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1.
Niger J Clin Pract ; 22(10): 1328-1334, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31607720

RESUMO

Objective: The aim of the this study was to evaluate the effect of honey on the healing of tooth extraction wounds in children 4‒9 years of age. Subjects and Methods: In the present randomized clinical trial, 51 patients, 4‒9 years of age were selected randomly. All the subjects required extraction of one deciduous molar tooth. The subjects were randomly assigned to two groups. In group 1, after extraction of the tooth, the dentist used a cotton swab applicator to place a layer of honey on a piece of gauze moistened with normal saline solution (NSS) and placed it on the socket. In group 2, honey was not used; rather, NSS was applied. On days 3 and 7 after tooth extraction, the wound sizes were measured. Results: In both groups, the wound sizes decreased significantly on the third day compared with baseline and on the seventh day compared with the third day (P < 0.05). On the third and seventh days after tooth extraction, wound sizes in the honey group were significantly lower than those in the NSS group (P < 0.05). Conclusion: Honey resulted in a decrease in wound sizes and faster healing after extraction of teeth in children. Therefore, use of honey can be recommended after minor surgeries in the oral cavity.


Assuntos
Apiterapia/métodos , Mel , Extração Dentária , Alvéolo Dental , Cicatrização/efeitos dos fármacos , Administração Tópica , Bandagens , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Assistência Odontológica , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Cloreto de Sódio/uso terapêutico , Alvéolo Dental/efeitos dos fármacos , Alvéolo Dental/patologia , Resultado do Tratamento
2.
Nursing ; 49(10): 32-39, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31568079

RESUMO

The clinical nurse may be the first caregiver to assess changes in a patient's skin and initiate wound care. This article provides practical guidelines that any nurse can implement.


Assuntos
Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Higiene da Pele/enfermagem , Ferimentos e Lesões/enfermagem , Administração Tópica , Humanos , Avaliação em Enfermagem , Ferimentos e Lesões/etiologia
4.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 9: CD001860, 2019 09 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31554017

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Trachoma is the world's leading infectious cause of blindness. In 1996, WHO launched the Alliance for the Global Elimination of Trachoma by the year 2020, based on the 'SAFE' strategy (surgery, antibiotics, facial cleanliness, and environmental improvement). OBJECTIVES: To assess the evidence supporting the antibiotic arm of the SAFE strategy by assessing the effects of antibiotics on both active trachoma (primary objective), Chlamydia trachomatis infection of the conjunctiva, antibiotic resistance, and adverse effects (secondary objectives). SEARCH METHODS: We searched relevant electronic databases and trials registers. The date of the last search was 4 January 2019. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) that satisfied either of two criteria: (a) trials in which topical or oral administration of an antibiotic was compared to placebo or no treatment in people or communities with trachoma, (b) trials in which a topical antibiotic was compared with an oral antibiotic in people or communities with trachoma. We also included studies addressing different dosing strategies in the population.  DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: We used standard methods expected by Cochrane. We assessed the certainty of the evidence using the GRADE approach. MAIN RESULTS: We identified 14 studies where individuals with trachoma were randomised and 12 cluster-randomised studies. Any antibiotic versus control (individuals)Nine studies (1961 participants) randomised individuals with trachoma to antibiotic or control (no treatment or placebo). All of these studies enrolled children and young people with active trachoma. The antibiotics used in these studies included topical (oxy)tetracycline (5 studies), doxycycline (2 studies), and sulfonamides (4 studies). Four studies had more than two study arms. In general these studies were poorly reported, and it was difficult to judge risk of bias.These studies provided low-certainty evidence that people with active trachoma treated with antibiotics experienced a reduction in active trachoma at three months (risk ratio (RR) 0.78, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.69 to 0.89; 1961 people; 9 RCTs; I2 = 73%) and 12 months (RR 0.74, 95% CI 0.55 to 1.00; 1035 people; 4 RCTs; I2 = 90%). Low-certainty evidence was available for ocular infection at three months (RR 0.81, 95% CI 0.63 to 1.04; 297 people; 4 RCTs; I2 = 0%) and 12 months (RR 0.25, 95% CI 0.08 to 0.78; 129 people; 1 RCT). None of these studies assessed antimicrobial resistance. In those studies that reported harms, no serious adverse effects were reported (low-certainty evidence).Oral versus topical antibiotics (individuals)Eight studies (1583 participants) compared oral and topical antibiotics. Only one study included people older than 21 years of age. Oral antibiotics included azithromycin (5 studies), sulfonamides (2 studies), and doxycycline (1 study). Topical antibiotics included (oxy)tetracycline (6 studies), azithromycin (1 study), and sulfonamide (1 study). These studies were poorly reported, and it was difficult to judge risk of bias.There was low-certainty evidence of little or no difference in effect between oral and topical antibiotics on active trachoma at three months (RR 0.97, 95% CI 0.81 to 1.16; 953 people; 6 RCTs; I2 = 63%) and 12 months (RR 0.93, 95% CI 0.75 to 1.15; 886 people; 5 RCTs; I2 = 56%). There was very low-certainty evidence for ocular infection at three or 12 months. Antimicrobial resistance was not assessed. In those studies that reported adverse effects, no serious adverse effects were reported; one study reported abdominal pain with azithromycin; one study reported a couple of cases of nausea with azithromycin; and one study reported three cases of reaction to sulfonamides (low-certainty evidence).Oral azithromycin versus control (communities)Four cluster-randomised studies compared antibiotic with no or delayed treatment. Data were available on active trachoma at 12 months from two studies but could not be pooled because of reporting differences. One study at low risk of bias found a reduced prevalence of active trachoma 12 months after a single dose of azithromycin in communities with a high prevalence of infection (RR 0.58, 95% CI 0.52 to 0.65; 1247 people). The other, lower quality, study in low-prevalence communities reported similar median prevalences of infection at 12 months: 9.3% in communities treated with azithromycin and 8.2% in untreated communities. We judged this moderate-certainty evidence for a reduction in active trachoma with treatment, downgrading one level for inconsistency between the two studies. Two studies reported ocular infection at 12 months and data could be pooled. There was a reduction in ocular infection (RR 0.36, 0.31 to 0.43; 2139 people) 12 months after mass treatment with a single dose compared with no treatment (moderate-certainty evidence). There was high-certainty evidence of an increased risk of resistance of Streptococcus pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus, and Escherichia coli to azithromycin, tetracycline, and clindamycin in communities treated with azithromycin, with approximately 5-fold risk ratios at 12 months. The evidence did not support increased resistance to penicillin or trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. None of the studies measured resistance to C trachomatis. No serious adverse events were reported. The main adverse effect noted for azithromycin (˜10%) was abdominal pain, vomiting, and nausea.Oral azithromycin versus topical tetracycline (communities)Three cluster-randomised studies compared oral azithromycin with topical tetracycline. The evidence was inconsistent for active trachoma and ocular infection at three and 12 months (low-certainty evidence) and was not pooled due to considerable heterogeneity. Antimicrobial resistance and adverse effects were not reported.Different dosing strategiesSix studies compared different strategies for dosing. There were: mass treatment at different dosing intervals; applying cessation or stopping rules to mass treatment; strategies to increase mass treatment coverage. There was no strong evidence to support any variation in the recommended annual mass treatment. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Antibiotic treatment may reduce the risk of active trachoma and ocular infection in people infected with C trachomatis, compared to no treatment/placebo, but the size of the treatment effect in individuals is uncertain. Mass antibiotic treatment with single dose oral azithromycin reduces the prevalence of active trachoma and ocular infection in communities. There is no strong evidence to support any variation in the recommended periodicity of annual mass treatment. There is evidence of an increased risk of antibiotic resistance at 12 months in communities treated with antibiotics.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Tracoma/tratamento farmacológico , Administração Oral , Administração Tópica , Chlamydia trachomatis/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Resultado do Tratamento
5.
Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo) ; 67(9): 929-934, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31474731

RESUMO

We investigated the water contents in commercial semi-solid preparations used for pressure ulcer (PU) treatment using near-IR spectroscopy (NIRS) and compared the results with those measured using the Karl Fischer (KF) method. The aim of this study was to determine a standard method and select the appropriate topical preparation with the optimal moisture for PU treatment. The water absorption properties of bases and formulations were evaluated with a time-dependent factor using Transwell as the model membrane. KF and NIRS were applicable as measurement methods of the water content in semi-solid formulations. NIRS was shown to be a useful, simple, nondestructive tool that is more advantageous than the KF method. The water absorption characteristics tested using Transwell revealed that the rate of and capacity for water absorption are determined not only by the absorption ability of the polymer base but also by other factors, such as the osmotic pressure exerted by additives. KF and NIR measurements can be used to choose external skin preparations to control the amount of water in PU treatment.


Assuntos
Composição de Medicamentos/métodos , Água/química , Administração Tópica , Glicerol/química , Humanos , Pomadas/química , Pomadas/uso terapêutico , Polietilenoglicóis/química , Lesão por Pressão/tratamento farmacológico , Espectroscopia de Luz Próxima ao Infravermelho
6.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 14: 6539-6553, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31496699

RESUMO

Aim: This paper reports on the incorporation of oleic acid (OA) within nanostructured lipid carriers (OA-NLC) to improve the anti-inflammatory effects in the presence of albumin. Materials and methods: NLCs produced via hot high-shear homogenization/ultrasonication were characterized in terms of particle size, zeta potential, and toxicity. We examined the effects of OA-NLC on neutrophil activities. Dermatologic therapeutic potential was also elucidated by using a murine model of leukotriene B4-induced skin inflammation. Results: In the presence of albumin, OA-NLC but not free OA inhibited superoxide generation and elastase release. Topical administration of OA-NLC alleviated neutrophil infiltration and severity of skin inflammation. Conclusion: OA incorporated within NLC can overcome the interference of albumin, which would undermine the anti-inflammatory effects of OA. OA-NLC has potential therapeutic effects in topical ointments.


Assuntos
Portadores de Fármacos/química , Inflamação/patologia , Lipídeos/química , Nanoestruturas/química , Neutrófilos/fisiologia , Ácido Oleico/química , Soroalbumina Bovina/farmacologia , Pele/patologia , Administração Tópica , Adulto , Animais , Cálcio/metabolismo , Bovinos , Morte Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Portadores de Fármacos/administração & dosagem , Humanos , Leucotrieno B4 , Lipídeos/toxicidade , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Nanoestruturas/administração & dosagem , Nanoestruturas/toxicidade , Nanoestruturas/ultraestrutura , Ativação de Neutrófilo/efeitos dos fármacos , Neutrófilos/efeitos dos fármacos , Ácido Oleico/toxicidade , Elastase Pancreática/metabolismo , Superóxidos/metabolismo , Adulto Jovem
7.
Int J Pharm Compd ; 23(5): 393-396, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31513538

RESUMO

The July-August 2019 issue of the International Journal of Pharmaceutical Compounding includes part 1 of a 3-part article on the topic of excipients used in nonsterile compounding. This article, which discusses dosage form design and excipients related to appearance, palatability, flavoring, sweetening, and coloring, represents part 2 of this 3-part series. Part 3 will discuss preservatives used in nonsterile preparations. The topics presented in part 2 are very important for patient compliance. The colors, flavors, sweetening, appearance, and other dosage form characteristics can often be modified to enhance compliance by the patient, which can aid in therapeutic effectiveness.


Assuntos
Excipientes , Aromatizantes , Administração Tópica , Composição de Medicamentos , Humanos , Conservantes Farmacêuticos
8.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(35): e16589, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31464893

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Lipid deposition on the cornea without previous infection, inflammation, vascularization, or trauma is idiopathic lipid keratopathy. In vivo laser confocal microscopy (IVCM) and anterior segment optical coherence tomography (AS-OCT) are 2 noninvasive methods that can help identify the structures and morphological characteristics of the focus. PATIENT CONCERNS: A 63-year-old woman with ipsilateral corneal lipid deposits developing from a small white spot into a yellow-white superotemporal elliptic shape within a year. AS-OCT showed peripheral deep stromal deposits. IVCM showed hyper-reflective material with typical crystalline-like or needle-like structures in the superotemporal area. DIAGNOSIS: Idiopathic lipid degeneration. INTERVENTIONS: Topical steroids eye drops 3 times a day for a month and further consultation every 3 months. OUTCOMES: This patient of idiopathic lipid keratopathy was observed every 3 months and till now we have reviewed this patient twice. Topical steroids eye drops were only used during the first month. No further development was observed about the lesion and the patient's visual acuity remained good. CONCLUSION: IVCM and AS-OCT can help identify the characteristic crystalline-like or needle-like hyper-reflective material that could help diagnosis of idiopathic lipid degeneration.


Assuntos
Córnea/diagnóstico por imagem , Doenças da Córnea/tratamento farmacológico , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Esteroides/administração & dosagem , Administração Tópica , Córnea/metabolismo , Doenças da Córnea/diagnóstico por imagem , Doenças da Córnea/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Microscopia Confocal , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Esteroides/farmacologia , Tomografia de Coerência Óptica , Resultado do Tratamento , Acuidade Visual
11.
Vestn Oftalmol ; 135(3): 109-112, 2019.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31393454

RESUMO

Despite the lack of convincing data on the effectiveness of antibiotic therapy in the prevention of Post-Injection Endophthalmitis (PIE), the use of topical antibiotics for intravitreal injections is still a common practice. Frequent, monthly use of antibiotics results in changes of the composition of conjunctival flora and spontaneous mutations of bacteria, and leads to selective survival of resistant and virulent strains that can cause serious damage inside the eye.


Assuntos
Infecções Oculares Bacterianas , Administração Tópica , Antibacterianos , Antibioticoprofilaxia , Resistência Microbiana a Medicamentos , Humanos , Injeções Intravítreas
12.
An Bras Dermatol ; 94(3): 341-343, 2019 Jul 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31365666

RESUMO

CHILD syndrome (Congenital Hemidysplasia, Ichthyosiform erythroderma, Limb Defects) is a rare X-linked dominant disease. The authors report a 2-month-old patient presenting with typical features of CHILD syndrome that was treated with a topical solution containing cholesterol and lovastatin, with complete clearance of her CHILD nevus. The changes in skin lipid metabolism that explain the CHILD ichthyosiform nevus and their correction through topical application of cholesterol and lovastatin are discussed.


Assuntos
Anormalidades Múltiplas/tratamento farmacológico , Anticolesterolemiantes/administração & dosagem , Colesterol/metabolismo , Doenças Genéticas Ligadas ao Cromossomo X/tratamento farmacológico , Eritrodermia Ictiosiforme Congênita/tratamento farmacológico , Deformidades Congênitas dos Membros/tratamento farmacológico , Lovastatina/administração & dosagem , Anormalidades Múltiplas/genética , Administração Tópica , Colesterol/biossíntese , Feminino , Doenças Genéticas Ligadas ao Cromossomo X/genética , Humanos , Eritrodermia Ictiosiforme Congênita/genética , Lactente , Deformidades Congênitas dos Membros/genética , Doenças Metabólicas/genética
13.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 44(13): 2875-2879, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31359704

RESUMO

As a topical plaster developed by modern pharmaceutical technology based on traditional Tibetan medicine,Cheezheng Xiaotong Tiegao has functions of promoting blood circulation,relieving swelling and relieving pain. Since its introduction in 1993,it has been widely used in the treatment of various types of acute and chronic musculoskeletal pain and various types of spinal,joint and soft tissue diseases. In order to better standardize the clinical application and improve the clinical efficacy of Cheezheng Xiaotong Tiegao,the research and development work of the Experts consensus statement on Cheezheng Xiaotong Tiegao in clinical practice was officially launched on October 19,2017,upon approval from China Association of Chinese Medicine. In this paper,main R&D process and related technical links for the experts consensus on Cheezheng Xiaotong Tiegao would be summarized,which will help the various medical workers understand,master and apply more accurately,and also provide reference for the development of experts consensus on clinical application of other topical Chinese medicines.


Assuntos
Medicina Tradicional Tibetana , Manejo da Dor , Administração Tópica , China , Consenso , Humanos , Dor
14.
Rom J Ophthalmol ; 63(2): 161-165, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31334395

RESUMO

Objective: To establish the magnitude of endothelial cells alterations in acute anterior uveitis (AAU) and the clinical impact of local anti-inflammatory treatment. Methods: 27 patients at first episode of unilateral AAU were included. According to the moment of presentation in our departments, two different groups were created, early treatment uveitis group (ETUG) and delayed treatment uveitis group (DTUG). Each patient underwent a corneal endothelial specular microscopy, in both eyes, two weeks after we begun the topical treatment. Results: A statistically significant endothelial cells loss in the uveitis eye was identified in both groups, more important in DTUG. Also, in this group, the pleomorfism, polimegathism and central corneal thickness (CCT) were statistically significant increased. Conclusions: The patients with unilateral AAU and delayed presentation showed more important alterations, first structural and then functional, due to a prolonged inflammatory response. This, in association with other favorable ocular conditions can progress to a permanent corneal endothelial decompensation. The sooner the anti-inflammatory treatment was initiated, the more limited were the destructive processes. Abbreviations: AAU = Acute Anterior Uveitis, ETUG = Early Treatment Uveitis Group, DTUG = Delayed Treatment Uveitis Group, CCT = Central Corneal Thickness, CV = Coefficient of Variation, ECD = Endothelial Cells Density, HEX = Percentage of Hexagonal Cells.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/administração & dosagem , Epitélio Posterior/patologia , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Uveíte Anterior/tratamento farmacológico , Doença Aguda , Administração Tópica , Adulto , Contagem de Células , Epitélio Posterior/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Humanos , Inflamação/patologia , Masculino , Soluções Oftálmicas , Uveíte Anterior/diagnóstico
15.
Rom J Ophthalmol ; 63(2): 142-145, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31334392

RESUMO

Purpose: To quantitatively evaluate the cardiopulmonary effects of various topical antiglaucoma drugs. Material & method: In this study, forty consecutive cases of newly diagnosed primary open angle glaucoma were recruited. After taking a detailed history, an ophthalmological examination and a systemic examination including resting pulse rate, blood pressure, ECG, auscultation of the chest and spirometry were performed. Then the patients were randomly divided into four groups and one of the four topical anti glaucoma medication (Timolol, Latanoprost, Brimonidine, and Dorzolamide) prescribed. Patients were reviewed 4 weeks later and the same ocular and systemic examinations were performed. Result: Timolol therapy reduced all the spirometry parameters that are statistically significant difference with the P value of less than 0.1. Timolol therapy resulted in the mean reduction of pulse rate by 3.2 beats/ minute and a mean reduction of systolic and diastolic blood pressure by 5.8 mmHg and 5.6 mmHg, respectively all the spirometry & cardiovascular parameters remained unchanged in the other three groups after 4 weeks of treatment. Conclusion: Timolol significantly affects the cardiopulmonary status. Therefore, we could advice the assessment of cardiopulmonary status mandatory in patients receiving topical beta-blockers. Bronchospasm may be of clinical significance in the elderly, who commonly have undiagnosed reversible airway obstruction.


Assuntos
Pressão Sanguínea/efeitos dos fármacos , Glaucoma de Ângulo Aberto/tratamento farmacológico , Frequência Cardíaca/efeitos dos fármacos , Respiração/efeitos dos fármacos , Timolol/administração & dosagem , Administração Tópica , Antagonistas Adrenérgicos beta/administração & dosagem , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Seguimentos , Glaucoma de Ângulo Aberto/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Pressão Intraocular/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Soluções Oftálmicas , Estudos Prospectivos , Espirometria
16.
Khirurgiia (Mosk) ; (7): 63-70, 2019.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31355817

RESUMO

AIM: Structural and functional analysis of cells from purulent-necrotic wounds in patients with diabetic foot syndrome undergoing ultrasonic treatment with 0.2% Lavasept solution. MATERIAL AND METHODS: It is presented morphological/ultrastructural analysis of wound specimens in 90 (DFS) patients aged 27-80 years with diabetic foot syndrome and purulent-necrotic complications who were hospitalized in the department of wounds and wound infections of the Vishnevsky Institute of Surgery in 2013-2016. Main group consisted of 75 patients, control group - 15 patients. Mean age was 58.4±8.2 years. All patients had diabetes mellitus type II for previous 13±4.5 years. Severity of foot tissue damage was assessed according to Wagner classification (F. Wagner, 1981). 46 (51.1%) patients had Wagner III-IV, 44 (48.9%) patients - Wagner II. Complex treatment included radical surgical management of purulent lesion, surgical revascularization for critical limb ischemia and foot reconstruction at the final stage. Additional measures were complete unloading of the foot, correction of carbohydrate metabolism and concomitant diseases. Topical treatment between surgical stages included dressing with 1.0% betadine solution (once a day). Ultrasonic cavitation was additionally applied in the main group. Electron microscopic examination of specimens was used before treatment, after 3-5 and 7-10 days in order to assess effectiveness of ultrasound cavitation for purulent-necrotic complications of DFS. RESULTS: Ultrasound cavitation with 0.2% Lavasept solution effectively cleans wounds from microbial and cellular detritus, destroys cellular membranes of biofilm-forming microorganisms, prevents their redo development and reinfection of the wound. Effective management of the wounds accelerates reparative processes that allows to perform foot reconstruction early.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos Locais/administração & dosagem , Biguanidas/administração & dosagem , Pé Diabético/cirurgia , Necrose/cirurgia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Ultrassônicos , Administração Tópica , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Pé Diabético/tratamento farmacológico , Pé Diabético/patologia , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Necrose/tratamento farmacológico , Necrose/patologia , Soluções/administração & dosagem
17.
AAPS PharmSciTech ; 20(6): 240, 2019 Jun 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31250221

RESUMO

Sunscreens are widely prescribed and used to prevent skin cancer; however, they have been reported to contain various chemicals which mimic hormones and disrupt hormonal functioning in humans. The aim of this study was to develop topical nanogel for skin cancer prevention using an antioxidant compound quercetin (Qu) and inorganic titanium dioxide (TiO2). Two formulations of Qu nanocrystals were optimized with low and high concentration of drug using the Box-Behnken design with the quadratic response surface model and further homogenized with TiO2. Qu nanocrystal (0.08% and 0.12%) formulations showed a particle size of 249.65 ± 2.84 nm and 352.48 ± 3.56 nm with zeta potential of - 14.7 ± 0.41 mV and - 19.6 ± 0.37 mV and drug content of 89.27 ± 1.39% and 90.38 ± 1.81% respectively. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images showed rod-shaped nanocrystals with a particle size below 400 nm. Qu (0.08%), Qu (0.12%), Qu (0.12%) + TiO2 (5%), and Qu (0.12%) + TiO2 (15%) nanogels showed over 70% drug release with significantly (p < 0.001) enhanced skin deposition of Qu as compare with Qu suspension within 24 h. The average numbers of tumor, tumor volume, and percentage of animals with tumors at onset in the Qu (0.12%) + TiO2 (15%) nanogel-pretreated group was found to be significantly (p < 0.05) less as compared with the UV only exposed group. Further, Qu (0.12%) + TiO2 (15%) nanogel significantly (p < 0.001) downregulated COX-2, EP3, EP4, PCNA, and cyclin D1 expressions in contrast to Qu and TiO2 only pretreated groups. Therefore, novel combination of Qu (0.12%) + TiO2 (15%) with enhanced skin deposition can be used as a chemopreventive strategy in UVB-induced skin photocarcinogenesis.


Assuntos
Quimioprevenção/métodos , Géis/administração & dosagem , Nanoestruturas/administração & dosagem , Neoplasias Induzidas por Radiação/prevenção & controle , Quercetina/farmacologia , Neoplasias Cutâneas/prevenção & controle , Pele/efeitos dos fármacos , Protetores Solares/farmacologia , Titânio/farmacologia , Raios Ultravioleta , Administração Tópica , Animais , Combinação de Medicamentos , Liberação Controlada de Fármacos , Humanos , Tamanho da Partícula , Polietilenoglicóis/química , Quercetina/administração & dosagem , Quercetina/química , Pele/metabolismo , Protetores Solares/administração & dosagem , Titânio/administração & dosagem
18.
Cornea ; 38(9): 1161-1168, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31180924

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To compare the inhibitory effects of dovitinib and bevacizumab for treatment of corneal neovascularization (CNV). METHODS: Thirty-nine adult female Sprague Dawley rats weighing 180 to 250 g were used. CNV was induced by silver nitrate in the right eye of each rat. After the chemical burn, the animals were randomized into 5 groups. Group 1 did not receive any chemical substance. Group 2 received dimethyl sulfoxide, group 3 received bevacizumab 5 mg/mL, group 4 received dovitinib 5 mg/mL, and group 5 received bevacizumab 5 mg/mL + dovitinib 5 mg/mL topically administered twice daily for 14 days. On the 14th day, slit-lamp examination was performed, and anterior segment photographs were taken. The corneal neovascular area was measured on photographs as the percentage of the cornea's total area using computer imaging analysis. The corneal sections were stained with hematoxylin and eosin for histopathological examination. RESULTS: A statistically significant decrease in the percentage of CNV was found in all treatment groups (group 3, group 4, and group 5) compared with the control group (group 1) (P < 0.01). A statistically significant difference in the percentage of CNV was found among group 3, group 4, and group 5 (P = 0.003). The percentage of CNV in group 4 was significantly higher than that in group 3 and group 5 (P1 = 0.004; P2 = 0.006). There was no statistically significant difference in the percentage of CNV between group 3 and group 5 (P = 0.228). CONCLUSIONS: Dovitinib is a newly developed multitargeted tyrosine kinase inhibitor. Topical administration of dovitinib effectively inhibited CNV, but this effect of dovitinib was found less than topical bevacizumab.


Assuntos
Benzimidazóis/uso terapêutico , Bevacizumab/uso terapêutico , Neovascularização da Córnea/tratamento farmacológico , Quinolonas/uso terapêutico , Administração Tópica , Inibidores da Angiogênese/uso terapêutico , Animais , Queimaduras Químicas/tratamento farmacológico , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Queimaduras Oculares/tratamento farmacológico , Feminino , Soluções Oftálmicas/administração & dosagem , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/antagonistas & inibidores
19.
Klin Monbl Augenheilkd ; 236(6): 762-766, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31195414

RESUMO

Pseudopemphigoid is a chronic disease that causes progressive conjunctival scarring, up to symplepharon formation. Phenotypically, it cannot be distinguished from true mucous membrane pemphigoid with ocular involvement. Possible triggers are ocular surface disorders and/or their therapy. About 50% of all affected patients are glaucoma patients treated with topical antiglaucomatous therapy. Lack of signs of systemic disease, unilateral findings and/or a positive history of glaucoma may be indicative of a pseudopemphigoid. In this review, the two entities will be compared and the diagnostic as well as the therapeutic approach for suspected pseudopemphigoid under topical glaucoma therapy will be presented.


Assuntos
Anti-Hipertensivos , Glaucoma , Penfigoide Mucomembranoso Benigno , Administração Tópica , Anti-Hipertensivos/administração & dosagem , Anti-Hipertensivos/efeitos adversos , Conjuntivite/etiologia , Conjuntivite/patologia , Glaucoma/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Penfigoide Mucomembranoso Benigno/induzido quimicamente , Penfigoide Mucomembranoso Benigno/complicações
20.
Turk J Ophthalmol ; 49(3): 123-129, 2019 06 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31245971

RESUMO

Objectives: To assess phosphate and osmolarity levels of chronically administered eye drops commercially available in Turkey. Materials and Methods: A total of 53 topical eye drops including 18 antiglaucoma drugs, 4 nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), 10 corticosteroids, 7 antihistaminics, and 14 artificial tears identified using the Vademecum Modern Medications Guideline (2018) were included in the study. Phosphate levels were assessed using Roche Cobas C501 analyzer (Roche Diagnostics GmbH, Mannheim, Germany) and the respective kits. Osmolarity was assessed using Vescor Vapro 5600 vapor pressure osmometer (Sanova Medical Systems, Vienna, Austria). Mean phosphate and osmolarity levels were obtained after averaging three measurements. Eye drops were categorized as isoosmolar, hypoosmolar and hyperosmolar based on physiologic tear osmolarity range (296.5±9.8 mOsm/L). Results: The highest phosphate concentration was found in the antiglaucoma group (20.3±35.4 mmol/L), followed by antihistaminics (17.3±17.9 mmol/L), corticosteroids (15.2±19.1 mmol/L), artificial tears (0.8±1.0), and NSAIDs (0.04±0.08). Percentage of medications in the hyperosmolar category was highest in the NSAI group (75%), followed by antihistaminics (43%), corticosteroids (20%), and antiglaucoma drugs (19%). Nearly all of the artificial tear formulations were in the hypoosmolar (71%) or isoosmolar (21%) categories. Conclusion: Approximately 40% of glaucoma medications and approximately 60% of corticosteroid and antihistaminic medications had a phosphate concentration higher than the physiologic tear phosphate level (1.45 mmol/L).


Assuntos
Glaucoma/tratamento farmacológico , Lubrificantes Oftálmicos/química , Fosfatos/análise , Lágrimas/química , Administração Tópica , Glaucoma/metabolismo , Humanos , Lubrificantes Oftálmicos/administração & dosagem , Concentração Osmolar , Conservantes Farmacêuticos/química
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