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1.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(13)2021 Jun 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34206987

RESUMO

Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is one of the main triggers of chronic liver disease. Despite tremendous progress in the HCV field, there is still no vaccine against this virus. Potential vaccines can be based on its recombinant proteins. To increase the humoral and, especially, cellular immune response to them, more effective adjuvants are needed. Here, we evaluated a panel of compounds as potential adjuvants using the HCV NS5B protein as an immunogen. These compounds included inhibitors of polyamine biosynthesis and urea cycle, the mTOR pathway, antioxidants, and cellular receptors. A pronounced stimulation of cell proliferation and interferon-γ (IFN-γ) secretion in response to concanavalin A was shown for antioxidant N-acetylcysteine (NAC), polyamine biosynthesis inhibitor 2-difluoromethylornithine (DFMO), and TLR9 agonist CpG ODN 1826 (CpG). Their usage during the immunization of mice with the recombinant NS5B protein significantly increased antibody titers, enhanced lymphocyte proliferation and IFN-γ production. NAC and CpG decreased relative Treg numbers; CpG increased the number of myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs), whereas neither NAC nor DFMO affected MDSC counts. NAC and DFMO suppressed NO and interleukin 10 (IL-10) production by splenocytes, while DFMO increased the levels of IL-12. This is the first evidence of immunomodulatory activity of NAC and DFMO during prophylactic immunization against infectious diseases.


Assuntos
Acetilcisteína/farmacologia , Adjuvantes Imunológicos/farmacologia , Eflornitina/farmacologia , Hepatite C/imunologia , Imunidade Ativa/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas não Estruturais Virais/imunologia , Animais , Proliferação de Células , Células Cultivadas , Feminino , Imunogenicidade da Vacina/efeitos dos fármacos , Interferon gama/metabolismo , Interleucina-10/metabolismo , Interleucina-12/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos DBA , Células Supressoras Mieloides/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Supressoras Mieloides/imunologia , Óxido Nítrico/metabolismo , Oligodesoxirribonucleotídeos/farmacologia , Linfócitos T Reguladores/efeitos dos fármacos , Linfócitos T Reguladores/imunologia , Vacinas contra Hepatite Viral/imunologia
2.
Front Immunol ; 12: 698672, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34220861

RESUMO

The world is currently experiencing the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic caused by Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome-2 (SARS-CoV-2). Its global spread has resulted in millions of confirmed infections and deaths. While the global pandemic continues to grow, the availability of drugs to treat COVID-19 infections remains limited to supportive treatments. Moreover, the current speed of vaccination campaigns in many countries has been slow. Natural substrates with biological immunomodulatory activity, such as glucans, may represent an adjuvant therapeutic agent to treat SARS-CoV-2. AM3, a natural glycophosphopeptical, has previously been shown to effectively slow, with no side effects, the progression of infectious respiratory diseases by regulating effects on innate and adaptive immunity in experimental models. No clinical studies, however, exist on the use of AM3 in SARS-CoV-2 infected patients. This review aims to summarize the beneficial effects of AM3 on respiratory diseases, the inflammatory response, modulation of immune response, and attenuation of muscle. It will also discuss its potential effects as an immune system adjuvant for the treatment of COVID-19 infections and adjuvant for SARS-CoV-2 vaccination.


Assuntos
Adjuvantes Imunológicos/farmacologia , COVID-19/dietoterapia , Fosfatos de Cálcio/farmacologia , Suplementos Nutricionais , Glicopeptídeos/farmacologia , Imunomodulação/imunologia , SARS-CoV-2/efeitos dos fármacos , Vacinas contra COVID-19/imunologia , Citocinas/imunologia , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Vacinação
3.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 4299, 2021 07 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34262038

RESUMO

Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) is clinically adopted to destruct solid tumors, but is often incapable of completely ablating large tumors and those with multiple metastatic sites. Here we develop a CaCO3-assisted double emulsion method to encapsulate lipoxidase and hemin with poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) to enhance RFA. We show the HLCaP nanoreactors (NRs) with pH-dependent catalytic capacity can continuously produce cytotoxic lipid radicals via the lipid peroxidation chain reaction using cancer cell debris as the fuel. Upon being fixed inside the residual tumors post RFA, HLCaP NRs exhibit a suppression effect on residual tumors in mice and rabbits by triggering ferroptosis. Moreover, treatment with HLCaP NRs post RFA can prime antitumor immunity to effectively suppress the growth of both residual and metastatic tumors, also in combination with immune checkpoint blockade. This work highlights that tumor-debris-fueled nanoreactors can benefit RFA by inhibiting tumor recurrence and preventing tumor metastasis.


Assuntos
Adjuvantes Imunológicos/uso terapêutico , Nanomedicina/métodos , Neoplasias/terapia , Ablação por Radiofrequência , Adjuvantes Imunológicos/química , Adjuvantes Imunológicos/farmacologia , Animais , Carbonato de Cálcio/química , Carbonato de Cálcio/uso terapêutico , Catálise , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Terapia Combinada , Ferroptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Hemina/química , Hemina/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Inibidores de Checkpoint Imunológico/uso terapêutico , Morte Celular Imunogênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Peroxidação de Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Lipoxigenase/química , Lipoxigenase/uso terapêutico , Camundongos , Metástase Neoplásica , Neoplasia Residual , Neoplasias/imunologia , Neoplasias/patologia , Copolímero de Ácido Poliláctico e Ácido Poliglicólico/química , Copolímero de Ácido Poliláctico e Ácido Poliglicólico/uso terapêutico , Coelhos
4.
Front Immunol ; 12: 568789, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34149679

RESUMO

Dysregulation of immune response was observed in COVID-19 patients. Thymosin alpha 1 (Tα1) is used in the management of COVID-19, because it is known to restore the homeostasis of the immune system during infections and cancers. We aim to observe the longitudinal changes in T lymphocyte subsets and to evaluate the efficacy of Tα1 for COVID-19. A retrospective study was conducted in 275 COVID-19 patients admitted to Shanghai public health clinical center. The clinical and laboratory characteristics between patients with different T lymphocyte phenotypes and those who were and were not treated with Tα1 were compared. Among the 275 patients, 137 (49.8%) were males, and the median age was 51 years [interquartile range (IQR): 37-64]. A total of 126 patients received Tα1 therapy and 149 patients did not. There were 158 (57.5%) patients with normal baseline CD4 counts (median:631/µL, IQR: 501~762) and 117 patients (42.5%) with decreased baseline CD4 counts (median:271/µL, IQR: 201~335). In those with decreased baseline CD4 counts, more patients were older (p<0.001), presented as critically ill (p=0.032) and had hypertension (p=0.008) compared with those with normal CD4 counts. There was no statistical difference in the duration of virus shedding in the upper respiratory tract between the two groups (p=0.214). In both the normal (14 vs 11, p=0.028) and the decreased baseline CD4 counts group (15 vs 11, p=0.008), duration of virus clearance in the patients with Tα1 therapy was significantly longer than that in those without Tα1 therapy. There was no significant difference in the increase of CD4+ (286 vs 326, p=0.851) and CD8+ T cell (154 vs 170, p=0.842) counts in the recovery period between the two groups with or without Tα1 therapy. Multivariate linear regression analysis showed that severity of illness (p<0.001) and Tα1 therapy (p=0.001) were associated with virus clearance. In conclusion, reduction of CD4+ T and CD8+ T cell counts were observed in COVID-19 patients. Tα1 may have no benefit on restoring CD4+ and CD8+ T cell counts or on the virus clearance. The use of Tα1 for COVID-19 need to be more fully investigated.


Assuntos
Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/efeitos dos fármacos , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/efeitos dos fármacos , COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , Timalfasina/uso terapêutico , Adjuvantes Imunológicos/farmacologia , Adulto , COVID-19/imunologia , China , Feminino , Humanos , Contagem de Linfócitos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , SARS-CoV-2
5.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(9)2021 May 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34064458

RESUMO

Vitamin D and beta-glucans are both immunostimulants. Vitamin D exerts its beneficial effects on many components of the immune system. In macrophages, the hormone modulates both phagocytic activity and cytokine production; therefore, it plays an important role in mediating the innate immune response to infection. The immunomodulatory properties of beta-glucans are attributed to the ability of these fungal cell wall polysaccharides to bind to different receptors expressed on the cell surface of phagocytic and cytotoxic innate immune cells, including monocytes and macrophages. The intracellular signaling pathways activated by beta-glucans lead to enhanced phagocytosis and cytokine response. In this study we investigated the possible potentiation of immunomodulatory properties of the combined treatment with vitamin D and beta-glucans. The effects of 100 nM 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 or 100 µg/mL beta-glucans were evaluated in human macrophages in terms of cytokine production, intracellular vesicle acidification and changes in energy metabolism, three hallmarks of macrophage antimicrobial activation. We found that all the analyzed parameters were enhanced by the co-treatment compared to the response to single molecules. The results of this study support the validity of a novel therapeutic approach that could boost the immune response, taking advantage of the synergy between two natural compounds.


Assuntos
Adjuvantes Imunológicos/farmacologia , Calcitriol/farmacologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , beta-Glucanas/farmacologia , Diferenciação Celular , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Ciclo-Oxigenase 2/genética , Ciclo-Oxigenase 2/imunologia , Sinergismo Farmacológico , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/imunologia , Humanos , Interleucina-8/genética , Interleucina-8/imunologia , Macrófagos/citologia , Macrófagos/imunologia , Mitocôndrias/efeitos dos fármacos , Mitocôndrias/imunologia , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , ATPases Mitocondriais Próton-Translocadoras/genética , ATPases Mitocondriais Próton-Translocadoras/imunologia , Transdução de Sinais , Células THP-1 , ATPases Vacuolares Próton-Translocadoras/genética , ATPases Vacuolares Próton-Translocadoras/imunologia
6.
Mol Pharm ; 18(6): 2233-2241, 2021 06 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34010002

RESUMO

Eliciting a robust immune response at mucosal sites is critical in preventing the entry of mucosal pathogens such as influenza and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). This task is challenging to achieve without the inclusion of a strong and safe mucosal adjuvant. Previously, inulin acetate (InAc), a plant-based polymer, is shown to activate toll-like receptor-4 (TLR4) and elicit a robust systemic immune response as a vaccine adjuvant. This study investigates the potential of nanoparticles prepared with InAc (InAc-NPs) as an intranasal vaccine delivery system to generate both mucosal and systemic immune responses. InAc-NPs (∼250 nm in diameter) activated wild-type (WT) macrophages but failed to activate macrophages from TLR4 knockout mice or WT macrophages when pretreated with a TLR4 antagonist (lipopolysaccharide-RS (LPS-RS)), which indicates the selective nature of a InAc-based nanodelivery system as a TLR4 agonist. Intranasal immunization using antigen-loaded InAc-NPs generated ∼65-fold and 19-fold higher serum IgG1 and IgG2a titers against the antigen, respectively, as compared to PLGA-NPs as a delivery system. InAc-NPs have also stimulated the secretion of sIgA at various mucosal sites, including nasal-associated lymphoid tissues (NALTs), lungs, and intestine, and produced a strong memory response indicative of both humoral and cellular immune activation. Overall, by stimulating both systemic and mucosal immunity, InAc-NPs laid a basis for a potential intranasal delivery system for mucosal vaccination.


Assuntos
Adjuvantes Imunológicos/farmacologia , Vacinas contra COVID-19/administração & dosagem , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Portadores de Fármacos/farmacologia , Inulina/farmacologia , Adjuvantes Imunológicos/química , Administração Intranasal , Animais , COVID-19/imunologia , COVID-19/virologia , Vacinas contra COVID-19/imunologia , Células Cultivadas , Portadores de Fármacos/química , Avaliação Pré-Clínica de Medicamentos , Humanos , Imunidade nas Mucosas/efeitos dos fármacos , Imunidade nas Mucosas/imunologia , Imunogenicidade da Vacina , Inulina/química , Inulina/imunologia , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Macrófagos/imunologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Nanopartículas/química , Cultura Primária de Células , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Receptor 4 Toll-Like/agonistas , Receptor 4 Toll-Like/genética
7.
Front Immunol ; 12: 635018, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33936047

RESUMO

Objective: Bacterial and viral infectious triggers are linked to spondyloarthritis (SpA) including psoriatic arthritis (PsA) development, likely via dendritic cell activation. We investigated spinal entheseal plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) toll-like receptor (TLR)-7 and 9 activation and therapeutic modulation, including JAK inhibition. We also investigated if COVID-19 infection, a potent TLR-7 stimulator triggered PsA flares. Methods: Normal entheseal pDCs were characterized and stimulated with imiquimod and CpG oligodeoxynucleotides (ODN) to evaluate TNF and IFNα production. NanoString gene expression assay of total pDCs RNA was performed pre- and post- ODN stimulation. Pharmacological inhibition of induced IFNα protein was performed with Tofacitinib and PDE4 inhibition. The impact of SARS-CoV2 viral infection on PsA flares was evaluated. Results: CD45+HLA-DR+CD123+CD303+CD11c- entheseal pDCs were more numerous than blood pDCs (1.9 ± 0.8% vs 0.2 ± 0.07% of CD45+ cells, p=0.008) and showed inducible IFNα and TNF protein following ODN/imiquimod stimulation and were the sole entheseal IFNα producers. NanoString data identified 11 significantly upregulated differentially expressed genes (DEGs) including TNF in stimulated pDCs. Canonical pathway analysis revealed activation of dendritic cell maturation, NF-κB signaling, toll-like receptor signaling and JAK/STAT signaling pathways following ODN stimulation. Both tofacitinib and PDE4i strongly attenuated ODN induced IFNα. DAPSA scores elevations occurred in 18 PsA cases with SARS-CoV2 infection (9.7 ± 4 pre-infection and 35.3 ± 7.5 during infection). Conclusion: Entheseal pDCs link microbes to TNF/IFNα production. SARS-CoV-2 infection is associated with PsA Flares and JAK inhibition suppressed activated entheseal plasmacytoid dendritic Type-1 interferon responses as pointers towards a novel mechanism of PsA and SpA-related arthropathy.


Assuntos
Artrite Psoriásica/complicações , COVID-19/complicações , Células Dendríticas/metabolismo , Interferon-alfa/metabolismo , Janus Quinases/antagonistas & inibidores , Adjuvantes Imunológicos/farmacologia , Adulto , Idoso , COVID-19/genética , COVID-19/metabolismo , Biologia Computacional , Nucleotídeo Cíclico Fosfodiesterase do Tipo 4/metabolismo , Células Dendríticas/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/genética , Humanos , Imiquimode/farmacologia , Janus Quinases/metabolismo , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Oligonucleotídeos/farmacologia , Inibidores da Fosfodiesterase 4/farmacologia , Piperidinas/farmacologia , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacologia , Pirimidinas/farmacologia , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Receptor 7 Toll-Like/metabolismo , Receptor Toll-Like 9/metabolismo , Transcriptoma , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo
8.
Food Chem ; 359: 129970, 2021 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34015561

RESUMO

Soybean peptides are functional food with good health benefits. The health benefits presented are highly dependent on the peptide structure. In this work, soybean peptides were prepared by alkaline protease hydrolysis of soybean proteins. The peptide structure was identified by UPLC-MS/MS. The full peptide composition was revealed. The sequences of 51 peptides were identified and 46 peptides were assigned as immunomodulatory peptides. By evaluating the immumonodulatory activity and mechanism, soybean peptides could facilitate the proliferation of macrophages. The pinocytotic activity and NO level were increased. Induction of iNOS mRNA expression by soybean peptides was responsible for the increased NO production. The release of cytokines IL-6 and TNF-α was elevated and their levels were equal to positive control. The mRNA expression levels of IL-6 and TNF-α were also improved by soybean peptides, but much lower than positive control. The results were helpful for application of soybean peptides in functional foods.


Assuntos
Adjuvantes Imunológicos/farmacologia , Peptídeos/química , Proteínas de Soja/química , Soja/química , Cromatografia Líquida , Alimento Funcional , Hidrólise , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
9.
Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces ; 204: 111799, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33971614

RESUMO

Nanoparticle delivery of functional molecules and vaccine is a promising method for enhancing the immune response. The objective of this study was to design chitosan (CS)-modified ginseng stem-leaf saponins (GSLS)-encapsulated cubosomes (Cub-GSLSCS) as a vaccine delivery system and explore its immunologic activity and adjuvanticity. In this study, CS-modified GSLS-encapsulated cubosomes (Cub-GSLSCS) were prepared. The storage stability of GSLS and that of ovalbumin (OVA) were measured. Additionally, the immunopotentiation of Cub-GSLSCS were assessed on potentiating macrophage in vitro, and the adjuvant activity was evaluated through immune response triggered by OVA model antigen. The encapsulation efficiency of optimized Cub-GSLSCS was about 65 % with Im3m nanostructure. The Cub-GSLSCS showed excellent stability and sustained release for up to 28 days. In vitro, Cub-GSLSCS nanoparticles improved cellular uptake, stimulated cytokines secretion of IL-6, IL-12, TNF-α, and generated more inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) to produce higher levels of nitric oxide (NO) compared with other groups. Furthermore, the immunoadjuvant effects of OVA encapsulated Cub-GSLSCS nanoparticles (Cub-GSLSCS-OVA) were observed through immunized mice. Results showed that the ratio of CD4+/CD8 + T lymphocytes was increased in Cub-GSLSCS-OVA group. In addition, Cub-GSLSCS-OVA nanoparticles induced dramatically high OVA-specific IgG, IgG1, and IgG2a levels and stimulated the secretion of cytokines. Cub-GSLSCS may be a potential vaccine delivery system and induce a long-term sustained immunogenicity.


Assuntos
Quitosana , Nanopartículas , Panax , Saponinas , Adjuvantes Imunológicos/farmacologia , Animais , Camundongos , Ovalbumina , Folhas de Planta , Saponinas/farmacologia
10.
Fish Shellfish Immunol ; 114: 171-183, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33940174

RESUMO

Adjuvants are the helper substances that increase vaccine efficacy by enhancing the potency and longevity of specific immune responses to antigens. Most existing fish vaccines are presented in the form of oil-based emulsions delivered by intraperitoneal injection. The characterization of their mode of action is a valuable aid to future vaccine development, particularly for the potential identification and stimulation of specific immunological pathways related to the desired protective response. This study characterized the expression of selected immune-related genes in the peritoneal cavity, head kidney and spleen following the administration of two adjuvanted-bacterial vaccines thought to induce humoral (Montanide™ ISA 763A VG) or humoral and cell mediated (Montanide™ ISA 761 VG) immune responses, to determine if differences in responsiveness are readily apparent. The most informative site was the spleen, where Montanide™ ISA 763A VG + bacterin gave rise to upregulation of genes driving T-cell/lymphoid responses, namely IL-2, IL-15 and IL-21. This combined with upregulation of IFNγ1 and IFNγ2, IL-4/13B2, p35A1 and p40 (B1 and C) indicated that the induction of Th1 and possibly Th2 immunity was occurring in fish vaccinated with this adjuvant. Perhaps the most intriguing finding was the lack of a detectable Th1 response in fish given Montanide™ ISA 761 VG + bacterin, suggesting some other arm of the immune system is activated to give protection. Whatever the reason for the different responses detected, it is clear from the present study that the adjuvant used has a major impact on the responses elicited. Since these differences are readily detectable it allows, in principle, their use to help select the most appropriate adjuvants for inclusion into fish vaccines, where the type of response elicited may need to be tailored to a particular pathogen to confer protection.


Assuntos
Adjuvantes Imunológicos/farmacologia , Aeromonas salmonicida , Vacinas Bacterianas/imunologia , Doenças dos Peixes/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Negativas/veterinária , Manitol/análogos & derivados , Oncorhynchus mykiss/imunologia , Animais , Citocinas/genética , Citocinas/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/imunologia , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Negativas/prevenção & controle , Rim Cefálico/metabolismo , Macrófagos Peritoneais , Manitol/farmacologia , Oncorhynchus mykiss/microbiologia
11.
J Med Chem ; 64(11): 7809-7838, 2021 06 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34043358

RESUMO

We report on the design, synthesis, and biological evaluation of a series of nucleotide-binding oligomerization-domain-containing protein 2 (NOD2) desmuramylpeptide agonists with improved in vitro and in vivo adjuvant properties. We identified two promising compounds: 68, a potent nanomolar in vitro NOD2 agonist, and the more lipophilic 75, which shows superior adjuvant activity in vivo. Both compounds had immunostimulatory effects on peripheral blood mononuclear cells at the protein and transcriptional levels, and augmented dendritic-cell-mediated activation of T cells, while 75 additionally enhanced the cytotoxic activity of peripheral blood mononuclear cells against malignant cells. The C18 lipophilic tail of 75 is identified as a pivotal structural element that confers in vivo adjuvant activity in conjunction with a liposomal delivery system. Accordingly, liposome-encapsulated 75 showed promising adjuvant activity in mice, surpassing that of muramyl dipeptide, while achieving a more balanced Th1/Th2 immune response, thus highlighting its potential as a vaccine adjuvant.


Assuntos
Acetilmuramil-Alanil-Isoglutamina/química , Adjuvantes Imunológicos/química , Proteína Adaptadora de Sinalização NOD2/agonistas , Acetilmuramil-Alanil-Isoglutamina/metabolismo , Acetilmuramil-Alanil-Isoglutamina/farmacologia , Adjuvantes Imunológicos/metabolismo , Adjuvantes Imunológicos/farmacologia , Animais , Formação de Anticorpos/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular , Desenho de Fármacos , Humanos , Imunoglobulina G/metabolismo , Interleucina-1beta/metabolismo , Interleucina-6/metabolismo , Leucócitos Mononucleares/citologia , Leucócitos Mononucleares/efeitos dos fármacos , Leucócitos Mononucleares/metabolismo , Lipossomos/química , Ativação Linfocitária/efeitos dos fármacos , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Proteína Adaptadora de Sinalização NOD2/metabolismo , Ovalbumina/imunologia , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Células Th1/citologia , Células Th1/imunologia , Células Th1/metabolismo , Células Th2/citologia , Células Th2/imunologia , Células Th2/metabolismo
12.
Molecules ; 26(7)2021 Mar 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33810416

RESUMO

The current COronaVIrus Disease 19 (COVID-19) pandemic caused by SARS-CoV-2 infection is enormously affecting the worldwide health and economy. In the wait for an effective global immunization, the development of a specific therapeutic protocol to treat COVID-19 patients is clearly necessary as a short-term solution of the problem. Drug repurposing and herbal medicine represent two of the most explored strategies for an anti-COVID-19 drug discovery. Clove (Syzygium aromaticum L.) is a well-known culinary spice that has been used for centuries in folk medicine in many disorders. Interestingly, traditional medicines have used clove since ancient times to treat respiratory ailments, whilst clove ingredients show antiviral and anti-inflammatory properties. Other interesting features are the clove antithrombotic, immunostimulatory, and antibacterial effects. Thus, in this review, we discuss the potential role of clove in the frame of anti-COVID-19 therapy, focusing on the antiviral, anti-inflammatory, and antithrombotic effects of clove and its molecular constituents described in the scientific literature.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/farmacologia , Antivirais/farmacologia , COVID-19 , Fibrinolíticos/farmacologia , Syzygium/química , Adjuvantes Imunológicos/química , Adjuvantes Imunológicos/farmacologia , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/química , Antivirais/química , COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Medicina Herbária/métodos , Humanos , Compostos Fitoquímicos/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Plantas Medicinais/química
13.
Nat Rev Drug Discov ; 20(6): 454-475, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33824489

RESUMO

Adjuvants are vaccine components that enhance the magnitude, breadth and durability of the immune response. Following its introduction in the 1920s, alum remained the only adjuvant licensed for human use for the next 70 years. Since the 1990s, a further five adjuvants have been included in licensed vaccines, but the molecular mechanisms by which these adjuvants work remain only partially understood. However, a revolution in our understanding of the activation of the innate immune system through pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) is improving the mechanistic understanding of adjuvants, and recent conceptual advances highlight the notion that tissue damage, different forms of cell death, and metabolic and nutrient sensors can all modulate the innate immune system to activate adaptive immunity. Furthermore, recent advances in the use of systems biology to probe the molecular networks driving immune response to vaccines ('systems vaccinology') are revealing mechanistic insights and providing a new paradigm for the vaccine discovery and development process. Here, we review the 'known knowns' and 'known unknowns' of adjuvants, discuss these emerging concepts and highlight how our expanding knowledge about innate immunity and systems vaccinology are revitalizing the science and development of novel adjuvants for use in vaccines against COVID-19 and future pandemics.


Assuntos
Adjuvantes Imunológicos/farmacologia , Vacinas contra COVID-19/farmacologia , COVID-19 , Imunidade Inata/efeitos dos fármacos , COVID-19/imunologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Desenvolvimento de Medicamentos , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2 , Vacinologia/métodos , Vacinologia/tendências
14.
Res Vet Sci ; 136: 595-597, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33894619

RESUMO

H65, a fusion protein of three pairs of ESX-secreted antigens of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Mycobacterium bovis, formulated with the liposomal adjuvant CAF01 has been shown to confer protection against M. tuberculosis infection in mice. In this study, we evaluated the impact of combining BCG with H65 + CAF01 immunization in a M. bovis mouse model of infection. We found that a BCG-H65 + CAF01/ H65 + CAF01 prime-boost scheme induced higher protection than BCG and H65 + CAF01 alone. Altogether, H65 antigen formulated in liposomal adjuvant improved the BCG-induced immune protection, thus making this vaccine strategy a promising tool to control bovine tuberculosis.


Assuntos
Vacina BCG/imunologia , Mycobacterium bovis/imunologia , Tuberculose Bovina/prevenção & controle , Adjuvantes Imunológicos/farmacologia , Animais , Bovinos , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/imunologia , Tuberculose Bovina/imunologia , Vacinas de Subunidades/imunologia , Vacinas Sintéticas/imunologia
15.
J Inorg Biochem ; 219: 111454, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33878530

RESUMO

In recent years, some viruses have caused a grave crisis to global public health, especially the human coronavirus. A truly effective vaccine is therefore urgently needed. Vaccines should generally have two features: delivering antigens and modulating immunity. Adjuvants have an unshakable position in the battle against the virus. In addition to the perennial use of aluminium adjuvant, nanoparticles have become the developing adjuvant candidates due to their unique properties. Here we introduce several typical nanoparticles and their antivirus vaccine adjuvant applications. Finally, for the combating of the coronavirus, we propose several design points, hoping to provide ideas for the development of personalized vaccines and adjuvants and accelerate the clinical application of adjuvants.


Assuntos
Adjuvantes Imunológicos/química , Adjuvantes Imunológicos/farmacologia , Nanopartículas/química , Vacinas Virais/imunologia , Alumínio/química , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/efeitos dos fármacos , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/imunologia , Vacinas contra COVID-19/imunologia , Vacinas contra COVID-19/farmacologia , Fosfatos de Cálcio/química , Quitosana/química , Ouro/química , Humanos , Nanopartículas/administração & dosagem , Células Th1/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Th1/imunologia , Células Th2/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Th2/imunologia , Vacinas Virais/química
16.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(8)2021 Apr 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33921475

RESUMO

The preparation of dendritic cells (DCs) for adoptive cellular immunotherapy (ACI) requires the maturation of ex vivo-produced immature(i) DCs. This maturation ensures that the antigen presentation triggers an immune response towards the antigen-expressing cells. Although there is a large number of maturation agents capable of inducing strong DC maturation, there is still only a very limited number of these agents approved for use in the production of DCs for ACI. In seeking novel DC maturation agents, we used differentially activated human mast cell (MC) line LAD2 as a cellular adjuvant to elicit or modulate the maturation of ex vivo-produced monocyte-derived iDCs. We found that co-culture of iDCs with differentially activated LAD2 MCs in serum-containing media significantly modulated polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid (poly I:C)-elicited DC maturation as determined through the surface expression of the maturation markers CD80, CD83, CD86, and human leukocyte antigen(HLA)-DR. Once iDCs were generated in serum-free conditions, they became refractory to the maturation with poly I:C, and the LAD2 MC modulatory potential was minimized. However, the maturation-refractory phenotype of the serum-free generated iDCs was largely overcome by co-culture with thapsigargin-stimulated LAD2 MCs. Our data suggest that differentially stimulated mast cells could be novel and highly potent cellular adjuvants for the maturation of DCs for ACI.


Assuntos
Técnicas de Cultura de Células/métodos , Células Dendríticas/efeitos dos fármacos , Imunoterapia Adotiva , Mastócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Adjuvantes Imunológicos/farmacologia , Apresentação do Antígeno/efeitos dos fármacos , Apresentação do Antígeno/imunologia , Diferenciação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Técnicas de Cocultura , Células Dendríticas/citologia , Células Dendríticas/imunologia , Feminino , Humanos , Mastócitos/citologia , Mastócitos/imunologia , Monócitos/citologia , Monócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Monócitos/imunologia , Tapsigargina/farmacologia
17.
Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl ; 123: 111960, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33812588

RESUMO

Over the last years, there has been an increasing trend towards the use of environmentally friendly processes to synthesize nanomaterials. In the case of nanomedicine, the use of bionanofactories with associated biological properties, such as seaweed, has emerged as a promising field of work due to the possibility they open for both the preservation of those properties in the nanomaterials synthesized and/or the reduction of their toxicity. In the present study, gold (Au@SP) and silver (Ag@SP) nanoparticles were synthesized using an aqueous extract of Saccorhiza polyschides (SP). Several techniques showed that the nanoparticles formed were spherical and stable, with mean diameters of 14 ± 2 nm for Au@SP and 15 ± 3 nm for Ag@SP. The composition of the biomolecules in the extract and the nanoparticles were also analyzed. The analyses performed indicate that the extract acts as a protective medium, with the particles embedded in it preventing aggregation and coalescence. Au@SP and Ag@SP showed superior immunostimulant and antiproliferative activity on immune and tumor cells, respectively, to that of the SP extract. Moreover, the nanoparticles were able to modulate the release of reactive oxygen species depending on the concentration. Hence, both nanoparticles have a significant therapeutic potential for the treatment of cancer or in immunostimulant therapy.


Assuntos
Nanopartículas Metálicas , Alga Marinha , Adjuvantes Imunológicos/farmacologia , Ouro , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Prata
18.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 182: 574-582, 2021 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33798583

RESUMO

In recent years, the utilization of CS-MWCNT as targeted drug carriers has attracted considerable attention. Hericium erinaceus polysaccharide (HEP) has been reported as an immunostimulant to improve immune responses. This study was focussed on developing CS-MWCNT encapsulating HEP (CS-MWCNT-HEP). Using in mice peritoneal macrophages, we found the immune response could be effectively regulated by CS-MWCNT-HEP, promoted the expression of the MHCII, CD86, F4/80 and gp38. Moreover, the mice immunized with CS-MWCNT-HEP nanoparticles significantly extended PCV2-specific IgG immune response and the levels of cytokines. The results demonstrated that CS-MWCNT-HEP may be a promising drug delivery system for immuno-enhancement.


Assuntos
Adjuvantes Imunológicos/síntese química , Polissacarídeos Fúngicos/química , Nanotubos de Carbono/química , Adjuvantes Imunológicos/farmacologia , Animais , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , Células Cultivadas , Circovirus/imunologia , Citocinas/imunologia , Polissacarídeos Fúngicos/imunologia , Hericium/química , Imunogenicidade da Vacina , Macrófagos Peritoneais/efeitos dos fármacos , Macrófagos Peritoneais/imunologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos ICR
19.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 181: 743-751, 2021 Jun 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33798575

RESUMO

In this study, an active component UP1-1 was isolated from Chinese Huangshan Umbilicaria esculenta via hot water extraction and purified by anion-exchange and gel-filtration chromatography. UP1-1 mainly composed of galactose, mannose and glucose in a molar ratio of 0.8:1.0:4.6 with an average molecular weight of 281 kDa. Methylation analysis of UP1-1 revealed the major glycosidic bonds comprised 1,6-linked Glcp, 1,4-linked Glcp, t-linked Glcp, 1,3,6-linked Manp, 1,3-linked Galp, t-linked Galp at the ratio of 2.28:0.38:0.32:0.63:0.25:0.29. Structural analysis results revealed that the backbone of UP1-1 consisted of →6)-ß-D-Glcp-(1→, →6)-ß-D-Manp-(1→, →4)-ß-D-Glcp-(1 → residues with side chains of →3)-ß-D-Galp-(1→, ß-D-Galp-(1 → and ß-D-Glcp-(1 → branches located at O-3 position of →6)-ß-D-Manp-(1→. Immunostimulatory activity tests showed that UP1-1 could promote the phagocytic activity and NO production of RAW 264.7 cells in a dose-dependent manner. UP1-1 could significantly improve the proliferation effect of RAW 264.7 cells at the concentration of 50 µg/mL. Thus, UP1-1 exerted good immunostimulatory activity, suggesting that UP1-1 has a great potential application in pharmacological industry.


Assuntos
Adjuvantes Imunológicos/farmacologia , Ascomicetos/química , Polissacarídeos/química , Polissacarídeos/farmacologia , Adjuvantes Imunológicos/química , Adjuvantes Imunológicos/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética Nuclear de Carbono-13 , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Glicosídeos/química , Camundongos , Monossacarídeos/análise , Polissacarídeos/isolamento & purificação , Espectroscopia de Prótons por Ressonância Magnética , Células RAW 264.7 , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier
20.
Front Immunol ; 12: 637982, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33777030

RESUMO

A novel betacoronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) that causes severe pneumonia emerged through zoonosis in late 2019. The disease, referred to as COVID-19, has an alarming mortality rate and it is having a devastating effect on the global economy and public health systems. A safe, effective vaccine is urgently needed to halt this pandemic. In this study, immunogenicity of the receptor binding domain (RBD) of spike (S) glycoprotein was examined in mice. Animals were immunized with recombinant RBD antigen intraperitoneally using three different adjuvants (Zn-chitosan, Alhydrogel, and Adju-Phos), and antibody responses were followed for over 5 months. Results showed that potent neutralizing antibodies (nAbs) can be induced with 70% neutralization titer (NT70) of ~14,580 against live, infectious viruses. Although antigen-binding antibody titers decreased gradually over time, sufficiently protective levels of nAbs persisted (NT80 >2,430) over the 5-month observation period. Results also showed that adjuvants have profound effects on kinetics of nAb induction, total antibody titers, antibody avidity, antibody longevity, and B-cell epitopes targeted by the immune system. In conclusion, a recombinant subunit protein immunogen based on the RBD is a highly promising vaccine candidate. Continued evaluation of RBD immunogenicity using different adjuvants and vaccine regimens could further improve vaccine efficacy.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Neutralizantes/sangue , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Vacinas contra COVID-19/farmacologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Imunização , Imunogenicidade da Vacina , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/farmacologia , Adjuvantes Imunológicos/farmacologia , Animais , Afinidade de Anticorpos , COVID-19/sangue , COVID-19/imunologia , COVID-19/virologia , Vacinas contra COVID-19/imunologia , Epitopos , Feminino , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Domínios Proteicos , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/imunologia , Fatores de Tempo , Vacinas de Subunidades/imunologia , Vacinas de Subunidades/farmacologia
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