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1.
Math Biosci Eng ; 16(3): 1489-1524, 2019 02 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30947430

RESUMO

Product-service system (PSS) is an important way of the transformation and upgrading of modern manufacturing industry, it is also one of core development trends of intelligent manufacturing. A PSS can be configured quickly and cheaply to meet the customer's personalized product and service requirements via a PPS design platform, and a modular master structure is the core of PSS design platform. When a PSS instance is configured, it needs to determine the module types and make decisions on the types of PSS firstly, so as to build a master structure for PSS. Therefore, the decision-making on module types and customization degree is a key step to establish the PSS modular master structure. This article proposes a five-step planning method for the modular structure planning of PSS. Firstly, the PSS module types are classified based on the Kano model. Then, bi-level decision-making on modules and its properties are finished by using conjoint analysis method, includes the customer's decision-making on modules and their properties, and the manufacturer's modules and their properties, which provides support for PSS modular optimization configuration design. Finally, the proposed methodology is validated through the case of power transformer. The proposed module planning method for the PSS modular structure helps to determine the module types for PSS services solution layer and generic part layer.


Assuntos
Indústrias , Análise e Desempenho de Tarefas , Algoritmos , Simulação por Computador , Sistemas Computacionais , Tomada de Decisões , Humanos , Administração de Linha de Produção , Software , Análise de Sistemas , Integração de Sistemas
3.
Sangyo Eiseigaku Zasshi ; 60(3): 69-77, 2018 May 31.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29593176

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Occupational health staff and managers play important roles in supporting workers with mental health concerns and mutual co-operation among them is a necessary element. However, when co-operating with other professionals, several problems arise that often make such co-operation a challenge. Effective mutual actions are needed to promote such co-operation, and relationships must be formed for this purpose. Therefore, in this study, we aimed to clarify how occupational health nurses form relationships for facilitating co-operation with managers to provide support to workers with mental health concerns. METHODS: Data were collected using semi-structured interviews with 11 occupational health nurses who provide individualized mental health support and who have at least 5 years of experience as occupational health nurses. Analysis of the recorded interviews was performed using a qualitative statistical method (KJ method). RESULTS: Six elements that constitute the formation of relationships were identified. When occupational health nurses form relationships for facilitating co-operation with a manager to provide support to workers, they "form relationships through strategic communication" with them and when co-operation is required, they form a relationship by "acting in a manner that suits the manager," such as his/her character and the situation. To support this relationship, occupational health nurses "provide mental support to the manager" by listening to his/her anxiety or real intention about supporting the subordinate with mental health concerns and provide relief while understanding their burdens during the co-operation. Occupational health nurses even "provide support to the manager in their activities," which assessed the situation at the workplace as the specialist and advised the manager to understand how to concern to the subordinate specifically. In addition, they "indirectly support the manager" which included coordinating with the concerned persons so as to not excessively burden the manager. Such support promoted the "creation of systems for clear roles" of managers in supporting the subordinate with mental health concerns. DISCUSSIONS: Relationships that occupational health nurses form with their managers were the structure which formed emotional human relationships from the front or back necessity of co-operation causes and developing confidence in relationships with the foundation of emotional human relationships.


Assuntos
Comportamento Cooperativo , Transtornos Mentais/reabilitação , Relações Enfermeiro-Paciente , Enfermeiras e Enfermeiros , Enfermagem do Trabalho , Saúde do Trabalhador , Sistemas de Apoio Psicossocial , Local de Trabalho , Adulto , Comunicação , Feminino , Humanos , Transtornos Mentais/psicologia , Saúde Mental , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Enfermeiras e Enfermeiros/psicologia , Administração de Linha de Produção , Local de Trabalho/psicologia
4.
S Afr Med J ; 107(11): 939-944, 2017 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29400025

RESUMO

Progress in reducing unintended pregnancies in South Africa is slow. The implant, introduced in 2014, expanded the range of available longacting reversible contraceptives (LARCs) and held much promise. Uptake, however, has declined precipitously, in spite of its 'unmatched effectiveness' and high levels of satisfaction for most users. We propose policy and provider interventions to raise implant use, underscored by a 'LARC-first' approach. Contraceptive counselling should focus on the particular benefits of LARCs and methods be presented in order of effectiveness. Moreover, implants hold particular advantages for certain groups, especially adolescents and young women, in whom it is considered first-line contraception. Provision of immediate postpartum and post-abortion implants is safe and highly acceptable, yet remains under-utilised. Implant services at HIV and tuberculosis clinics are a key priority, as is inclusion of LARC provision within school health services. Implants could also be delivered by existing mobile outreach services, for example in sex worker programmes. Services could be built around nurses dedicated solely to providing implants, with other health workers receiving brief refresher training. Women who experience side-effects, especially abnormal bleeding, require timely interventions, following a standardised protocol, including use of medications. Encouraging return for side-effects, follow-up phone calls and home visits would raise continuation rates. Removal services require doctor support or designated nurses at specific centres. Limited access to removal services, health workers' resistance or botched procedures will further undermine implant provision. Rapid implant demonstration projects in postpartum wards, schools, outreach services and by dedicated providers may rapidly advance the field. Together, the actions outlined here will ensure that the implant fulfils its potential and reinvigorates family planning services.


Assuntos
Anticoncepção , Contracepção Reversível de Longo Prazo/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , Anticoncepção/efeitos adversos , Anticoncepção/métodos , Anticoncepção/estatística & dados numéricos , Remoção de Dispositivo/métodos , Feminino , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/organização & administração , Humanos , Administração de Linha de Produção/métodos , Administração de Linha de Produção/organização & administração , Melhoria de Qualidade/organização & administração , África do Sul
8.
Healthc Financ Manage ; 69(8): 44-7, 2015 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26548137

RESUMO

To succeed under the value-based business model, hospitals and health systems require effective service line analytics that combine inpatient and outpatient data and that incorporate quality metrics for evaluating clinical operations. When developing a framework for collection, analysis, and dissemination of service line data, healthcare organizations should focus on five key aspects of effective service line analytics: Updated service line definitions. Ability to analyze and trend service line net patient revenues by payment source. Access to accurate service line cost information across multiple dimensions with drill-through capabilities. Ability to redesign key reports based on changing requirements. Clear assignment of accountability.


Assuntos
Administração de Linha de Produção/organização & administração , Controle de Custos , Administração de Linha de Produção/estatística & dados numéricos , Garantia da Qualidade dos Cuidados de Saúde , Estados Unidos , Aquisição Baseada em Valor
11.
J Health Care Finance ; 40(3): 1-13, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25223156

RESUMO

To determine the impact of health system restructuring on the levels of hospital diversification and operating ratio this article analyzed 94 teaching hospitals and 94 community hospitals during the period 2008-2013. The 47 teaching hospitals are matched with 47 other teaching hospitals experiencing the same financial market position in 2008, but with different levels of preference for risk and diversification in their strategic plan. Covariates in the analysis included levels of hospital competition and the degree of local government planning (for example, highly regulated in New York, in contrast to Texas). Moreover, 47 nonteaching community hospitals are matched with 47 other community hospitals in 2008, having varying manager preferences for service-line diversification and risk. Diversification and operating ratio are modeled in a two-stage least squares (TSLS) framework as jointly dependent. Institutional diversification is found to yield better financial position, and the better operating profits provide the firm the wherewithal to diversify. Some services are in a growth phase, like bariatric weight-loss surgery and sleep disorder clinics. Hospital managers' preferences for risk/return potential were considered. An institution life cycle hypothesis is advanced to explain hospital behavior: boom and bust, diversification, and divestiture, occasionally leading to closure or merger.


Assuntos
Hospitais Comunitários/economia , Hospitais de Ensino/economia , Administração de Linha de Produção/organização & administração , Pesquisas sobre Serviços de Saúde , New York , Gestão de Riscos , Estados Unidos
12.
J Healthc Manag ; 59(4): 263-71, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25154124

RESUMO

In the current period of health industry reform, accountable care organizations (ACOs) have emerged as a new model for the delivery of high-quality and cost-effective healthcare. However, few ACOs operate in direct competition with one another, and the accountable care business model has yet to present a means of continually developing new marginal value for patients and network partners. With value-based purchasing and patient consumerism strengthening as market forces, ACOs must build organizational sustainability and competitive advantage to meet the value demands set by customers and competitors. This essay proposes a strategy, adapted from the disciplines of agile software development and Lean product development, through which ACOs can engage internal and external customers in the development of new products that will provide sustainability and competitive advantage to the organization by decreasing waste in development, promoting specialized knowledge, and closely targeting customer value.


Assuntos
Organizações de Assistência Responsáveis , Competição Econômica/organização & administração , Modelos Organizacionais , Administração de Linha de Produção/organização & administração , Estados Unidos , Aquisição Baseada em Valor
13.
Harv Bus Rev ; 92(4): 86-92, 132, 2014 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24830284

RESUMO

Climate change presents clear and pressing threats to business--materials and product shortages, price volatility, legal bans or consumer backlash, and damaged transportation infrastructure, to name just a few. But there are opportunities as well. Lowitt, a consultant in the sustainability field, has developed a series of detailed checklists that will help smart managers reduce operational, regulatory, and reputational risk while finding new ways to cut costs, improve performance, enhance customer relationships, and otherwise increase competitiveness. The checklist recommendations, tested and refined through Lowitt's research into and work with firms including Coca-Cola, GE, and Owens Corning, cover four broad areas in the product life cycle: sourcing, manufacturing, distribution, and consumption. Actions range from educating and incentivizing employees to use climate change-conscious behavior to measuring and reporting key metrics to determining when alternative materials, methods, sites, or contract partners may be called for. Like any such tool, the checklists don't provide a one-size-fits-all plan. Rather, they equip executives to customize their strategies according to factors such as their goods and services, risk tolerance, customer needs, and reliance on third parties throughout the value chain.


Assuntos
Mudança Climática , Comércio , Eficiência Organizacional , Objetivos Organizacionais , Lista de Checagem , Humanos , Equipes de Administração Institucional , Pesquisa Operacional , Técnicas de Planejamento , Administração de Linha de Produção
14.
ScientificWorldJournal ; 2014: 354246, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24683333

RESUMO

Recently, most healthcare organizations focus their attention on reducing the cost of their supply chain management (SCM) by improving the decision making pertaining processes' efficiencies. The availability of products through healthcare SCM is often a matter of life or death to the patient; therefore, trial and error approaches are not an option in this environment. Simulation and modeling (SM) has been presented as an alternative approach for supply chain managers in healthcare organizations to test solutions and to support decision making processes associated with various SCM problems. This paper presents and analyzes past SM efforts to support decision making in healthcare SCM and identifies the key challenges associated with healthcare SCM modeling. We also present and discuss emerging technologies to meet these challenges.


Assuntos
Sistemas de Apoio a Decisões Administrativas , Técnicas de Apoio para a Decisão , Assistência à Saúde , Alocação de Recursos para a Atenção à Saúde/métodos , Modelos Organizacionais , Modelos Teóricos , Administração de Linha de Produção/métodos , Simulação por Computador , Eficiência Organizacional , Pennsylvania
17.
Indian J Public Health ; 57(4): 203-7, 2013.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24351379

RESUMO

This article presents information on the medical equipment industry in India-on production, procurement and utilization related activities of key players in the sector, in light of the current policies of liberalization and growth of a "health-care industry" in India. Policy approaches to medical equipment have been discussed elsewhere.


Assuntos
Biotecnologia , Biotecnologia/economia , Biotecnologia/legislação & jurisprudência , Biotecnologia/tendências , Gastos de Capital , Comércio , Qualidade de Produtos para o Consumidor , Equipamentos para Diagnóstico , Humanos , Índia , Indústrias , Administração de Linha de Produção , Transferência de Tecnologia
18.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 13: 199, 2013 May 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23721110

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Over 75% of the medical devices used in India are imported. Often, they are costly and maladapted to low-resource settings. We have prepared case studies of six firms in Bangalore that could contribute to solving this problem. They have developed (or are developing) innovative health care products and therefore are pioneers in the Indian health care sector, better known for its reverse engineering skills. We have sought to understand what enablers and barriers they encountered. METHODS: Information for the case studies was collected through semi-structured interviews. Initially, over 40 stakeholders of the diagnostics sector in India were interviewed to understand the sector. However the focus here is on the six featured companies. Further information was obtained from company material and other published resources. RESULTS: In all cases, product innovation has been enabled by close interaction with local medical practitioners, links to global science and technology and global regulatory requirements. The major challenges were the lack of guidance on product specifications from the national regulatory agency, paucity of institutionalized health care payers and lack of transparency and formalized Health Technology Assessment in coverage decision-making. The absence of national evidence-based guidelines and of compulsory continuous education for medical practitioners were key obstacles in accessing the poorly regulated and fragmented private market. CONCLUSIONS: Innovative Indian companies would benefit from a strengthened capacity and interdisciplinary work culture of the national device regulatory body, institutionalized health care payers and medical councils and associations. Continuous medical education and national medical guidelines for medical practitioners would facilitate market access for innovative products.


Assuntos
Biotecnologia/organização & administração , Transferência de Tecnologia , Fortalecimento Institucional , Financiamento de Capital , Comércio , Qualidade de Produtos para o Consumidor/legislação & jurisprudência , Qualidade de Produtos para o Consumidor/normas , Equipamentos para Diagnóstico/economia , Equipamentos para Diagnóstico/normas , Setor de Assistência à Saúde , Humanos , Índia , Indústrias , Entrevistas como Assunto , Afiliação Institucional , Estudos de Casos Organizacionais , Administração de Linha de Produção
19.
Eur J Contracept Reprod Health Care ; 18(3): 221-9, 2013 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23557361

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To present the history of social marketing of modern contraceptives in Albania. METHODS: We review documentation and activity of NESMARK, an Albanian non-governmental social marketing organisation, and national data on adoption of modern contraception. RESULTS: During 15 years of awareness raising, sales of affordable products, and provider training, NESMARK has impacted the introduction and adoption of modern contraception in Albania. NESMARK is the country's main distributor of emergency contraception (EC) and complements the public sector in the distribution of condoms and oral contraceptives. NESMARK has made major efforts to overcome prevalent taboos and misinformation held by medical and nursing personnel, pharmacists and the general public, regarding the effectiveness and safety of condoms, oral contraceptives, and EC. CONCLUSIONS: NESMARK has contributed to increasing the choices for modern contraception methods in Albania by providing affordable contraceptives, training providers, and educating the general population. However, widespread use of withdrawal coupled with the belief that it is as or more effective than modern contraception, continues to limit uptake of new methods and is a significant challenge to comprehensive and sustained social marketing programmes.


Assuntos
Anticoncepcionais/economia , Anticoncepcionais/provisão & distribução , Serviços de Planejamento Familiar , Setor Privado/organização & administração , Marketing Social , Albânia , Preservativos/provisão & distribução , Anticoncepção Pós-Coito/métodos , Anticoncepcionais Orais/provisão & distribução , Difusão de Inovações , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Administração de Linha de Produção
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