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1.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 2787, 2022 02 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35181701

RESUMO

Early school times fundamentally clash with the late sleep of teenagers. This mismatch results in chronic sleep deprivation posing acute and long-term health risks and impairing students' learning. Despite immediate short-term benefits for sleep, the long-term effects of later starts remain unresolved. In a pre-post design over 1 year, we studied a unique flexible school start system, in which 10-12th grade students chose daily between an 8:00 or 8:50AM-start. Missed study time (8:00-8:50) was compensated for during gap periods or after classes. Based on 2 waves (6-9 weeks of sleep diary each), we found that students maintained their ~ 1-h-sleep gain on later days, longitudinally (n = 28) and cross-sectionally (n = 79). This gain was independent of chronotype and frequency of later starts but attenuated for boys after 1 year. Students showed persistently better sleep quality and reduced alarm-driven waking and reported psychological benefits (n = 93) like improved motivation, concentration, and study quality on later days. Nonetheless, students chose later starts only infrequently (median 2 days/week), precluding detectable sleep extensions in the flexible system overall. Reasons for not choosing late starts were the need to make up lost study time, preference for extra study time and transport issues. Whether flexible systems constitute an appealing alternative to fixed delays given possible circadian and psychological advantages warrants further investigation.


Assuntos
Ritmo Circadiano/fisiologia , Privação do Sono/psicologia , Sono/fisiologia , Adolescente/fisiologia , Adulto , Escolaridade , Feminino , Alemanha/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores de Risco , Instituições Acadêmicas , Privação do Sono/epidemiologia , Privação do Sono/fisiopatologia , Estudantes/psicologia , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
2.
An. Fac. Cienc. Méd. (Asunción) ; 54(3): 17-24, Dec. 2021.
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-1352899

RESUMO

Introducción: La actividad física insuficiente es uno de los principales problemas de salud pública a nivel global. Los patrones de conducta en los adolescentes, y el estilo de vida, podrían afectar su salud física y mental. Objetivos: El objetivo de este estudio fue conocer los patrones de actividad física y los comportamientos sedentarios en la población de adolescentes a nivel nacional. Materiales y métodos: Estudio cuantitativo, observacional, descriptivo de corte transverso, se aplicó el cuestionario de la Encuesta Global de Salud Escolar en adolescentes escolares del octavo y noveno grados del 3° ciclo de la Educación Escolar Básica y al 1°, 2° y 3° cursos de la Educación Media de 49 escuelas y colegios del país. En este estudio fueron incluidos 1.803 estudiantes de edades comprendidas entre 13 a 15 años. Resultados: El 27% de los adolescentes de 13 a 15 años de Paraguay son activos, siendo significativamente mayor en hombres que en mujeres (p-valor 0,000) y el 22% son inactivos con mayor frecuencia en mujeres que en hombres (p-valor 0,000). Se observo que el 33,5% de los adolescentes tenían comportamiento sedentario, el 43,4% de los adolescentes no utilizo el desplazamiento activo para asistir a la escuela. Los adolescentes que no participaron de las clases de educación física en la escuela representaron el15,6%. Conclusión: Si bien en un 27% los adolescentes de 13 a 15 años son activos, es preocupante el gran porcentaje de adolescentes inactivos y con comportamiento sedentario.


Introduction: Insufficient physical activity is one of the main public health problems globally. Teen behavior patterns and lifestyle may affect their physical and mental health. Objectives: The objective of this study was to know the patterns of physical activity and sedentary behaviors in the adolescent population nationwide. Materials and methods: A quantitative, observational, descriptive cross-sectional study, the questionnaire of the Global School Health Survey was applied in school adolescents of the eighth and ninth grades of the 3rd cycle of Basic School Education and the 1st, 2nd and 3rd year of Secondary Education in 49 schools and colleges in the country. 1,803 students aged 13 to 15 years were included in this study. Results: 27% of adolescents between the ages of 13 and 15 in Paraguay are active, being significantly higher in men than in women (p-value 0.000) and 22% are inactive more frequently in women than in men (p-value 0.000). It was observed that 33.5% of the adolescents had sedentary behavior, 43.4% of the adolescents did not use active displacement to attend school. Adolescents who did not participate in physical education classes at school accounted for 15.6%. Conclusion: Although 27% of adolescents between the ages of 13 and 15 are active, the large percentage of inactive adolescents with sedentary behavior is worrying.


Assuntos
Exercício Físico , Comportamento Sedentário , Reconhecimento Automatizado de Padrão/classificação , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Adolescente/fisiologia
3.
Arq. ciências saúde UNIPAR ; 25(1): 25-30, jan-abr. 2021.
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-1151401

RESUMO

O objetivo do estudo foi analisar a composição corporal com utilização do DXA e correlacioná-la com a idade cronológica em adolescentes pós-púberes, de ambos os sexos. Participaram da pesquisa 46 adolescentes em fase pós-puberal, sendo 27 meninas (17,23±0,98) e 19 meninos (17,65±0,74) de ensino médio de uma escola estadual da Zona Sul da cidade do Rio de Janeiro. Foram realizadas uma anamnese, avaliação antropométrica e o DXA para avaliações. O teste U de Mann Whitney e o coeficiente de correlação de Spearman foram utilizados, adotando P<0,05 para significância. Verificou-se que as meninas apresentam composição corporal diferentedos meninos (P<0,05) e que com o aumento da idade elas tendem a diminuir o percentual de gordura, embora tenha sido observado um quantitativo alto de meninas com percentual de gordura elevado. Os meninos apresentaram uma tendência de aumento do percentual de gordura e da massa magra com o aumento da idade. As medidas de conteúdo e densidade mineral ósseo dentro da normalidade, com tendência de aumento com o avanço da idade cronológica. Conclui-se que os grupos masculino e feminino apresentaram comportamentos diferenciados quanto à composição corporal e os valores apresentados trazem mais um complemento à literatura a respeito de referências para a composição corporal, obtida com o DXA, em adolescentes pós-púberes.


The purpose of this study was to analyze body composition using DXA and correlate it with chronological age in post-pubertal adolescents of both genders. A total of 46 adolescents participated in the study, of which 27 were girls (17.23±0.98) and 19 boys (17.65±0.74) from a state school in the South District in the city of Rio de Janeiro. An anamnesis, anthropometric evaluation and DXA were performed for evaluations. The Mann-Whitney U test and the Spearman correlation coefficient were used, adopting P <0.05 for significance. Girls were found to have a different body composition than boys (P <0.05) and that, with increasing age, they tended to present a decrease in fat percentage, although in general a high number of girls presented a high fat level. The boys presented a tendency to increase the percentage of fat and lean mass with the increase of the age. Measurements of bone mineral content and density were considered as being within normality, with a tendency to increase with the advancing of the chronological age. Girls and boys present a different behavior regarding body composition and the values presented in this study bring an addition to the literature regarding body composition references through DXA in post-pubertal adolescents.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adolescente , Composição Corporal/fisiologia , Pesos e Medidas Corporais , Puberdade/fisiologia , Peso-Estatura/fisiologia , Densidade Óssea/fisiologia , Estado Nutricional , Adolescente/fisiologia , Gorduras/metabolismo , Obesidade/metabolismo
4.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(1)2021 Dec 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35008455

RESUMO

To find satisfactory treatment for nicotine addiction, synaptic and cellular mechanisms should be investigated comprehensively. Synaptic transmission, plasticity and intrinsic excitability in various brain regions are known to be altered by acute nicotine exposure. However, it has not been addressed whether and how nicotine exposure during adolescence alters these synaptic events and intrinsic excitability in the insular cortex in adulthood. To address this question, we performed whole-cell patch-clamp recordings to examine the effects of adolescent nicotine exposure on synaptic transmission, plasticity and intrinsic excitability in layer V pyramidal neurons (PNs) of the mice insular cortex five weeks after the treatment. We found that excitatory synaptic transmission and potentiation were enhanced in these neurons. Following adolescent nicotine exposure, insular layer V PNs displayed enhanced intrinsic excitability, which was reflected in changes in relationship between current strength and spike number, inter-spike interval, spike current threshold and refractory period. In addition, spike-timing precision evaluated by standard deviation of spike timing was decreased following nicotine exposure. Our data indicate that adolescent nicotine exposure enhances synaptic transmission, plasticity and intrinsic excitability in layer V PNs of the mice insular cortex at later life, which might contribute to severe nicotine dependence in adulthood.


Assuntos
Adolescente/fisiologia , Plasticidade Neuronal/efeitos dos fármacos , Nicotina/efeitos adversos , Células Piramidais/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Neurônios/efeitos dos fármacos , Técnicas de Patch-Clamp/métodos , Transmissão Sináptica/efeitos dos fármacos , Tabagismo/complicações
5.
Biomed Res Int ; 2020: 1649759, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33381543

RESUMO

Passion for computer games negatively affects the health level of schoolchildren. Among the approaches to monitoring the functional state of such schoolchildren, the most informative and painless is the study of the saliva. The study involved 45 children, aged 14.00 ± 0.21 years, and divided according to the contact's intensity with computer games. The following indicators of lipid peroxidation (LPO) were determined in the saliva: indicators of the antioxidant (AO) system, concentration of immunoglobulin A, and hormonal indicators. The significant increases in the catecholamine (adrenaline) level for 2.3 times and biogenic amine-serotonin for 35.5% and increase in the LPO-DC product concentration in gamers for 75.8% were revealed. The study of the schoolchildren's homeostasis peculiarities confirmed the adequacy of the use of biochemical techniques to assess the condition of children gamers. They have a prenosological condition. This is reflected in the increase in LPO intensity, failure of the protective AO system, imbalance of hormonal state, and immunity deterioration. Information on the evaluation of the LPO activity processes and the AO system condition and the degree of the balance's shift between prooxidants and antioxidants in biological substrates can be considered objective and very sensitive indicators of the general condition, activity, and improvement of the regulation and maintenance of homeostasis.


Assuntos
Adolescente/fisiologia , Saliva/química , Jogos de Vídeo , Saúde do Adolescente , Antioxidantes/análise , Epinefrina/análise , Humanos , Imunoglobulina A/análise , Peroxidação de Lipídeos/fisiologia , Masculino
6.
Int J Adolesc Med Health ; 33(3): 151-156, 2020 Jun 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32549141

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Most of the adult mental health disorder occurs either during childhood or adolescent stage. Assessment of positive mental health among adolescents will help in predicting the future physical and mental health outcome. Hence, this study was done to determine the prevalence and factors associated with positive mental health among adolescents in rural Puducherry. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted among adolescents (10-19 years) during April and May 2018. Mental Health Continuum-Short Form (MHC-SF), a validated questionnaire was used for the assessment of positive mental health. Prevalence of positive mental health was expressed as proportion with 95% confidence interval. RESULTS: Of the total 245 adolescents interviewed, almost half of them belonged to the age group of mid-adolescence (14-16 years). Majority (66.5%) were boys and more than one third were studying in secondary class.Prevalence of positive mental health was 51.8% (95% CI: 45.6-58.1). Mother's education between primary and secondary (aPR-0.77 95% CI: 0.60-0.98), upper middle (aPR-1.74 95% CI: 1.03-2.94) and middle socioeconomic status (aPR-1.80 95% CI: 1.11-2.87) were significantly associated with positive mental health. CONCLUSION: Current study found that more than half of the rural adolescents had positive mental health. Maternal education and upper socioeconomic status were found to be significant predictors of positive mental health. Our findings on the burden and risk factors as well as protective factors of mental health can contribute to the mental health strategy in public health action.


Assuntos
Adolescente/fisiologia , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Saúde Mental , População Rural , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Índia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
7.
Ann Agric Environ Med ; 26(2): 315-321, 2019 Jun 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31232065

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVES: The study aimed at evaluating the impact of Hymenoptera venom allergy (HVA) in children and adolescents, on their parents' QoL, taking into account their socio-demographic characteristics. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study sample consisted of 101 parents of children and adolescents aged 9-17 years, with a history of systemic reaction after insect sting who were referred for consultations in the tertiary level allergology department. The mean age of the parents was 39 years (SD=8.1; range 25-65 years); the majority were mothers (68%) and rural inhabitants (62%). QoL in parents of HVA children and adolescents was measured with the Parents of Children with Hymenoptera Venom Allergy Quality of Life Scale, a questionnaire covering 5 dimensions: anxiety, caution, limitations and discomfort, support provided to the child and feeling of safety, each measured on the scale ranging from 1 to 5. Independent predictors of QoL were estimated using the Generalized Linear Model. RESULTS: Parents of urban children and adolescents treated with venom immunotherapy (VIT) up to 3 years (B=-1.37, 95CI= (-2.22;-0.53); p=0.001) and of rural children treated for more than 3 years (B=-0.94, 95CI=(-1.55;-0.33); p=0.003) reported lower anxiety than parents studied at diagnosis. In urban parents, individuals studied at VIT beginning reported a lower feeling of safety (B=-0.63, 95CI=(-1.11;-0.15); p=0.010); those studied up to 3 years of treatment reported a higher feeling of safety (B=0.64, 95CI=(0.11;1.16); p=0.018) than those studied at diagnosis. Contrariwise, in rural parents, those studied at the beginning of immunotherapy reported a higher feeling of safety than those studied at diagnosis (B=0.51, 95CI=(0.13;0.88); p=0.008). CONCLUSIONS: The longest VIT duration in children and adolescents with HVA is related to the decreased anxiety of their parents. Parent's feeling of safety depends on the stage of treatment and place of residence.


Assuntos
Adolescente/fisiologia , Venenos de Artrópodes/imunologia , Mordeduras e Picadas de Insetos/psicologia , Pais/psicologia , Qualidade de Vida , Adulto , Idoso , Animais , Ansiedade , Venenos de Artrópodes/efeitos adversos , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Himenópteros/fisiologia , Imunoterapia , Mordeduras e Picadas de Insetos/imunologia , Mordeduras e Picadas de Insetos/terapia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos e Questionários
8.
Arthritis rheumatol. (Malden. Online) ; 71(6): [1-18], June 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | BIGG - guias GRADE, BIGG - guias GRADE | ID: biblio-1094962

RESUMO

To develop treatment recommendations for children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis manifesting as non- systemic polyarthritis, sacroiliitis, or enthesitis.Methods. The Patient/Population, Intervention, Comparison, and Outcomes (PICO) questions were developed and recined by members of the guideline development teams. A systematic review was conducted to compile evidence for the benefits and harms associated with treatments for these conditions. GRADE (Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation) methodology was used to rate the quality of evidence. A group consensus process was conducted among the Voting Panel to generate the nal recommendations and grade their strength. A Parent and Patient Panel used a similar consensus approach to provide patient/caregiver preferences for key questions. Thirty- nine recommendations were developed (8 strong and 31 conditional). The quality of supporting evidence was very low or low for 90% of the recommendations. Recommendations are provided for the use of nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs, disease- modifying antirheumatic drugs, biologics, and intraarticular and oral glucocorticoids. Recommendations for the use of physical and occupational therapy are also provided. Specific recommendations for polyarthritis address general medication use, initial and subsequent treatment, and adjunctive therapies. Good disease control, with therapeutic escalation to achieve low disease activity, was recommended. The sacroiliitis and enthesitis recommendations primarily address initial therapy and adjunctive therapies. This guideline provides direction for clinicians, caregivers, and patients making treatment decisions. Clinicians, caregivers, and patients should use a shared decision- making process that accounts for patients' values, preferences, and comorbidities. These recommendations should not be used to limit or deny access to therapies.


Assuntos
Humanos , Adolescente , Artrite Juvenil/diagnóstico , Artrite Juvenil/enfermagem , Artrite Juvenil/prevenção & controle , Especialidade de Fisioterapia/instrumentação , Artrite/complicações , Adolescente/fisiologia , Medicina Baseada em Evidências/métodos
9.
Lancet Child Adolesc Health ; 2(3): 223-228, 2018 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30169257

RESUMO

Adolescence is the phase of life stretching between childhood and adulthood, and its definition has long posed a conundrum. Adolescence encompasses elements of biological growth and major social role transitions, both of which have changed in the past century. Earlier puberty has accelerated the onset of adolescence in nearly all populations, while understanding of continued growth has lifted its endpoint age well into the 20s. In parallel, delayed timing of role transitions, including completion of education, marriage, and parenthood, continue to shift popular perceptions of when adulthood begins. Arguably, the transition period from childhood to adulthood now occupies a greater portion of the life course than ever before at a time when unprecedented social forces, including marketing and digital media, are affecting health and wellbeing across these years. An expanded and more inclusive definition of adolescence is essential for developmentally appropriate framing of laws, social policies, and service systems. Rather than age 10-19 years, a definition of 10-24 years corresponds more closely to adolescent growth and popular understandings of this life phase and would facilitate extended investments across a broader range of settings.


Assuntos
Adolescente , Adolescente/fisiologia , Criança , Desenvolvimento Infantil , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Psicologia do Adolescente
10.
State Legis ; 44(6): 10-3, 15, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30080352
11.
Am J Hum Biol ; 30(3): e23103, 2018 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29388286

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The natural abundances of carbon, nitrogen, and sulfur stable isotopes in hair, and of carbon isotopes in breath serve as quantitative biomarkers of protein and carbohydrate sources, but applicability of isotopes for evaluating children's diet has not been demonstrated. In this study, we sought to describe the stable isotope patterns observed in the hair and breath of children and to assess dietary variations in relation to age and ethnicity, hypothesizing that these would reflect dietary differences across age and ethnic groups and would correlate with intake variables derived from a Food Frequency Questionnaire. METHODS: Data were obtained from a cross-sectional study of non-Hispanic white (N = 115) and Hispanic (N = 97) children, aged 9-16 years, in Salt Lake City, Utah. Sampling included a hair sample, breath samples (AM and PM), and a youth/adolescent food questionnaire (YAQ). Hair was analyzed for carbon (δ13 C), nitrogen (δ15 N), and sulfur (δ34 S) isotopes, and breath samples for δ13 CAM/PM of respired CO2 . RESULTS: Non-Hispanic whites had lower δ13 C, δ15 N, δ13 CAM , and δ13 CPM values than Hispanics. Hair δ13 C and δ15 N values were correlated with protein sources, particularly for non-Hispanics. Breath δ13 C values were correlated with carbohydrate sources, particularly for Hispanic students. Non-Hispanic white students reported greater intake of total protein, animal protein, dairy, and grain than Hispanic students. Hispanic students reported higher intake of carbohydrates, particularly sweetened beverages. CONCLUSION: While YAQ and stable isotope data reflected strong cultural influences in diet, no significant gender-based nor age-based differences were detected. Significant covariation between YAQ and isotopes existed and demonstrate the potential of stable isotopes for characterizing children's diet.


Assuntos
Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição do Adolescente , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Infantil , Inquéritos sobre Dietas , Adolescente/fisiologia , Testes Respiratórios , Isótopos de Carbono/análise , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Cabelo/química , Humanos , Isótopos de Nitrogênio/análise , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Isótopos de Enxofre/análise , Utah
12.
J Sports Med Phys Fitness ; 58(3): 348-355, 2018 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29473720

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Decline in physical activity (PA), specifically in adolescents raises concerns. Setting goals and strategies are often used to increase the level of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), recently introducing also modern technological devices for achieving different goals. The aim of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of two different goal strategies in increasing PA of youth. It was expected that there would be positive relationships between support and goal strategy which would contribute to increase MVPA. Classmate and teacher support scales were used to evaluate support in physical education (PE) classes. Activity trackers were used to count daily steps. METHODS: Data were collected from 65 late adolescents, divided into two groups: "Goal" (group 1) and "Do your best" (group 2) set with different step goals and strategies. Differences between the terms were tested. To compare MVPA levels with the different level of support they received in girls and boys, a two-way ANOVA was used. RESULTS: There was a difference noticed in teacher support between the genders in all the two groups in favor of boys. Boys with low teacher support in group 1 indicated a higher level of MVPA. In group 2 when teacher support was high girls reported the highest level of MVPA. CONCLUSIONS: This study has shown that in terms of MVPA teacher support is more efficient than a goal strategy. The results highlight the importance of perceived teacher support for motivation in PA and pointed at PE teachers as the agents of behavior change, specifically in girls.


Assuntos
Saúde do Adolescente , Adolescente/fisiologia , Exercício Físico , Motivação , Análise de Variância , Feminino , Objetivos , Humanos , Masculino , Educação Física e Treinamento , Psicologia do Adolescente , Estudantes/psicologia , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos
14.
São Paulo; s.n; s.n; 2018. 114 p. tab.
Tese em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-913757

RESUMO

Introdução: Práticas alimentares inadequadas associadas a um nível de atividade física insuficiente acarretam maior risco de manifestação precoce de doenças crônicas não transmissíveis. Objetivo: Analisar padrão de consumo de determinados alimentos saudáveis e nível de atividade física de adolescentes escolares brasileiros pertencentes a famílias de diferentes estratos sociais, investigados nas três edições da Pesquisa Nacional de Saúde do Escolar (PeNSE), conduzida pelo Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística em 2009, 2012 e 2015. Metodologia: A tese foi composta de três artigos. O primeiro artigo baseia-se em revisão sistemática da literatura para identificação de evidências sobre associação entre características socioeconômicas, nível de atividade física e frequência de consumo de alimentos entre adolescentes. Os demais artigos foram construídos a partir de análise estatística de base de dados unificada composta pelas três edições da PeNSE (2009, 2012 e 2015). O segundo artigo utilizou modelo de regressão logística multivariada para verificação da associação entre características socioeconômicas, nível de atividade física e frequência do consumo de alimentos saudáveis e não saudáveis entre adolescentes brasileiros, usando dados de amostra representativa em nível de capitais de Unidades da Federação das três edições da PeNSE 2009, 2012 e 2015. O terceiro artigo empregou modelo de regressão logística multivariada para investigação da associação entre autoavaliação do peso corporal e adoção de medidas de controle de peso em relação ao nível de atividade física e à frequência do consumo de alimentos saudáveis e não saudáveis entre adolescentes brasileiros, segundo dependência administrativa da escola (rede pública ou privada) em amostra representativa em nível de municípios capitais e grandes regiões brasileiras, a partir de dados de duas edições da PeNSE 2012 e 2015. Resultados: Os estudos analisados na revisão sistemática apontaram adoção de piores hábitos alimentares e estilo de vida sedentário entre adolescentes de menor nível socioeconômico. Em termos de análise dos dados brasileiros, no segundo artigo verificou-se que a renda familiar e o nível de escolaridade dos pais estavam associados com os hábitos alimentares e nível de atividade física entre os adolescentes. No terceiro artigo, observaram-se diferenças importantes de autoavaliação do peso corporal relacionadas ao gênero, assim como importância do ambiente escolar na determinação do nível de influência social quanto às práticas de alimentação e atividade física adotadas entre adolescentes brasileiros. Conclusão: Resultados da presente tese indicam importância de monitoramento dos fatores de risco e proteção associados às características socioeconômicas como parte das pressões às quais jovens brasileiros estão submetidos. A análise dos dados das edições da PeNSE indicou possibilidade de constituir um sistema de vigilância de fatores de risco à saúde dirigido a adolescentes, gerando evidências para avaliação e orientação de políticas destinadas aos adolescentes e escolares no país


Introduction: Inadequate dietary practices associated with insufficient physical activity lead to increased risk in early onset of non-communicable chronic diseases. Objective: To analyze food pattern and level of physical activity among Brazilian adolescents enrolled in school from families in diverse social strata, investigated in the three editions of the National School Health Survey (PeNSE), conducted by the Brazilian Institute for Geography and Statistics in 2009, 2012 and 2015. Methodology: The thesis was composed of three articles. The first article is based on systematic literature review designed to identify evidences regarding the association between socioeconomic characteristics, physical activity level and frequency of food consumption among adolescents. The following articles were constructed on statistical analysis of single dataset encompassing information on the three editions of the PeNSE (2009, 2012 and 2015). The second article used multivariate logistic regression model to verify the association between socioeconomic characteristics, physical activity level and frequency of healthy and unhealthy foods consumption among Brazilian adolescents, based on sample representative at capital of state level from three editions of PeNSE 2009, 2012 and 2015. The third article used multivariate logistic regression model to investigate the association among self-assessment of body weight and adoption of weight control measures in relation to level of physical activity and frequency of consumption of healthy and unhealthy foods among Brazilian adolescents, according to administrative dependence of school (public or private) in sample representative at the level of state capitals and Brazilian macroregions, in two editions of PeNSE 2012 and 2015. Results: The studies analyzed in the systematic review of literature indicated worst eating habits and sedentary lifestyle among adolescents with low socioeconomic status. Regarding data analysis, evidences in the second article pointed to the family income and parents' educational attainment were associated with eating habits and physical activity level among adolescents. In the third article, significant differences were observed in terms of self-assessment of body weight related to gender, as well as importance of school environment in determining the social influence on practices of food consumption and physical activity among Brazilian adolescents. Conclusion: Results of the dissertation indicate the importance of monitoring risk and protection factors related to socioeconomic characteristics which comprise pressures in Brazilian adolescents' life. The analysis of data from the three issues of the national survey on adolescents' health indicate the possibility to compose a system for monitoring health risk factors directed towards adolescents, generating evidences for assessment and guidance of public policies aimed at adolescents and schoolchildren in Brazil


Assuntos
Exercício Físico , Ingestão de Alimentos/normas , Classe Social , Nutrição do Adolescente , Adolescente/fisiologia , Peso Corporal , Escolaridade , Modelos Logísticos , Alimentos Integrais/efeitos adversos
15.
Psicol. Estud. (Online) ; 23: e2303, 2018.
Artigo em Português | LILACS, Index Psicologia - Periódicos | ID: biblio-1040838

RESUMO

RESUMO. Nos estudos sobre adolescência, percebemos que, cada vez mais, a psicologia tem sido convocada a dar respostas a questões inerentes a esta fase específica do desenvolvimento. A perspectiva histórico-cultural, proposta por Lev Semenovich Vigotski e seus seguidores, tem se apresentado enquanto importante abordagem teórica para a compreensão do humano. Assim, o presente estudo objetiva oferecer contribuições ao debate da adolescência enquanto uma categoria social e uma etapa particular do desenvolvimento cultural dos sujeitos. Desta forma, apresentam-se aqui as principais ideias do pensador russo, aliando-as a uma discussão que ainda é incipiente nos estudos da perspectiva histórico-cultural: o papel do corpo na constituição dos sujeitos. Com este ponto de partida, constroem-se argumentos que reforçam o caráter monolítico da constituição do humano, no qual mente e corpo são partes indissociáveis de uma mesma engrenagem, que se desenvolvem conjuntamente ao longo da história do sujeito, por meio das relações sociais que os indivíduos estabelecem com os elementos do meio. Aponta-se, como considerações finais, que o papel do corpo no processo de desenvolvimento do pensamento em conceitos - característica peculiar da adolescência - não pode ser negligenciado quando se propõe a compreender a constituição do psiquismo em sua totalidade.


RESUMEN. En los estudios acerca de la adolescencia, percibimos que, siempre más, la psicología es convocada a contestar a cuestiones que son inherentes a esta etapa especifica del desarrollo. La perspectiva histórico cultural, propuesta por Lev Semenovich Vygotsky y sus seguidores, se ha presentado mientras un importante abordaje teórico en la comprensión del humano. Así, en el presente estudio se tiene por objetivo ofrecer contribuciones al debate de la adolescencia mientras una categoría social y una etapa particular del desarrollo cultural de las personas. De esta manera, presentamos aquí las principales ideas de este pensador ruso, asociándolas a una discusión que todavía es incipiente en los estudios de la perspectiva histórico cultural: el papel del cuerpo en la constitución de los sujetos. Desde este punto de partida, se formula argumentos que refuerzan el aspecto monolítico de la constitución del humano, donde la mente y el cuerpo son dos partes indisociables de un mismo engranaje, que se desarrollan conjuntamente al largo del desarrollo, vía relaciones sociales que tienen los individuos con los elementos externos. Se apunta, como consideraciones finales, que el papel del cuerpo en el proceso de desarrollo del pensamiento en conceptos - característica particular de la adolescencia - no puede ser descuidado cuando nos proponemos a comprender la constitución del psiquismo humano en su totalidad.


ABSTRACT. In the studies about adolescence, it is noticeable that psychology has more and more been invited to give answers to questions pertaining this specific period of the human development. The historical-cultural perspective proposed by Lev Semenovich Vygotsky and his followers has represented an important theoretical approach to the comprehension of the human being. Thus, this study aims to offer contributions to the debate about adolescence as a social category and a particular stage of the cultural development of subjects. In this way, the main ideas of this Russian theorist are presented here, incorporating them into the discussion that is still incipient in the studies of the historical-cultural perspective: the role of the body in the constitution of subjects. With this starting point, we build arguments that reinforce the monolithic characteristic of the constitution of the human being, where the mind and the body are inseparable parts of the same gear, that develop together along the lifespan, through the social relations of the individuals with the environmental elements. As final considerations, it is pointed out that the role of the body in the process of developing a conceptual thought - a specific characteristic of adolescence - cannot be neglected when we propose the goal to understand the constitution of the totality of the human psyche.


Assuntos
Humanos , Adulto Jovem , Adolescente/fisiologia , Psicologia do Adolescente/classificação , Psicologia/história , Repertório: Seção Psiquismo , Regulação Emocional , Desenvolvimento Humano/fisiologia , Relações Interpessoais
16.
Rev. medica electron ; 39(6): 1236-1247, nov.-dic. 2017.
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-902240

RESUMO

Introducción: la adolescencia es considerada una etapa compleja no solo por los cambios que ocurren en el organismo desde todos los puntos de vista, sino por la complejidad que presupone el manejo psicológico de la misma, de esta forma también influye, lo relacionado con su hábitos alimenticios. Objetivo: describir el comportamiento de las aversiones alimentarias en 94 adolescentes, de la escuela Secundaria Básica "José Martí". Materiales y Métodos: se realizó un estudio descriptivo transversal, con 94 adolescentes de la escuela Secundaria Básica "José Martí" del municipio Cerro, que cursaban el 7mo grado, cuyas edades oscilaron de 11 a 15 años de edad, durante el período de septiembre a octubre del 2015. Resultados: los grupos de alimentos más detestados fueron los vegetales y las frutas. El pescado a pesar de su importancia nutricional fue el alimento más rechazado y el menos consumido. Las viandas, las legumbres, los cereales, las carnes blancas, el huevo y los lácteos fueron los grupos de alimentos por los que menos aversión mostraron. Continúa siendo un factor de riesgo para la población adolescente, la ingestión de dulces y azúcares por ser uno de los alimentos preferidos y de mayor consumo. Conclusiones: las aversiones alimentarias detectadas sitúan a este grupo atareo en una situación vulnerable desde el punto de vista nutricional, y ratifica que los alimentos con mayores valores nutricionales son los menos aborrecidos, a pesar de las consecuencias actuales y futuras que pueden generar en su salud, así como el incremento de la incidencia de enfermedades relacionadas con los hábitos dietéticos (AU).


Introduction: the adolescence is considered a complex stage not only because of the changes occurring in the organism from all the points of view, but also due to the complexness of its psychological management. Eating habits belong to this field. Objetive: to describe the behavior of food aversions in 94 teenagers of the Junior High School "José Martí." Materials and Methods: a cross-sectional, descriptive study was carried out during the period September-October 2015, with 97 7th-grade students of the Junior High school "José Martí", municipality Cerro, whose age ranged from 11 to 15 years. Results: the most detested food groups were vegetables and fruits. Fish, in spite of its nutritional importance, was the most rejected food and the less consumed one. Vegetables, legumes, cereals, white meats, eggs and dairy products are the food groups for which they showed less aversion. It is still a risk factor for the adolescent population the consumption of sweets and sugar because they are their preferable food and the ones they consume the most. Conclusions: the detected food aversions locate this age group in a vulnerable situation from the nutritional point of view, and ratifies foods with higher nutritional values are the less detested ones, in spite of the current and future consequences that could generate in their health, and also indicates the raise of the incidence of diseases related with dietary habits (AU).


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Modalidades Alimentares , Adolescente/fisiologia , Estudos Observacionais como Assunto , Nutrição do Adolescente/educação , Comportamento Alimentar/psicologia , Dieta Saudável/tendências
17.
Clin Med (Lond) ; 17(5): 424-428, 2017 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28974591

RESUMO

Sleep has an important role in maintaining health and wellbeing; this relationship is becoming increasingly recognised for adolescents and young adults. Many physicians will encounter young people who present with complaints or conditions that have some relation to poor sleep. This review article looks at why sleep matters within this population group, how it can impact on longer term health consequences and discusses some tools to help enable the clinician to evaluate and address sleep within clinical practice.


Assuntos
Adolescente/fisiologia , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília , Sono/fisiologia , Adulto , Doença Crônica , Fadiga , Humanos , Adulto Jovem
18.
Afr J AIDS Res ; 16(2): 119-128, 2017 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28639475

RESUMO

Studies in South Africa have reported unsafe levels of risky sexual behvaiours among adolescents and young adults, with the country reporting the highest burden of HIV/AIDS globally, as well as a high rate of teenage pregnancy. While determinants of risky sexual behaviours have been investigated for factors occurring at the individual and household levels, not fully explored in the literature is the effect of community level factors. Furthermore, it is unclear whether risk factors occurring within the ecology of adolescents and young adults act cumulatively to influence their sexual practices. This article aims to address this knowledge gap using a case study of the Cape Area Panel Study of adolescents and young adults in urban Cape Town, South Africa. The ecological framework was adopted to guide the selection of risk factors at the individual, household, and community levels. Multivariate linear discriminant function analyses were used to select significant risk factors for multiple sexual partnerships and used to produce risk indices for the respondents. The cumulative risk approach was applied to test whether significant risk factors acted cumulatively. Findings point to the importance of ecological factors in influencing outcomes of multiple sexual partnerships among respondents and further demonstrate that ecological risk factors may act cumulatively. These findings are important for South Africa that is grappling with teenage pregnancy and disproportionate HIV epidemic among the youth.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/psicologia , Comportamento Sexual , Adolescente/fisiologia , Adulto , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/transmissão , Humanos , Masculino , Gravidez , Assunção de Riscos , Comportamento Sexual/psicologia , Parceiros Sexuais/psicologia , África do Sul , População Urbana , Adulto Jovem/psicologia
19.
Hipertens Riesgo Vasc ; 34(4): 157-164, 2017.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28576401

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: High blood pressure (HBP) is a modifiable cardiovascular risk factor and its detection at early ages may allow strategies to be designed to reduce cardiovascular risk in adulthood. OBJECTIVES: To provide blood pressure (BP) values in a sample of adolescents using an electronic oscillometric device. MATERIAL AND METHODS: BP was measured according the European Society of Hypertension guidelines using an oscillometric device. Height and weight were also measured. Four height groups were used in order to associate the 90, 95, and 99 percentiles with systolic BP (pSBP) and diastolic BP percentiles (pDBP) for sex and age: H150 (≤ 150cm), H160(151-160cm), H170(161-170cm), and H180(≥171cm). RESULTS: Data from 2,758 students aged 12-17 years were included in the analysis. BP increases with age, with differences of up to 11mmHg in boys vs. 3mmHg in girls for SBP and 3mmHg vs. 1mmHg for DBP. In high SBP, for the younger adolescents, the difference related to height was 15mmHg in boys vs. 8mmHg in girls, with no significant increase in the older ones in either gender. The high BDP varied depending on the height, 10mmHg in younger boys and 3mmHg in older ones, while in girls the variation was 3mmHg for all ages. CONCLUSIONS: SBP/DBP in adolescents increases with age and also with height, giving similar figures in the taller ones, regardless of age.


Assuntos
Adolescente/fisiologia , Pressão Sanguínea , Idade de Início , Estatura , Peso Corporal , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Diagnóstico Precoce , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão/diagnóstico , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Masculino , Oscilometria , Valores de Referência , Espanha , Esfigmomanômetros , População Urbana
20.
Ann Epidemiol ; 27(3): 187-193.e2, 2017 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28215584

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The purpose of the article was to examine the association of early life growth with age at menarche. METHODS: Using data from a prospective birth cohort (n = 1134 women, 290 sibling sets), we assessed the association between postnatal growth at 4 months, 1 year, and 4 years and age at menarche, using generalized estimating equations and generalized linear random effects models. RESULTS: Overall, 18% of the cohort experienced early menarche (<12 years). After accounting for postnatal growth in length, faster postnatal change in weight (per 10-percentile increase) in all three periods was associated with an increase (range 9%-20%) in the likelihood of having an early menarche. In adjusted linear models, faster weight gains in infancy and childhood were associated with an average age at menarche that was 1.1-1.3 months earlier compared with stable growth. The overall results were consistent for percentile and conditional growth models. Girls who experienced rapid growth (defined as increasing across two major Centers for Disease Control and Prevention growth percentiles) in early infancy had an average age at menarche that was 4.6 months earlier than girls whose growth was stable. CONCLUSIONS: Faster postnatal weight gains in infancy and early childhood before the age of 4 years are associated with earlier age at menarche.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento do Adolescente/fisiologia , Adolescente/fisiologia , Estatura/fisiologia , Peso Corporal/fisiologia , Desenvolvimento Infantil/fisiologia , Menarca/fisiologia , Irmãos , Fatores Etários , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Estudos Prospectivos , Estados Unidos
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