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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33081367

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has swept the world like a gigantic tsunami, turning social and economic activities upside down. METHODS: This paper presents some of the innovative response strategies implemented by the public health system, healthcare facilities, and government in South Korea, which has been hailed as the model country for its success in containing COVID-19. Korea reinvented its public health infrastructure with a sense of urgency. RESULTS: Korea's success rests on its readiness, with the capacity for massive testing and obtaining prompt test results, effective contact tracing based on its world-leading mobile technologies, timely provision of personal protective equipment (PPE) to first responders, effective treatment of infected patients, and invoking citizens' community and civic conscience for the shared goal of defeating the pandemic. The lessons learned from Korea's response in countering the onslaught of COVID-19 provide unique implications for public healthcare administrators and operations management practitioners. CONCLUSION: Since many epidemic experts warn of a second wave of COVID-19, the lessons learned from the first wave will be a valuable resource for responding to the resurgence of the virus.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Difusão de Inovações , Governo , Administração de Instituições de Saúde , Humanos , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Administração em Saúde Pública , República da Coreia/epidemiologia
2.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 69(39): 1398-1403, 2020 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33001876

RESUMO

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a viral respiratory illness caused by SARS-CoV-2. During January 21-July 25, 2020, in response to official requests for assistance with COVID-19 emergency public health response activities, CDC deployed 208 teams to assist 55 state, tribal, local, and territorial health departments. CDC deployment data were analyzed to summarize activities by deployed CDC teams in assisting state, tribal, local, and territorial health departments to identify and implement measures to contain SARS-CoV-2 transmission (1). Deployed teams assisted with the investigation of transmission in high-risk congregate settings, such as long-term care facilities (53 deployments; 26% of total), food processing facilities (24; 12%), correctional facilities (12; 6%), and settings that provide services to persons experiencing homelessness (10; 5%). Among the 208 deployed teams, 178 (85%) provided assistance to state health departments, 12 (6%) to tribal health departments, 10 (5%) to local health departments, and eight (4%) to territorial health departments. CDC collaborations with health departments have strengthened local capacity and provided outbreak response support. Collaborations focused attention on health equity issues among disproportionately affected populations (e.g., racial and ethnic minority populations, essential frontline workers, and persons experiencing homelessness) and through a place-based focus (e.g., persons living in rural or frontier areas). These collaborations also facilitated enhanced characterization of COVID-19 epidemiology, directly contributing to CDC data-informed guidance, including guidance for serial testing as a containment strategy in high-risk congregate settings, targeted interventions and prevention efforts among workers at food processing facilities, and social distancing.


Assuntos
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, U.S./organização & administração , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Administração em Saúde Pública , Prática de Saúde Pública , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Humanos , Governo Local , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Governo Estadual , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
6.
J Allied Health ; 49(3): 228-229, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32877482

RESUMO

Local governments, especially in rural settings, may look to collaborate with neighboring communities to maintain public health services and efficiencies in face of restrictive local budgets. Cross-jurisdictional partnerships of rural health departments have allowed offering an increased range of prevention programs and community health initiatives. Genesee and Orleans counties, in rural Western New York, developed a cross-jurisdictional partnership 7 years ago which has been integral for the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) response for both county health departments. Using a cross-jurisdictional partnership and a joint incident command structure has allowed a coordinated approach towards contact tracing of COVID-19 confirmed cases.


Assuntos
Busca de Comunicante/métodos , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Governo Local , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Administração em Saúde Pública/métodos , Betacoronavirus , Comportamento Cooperativo , Humanos , Pandemias , Estados Unidos
7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32907528

RESUMO

Cumulatively to 30 August there have been 25,686 case notifications and 577 deaths. The number of new cases reported nationally this fortnight was 1,751, a 61% decrease from the previous fortnight (4,501). On average this represented 125 cases diagnosed each day over the reporting period, a decrease from 322 cases per day over the previous reporting period. 94% (1,640) of all cases were reported in Victoria, with a smaller number of cases reported from New South Wales (86), Queensland (19), Western Australia (5) and South Australia (1). In Victoria, the majority of cases (1,528; 93%) were locally acquired, with a further 112 (7%) under investigation at the time of analysis, but likely also to be locally acquired. Of the remaining 111 cases reported, 22 (20%) were overseas acquired; 82 (74%) were locally acquired, predominantly in NSW, and 7 (6%) were reported as under investigation. The continued decrease in new cases observed this fortnight in Victoria is likely associated with the enhanced public health measures that are currently in place in Victoria. Locally acquired cases which were predominantly associated with several interconnected clusters continued to be reported in NSW. In Qld a cluster of cases associated with a youth detention centre was identified. A total of 26 deaths were reported from cases diagnosed in this reporting period, all from Victoria and aged 75 years or older. Testing rates remain high across all jurisdictions, with an overall positivity rate for the reporting period of 0.27%. Victoria reported a positivity rate of 0.90% for this reporting period; in all other jurisdictions the positivity rate was 0.03% or lower.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Austrália/epidemiologia , Betacoronavirus/genética , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Análise por Conglomerados , Infecções por Coronavirus/mortalidade , Saúde Global , Humanos , Lactente , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Grupo com Ancestrais Oceânicos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/mortalidade , Administração em Saúde Pública , Adulto Jovem
8.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0238491, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32936804

RESUMO

As the most visible face of health expertise to the general public, health agencies have played a central role in alerting the public to the emerging COVID-19 threat, providing guidance for protective action, motivating compliance with health directives, and combating misinformation. Social media platforms such as Twitter have been a critical tool in this process, providing a communication channel that allows both rapid dissemination of messages to the public at large and individual-level engagement. Message dissemination and amplification is a necessary precursor to reaching audiences, both online and off, as well as inspiring action. Therefore, it is valuable for organizational risk communication to identify strategies and practices that may lead to increased message passing among online users. In this research, we examine message features shown in prior disasters to increase or decrease message retransmission under imminent threat conditions to develop models of official risk communicators' messages shared online from February 1, 2020-April 30, 2020. We develop a lexicon of keywords associated with risk communication about the pandemic response, then use automated coding to identify message content and message structural features. We conduct chi-square analyses and negative binomial regression modeling to identify the strategies used by official risk communicators that respectively increase and decrease message retransmission. Findings show systematic changes in message strategies over time and identify key features that affect message passing, both positively and negatively. These results have the potential to aid in message design strategies as the pandemic continues, or in similar future events.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes , Comunicação , Infecções por Coronavirus , Disseminação de Informação/métodos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Mídias Sociais , Distribuição de Qui-Quadrado , Emergências , Serviços Médicos de Emergência/organização & administração , Órgãos Governamentais , Humanos , Internet , Meios de Comunicação de Massa , Modelos Estatísticos , Modelos Teóricos , Administração em Saúde Pública , Gestão da Segurança , Mídias Sociais/estatística & dados numéricos
9.
Sensors (Basel) ; 20(17)2020 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32887338

RESUMO

COVID-19 has shown a relatively low case fatality rate in young healthy individuals, with the majority of this group being asymptomatic or having mild symptoms. However, the severity of the disease among the elderly as well as in individuals with underlying health conditions has caused significant mortality rates worldwide. Understanding this variance amongst different sectors of society and modelling this will enable the different levels of risk to be determined to enable strategies to be applied to different groups. Long-established compartmental epidemiological models like SIR and SEIR do not account for the variability encountered in the severity of the SARS-CoV-2 disease across different population groups. The objective of this study is to investigate how a reduction in the exposure of vulnerable individuals to COVID-19 can minimise the number of deaths caused by the disease, using the UK as a case study. To overcome the limitation of long-established compartmental epidemiological models, it is proposed that a modified model, namely SEIR-v, through which the population is separated into two groups regarding their vulnerability to SARS-CoV-2 is applied. This enables the analysis of the spread of the epidemic when different contention measures are applied to different groups in society regarding their vulnerability to the disease. A Monte Carlo simulation (100,000 runs) along the proposed SEIR-v model is used to study the number of deaths which could be avoided as a function of the decrease in the exposure of vulnerable individuals to the disease. The results indicate a large number of deaths could be avoided by a slight realistic decrease in the exposure of vulnerable groups to the disease. The mean values across the simulations indicate 3681 and 7460 lives could be saved when such exposure is reduced by 10% and 20% respectively. From the encouraging results of the modelling a number of mechanisms are proposed to limit the exposure of vulnerable individuals to the disease. One option could be the provision of a wristband to vulnerable people and those without a smartphone and contact-tracing app, filling the gap created by systems relying on smartphone apps only. By combining very dense contact tracing data from smartphone apps and wristband signals with information about infection status and symptoms, vulnerable people can be protected and kept safer.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa/estatística & dados numéricos , Modelos Teóricos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Saúde Pública/métodos , Quarentena/organização & administração , Populações Vulneráveis , Busca de Comunicante/métodos , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Surtos de Doenças/prevenção & controle , Diretrizes para o Planejamento em Saúde , Necessidades e Demandas de Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Controle de Infecções/métodos , Controle de Infecções/organização & administração , Controle de Infecções/estatística & dados numéricos , Invenções/estatística & dados numéricos , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Serviços Preventivos de Saúde/métodos , Serviços Preventivos de Saúde/organização & administração , Serviços Preventivos de Saúde/normas , Saúde Pública/estatística & dados numéricos , Administração em Saúde Pública/métodos , Quarentena/métodos , Quarentena/estatística & dados numéricos , Reino Unido/epidemiologia , Populações Vulneráveis/estatística & dados numéricos
11.
Br J Hosp Med (Lond) ; 81(8): 1-3, 2020 Aug 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32845762

RESUMO

The UK death toll from COVID-19 is currently the fourth worst in the world behind the USA, Brazil and Mexico. Possible reasons include delays in lockdown, the provision of scientific advice to government and the decisions that government made based on the information they were given. When we review our performance and plan for the next public health crisis, we need to be brave enough to dare to challenge the NHS and its advisors.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Medicina Estatal/organização & administração , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/mortalidade , Planejamento em Desastres/organização & administração , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/organização & administração , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/estatística & dados numéricos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/mortalidade , Administração em Saúde Pública , Reino Unido/epidemiologia
12.
Public Health Rep ; 135(1_suppl): 75S-81S, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32735184

RESUMO

Policies facilitating integration of public health programs can improve the public health response, but the literature on approaches to integration across multiple system levels is limited. We describe the efforts of the Massachusetts Department of Public Health to integrate its HIV, viral hepatitis, sexually transmitted infection (STI), and tuberculosis response through policies that mandated contracted organizations to submit specimens for testing to the Massachusetts State Public Health Laboratory; co-test blood specimens for HIV, hepatitis C virus (HCV), and syphilis; integrate HIV, viral hepatitis, and STI disease surveillance and case management in a single data system; and implement an integrated infectious disease drug assistance program. From 2014 through 2018, the number of tests performed by the Massachusetts State Public Health Laboratory increased from 16 321 to 33 674 for HIV, from 11 054 to 33 670 for HCV, and from 19 169 to 30 830 for syphilis. Service contracts enabled rapid response to outbreaks of HIV, hepatitis A, and hepatitis B. Key challenges included lack of a billing infrastructure at the Massachusetts State Public Health Laboratory; the need to complete negotiations with insurers and to establish a retained revenue account to receive health insurance reimbursements for testing services; and time to train testing providers in phlebotomy for required testing. Investing in laboratory infrastructure; creating billing mechanisms to maximize health insurance reimbursement; proactively engaging providers, community members, and other stakeholders; and building capacity to transform practices are needed. Using multilevel policy approaches to integrate the public health response to HIV, STI, viral hepatitis, and tuberculosis is feasible and adaptable to other public health programs.


Assuntos
Serviços Contratados/organização & administração , Seguro Saúde/organização & administração , Administração em Saúde Pública/métodos , Vigilância em Saúde Pública/métodos , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/diagnóstico , Serviços Contratados/economia , Serviços Contratados/normas , Política de Saúde , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Hepatite/diagnóstico , Humanos , Seguro Saúde/economia , Seguro Saúde/legislação & jurisprudência , Seguro Saúde/normas , Reembolso de Seguro de Saúde/economia , Reembolso de Seguro de Saúde/legislação & jurisprudência , Reembolso de Seguro de Saúde/normas , Relações Interinstitucionais , Massachusetts , Estudos de Casos Organizacionais , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Administração em Saúde Pública/economia , Administração em Saúde Pública/legislação & jurisprudência , Administração em Saúde Pública/normas , Sífilis/diagnóstico
15.
Nihon Koshu Eisei Zasshi ; 67(7): 435-441, 2020.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32741874

RESUMO

 Japan is currently one of the countries with a long life expectancy, in which a great number of older people need care for their daily living. Japan has become increasingly internationalized due to an increase in foreigners and international marriages. As the number of elderly foreigners and foreign-born Japanese increase, older adults who do not use Japanese as their first language will need more opportunities to receive care. We examined characteristics such as country of origin, language spoken, lifestyle, living environment, and cultural background of elderly people who were either foreign permanent residents living in Japan or foreign-born Japanese (hereinafter referred to as elderly with an international background, in short, EIB) receiving care support. Ichushi-web, a medical literature database, was used [last search date: June 2, 2018]. These searches extracted 205 papers. After the first and second extraction procedures, only two papers matched this theme. These two reports were for Korean residents in Japan, so-called special permanent residents, and repatriates from China and their spouses, many of whom were aged 75 years old and above. The number of permanent residents in Japan who speak a foreign language as their first language is increasing. Inhibition of communication between EIB and healthcare welfare service providers is expected to be an obstacle while accessing care support services. For this reason, we must provide them with information related to Japanese healthcare services. Medical interpretation efforts are scattered and the response to EIB in the event of disasters has been discussed. From the perspective of multicultural coexistence, it is necessary to provide long-term care insurance services and medical services to EIB. Such efforts may include development and sharing of tools and the placement of staff who can communicate with non-Japanese speakers. Staff must also understand various illness- and health awareness-related issues. In the future, considering the increasing number of EIB who may require care services, we must consider cultural backgrounds and language diversification for EIB. These issues require clarification and development of acceptable solutions.


Assuntos
Barreiras de Comunicação , Cultura , Emigrantes e Imigrantes , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Fatores Etários , Feminino , Humanos , Japão , Masculino , Administração em Saúde Pública , Sociedades Científicas/organização & administração
16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32806697

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic has changed the orders and structures of societies, particularly in the fields of medical and nursing professions. The researcher aims to understand the experiences, sense of belonging, and decision-making processes about Japanese pre-service nursing students and how the COVID-19 pandemic, social distancing, and lockdown has influenced their understanding as pre-service nursing professionals in Japan. As this study focuses on the issues of pre-service nursing students, the researcher invited forty-nine pre-service nursing students for a virtual interview due to the recommendation of social distancing. To increase the coverage of the population, the researcher employed snowball sampling to recruit participants from all over Japan. Although the COVID-19 pandemic influenced the overall performance of the medical and nursing professions, all participants showed a sense of belonging as Japanese citizens and nursing professionals due to the natural disaster of their country. More importantly, all expressed their desires and missions to upgrade and improve the overall performance of the public health system due to the influence of the COVID-19 pandemic. The results discovered that many Japanese nursing students advocated that Japan's national development, the benefits and advantages of their country, were of a greater importance than their own personal development and goals.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Educação em Enfermagem/organização & administração , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Estudantes de Enfermagem/psicologia , Betacoronavirus , Escolha da Profissão , Tomada de Decisões , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto , Japão/epidemiologia , Desastres Naturais , Pandemias , Administração em Saúde Pública/normas , Qualidade da Assistência à Saúde/organização & administração
18.
Healthc Q ; 23(2): 16-17, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32762814

RESUMO

As a chief nurse in Ontario during the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) outbreak in 2003, I never thought I would experience anything even remotely similar, let alone exponentially worse, in my lifetime. Seventeen years and almost 17,000 km later, the COVID-19 crisis feels eerily similar in many ways, and completely different in others.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus , Surtos de Doenças/prevenção & controle , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave , Austrália/epidemiologia , Betacoronavirus , Canadá/epidemiologia , Administração Hospitalar , Humanos , Administração em Saúde Pública/métodos , Quarentena/organização & administração
19.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(36): 21851-21853, 2020 09 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32820078

RESUMO

Mandatory and voluntary mask policies may have yet unknown social and behavioral consequences related to the effectiveness of the measure, stigmatization, and perceived fairness. Serial cross-sectional data (April 14 to May 26, 2020) from nearly 7,000 German participants demonstrate that implementing a mandatory policy increased actual compliance despite moderate acceptance; mask wearing correlated positively with other protective behaviors. A preregistered experiment (n = 925) further indicates that a voluntary policy would likely lead to insufficient compliance, would be perceived as less fair, and could intensify stigmatization. A mandatory policy appears to be an effective, fair, and socially responsible solution to curb transmissions of airborne viruses.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Máscaras/estatística & dados numéricos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Administração em Saúde Pública/legislação & jurisprudência , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Estudos Transversais , Alemanha/epidemiologia , Fidelidade a Diretrizes/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Programas Obrigatórios/estatística & dados numéricos , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Comportamento de Redução do Risco , Comportamento Social , Programas Voluntários/estatística & dados numéricos
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