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1.
Vet Clin North Am Food Anim Pract ; 35(3): 391-403, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31590894

RESUMO

Vaccination is a critical tool in modern animal production and key to maintaining animal health. Adjuvants affect the immune response by increasing the rate, quantity, or quality of the protective response generated by the target antigens. Although adjuvant technology dates back to the nineteenth century, there was relatively little improvement in adjuvant technology before the late twentieth century. With the discovery of molecular pathways that regulate the timing, quantity, and quality of the immune response, new technologies are focused on bringing safer, more effective, and inexpensive adjuvants to commercial use.


Assuntos
Adjuvantes Imunológicos/administração & dosagem , Doenças dos Animais/prevenção & controle , Ruminantes/imunologia , Vacinação/veterinária , Adjuvantes Imunológicos/farmacologia , Doenças dos Animais/imunologia , Animais
2.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 14: 6601-6613, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31496701

RESUMO

Purpose: The primary goal of the present study was to explore and evaluate the highly conserved Neisserial surface protein A (NspA) molecule, fused with truncated HBV virus-like particles (VLPs), as a candidate vaccine against the virulent Neisseria meningitidis serogroup B (NMB). Methods: NspA was inserted into the major immunodominant region of the truncated hepatitis B virus core protein (HBc; amino acids 1-144). The chimeric protein, HBc-N144-NspA, was expressed from a prokaryotic vector and generated HBc-like particles, as determined by transmission electron microscopy. Further, the chimeric protein and control proteins were used to immunize mice and the resulting immune responses evaluated by flow cytometry, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and analysis of serum bactericidal activity (SBA) titer. Results: Evaluation of the immunogenicity of the recombinant HBc-N144-NspA protein showed that it elicited the production of high levels of NspA-specific total IgG. The SBA titer of HBc-N144-NspA/F reached 1:16 2 weeks after the last immunization in BALB/c mice, when human serum complement was included in the vaccine. Immunization of HBc-N144-NspA, even without adjuvant, induced high levels of IL-4 and a high IgG1 to IgG2a ratio, confirming induction of an intense Th2 immune response. Levels of IL-17A increased rapidly in mice after the first immunization with HBc-N144-NspA, indicating the potential for this vaccine to induce a mucosal immune response. Meanwhile, the immunization of HBc-N144-NspA without adjuvant induced only mild inflammatory infiltration into the mouse muscle tissue. Conclusion: This study demonstrates that modification using HBc renders NspA a candidate vaccine, which can trigger protective immunity against NMB.


Assuntos
Proteínas da Membrana Bacteriana Externa/imunologia , Vírus da Hepatite B/metabolismo , Infecções Meningocócicas/imunologia , Infecções Meningocócicas/prevenção & controle , Neisseria meningitidis/patogenicidade , Sorogrupo , Vírion/metabolismo , Adjuvantes Imunológicos/farmacologia , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Proteínas da Membrana Bacteriana Externa/química , Proteínas da Membrana Bacteriana Externa/ultraestrutura , Citocinas/metabolismo , Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Feminino , Imunidade , Imunização , Inflamação/patologia , Ativação Linfocitária/imunologia , Infecções Meningocócicas/patologia , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Proteínas Recombinantes/imunologia , Teste Bactericida do Soro , Baço/microbiologia , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Vacinação , Virulência
3.
Mol Plant Microbe Interact ; 32(11): 1475-1486, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31298967

RESUMO

Plant activators, including acibenzolar-S-methyl (ASM), are chemical compounds that stimulate plant defense responses to pathogens. ASM treatment inhibits infection by a variety of plant viruses, however, the mechanisms of this broad-spectrum and strong effect remain poorly understood. We employed green fluorescent protein (GFP)-expressing viruses and Nicotiana benthamiana plants to identify the infection stages that are restricted by ASM. ASM suppressed infection by three viral species, plantago asiatica mosaic virus (PlAMV), potato virus X (PVX), and turnip mosaic virus (TuMV), in inoculated cells. Furthermore, ASM delayed the long-distance movement of PlAMV and PVX, and the cell-to-cell (short range) movement of TuMV. The ASM-mediated delay of long-distance movement of PlAMV was not due to the suppression of viral accumulation in the inoculated leaves, indicating that ASM restricts PlAMV infection in at least two independent steps. We used Arabidopsis thaliana mutants to show that the ASM-mediated restriction of PlAMV infection requires the NPR1 gene but was independent of the dicer-like genes essential for RNA silencing. Furthermore, experiments using protoplasts showed that ASM treatment inhibited PlAMV replication without cell death. Our approach, using GFP-expressing viruses, will be useful for the analysis of mechanisms underlying plant activator-mediated virus restriction.


Assuntos
Potexvirus , Tiadiazóis , Tabaco , Adjuvantes Imunológicos/farmacologia , Resistência à Doença/efeitos dos fármacos , Imunidade Vegetal/efeitos dos fármacos , Potexvirus/fisiologia , Tiadiazóis/farmacologia , Tabaco/imunologia , Tabaco/virologia
4.
BMC Infect Dis ; 19(1): 656, 2019 Jul 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31337344

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The immune response to seasonal influenza vaccines decreases with advancing age. Therefore, an adjuvanted inactivated trivalent influenza vaccine (Fluad®) exists for elderly individuals. Fluad® is more immunogenic and efficacious than conventional influenza vaccines. However, the immune response varies and may still result in high frequencies of poor responders. Therefore, we aimed to a) examine the prevalence of a weak response to Fluad® and b) identify potential risk factors. METHODS: A prospective population-based study among individuals 65-80 years old was conducted in 2015/2016 in Hannover, Germany (n = 200). Hemagglutination-inhibition titers 21 days after vaccination with Fluad® served as indicator of vaccine responsiveness. RESULTS: The percentage of vaccinees with an inadequate vaccine response varied depending on the influenza strain: it was lowest for H3N2 (13.5%; 95% CI, 9.4-18.9%), intermediate for B strain (37.0%; 30.6-43.9%), and highest for H1N1 (49.0%; 42.2-55.9%). The risk of a weak response to the influenza A H1N1 strain was independently associated with self-reported diabetes (AOR, 4.64; 95% CI, 1.16-18.54), a history of herpes zoster (2.27; 1.01-5.10) and, to a much lesser extent, increasing age (change per year, 1.08; 0.99-1.16). In addition, herpes zoster was the only risk factor for a weak response to the H3N2 antigen (AOR, 3.12; 1.18-8.23). We found no significant association between sex, Body Mass Index, cancer, hypertension, heart attack and CMV seropositivity and a weak response to these two influenza A antigens. Despite its occurence in over one third of vaccinees, none of the variables examined proved to be risk factors for a weak response to the B antigen. CONCLUSIONS: A considerable proportion of elderly individuals displayed a weak vaccine response to this adjuvanted seasonal influenza vaccine and further efforts are thus needed to improve immune responses to influenza vaccination among the elderly. Diabetes and herpes zoster were identified as potentially modifiable risk factors for a poor vaccine response against influenza A antigens, but the results also reveal the need for broader investigations to identify risk factors for inadequate responses to influenza B antigens. TRIAL REGISTRATION: No. NCT02362919 (ClinicalTrials.gov, date of registration: 09.02.2015).


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus/imunologia , Herpes Zoster/imunologia , Imunidade Humoral , Vacinas contra Influenza/imunologia , Adjuvantes Imunológicos/farmacologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antígenos Virais/imunologia , Feminino , Alemanha , Humanos , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H1N1/imunologia , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H3N2/imunologia , Vacinas contra Influenza/efeitos adversos , Vacinas contra Influenza/farmacologia , Influenza Humana/imunologia , Influenza Humana/prevenção & controle , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Estações do Ano , Autorrelato
5.
Carbohydr Polym ; 222: 114993, 2019 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31320068

RESUMO

ß-glucans trigger the proinflammatory responses of innate immune cells to enhance the host defense. A variety of ß-glucans were identified as strong immune stimulator and exerted antitumor activities. Our previous work indicates that a ß-1,3/1,6-glucan (BG136) derived from marina alga Durvillaea antarctica promotes the proinflammatory responses in macrophage cell line RAW264.7. In the present study, we further explored its antitumor effects in vivo as an immune stimulator. The data shows that BG136 alone decreases the tumor burdens in DLD1 xenograft and AOM-DSS induced tumor models. BG136 also augments the antitumor effects of PD-1 antibody in B16 syngeneic tumor model. BG136 increases macrophage phagocytosis, enhances cytokine/chemokine secretion and modulates the systemic and intratumoral immune cell composition. Collectively, these data suggest that BG136 might act as an immune stimulator to exert antitumor effects in vivo.


Assuntos
Adjuvantes Imunológicos/farmacologia , Glucanos/farmacologia , Neoplasias/imunologia , Animais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Citocinas/imunologia , Humanos , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Feófitas/metabolismo , Fagocitose/efeitos dos fármacos , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/imunologia , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto/métodos
6.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 14: 4867-4880, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31308663

RESUMO

Background: The demand for an effective vaccine delivery system that drives a suitable immune response is increasing. The oxidized carbon nanosphere (OCN), a negatively charged carbon nanoparticle, has the potential to fulfill this requirement because it can efficiently deliver macromolecules into cells and allows endosomal leakage. However, fundamental insights into how OCNs are taken up by antigen-presenting cells, and the intracellular behavior of delivered molecules is lacking. Furthermore, how immune responses are stimulated by OCN-mediated delivery has not been investigated. Purpose: In this study, the model protein antigen ovalbumin (OVA) was used to investigate the uptake mechanism and intracellular fate of OCN-mediated delivery of protein in macrophages. Moreover, the immune response triggered by OVA delivered by OCNs was characterized. Methods: Bone-marrow-derived macrophages (BMDMs) from mice were used to study antigen uptake and intracellular trafficking. Mice were immunized using OCN-OVA combined with known adjuvants, and the specific immune response was measured. Results: OCNs showed no cytotoxicity against BMDMs. OCN-mediated delivery of OVA into BMDMs was partially temperature independent process. Using specific inhibitors, it was revealed that intracellular delivery of OCN-OVA does not rely on phagocytosis or the clathrin- and lipid raft/caveolae-mediated pathways. Delivered OVA was found to colocalize with compartments containing MHC class I, but not with early endosomes, lysosomes, and autophagosomes. Immunization of OVA using OCNs in combination with the known adjuvant monophosphoryl lipid A specifically enhanced interferon gamma (IFNγ)- and granzyme B-producing cytotoxic T cells (CTLs). Conclusion: OCNs effectively delivered protein antigens into macrophages that localized with compartments containing MHC class I partially by the temperature independent, but not clathrin- and lipid raft/caveolae-mediated pathways. Increased CD8+ T-cell activity was induced by OCN-delivered antigens, suggesting antigen processing toward antigen presentation for CTLs. Taken together, OCNs are a potential protein antigen delivery system that stimulates the cell-mediated immune response.


Assuntos
Antígenos/administração & dosagem , Carbono/química , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos , Imunidade Celular , Nanopartículas/química , Adjuvantes Imunológicos/farmacologia , Animais , Antígenos/imunologia , Autofagossomos/efeitos dos fármacos , Autofagossomos/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular , Endocitose/efeitos dos fármacos , Endossomos/efeitos dos fármacos , Endossomos/metabolismo , Feminino , Imunidade Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Cinética , Lisossomos/efeitos dos fármacos , Lisossomos/metabolismo , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Nanopartículas/toxicidade , Oxirredução , Linfócitos T Citotóxicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Linfócitos T Citotóxicos/imunologia
7.
J Biol Regul Homeost Agents ; 33(3): 869-876, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31186080

RESUMO

We recently identified a rheumatoid factor associated with autoimmune disease resistance and remission, and have named it regulatory rheumatoid factor (regRF). Epitopes recognized by regRF can be induced in papain Fc fragments of IgG. Immunization of arthritic rats with homologous Fc fragments that expose neoepitopes recognized by regRF reduces the symptoms of collagen-induced arthritis. Therefore, regRF-producing lymphocytes are a promising therapeutic target in arthritis, and Fc fragments are a means of stimulating this target.


Assuntos
Artrite Experimental/tratamento farmacológico , Fragmentos Fc das Imunoglobulinas/farmacologia , Fator Reumatoide/imunologia , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Adjuvantes Imunológicos/farmacologia , Animais , Epitopos , Imunoglobulina G/farmacologia , Ratos
8.
Mar Drugs ; 17(6)2019 Jun 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31163615

RESUMO

Sea hares of Aplysia genus are recognized as a source of a diverse range of metabolites. 5α,8α-Endoperoxides belong to a group of oxidized sterols commonly found in marine organisms and display several bioactivities, including antimicrobial, anti-tumor, and immunomodulatory properties. Herein we report the isolation of 5α,8α-epidioxycholest-6-en-3ß-ol (EnP(5,8)) from Aplysia depilans Gmelin, based on bioguided fractionation and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis, as well as the first disclosure of its anti-inflammatory properties. EnP(5,8) revealed capacity to decrease cellular nitric oxide (NO) levels in RAW 264.7 macrophages treated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) by downregulation of the Nos2 (inducible nitric oxide synthase, iNOS) gene. Moreover, EnP(5,8) also inhibited the LPS-induced expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), interleukin 6 (IL-6), and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) at the mRNA and protein levels. Mild selective inhibition of COX-2 enzyme activity was also evidenced. Our findings provide evidence of EnP(5,8) as a potential lead drug molecule for the development of new anti-inflammatory agents.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/química , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Aplysia/química , Ésteres do Colesterol/química , Ésteres do Colesterol/farmacologia , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Adjuvantes Imunológicos/farmacologia , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/isolamento & purificação , Fracionamento Químico , Ésteres do Colesterol/isolamento & purificação , Regulação para Baixo/efeitos dos fármacos , Ativação Enzimática/efeitos dos fármacos , Lipopolissacarídeos/farmacologia , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Camundongos , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo II/genética , Células RAW 264.7
9.
APMIS ; 127(9): 635-641, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31237033

RESUMO

In this study, several innate immunological adjuvants and related compounds were compared with respect to complement activation in serum and induction of cytokine release in whole blood samples using immunoassays. As found, simple lipids had no effect on the complement system or on cytokine release, whereas lipopolysaccharides induced prominent release of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL1ß, TNF and IFNγ) without affecting the complement system, except for one, which activated the lectin pathway (LP). Moreover, saponin induced IL1ß and MCP1 release and did not affect the complement system. The polysaccharide inulin exhausted the alternative pathway (AP) completely without affecting the LP and the classical pathway (CP), whereas zymosan exhausted the AP and had a major effect on the LP and CP as well. Peptidoglycans mainly affected the LP. Inulin, agarose and cellulose induced IL1ß and MCP1 release, while dextran had no effect on cytokine secretion. Zymosan mainly induced IL1ß release. The inorganic compound aluminium hydroxide, Al(OH)3 , activated the complement system very efficiently (all three pathways) but only induced MCP1 release. Other compounds tested had minor/individual effects. Collectively, well-known adjuvants, such as aluminum hydroxide, activated the complement system and/or induced pro-inflammatory cytokine release. Since complement activation generates anaphylactic peptides, a simple definition of an (innate) immunological adjuvant can be inferred: it activates the (innate) immune system by complement activation and/or release of cytokines so as to attract cells of the adaptive immune system.


Assuntos
Adjuvantes Imunológicos/sangue , Adjuvantes Imunológicos/farmacologia , Ativação do Complemento/efeitos dos fármacos , Ativação do Complemento/imunologia , Proteínas do Sistema Complemento/imunologia , Citocinas/imunologia , Humanos , Imunoensaio/métodos , Soro/imunologia
10.
Eur J Med Chem ; 179: 100-108, 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31247372

RESUMO

Synthetic peptide vaccines based on epitopes derived from the conserved region of M-protein are proving to be a realistic option for protection against group A streptococcus (GAS). However, peptide epitopes alone are poorly immunogenic due to lack of pathogen-associated structural patterns. Therefore, we developed a GAS peptide vaccine based on combined lipidic TLR 2 agonist and self-adjuvanting polymers. We synthesized three α-poly-l-glutamic acid (PGA) conjugated lipopeptides composed of 2-amino-d,l-hexadecanoic acid, GAS B-cell peptide epitope J8 (QAEDKVKQSREAKKQVEKALKQLEDKVQ) and universal T-helper epitope PADRE (AKFVAAWTLKAAA) in different spatial arrangements. The anionic lipopeptide conjugates formed nanoparticles via ionic-complexation with a cationic polymer, trimethyl chitosan (TMC). We demonstrated that the spatial arrangement of vaccine components has a significant influence on peptide conformation and particle formation and, as such, contributes to the differential efficacy and opsonin-mediated killing potential of nanovaccines. Nanoparticles carrying branched helical lipopeptide with T-helper epitope on free N-termini (NP3) stimulated the most potent humoral immune responses. Lipopeptides without TMC (LP1-LP3) and TMC nanoparticles of peptide alone (without lipid) NP (P1) were poor inducers of antibody production, indicating that both TMC and lipid are required to induce a strong opsonic immune response.


Assuntos
Adjuvantes Imunológicos/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Vacinas Bacterianas/farmacologia , Quitosana/farmacologia , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos , Lipopeptídeos/farmacologia , Streptococcus pyogenes/efeitos dos fármacos , Adjuvantes Imunológicos/química , Antibacterianos/síntese química , Antibacterianos/química , Vacinas Bacterianas/síntese química , Vacinas Bacterianas/química , Quitosana/química , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Lipopeptídeos/síntese química , Lipopeptídeos/química , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Estrutura Molecular , Nanopartículas/química , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
11.
Mol Immunol ; 111: 198-204, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31078966

RESUMO

Group B Streptococcus (GBS) represents one of the most common causes of bacterial infection in neonates; it is also associated with premature childbirth and stillbirth. A vaccine against GBS is needed, but no approved vaccines are yet available. The Surface Immunogenic Protein (SIP) of GBS is conserved in all serotypes and had been reported to be a good vaccine prototype in a mouse model of GBS infection. Also, we have previously shown that both subcutaneous and oral immunization with rSIP can induce an efficient immune response that decreases GBS vaginal colonization in mice. In this study, we show that a vaccine based on a mixture of rSIP and AbISCO-100 adjuvant reduces GBS vaginal colonization in mice and induces antibodies with opsonophagocytic activities. Moreover, the passive transfer of sera and total T-cells from mice immunized with rSIP mixed with AbISCO-100 to unvaccinated mice decreases vaginal GBS colonization in an infected mouse. This is the first report of cellular immunity associated with rSIP-based vaccine testing in a mouse model of GBS infection.


Assuntos
Formação de Anticorpos/imunologia , Imunidade Celular/imunologia , Infecções Estreptocócicas/imunologia , Streptococcus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Adjuvantes Imunológicos/farmacologia , Animais , Anticorpos Antibacterianos/imunologia , Vacinas Bacterianas/imunologia , Feminino , Imunização/métodos , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Vacinação/métodos
12.
Mol Immunol ; 112: 115-122, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31082645

RESUMO

Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis) persistent infection might cause the dysfunction of hematopoiesis. To investigate whether M. tuberculosis persistent antigen stimulation impairs the proliferation and differentiation of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells characterized as lineage- c-Kit+ (LK cells), C57BL/6 mice were primed with Mycobacterium bovis Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) and boosted with a cocktail of M. tuberculosis antigens ESAT6, CFP10 and Mtb10.4-HspX (MH) along with adjuvant N, N'-dimethyl-N, N'-dioctadecylammonium bromide (DDA) plus polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid (Poly I:C) weekly for 12 or 22 weeks. The cytokine production by splenic T cells, proliferation of LK cells and transcriptional events during differentiation of bone marrow (BM) c-Kit+ cells were investigated. Meanwhile, the mice were treated with interleukin 2 (IL-2) and the therapeutic effects were analyzed. We found that antigen specific interferon-γ (IFN-γ) production by splenic CD4+ T cells increased following antigen stimulation for 12 weeks, but it declined after continuous stimulation for 22 weeks. The long-term exposure of mice to M. tuberculosis antigen compromised the proliferation of LK cells. Moreover, the expression of transcription factors in the c-Kit+ cells was adjusted, with up-regulation of IRF8 and Batf2 involved in myeloid differentiation and down-regulation of NOTCH1 and GATA2 participated in T-cell lineage commitment. The concentrations of IFN-γ in BM of the persistent antigen group were higher than that in sham control at the 12th week, while the concentrations of IL-2 in BM of the persistent antigen group were lower compared with the transient antigen stimulation control. Following IL-2 treatment, the concentrations of IL-2 in BM increased while IFN-γ got declined. IL-2 treatment could restore the expression levels of those transcription factors and the proliferating activity of LK cells impaired by persistent antigen stimulation. Our results indicate that M. tuberculosis antigen persistent stimulation decreases the proliferating activity of LK cells, promotes myelopoietic differentiation, and represses lymphopoietic differentiation as a consequence of elevated IFN-γ production. IL-2 supplementation contributes to maintaining the homeostasis of hemopoiesis.


Assuntos
Antígenos de Bactérias/imunologia , Medula Óssea/imunologia , Proliferação de Células/fisiologia , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/imunologia , Transcrição Genética/imunologia , Adjuvantes Imunológicos/farmacologia , Animais , Anticorpos Antibacterianos/imunologia , Proteínas de Bactérias/imunologia , Medula Óssea/microbiologia , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/imunologia , Diferenciação Celular/imunologia , Feminino , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/métodos , Interferon gama/imunologia , Interleucina-2/imunologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Mycobacterium bovis/imunologia , Fatores de Transcrição/imunologia
13.
Fish Shellfish Immunol ; 91: 29-39, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31100439

RESUMO

The present study aim to investigate the effects of dietary Gelsemium elegans alkaloids supplementation in Megalobrama amblycephala. A basal diet supplemented with 0, 5, 10, 20 and 40 mg/kg G. elegans alkaloids were fed to M. amblycephala for 12 weeks. The study indicated that dietary 20 mg/kg and 40 mg/kg G. elegans alkaloids supplementation could significantly improve final body weight (FBW), weight gain rate (WGR), specific growth rate (SGR), feed conversion ratio (FCR) and protein efficiency ratio (PER) (P < 0.05). The 20 mg/kg and 40 mg/kg G. elegans alkaloids groups showed significantly higher whole body and muscle crude protein and crude lipid contents compared to the control group (P < 0.05). The amino acid contents in muscle were also significantly increased in 20 mg/kg and 40 mg/kg groups (P < 0.05). Dietary 40 mg/kg G. elegans alkaloids had a significant effect on the contents of LDH, AST, ALT, ALP, TG, TC, LDL-C, HDL-C, ALB and TP in M. amblycephala (P < 0.05). Fish fed 20 mg/kg and 40 mg/kg dietary G. elegans alkaloids showed significant increase in complement 3, complement 4 and immunoglobulin M contents. The liver antioxidant enzymes (SOD, CAT and T-AOC) and MDA content significantly increased at 20 mg/kg and 40 mg/kg G. elegans alkaloids supplement (P < 0.05). The mRNA levels of immune-related genes IL-1ß, IL8, TNF-α and IFN-α were significantly up-regulated, whereas TGF-ß and IL10 genes were significantly down-regulated in the liver, spleen and head kidney of fish fed dietary supplementation with 20 mg/kg and 40 mg/kg G. elegans alkaloids. After challenge with Aeromonas hydrophila, significant higher survival rate was observed at 20 mg/kg and 40 mg/kg G. elegans alkaloids supplement (P < 0.05). Therefore, these results indicated that M. amblycephala fed a diet supplemented with 20 mg/kg and 40 mg/kg G. elegans alkaloids could significantly promote its growth performance, lipids and amino acids deposition, immune ability and resistance to Aeromonas hydrophila.


Assuntos
Cyprinidae/imunologia , Resistência à Doença/imunologia , Doenças dos Peixes/prevenção & controle , Gelsemium/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Adjuvantes Imunológicos/farmacologia , Aeromonas hydrophila/fisiologia , Alcaloides/química , Alcaloides/farmacologia , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Cyprinidae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Doenças dos Peixes/imunologia , Proteínas de Peixes/genética , Proteínas de Peixes/metabolismo , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Negativas/imunologia , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Negativas/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Negativas/veterinária , Extratos Vegetais/química
14.
Fish Shellfish Immunol ; 90: 210-214, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31039441

RESUMO

In 2014 the contribution of aquaculture to supply food for human consumption overtook wild-caught fish for the first time. Despite improvements in the aquaculture industry, it has been estimated that as much as 10% of all cultured aquatic animals are lost because of infectious diseases, amounting to >10 billion USD in losses annually on a global scale. Vaccination to prevent disease is used routinely in finfish aquaculture, especially for Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar), while in a limited capacity (or not at all) in many other fish species due to lack of vaccines, poor performance or cost. There has, nevertheless, been impressive progress in fish vaccine development over the last 4 decades with 24 licenced fish vaccines now commercially available for use in a variety of fish species. These comprise whole killed, peptide subunit, recombinant protein, DNA and live attenuated vaccines. Challenges do, however, still exist as the majority of commercial vaccines are killed whole cell pathogen preparations administered by intraperitoneal injection. This may not be the optimal route to deliver some vaccines, but lack of effective adjuvants and basic knowledge on immune response has hindered progress in the development of mucosal vaccines. The cost of injecting fish may also be prohibitive in some countries leading to disease treatment (e.g. with antibiotics) rather than using preventative measures. It is important that these issues are addressed as the industry continues to grow globally. Exciting opportunities exist for rapid development of fish vaccines in the future, with continued reduction in cost of technologies (e.g. of whole genome sequencing), regulations changing (e.g. DNA vaccines can now authorised in Europe), the introduction of novel antigen expression and delivery systems (such as virus-like particles, VLPs), development of novel adjuvants and advancements in the elucidation of basic mechanisms of mucosal immunity. Development of effective mucosal vaccines and optimisation of their delivery will facilitate novel vaccine development, and enable the aquaculture industries in LMIC to use vaccination routinely in the future. In addition, effective use of emergency (autogenous) vaccines will assist in tackling emerging disease challenges.


Assuntos
Adjuvantes Imunológicos/farmacologia , Doenças dos Peixes/prevenção & controle , Salmo salar , Vacinação/veterinária , Vacinas/imunologia , Adjuvantes Imunológicos/classificação , Animais , Aquicultura , Doenças dos Peixes/imunologia , Vacinação/métodos , Vacinas/classificação
15.
J Nanobiotechnology ; 17(1): 69, 2019 May 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31113488

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The major obstacle impeding human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) eradication in antiretroviral treatment (ART) treated HIV-1 subjects is the establishment of long-lived latently infected resting CD4+ T cells. Due to the fact that no drug has been effective, the search for new drugs and combinations are a priority in the HIV cure. Treatments based on nanotechnology have emerged as an innovative and promising alternative to current and conventional therapies. In this respect, nanotechnology opens up a new door for eliminating latent HIV infection. We studied the role of G1-S4, G2-S16 and G3-S16 polyanionic carbosilane dendrimers in the context of latent HIV-1 persistence. Moreover, we study the efficiency of these dendrimers in combination with latency reversal agents (LRAs) against HIV-1 infection. METHODS: J89GFP lymphocyte and THP89GFP monocyte derived cell lines latently infected with HIV-1 p89GFP were used as an in vitro model of latency for our study. Viability assays by 3-(4-5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) were performed to determine the working concentrations of dendrimers and LRAs. Both cell lines were treated with G1-S4, G2-S16 and G3-S16 either alone or in combination with bryostatin (BRY), romidepsin (RMD) or panobinostat (PNB) for 24 and 48 h. The expression pattern of GFP was measured by flow cytometry and referred as measure of viral reactivation. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: The combination treatment of the dendrimers with the protein kinase C (PKC) agonist did not modify the antilatency activity in J89GFP lymphocyte cell line. Interestingly enough, G3-S16 dendrimer alone and its combination with BRY, RMD or PNB showed a significant increased expression of GFP in the THP89GFP monocyte cell line. CONCLUSION: We showed for the first time that nanoparticles, in this case, G3-S16 anionic carbosilan dendrimer may play an important role in new treatments against HIV-1 infection.


Assuntos
Adjuvantes Imunológicos/farmacologia , Fármacos Anti-HIV/farmacologia , Dendrímeros/química , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Polímeros/química , Silanos/química , Briostatinas/farmacologia , Linhagem Celular , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Depsipeptídeos/farmacologia , Liberação Controlada de Fármacos , Quimioterapia Combinada/métodos , HIV-1/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Linfócitos/citologia , Monócitos/citologia , Panobinostat/farmacologia , Tamanho da Partícula , Propriedades de Superfície
16.
Eur J Pharm Biopharm ; 140: 29-39, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31055066

RESUMO

Using subunit vaccines, e.g., based on peptide or protein antigens, to teach the immune system to kill abnormal host cells via induction of cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) is a promising strategy against intracellular infections and cancer. However, customized adjuvants are required to potentiate antigen-specific cellular immunity. One strong CTL-inducing adjuvant is the liposomal cationic adjuvant formulation (CAF)09, which is composed of dimethyldioctadecylammonium (DDA) bromide, monomycoloyl glycerol (MMG) analogue 1 and polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid [poly(I:C)]. However, this strong CTL induction requires intraperitoneal administration because the vaccine forms a depot at the site of injection (SOI) after subcutaneous (s.c.) or intramuscular (i.m.) injection, and depot formation impedes the crucial vaccine targeting to the cross-presenting dendritic cells (DCs) residing in the lymph nodes (LNs). The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of polyethylene glycol (PEG) grafting of CAF09 on the ability of the vaccine to induce antigen-specific CTL responses after s.c. administration. We hypothesized that steric stabilization and charge shielding of CAF09 by PEGylation may reduce depot formation at the SOI and enhance passive drainage to the LNs, eventually improving CTL induction. Hence, the vaccine (antigen/CAF09) was post-grafted with a novel type of anionic PEGylated peptides based on GDGDY repeats, which were end-conjugated with one or two PEG1000 moieties, resulting in mono- and bis-PEG-peptides of different lengths (10, 15 and 20 amino acid residues). For comparison, CAF09 was also grafted by inclusion of 1,2-distearoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine-N-methoxy(PEG)-2000 (DSPE-PEG2000) in the bilayer structure during preparation. Grafting of CAF09 with either type of PEG resulted in charge shielding, evident from a reduced surface charge. Upon s.c. immunization of mice with the model antigen ovalbumin (OVA) adjuvanted with PEGylated CAF09, stronger CTL responses were induced as compared to immunization of mice with unadjuvanted OVA. Biodistribution studies confirmed that grafting of CAF09 with DSPE-PEG2000 improved the passive drainage of the vaccine to LNs, because a higher dose fraction was recovered in DCs present in the draining LNs, as compared to the dose fraction detected for non-PEGylated CAF09. In conclusion, PEGylation of CAF09 may be a useful strategy for the design of an adjuvant, which induces CTL responses after s.c. and i.m. administration. In the present studies, CAF09 grafted with 10 mol% DSPE-PEG2000 is the most promising of the tested adjuvants, but additional studies are required to further elucidate the potential of the strategy.


Assuntos
Adjuvantes Imunológicos/química , Adjuvantes Imunológicos/farmacologia , Lipossomos/química , Polietilenoglicóis/química , Linfócitos T Citotóxicos/imunologia , Vacinas de Subunidades/imunologia , Animais , Antígenos/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , Apresentação Cruzada/imunologia , Células Dendríticas/imunologia , Feminino , Imunidade Celular/imunologia , Imunização/métodos , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Ovalbumina/imunologia , Fosfatidiletanolaminas/química , Compostos de Amônio Quaternário/química , Distribuição Tecidual
17.
Arch Virol ; 164(7): 1793-1803, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31079211

RESUMO

Numerous studies have shown that immunostimulatory complexes containing Quil-A saponin and various antigens are effective in stimulating the immune response and can be used as vaccine preparations for animals and humans. However, Quil-A saponin possesses toxicity and haemolytic activity. In the present work, a saponin-containing preparation named "Glabilox" was isolated from the roots of a Glycyrrhiza glabra L. plant by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The results showed that Glabilox has no toxicity or haemolytic activity and can form stable immunostimulatory complexes. Subcutaneous immunization of mice with an immunostimulating complex containing Glabilox and H7N1 influenza virus antigens stimulated high levels of humoral and cellular immunity. Vaccination of chickens with the same immunostimulating complex protected 100% of the animals after experimental infection with a homologous virus. Comparative studies showed that the immunogenic and protective activity of immunostimulatory complexes containing Quil-A and immunostimulatory complexes containing Glabilox are comparable to each other. The results of these studies indicated that Glycyrrhiza glabra saponins show great promise as safe and effective adjuvants.


Assuntos
Adjuvantes Imunológicos/farmacologia , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Antígenos Virais/imunologia , Glycyrrhiza/imunologia , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H7N1/imunologia , Influenza Aviária/prevenção & controle , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Embrião de Galinha , Galinhas , Cães , Glicoproteínas/imunologia , Imunoglobulina A/sangue , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Imunoglobulina M/sangue , Influenza Aviária/imunologia , Lipídeos/imunologia , Células Madin Darby de Rim Canino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Raízes de Plantas/imunologia , Saponinas de Quilaia/imunologia , Saponinas/imunologia , Vacinação
18.
Eur J Med Chem ; 175: 215-233, 2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31082765

RESUMO

α-Santonin, a sesquiterpene lactone isolated from Artemisia Santonica, possesses diverse bioactivities including antioxidant, anti-inflammation, immunosuppressive, anti-roundworm, anti-malaria, etc. However, its bioactivities are not satisfactory and need to be further optimized. Thus, many α-santonin derivatives were synthesized on the basis of rings A, B and C for the discovery of new analogues with prominent bioactivities. Herein, we reviewed and discussed the related synthetic methodologies, diverse bioactivities and structure-activity relationships (SAR) of α-santonin derivatives.


Assuntos
Santonina/química , Santonina/farmacologia , Adjuvantes Imunológicos/farmacologia , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Antimaláricos/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Herbicidas/farmacologia , Humanos , Inibidores de Lipoxigenase/farmacologia , Receptores Ativados por Proliferador de Peroxissomo/agonistas , Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Santonina/síntese química , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Trichomonas vaginalis/efeitos dos fármacos , Tripanossomicidas/farmacologia
19.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 14: 3203-3220, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31118632

RESUMO

Background: Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) are critical in tumor progression and metastasis. Selective targeting of TAMs holds great potential to ameliorate the immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment and enhance the efficacy of antitumor therapy. Various liposomes have been developed to target TAMs via cell-specific surface receptors either to deplete or re-educate TAMs. Since immuno-stimulation often initiates with the interaction of nanocarriers with the innate immunity cells such as macrophages, the intrinsic impact of drug-free liposomes on macrophage activation and polarization via cell interaction is one of the most critical issues in nanomedicine for promoting effective immunotherapy. Methods: In this study, conventional bare liposomes, PEGylated liposomes, and mannosylated liposomes were developed and the cytotoxicity, cellular internalization, immunostimulatory activity, targeting efficiency, antitumor efficacy, and mechanism were evaluated in vitro and in vivo. Results: All liposomes displayed an ideal particle size, good biocompatibility, and controlled release behavior. Mannosylated liposomes exhibited superior in vitro cellular internalization and tumor spheroid penetration with the aid of the mannose receptor-mediated TAMs-targeting effects. In particular, mannosylated liposomes promoted the polarization of both M0 and M2 to the M1 phenotype by enhancing the expression ratio of CD86/CD206 in vitro. Of note, mannosylated liposomes could inhibit G422 glioma tumor growth, which may be attributed to the polarization of TAMs, as evidenced by the reduction in expression level of the TAMs surface marker. Conclusion: These results indicate the potential value of mannosylated liposomes in the design of a rational delivery system to enhance the antitumor immune efficacy of immunomodulators by inducing a shift from the M2 to the M1 phenotype.


Assuntos
Polaridade Celular , Lectinas Tipo C/metabolismo , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Macrófagos/patologia , Lectinas de Ligação a Manose/metabolismo , Neoplasias/patologia , Receptores de Superfície Celular/metabolismo , Adjuvantes Imunológicos/farmacologia , Animais , Morte Celular , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células , Cumarínicos/química , Liberação Controlada de Fármacos , Endocitose , Feminino , Humanos , Lipossomos , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Camundongos Endogâmicos ICR , Fosfatidiletanolaminas/química , Polietilenoglicóis/química , Células RAW 264.7 , Esferoides Celulares/metabolismo , Esferoides Celulares/patologia , Tiazóis/química , Distribuição Tecidual , Microambiente Tumoral
20.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 133: 76-85, 2019 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30981779

RESUMO

Frankincense has a long history in religious, cultural, and medicinal use. In this study polysaccharides were extracted from frankincense from Boswellia carterii. The polysaccharides were purified by anion exchange chromatography on a DEAE-Sepharose Fast Flow 16/10 FPLC column. Six fractions were obtained and the three most active immunomodulatory fractions were further purified by size exclusion chromatography on a Superdex-200 column. The composition showed the monosaccharides present were predominantly galactose, arabinose, and glucuronic acid along with small amounts of rhamnose and glucose. The monosaccharide composition and glycosyl linkage analysis revealed the polysaccharides belong to the type II arabinogalactans. Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy and bicinchoninic acid assay showed that the amount of protein in the samples was <1 wt%. One-dimensional 1H NMR were consistent with high molecular weight compounds. The monosaccharides were primarily in the ß conformation. The three fractions exhibited an immunostimulatory effect on RAW 264.7 murine macrophage cells. The most active immunostimulatory fraction FA2, stimulated a range of pro-inflammatory mediators including iNOS, NO, TNF-α, and IL-6 in RAW 264.7 cells. The fractions were effective in proliferating primary murine splenocytes. The results indicate that the polysaccharides isolated from frankincense have the potential to be used as an immunological stimulant or nutraceutical.


Assuntos
Adjuvantes Imunológicos/química , Adjuvantes Imunológicos/farmacologia , Franquincenso/química , Polissacarídeos/química , Polissacarídeos/farmacologia , Adjuvantes Imunológicos/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Glicosilação , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Camundongos , Peso Molecular , Óxido Nítrico/metabolismo , Polissacarídeos/isolamento & purificação , Células RAW 264.7 , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo
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