] broth, 37°C [35°C for B. megaterium], 24 h). This allows a proposal of species-specific epidemiological cutoff values (ECOFFs) for the interpretation of antimicrobial resistance in these species. MICs determined by the modified CLSI method were 2- to 16-fold higher than with the CLSI-recommended method for several antimicrobials. The MIC distributions differed between species for five of the nine antimicrobials. Consequently, use of the modified CLSI method and interpretation of resistance by use of species-specific ECOFFs is recommended. The genome sequences of all strains were determined and used for screening for resistance genes against the ResFinder database and for multilocus sequence typing. A putative chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (cat) gene was found in one B. megaterium strain with an elevated chloramphenicol MIC compared to the other B. megaterium strains. In B. velezensis and B. amyloliquefaciens, a putative tetracycline efflux gene, tet(L), was found in all strains (n = 27) with reduced tetracycline susceptibility but was absent in susceptible strains. All B. paralicheniformis and 23% of B. licheniformis strains had elevated MICs for erythromycin and harbored ermD The presence of these resistance genes follows taxonomy suggesting they may be intrinsic rather than horizontally acquired. Reduced susceptibility to chloramphenicol, streptomycin, and clindamycin could not be explained in all species.IMPORTANCE When commercializing bacterial strains, like Bacillus spp., for feed applications or plant bioprotection, it is required that the strains are free of acquired antimicrobial resistance genes that could potentially spread to pathogenic bacteria, thereby adding to the pool of resistance genes that may cause treatment failures in humans or animals. Conversely, if antimicrobial resistance is intrinsic to a bacterial species, the risk of spreading horizontally to other bacteria is considered very low. Reliable susceptibility test methods and interpretation criteria at the species level are needed to accurately assess antimicrobial resistance levels. In the present study, tentative ECOFFs for five Bacillus species were determined, and the results showed that the variation in MICs followed the respective species. Moreover, putative resistance genes, which were detected by whole-genome sequencing and suggested to be intrinsic rather that acquired, could explain the resistance phenotypes in most cases.


Assuntos
Ração Animal/microbiologia , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Bacillus/efeitos dos fármacos , Aditivos Alimentares/análise , Ração Animal/análise , Ração Animal/normas , Bacillus/classificação , Cloranfenicol/farmacologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Eritromicina/farmacologia , Aditivos Alimentares/normas , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Tetraciclina/farmacologia
10.
Pediatrics ; 142(2)2018 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30037972

RESUMO

Increasing scientific evidence suggests potential adverse effects on children's health from synthetic chemicals used as food additives, both those deliberately added to food during processing (direct) and those used in materials that may contaminate food as part of packaging or manufacturing (indirect). Concern regarding food additives has increased in the past 2 decades in part because of studies that increasingly document endocrine disruption and other adverse health effects. In some cases, exposure to these chemicals is disproportionate among minority and low-income populations. This report focuses on those food additives with the strongest scientific evidence for concern. Further research is needed to study effects of exposure over various points in the life course, and toxicity testing must be advanced to be able to better identify health concerns prior to widespread population exposure. The accompanying policy statement describes approaches policy makers and pediatricians can take to prevent the disease and disability that are increasingly being identified in relation to chemicals used as food additives, among other uses.


Assuntos
Academias e Institutos/normas , Saúde da Criança/normas , Aditivos Alimentares/normas , Política de Saúde , Criança , Saúde da Criança/legislação & jurisprudência , Aditivos Alimentares/efeitos adversos , Política de Saúde/legislação & jurisprudência , Humanos
11.
Pediatrics ; 142(2)2018 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30037974

RESUMO

Our purposes with this policy statement and its accompanying technical report are to review and highlight emerging child health concerns related to the use of colorings, flavorings, and chemicals deliberately added to food during processing (direct food additives) as well as substances in food contact materials, including adhesives, dyes, coatings, paper, paperboard, plastic, and other polymers, which may contaminate food as part of packaging or manufacturing equipment (indirect food additives); to make reasonable recommendations that the pediatrician might be able to adopt into the guidance provided during pediatric visits; and to propose urgently needed reforms to the current regulatory process at the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for food additives. Concern regarding food additives has increased in the past 2 decades, in part because of studies in which authors document endocrine disruption and other adverse health effects. In some cases, exposure to these chemicals is disproportionate among minority and low-income populations. Regulation and oversight of many food additives is inadequate because of several key problems in the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act. Current requirements for a "generally recognized as safe" (GRAS) designation are insufficient to ensure the safety of food additives and do not contain sufficient protections against conflict of interest. Additionally, the FDA does not have adequate authority to acquire data on chemicals on the market or reassess their safety for human health. These are critical weaknesses in the current regulatory system for food additives. Data about health effects of food additives on infants and children are limited or missing; however, in general, infants and children are more vulnerable to chemical exposures. Substantial improvements to the food additives regulatory system are urgently needed, including greatly strengthening or replacing the "generally recognized as safe" (GRAS) determination process, updating the scientific foundation of the FDA's safety assessment program, retesting all previously approved chemicals, and labeling direct additives with limited or no toxicity data.


Assuntos
Saúde da Criança/normas , Aditivos Alimentares/normas , Política de Saúde , Papel do Médico , United States Food and Drug Administration/normas , Academias e Institutos/normas , Criança , Saúde da Criança/legislação & jurisprudência , Aditivos Alimentares/efeitos adversos , Política de Saúde/legislação & jurisprudência , Humanos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , United States Food and Drug Administration/legislação & jurisprudência
12.
Food Funct ; 9(4): 1931-1943, 2018 Apr 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29589618

RESUMO

A growing population and concern over the sufficiency of natural resources for feeding this population have motivated researchers and industries to search for alternative and complementary sources of food ingredients and additives. Numerous plant species and parts of plants are explored as raw materials for food production. An interesting example is wood; to date, only a few wood-based additives or ingredients are authorized for food use. Wood hemicelluloses, such as softwood galactoglucomannans (GGM), constitute an abundant bioresource that shows a high potential functionality in edible materials. Spruce GGM acts as a multi-functional emulsion stabilizer, and it could be used in various processed food products, replacing less effective, conventional emulsifiers. Before new materials can be released into the food market, their safety must be evaluated, according to the Novel Food regulation. This review focuses on the safety aspects that must be considered before polysaccharide- and phenolic-rich plant extracts can be awarded the status of authorized food ingredients. In this review, GGM is presented as a case study and examples are given of plant-based polysaccharides that are already authorized for food purposes. The legislation regarding Novel Food ingredients in Europe is also briefly reviewed.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/efeitos adversos , Carboidratos da Dieta/efeitos adversos , Suplementos Nutricionais/efeitos adversos , Aditivos Alimentares/efeitos adversos , Mananas/efeitos adversos , Extratos Vegetais/efeitos adversos , Madeira/química , Animais , Suplementos Nutricionais/normas , Emulsificantes/efeitos adversos , Emulsificantes/normas , União Europeia , Aditivos Alimentares/normas , Humanos , Legislação sobre Alimentos , Fenóis/efeitos adversos , Testes de Toxicidade/normas
13.
ALTEX ; 35(1): 3-25, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29374436

RESUMO

The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has premarket review authority over food additives, but a food manufacturer may, according to the legislation, intentionally add a substance to human food or animal food without their premarket review or approval if the substance is generally recognized, among qualified experts, to be safe under the conditions of its intended use. Generally recognized as safe (GRAS) implies that the current scientific community agrees on the adequacy of how data is generated. This system has come under public pressure because of doubts as to its efficiency and the FDA's recent GRAS rule is part of the response. The FDA guidance for testing food additives, known as the "Redbook", is about two decades old. Work toward a new "Redbook" is on the way, but the US Grocery Manufacturer Association (GMA) also has initiated the development of an independent standard on how to perform GRAS determinations. This review of the current guidance shows a very rigorous system for higher concern levels, but also many waiving options. Opportunities and challenges for safety evaluations of food additives are discussed. Where scientific progress has allowed improving existing and adapting new methods, these should be adopted to improve product safety and animal welfare. The continuous adaptation of such improved methods is therefore needed. Especially, there are opportunities to embrace developments within the toxicity testing for the 21st century movement and evidence-based toxicology approaches. Also, the growing understanding of the limitations of traditional tests needs to be considered.


Assuntos
Qualidade de Produtos para o Consumidor , Aditivos Alimentares , Alimentos/normas , Legislação sobre Alimentos/tendências , United States Food and Drug Administration , Animais , Qualidade de Produtos para o Consumidor/legislação & jurisprudência , Qualidade de Produtos para o Consumidor/normas , Aditivos Alimentares/normas , Aditivos Alimentares/toxicidade , Indústria Alimentícia/normas , Humanos , Testes de Toxicidade/métodos , Estados Unidos
14.
Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr ; 58(2): 297-317, 2018 Jan 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27052385

RESUMO

Nanotechnology has seen exponential growth in last decade due to its unique physicochemical properties; however, the risk associated with this emerging technology has withdrawn ample attention in the past decade. Nanotoxicity is majorly contributed to the small size and large surface area of nanomaterials, which allow easy dispersion and invasion of anatomical barriers in human body. Unique physio-chemical properties of nanoparticles make the investigation of their toxic consequences intricate and challenging. This makes it important to have an in-depth knowledge of different mechanisms involved in nanomaterials's action and toxicity. Nano-toxicity has various effects on human health and diseases as they can easily enter into the humans via different routes, mainly respiratory, dermal, and gastrointestinal routes. This also limits the use of nanomaterials as therapeutic and diagnostic tools. This review focuses on the nanomaterial-cell interactions leading to toxicological responses. Different mechanisms involved in nanoparticle-mediated toxicity with the main focus on oxidative stress, genotoxic, and carcinogenic potential has also been discussed. Different methods and techniques used for the characterization of nanomaterials in food and other biological matrices have also been discussed in detail. Nano-toxicity on different organs-with the major focus on the cardiac and respiratory system-have been discussed. Conclusively, the risk management of nanotoxicity is also summarized. This review provides a better understanding of the current scenario of the nanotoxicology, disease progression due to nanomaterials, and their use in the food industry and medical therapeutics. Briefly, the required rules, regulations, and the need of policy makers has been discussed critically.


Assuntos
Agroquímicos/toxicidade , Poluentes Ambientais/toxicidade , Aditivos Alimentares/efeitos adversos , Contaminação de Alimentos , Nanoestruturas/toxicidade , Gestão de Riscos , Agroquímicos/normas , Animais , Carcinógenos Ambientais/toxicidade , Aditivos Alimentares/normas , Contaminação de Alimentos/legislação & jurisprudência , Contaminação de Alimentos/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Legislação de Medicamentos , Legislação sobre Alimentos , Mutagênicos/toxicidade , Nanoestruturas/efeitos adversos , Nanoestruturas/normas , Oxidantes/efeitos adversos , Oxidantes/normas , Oxidantes/toxicidade , Gestão de Riscos/legislação & jurisprudência , Gestão de Riscos/normas , Gestão de Riscos/tendências , Testes de Toxicidade/normas
15.
Meat Sci ; 136: 30-34, 2018 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29065313

RESUMO

The aim of this article was to analyze the monitoring status of nitrite in meat products consumed from 2000 to 2011 in 24 provinces, autonomous regions or direct-controlled municipalities in China. Statistical analyses were performed on the monitoring status including number, proportion, and distribution of 13,316 samples, of which 11,320 (85%) contained up to 2808.2mg/kg nitrite and 1996 (15%) contained no nitrite. A total of 10,299 samples (77%) qualified for GB/T 5009.33-2003, 2003; however, 3017 samples (23%) contained nitrite at levels higher than the national standard. The districts with high percentage of samples with no nitrite were Shanghai (49%), Beijing (47%), and Liaoning (30%). While the districts with high percentage of meat products containing nitrite at levels exceeding the national standard were Jiangxi (49%), Jiangsu (33%), Shandong (29%) and Sichuan (29%). Therefore, the status of residue nitrite in meat products is of concern.


Assuntos
Inspeção de Alimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Produtos da Carne/análise , Nitritos/análise , China , Aditivos Alimentares/análise , Aditivos Alimentares/normas , Nitritos/normas
16.
J Food Sci ; 82(11): 2539-2553, 2017 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29030862

RESUMO

Color additives are applied to many food, drug, and cosmetic products. With up to 85% of consumer buying decisions potentially influenced by color, appropriate application of color additives and their safety is critical. Color additives are defined by the U.S. Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (FD&C Act) as any dye, pigment, or substance that can impart color to a food, drug, or cosmetic or to the human body. Under current U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) regulations, colors fall into 2 categories as those subject to an FDA certification process and those that are exempt from certification often referred to as "natural" colors by consumers because they are sourced from plants, minerals, and animals. Certified colors have been used for decades in food and beverage products, but consumer interest in natural colors is leading market applications. However, the popularity of natural colors has also opened a door for both unintentional and intentional economic adulteration. Whereas FDA certifications for synthetic dyes and lakes involve strict quality control, natural colors are not evaluated by the FDA and often lack clear definitions and industry accepted quality and safety specifications. A significant risk of adulteration of natural colors exists, ranging from simple misbranding or misuse of the term "natural" on a product label to potentially serious cases of physical, chemical, and/or microbial contamination from raw material sources, improper processing methods, or intentional postproduction adulteration. Consistent industry-wide safety standards are needed to address the manufacturing, processing, application, and international trade of colors from natural sources to ensure quality and safety throughout the supply chain.


Assuntos
Corantes/normas , Aditivos Alimentares/normas , Pigmentos Biológicos/normas , Animais , Comércio , Corantes de Alimentos/normas , Contaminação de Alimentos , Humanos , Legislação de Medicamentos , Legislação sobre Alimentos , Controle de Qualidade , Estados Unidos , United States Food and Drug Administration
17.
Biol Pharm Bull ; 40(1): 68-72, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28049951

RESUMO

Microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) is used globally as an inactive ingredient in food and nutraceutical products and is commonly used as a food additive. To confirm the conformity of MCC to the solubility requirements stipulated in international specifications, the solubilities of commercially available MCC products were tested in sodium hydroxide (NaOH) solution. All of the samples were insoluble in NaOH solution, which is inconsistent with the descriptions provided in international specifications. We also prepared celluloses with different degree of polymerization (DP) values by acid hydrolysis. Celluloses with lower DP were prepared using a three-step process, and their solubilities were tested in NaOH solution. These celluloses were found to be insoluble, which is inconsistent with the descriptions provided in international specifications. The present study suggests that the descriptions of the solubility of the celluloses in NaOH solution found in the current international specifications should be revised.


Assuntos
Celulose/química , Excipientes/química , Aditivos Alimentares/química , Hidróxido de Sódio/química , Celulose/normas , Excipientes/normas , Aditivos Alimentares/normas , Solubilidade , Soluções
18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28105903

RESUMO

Titanium dioxide (TiO2) is a transition metal oxide widely used as a white pigment in various applications, including food. Due to the classification of TiO2 nanoparticles by the International Agency for Research on Cancer as potentially harmful for humans by inhalation, the presence of nanoparticles in food products needed to be confirmed by a set of independent studies. Seven samples of food-grade TiO2 (E171) were extensively characterised for their size distribution, crystallinity and surface properties by the currently recommended methods. All investigated E171 samples contained a fraction of nanoparticles, however, below the threshold defining the labelling of nanomaterial. On the basis of these results and a statistical analysis, E171 food-grade TiO2 totally differs from the reference material P25, confirming the few published data on this kind of particle. Therefore, the reference material P25 does not appear to be the most suitable model to study the fate of food-grade TiO2 in the gastrointestinal tract. The criteria currently to obtain a representative food-grade sample of TiO2 are the following: (1) crystalline-phase anatase, (2) a powder with an isoelectric point very close to 4.1, (3) a fraction of nanoparticles comprised between 15% and 45%, and (4) a low specific surface area around 10 m2 g-1.


Assuntos
Aditivos Alimentares/química , Alimentos/normas , Nanopartículas/química , Titânio/análise , Aditivos Alimentares/normas , Humanos , Nanopartículas/normas , Tamanho da Partícula , Propriedades de Superfície , Titânio/normas
19.
J Anal Toxicol ; 41(2): 153-157, 2017 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27798074

RESUMO

The legalization of marijuana in the USA for both medicinal and recreational use has increased in the past few years. Currently, 24 states have legalized marijuana for medicinal use. The US Drug Enforcement Administration has classified marijuana as a Schedule I substance. The US Food and Drug Administration does not regulate formulations or packages of marijuana that are currently marketed in states that have legalized marijuana. Marijuana edibles or "medibles" are typically packages of candies and baked goods consumed for medicinal as well as recreational marijuana use. They contain major psychoactive drug in marijuana, delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and/or cannabidiol (CBD), which has reputed medical properties. Presented is a method for the preparation and application of THC and CBD containing brownies used as quality control (QC) material for the analysis of marijuana or cannabinoid baked medibles. The performance parameters of the assay including possible matrix effects and cannabinoid stability in the brownie QC over time are presented. It was determined that the process used to prepare and bake the brownie control material did not degrade the THC or CBD. The brownie matrix was found not to interfere with the analysis of a THC or a CBD. Ten commercially available brownie matrixes were evaluated for potential interferences; none of them were found to interfere with the analysis of THC or CBD. The laboratory baked medible QC material was found to be stable at room temperature for at least 3 months.


Assuntos
Canabidiol/análise , Culinária/normas , Dronabinol/análise , Aditivos Alimentares/análise , Aditivos Alimentares/normas , Análise de Alimentos/métodos , Cromatografia Líquida , Estabilidade de Medicamentos , Legislação sobre Alimentos , Limite de Detecção , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
20.
Int J Food Sci Nutr ; 68(1): 1-9, 2017 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27484163

RESUMO

Health claims potentially represent an opportunity for firms to engage in product differentiation and thereby induce investment into R&D and innovation in the food sector. The Nutrition and Health Claims Regulation (EC) No. 1924/2006 (NHCR) aims at protecting and promoting innovation as one of its objectives. However, existing studies indicate that this regulation may create several challenges for innovation in the food sector. To this end, we review the challenges related to the NHCR (Article 13.1) and its impact on innovation. Extant literature suggests that companies face challenges related to changing list of ingredients, missing transparency, wording of claims, limited financial resources, limited R&D resources, switching product categories and abandoning the functional foods sector. Moreover, current studies imply that so far the NHCR (in specific Article 13.1) does not seem to encourage innovation in the EU food sector.


Assuntos
Suplementos Nutricionais , Embalagem de Alimentos , Alimento Funcional , Legislação sobre Alimentos , Política Nutricional , Pesquisa Biomédica/economia , Pesquisa Biomédica/tendências , Suplementos Nutricionais/efeitos adversos , Suplementos Nutricionais/economia , Suplementos Nutricionais/normas , Difusão de Inovações , União Europeia , Aditivos Alimentares/efeitos adversos , Aditivos Alimentares/economia , Aditivos Alimentares/normas , Embalagem de Alimentos/legislação & jurisprudência , Embalagem de Alimentos/normas , Indústria de Processamento de Alimentos/economia , Indústria de Processamento de Alimentos/legislação & jurisprudência , Alimento Funcional/efeitos adversos , Alimento Funcional/economia , Alimento Funcional/normas , Humanos , Legislação sobre Alimentos/tendências , Política Nutricional/legislação & jurisprudência , Política Nutricional/tendências
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