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1.
Rev. Pesqui. (Univ. Fed. Estado Rio J., Online) ; 11(5): 1333-1339, out.-dez. 2019. tab
Artigo em Inglês, Português | LILACS, BDENF - Enfermagem | ID: biblio-1022140

RESUMO

Objective: The study's purpose has been to identify the actions to fight the dengue fever vector, and also the way that patients bearing the symptoms have being handled. Methods: This research describes the semiological and pathophysiological aspects of dengue fever through the perception of health professionals, who assisted the patients bearing the symptoms of this disease. Furthermore, this study addresses the perception of endemic diseases combat agents and community health agents regarding the efficiency of vector control measures. Results: The health professionals are working according to the World Health Organization recommendations. The majority of the population contributes to the mosquito breeding sites elimination. The elevated number of closed properties and houses with difficult access has been the greatest obstacle to control the vector. Conclusion: These services need to be aware of the disease trends in order to quickly detect changes in its profile and guide control actions


Objetivo: Identificar as ações adotadas de combate ao vetor e as formas de manejo dos pacientes com sinais e sintomas de alarme para dengue grave. Métodos: Estudo que descreve, na percepção dos profissionais de saúde que atenderam pacientes com suspeita de dengue, os aspectos semiológicos e fisiopatológicos da doença. Apresenta a percepção dos Agentes de Combate a Endemias e Agentes Comunitários de Saúde sobre a eficiência das medidas de controle do vetor. Resultados: Os profissionais de saúde procedem o cuidado conforme orientações da Organização Mundial da Saúde. A maior parte da população contribui com a eliminação dos criadouros do mosquito. Imóveis fechados e o difícil acesso têm sido os principais desafios para o controle do vetor. Conclusão: Esses serviços precisam estar atentos às tendências dessa doença para rapidamente conseguir detectar mudanças em seu perfil e orientar ações de controle


Objetivo: Identificar la satisfacción de los pacientes seguidos en un ambulatorio de Educación para la Salud y evaluar el efecto de las variables antecedentes sobre el nivel de satisfacción de los pacientes. Método: Se trata de un estudio transversal realizado en un ambulatorio la Educación para la Salud. La muestra estuvo constituida por todos los pacientes cardíacos en el ambulatorio (17 pacientes). La satisfacción del paciente se evaluó a través del Instrumento de Satisfacción del Paciente (ISP). Resultados: Todos los pacientes informaron un alto nivel de satisfacción. Los dominios con los puntajes más altos y más bajos fueron el profesional y el educacional, respectivamente. No hubo correlación significativa entre los niveles de satisfacción con cualquiera de las variables antecedentes. Conclusión: Pacientes informaron un alto nivel de satisfacción y no hubo correlación significativa entre variables y los niveles de satisfacción


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adolescente , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Satisfação do Paciente , Agentes Comunitários de Saúde , Doenças Endêmicas/prevenção & controle , Dengue/prevenção & controle , Aedes/patogenicidade , Monitoramento Epidemiológico
3.
PLoS One ; 14(5): e0217177, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31107881

RESUMO

Human mobility in urban environments is a central part of urbanization and has determined the layout of how cities are projected, built and renovated. One of the most problematic issues of urbanization is how to properly dispose of used tires, considering the worldwide annual production of approximately 1.4 billion units every year. Despite the efforts to properly dispose of used tires, they still represent a major problem for public health, notably serving as potential breeding sites for vector mosquitoes. Miami-Dade County, Florida has been suffering from arbovirus outbreaks for decades, including dengue, West Nile and yellow fever viruses. The objective of this study was to survey tire shops inserted in the urban matrix across Miami-Dade County for the presence of vector mosquitoes. This study used a cross-sectional design to survey the production of vector mosquitoes at 12 tires shops. Mosquitoes were found in all but one of the tires shops surveyed. We collected a total of 1,110 mosquitoes comprising 528 adults and 582 immatures. Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus were abundantly found in both their immature and adult forms, constituting 99.99% of the mosquito samples collected. Aedes aegypti was the most abundant species recorded displaying the highest values in the Shannon and Simpson indices. The findings of this study demonstrate that vector mosquitoes, primarily Ae. aegypti, are being produced in tires shops in Miami indicating these habitats are highly favorable breeding environments for the production of vector mosquitoes and emphasizing the need to address how the abundance and presence of mosquitoes may vary seasonally in these environments.


Assuntos
Aedes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Infecções por Arbovirus/transmissão , Arbovirus/isolamento & purificação , Surtos de Doenças , Mosquitos Vetores/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Aedes/patogenicidade , Aedes/virologia , Animais , Infecções por Arbovirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Arbovirus/virologia , Estudos Transversais , Reservatórios de Doenças , Florida/epidemiologia , Humanos , Controle de Mosquitos , Mosquitos Vetores/patogenicidade , Mosquitos Vetores/virologia
4.
Nucleic Acids Res ; 47(5): 2546-2559, 2019 03 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30566680

RESUMO

PIWI-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) comprise a class of small RNAs best known for suppressing transposable elements in germline tissues. The vector mosquito Aedes aegypti encodes seven PIWI genes, four of which are somatically expressed. This somatic piRNA pathway generates piRNAs from viral RNA during infection with cytoplasmic RNA viruses through ping-pong amplification by the PIWI proteins Ago3 and Piwi5. Yet, additional insights into the molecular mechanisms mediating non-canonical piRNA production are lacking. TUDOR-domain containing (Tudor) proteins facilitate piRNA biogenesis in Drosophila melanogaster and other model organisms. We thus hypothesized that Tudor proteins are required for viral piRNA production and performed a knockdown screen targeting all A. aegypti Tudor genes. Knockdown of the Tudor genes AAEL012437, Vreteno, Yb, SMN and AAEL008101-RB resulted in significantly reduced viral piRNA levels, with AAEL012437-depletion having the strongest effect. This protein, which we named Veneno, associates directly with Ago3 in an sDMA-dependent manner and localizes in cytoplasmic foci reminiscent of piRNA processing granules of Drosophila. Veneno-interactome analyses reveal a network of co-factors including the orthologs of the Drosophila piRNA pathway components Vasa and Yb, which in turn interacts with Piwi5. We propose that Veneno assembles a multi-protein complex for ping-pong dependent piRNA production from viral RNA.


Assuntos
Aedes/genética , Proteínas de Drosophila/genética , RNA Interferente Pequeno/genética , Domínio Tudor/genética , Aedes/patogenicidade , Animais , Proteínas Argonauta/genética , Elementos de DNA Transponíveis/genética , Drosophila melanogaster/genética , Células Germinativas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Mosquitos Vetores/genética , Complexos Multiproteicos/genética
5.
PLoS One ; 13(12): e0209625, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30571764

RESUMO

Urbanization is increasing globally, and construction sites are an integral part of the urbanization process. It is unknown to what extent construction sites create favorable breeding conditions for mosquitoes. The main objectives of the present study were to identify what species of mosquitoes are present at construction sites and the respective physical features associated with their production. Eleven construction sites were cross-sectionally surveyed for the presence of mosquitoes in Miami-Dade County, Florida including in areas previously affected by the Zika virus outbreak in 2016. A total of 3.351 mosquitoes were collected; 2.680 adults and 671 immatures. Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus comprised 95% of all collected mosquitoes and were the only species found in their immature forms breeding inside construction sites. Results for the Shannon and Simpson indices, considering both immature and adult specimens, yielded the highest values for Cx. quinquefasciatus and Ae. aegypti. The individual rarefaction curves indicated that sampling sufficiency was highly asymptotic for Cx. quinquefasciatus and Ae. aegypti, and the plots of cumulative species abundance (ln S), Shannon index (H) and log evenness (ln E) (SHE) revealed the lack of heterogeneity of species composition, diversity and evenness for the mosquitoes found breeding in construction sites. The most productive construction site breeding features were elevator shafts, Jersey plastic barriers, flooded floors and stair shafts. The findings of this study indicate that vector mosquitoes breed in high numbers at construction sites and display reduced biodiversity comprising almost exclusively Ae. aegypti and Cx. quinquefasciatus. Such findings suggest that early phase construction sites have suitable conditions for the proliferation of vector mosquitoes. More studies are needed to identify modifiable worker- and organizational-level factors to improve mosquito control practices and guide future mosquito control strategies in urban environments.


Assuntos
Aedes/virologia , Controle de Mosquitos , Mosquitos Vetores/virologia , Infecção por Zika virus/transmissão , Aedes/patogenicidade , Animais , Culex/patogenicidade , Culex/virologia , Florida/epidemiologia , Humanos , Mosquitos Vetores/patogenicidade , Urbanização , Zika virus/patogenicidade , Infecção por Zika virus/epidemiologia , Infecção por Zika virus/virologia
6.
PLoS One ; 13(12): e0208911, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30543700

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Aedes japonicus was first documented in Ontario, Canada, in 2001. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of Ae. japonicus establishment on the abundance of other mosquitoes in the Greater Golden Horseshoe (GGH) region of Ontario. METHODS: Adult mosquito data from the Ontario West Nile virus surveillance program were used. Descriptive analyses, linear trends and distribution maps of average trap count per month for six mosquito species of interest were produced. Multivariable negative binomial regression models were constructed to 1) test whether the invasion of Ae. japonicus affected the abundance of other mosquitoes by comparing the time period before Ae. japonicus was identified in an area (pre-detection), to after it was first identified (detection), and subsequently (establishment), and 2) identify the variables that explain the abundance of the various mosquito species. RESULTS: The monthly seasonal average (May-October) of Ae. japonicus per trap night increased from 2002 to 2016, peaking in September, when the average of most other mosquitoes decrease. There were increased numbers of Ae. triseriatus/hendersoni (Odds Ratio (OR): 1.40, 95% Confidence Interval (CI): 1.02-1.94) and decreased numbers of Coquillettidia perturbans (OR: 0.43, 95% CI: 0.26-0.73) in the detection period, compared to the pre-detection period. Additionally, there was a decrease in Cx. pipiens/restuans (OR: 0.87, 95% CI: 0.76-0.99) and Cq. perturbans (OR: 0.68, 95% CI: 0.49-0.94) in the establishment period, compared to the pre-detection period. None of the most parsimonious explanatory models included the period of the establishment of Ae. japonicus. CONCLUSIONS: There is no evidence that the introduction of Ae. japonicus significantly reduced populations of Ae. triseriatus/hendersoni, Cx. pipiens/restuans or An. punctipennis in the GGH. While further research is needed to understand the impact of the Ae. japonicus invasion on other mosquito species, our work indicates that, on a regional scale, little impact has been noted.


Assuntos
Aedes/patogenicidade , Culicidae/fisiologia , Espécies Introduzidas , Febre do Nilo Ocidental/epidemiologia , Aedes/virologia , Animais , Feminino , Ontário/epidemiologia , Dinâmica Populacional , Febre do Nilo Ocidental/transmissão , Febre do Nilo Ocidental/virologia , Vírus do Nilo Ocidental/isolamento & purificação , Vírus do Nilo Ocidental/patogenicidade
7.
Hawaii J Med Public Health ; 77(12): 315-318, 2018 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30533283

RESUMO

The four serotypes of dengue virus (DENV) cause the most important and common arthropod-borne viral diseases in humans. There have been three major dengue outbreaks in Hawai'i since 1946. The most recent and largest outbreak occurred on Hawai'i Island in 2015-2016. This article reviews the public health response to dengue outbreaks over the period 2001-2016, as well as scientific literature on dengue outbreaks in Hawai'i. As summarized in the assessment by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in 2015, Hawaii's response to the dengue outbreak was timely, appropriate, and well-coordinated. All facets of a public health response to the outbreak were adequately addressed, but communications and medical entomologic capacities could be improved. The observations of Aedes aegypti on Hawai'i Island and of its co-localization with confirmed human cases highlight the importance of continuous vector surveillance and entomologic research. In-depth studies on the molecular epidemiology, entomology, and epidemiological investigation would provide new insights into the latest outbreak and into strategies to combat DENV and other arboviruses in the future.


Assuntos
Dengue/epidemiologia , Surtos de Doenças/história , Aedes/patogenicidade , Animais , Dengue/fisiopatologia , Vírus da Dengue/efeitos dos fármacos , Vírus da Dengue/patogenicidade , Surtos de Doenças/prevenção & controle , Surtos de Doenças/estatística & dados numéricos , Hawaii/epidemiologia , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , Humanos , Vigilância da População/métodos , Zoonoses/complicações , Zoonoses/prevenção & controle
9.
Rev. cuba. med. trop ; 70(1): 0-0, ene.-abr. 2018. ilus
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-960606

RESUMO

El mosquito Aedes aegypti presenta características biológicas que lo convierten en un vector importante en el ciclo de transmisión de diferentes patógenos, en especial arbovirus. Durante la última década, la carga de dengue y otras enfermedades tales como la fiebre del zika o fiebre chikungunya se han incrementado, y nueva información acerca del papel de Ae. aegypti en la transmisión de estas enfermedades ha sido publicada. Este trabajo se enfocó en revisar mediante una estrategia de búsqueda sistemática de la información, el conocimiento actual de la historia evolutiva y otros aspectos biológicos de Ae. aegypti relacionados con la dinámica de transmisión de los principales arbovirus de importancia médica. Factores intrínsecos de Ae. aegypti y extrínsecos han contribuido a la emergencia o reemergencia y expansión mundial de patógenos en el ciclo urbano. El diseño de estrategias costo-efectivas para controlar Ae. aegypti es requerido para interrumpir los ciclos de transmisión de los patógenos y prevenir la aparición de nuevas epidemias(AU)


ABSTRACT Due to its biological characteristics, the mosquito Aedes aegypti is an important vector in the transmission cycle of various pathogens, especially of arboviruses. The burden of dengue and other diseases such as Zika virus infection or chikungunya fever has increased in the last decade, and new information has been published about the role of A. aegypti in the transmission of these diseases. Applying a strategy for systematic search of information, the study focused on reviewing current knowledge about the evolutionary history and other biological aspects of A. aegypti associated with the dynamics of transmission of the main arboviruses of medical importance. Intrinsic and extrinsic factors related to A. aegypti have contributed to the emergence or re-emergence and worldwide spread of pathogens in the urban cycle. Cost-effective A. aegypti control strategies should be designed to interrupt the transmission cycles of pathogens and prevent the emergence of new epidemics(AU)


Assuntos
Aedes/patogenicidade , Vetores de Doenças , Controle de Mosquitos/métodos
10.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 5041, 2018 03 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29568046

RESUMO

Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) is an invasive mosquito, native to Asia, that has expanded its range worldwide. It is considered to be a public health threat as it is a competent vector of viruses of medical importance, including dengue, chikungunya, and Zika. Despite its medical importance there is almost no information on biologically important traits of Ae. albopictus in Argentina. We studied life cycle traits, demographic parameters and analyzed the competence of this mosquito as a virus vector. In addition, we determined the prevalence of Wolbachia strains in Ae. albopictus as a first approach to investigate the potential role of this bacteria in modulating vector competence for arboviruses. We observed low hatch rates of eggs, which led to a negative growth rate. We found that Ae. albopictus individuals were infected with Wolbachia in the F1 but while standard superinfection with wAlbA and wAlbB types was found in 66.7% of the females, 16.7% of the females and 62.5% of the males were single-infected with the wAlbB strain. Finally, despite high levels of infection and dissemination, particularly for chikungunya virus, Ae. albopictus from subtropical Argentina were found to be relatively inefficient vectors for transmission of both chikungunya and dengue viruses.


Assuntos
Aedes/virologia , Infecções por Arbovirus/transmissão , Arbovirus/genética , Mosquitos Vetores/fisiologia , Aedes/microbiologia , Aedes/patogenicidade , Animais , Infecções por Arbovirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Arbovirus/microbiologia , Infecções por Arbovirus/virologia , Arbovirus/patogenicidade , Argentina/epidemiologia , Ásia/epidemiologia , Vetores de Doenças , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Mosquitos Vetores/microbiologia , Mosquitos Vetores/virologia , Wolbachia/patogenicidade
11.
J Math Biol ; 76(7): 1907-1950, 2018 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29429122

RESUMO

Wolbachia-based biocontrol has recently emerged as a potential method for prevention and control of dengue and other vector-borne diseases. Major vector species, such as Aedes aegypti females, when deliberately infected with Wolbachia become less capable of getting viral infections and transmitting the virus to human hosts. In this paper, we propose an explicit sex-structured population model that describes an interaction of uninfected (wild) male and female mosquitoes and those deliberately infected with wMelPop strain of Wolbachia in the same locality. This particular strain of Wolbachia is regarded as the best blocker of dengue and other arboviral infections. However, wMelPop strain of Wolbachia also causes the loss of individual fitness in Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. Our model allows for natural introduction of the decision (or control) variable, and we apply the optimal control approach to simulate wMelPop Wolbachia infestation of wild Aedes aegypti populations. The control action consists in continuous periodic releases of mosquitoes previously infected with wMelPop strain of Wolbachia in laboratory conditions. The ultimate purpose of control is to find a tradeoff between reaching the population replacement in minimum time and with minimum cost of the control effort. This approach also allows us to estimate the number of Wolbachia-carrying mosquitoes to be released in day-by-day control action. The proposed method of biological control is safe to human health, does not contaminate the environment, does not make harm to non-target species, and preserves their interaction with mosquitoes in the ecosystem.


Assuntos
Aedes/microbiologia , Modelos Biológicos , Mosquitos Vetores/microbiologia , Controle Biológico de Vetores/métodos , Wolbachia/fisiologia , Aedes/patogenicidade , Animais , Biologia Computacional , Simulação por Computador , Dengue/prevenção & controle , Dengue/transmissão , Feminino , Interações entre Hospedeiro e Microrganismos/fisiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Conceitos Matemáticos , Mosquitos Vetores/patogenicidade , Controle Biológico de Vetores/estatística & dados numéricos , Dinâmica Populacional/estatística & dados numéricos , Wolbachia/patogenicidade
12.
Recurso na Internet em Português | LIS - Localizador de Informação em Saúde, LIS-bvsms | ID: lis-LISBR1.1-45970
13.
Rev. esp. salud pública ; 92: 0-0, 2018. tab, mapas
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-177575

RESUMO

A mediados del 2015 se detectó en el noroeste de Brasil un incremento en el número de casos de microcefalia en recién nacidos y de alteraciones neurológicas, que se asociaron con una posible infección por el virus Zika y que más adelante comenzaría a observarse en otros países de Latinoamérica. En febrero de 2016 la Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS) declaró esta situación como una Emergencia de Salud Pública de Importancia Internacional (ESPII) y desde ese momento se llevaron a cabo numerosas medidas para el control de la epidemia tanto a nivel internacional, como nacional en los diferentes países. La OMS lanzó un Plan de respuesta estratégico basado en la detección de casos, control de la infección y tratamiento, así como en la investigación y desarrollo de herramientas para el control de mosquitos, test diagnósticos y vacunas. En Europa se reforzaron los sistemas de vigilancia así como de control de los vectores, siendo los países que más casos notificaron: Francia, España y el Reino Unido. En España debido a la alta probabilidad de importación de casos por la estrecha relación con Latinoamérica, se llevaron a cabo numerosas medidas que permitieron una rápida respuesta y un óptimo control, que incluyeron: la puesta en marcha de una vigilancia activa en la que colaboraron diversos profesionales, organismos y sociedades científicas; el refuerzo de actividades de vigilancia entomológica; el desarrollo de actividades de comunicación y la elaboración de recomendaciones dirigidas a profesionales sanitarios y a la población general


By mid-2015, an increase in the number of cases of microcephaly among newborns and neurologic disorders was detected in the Northwest of Brazil, which was possibly associated with Zika virus infection. Later on, this phenomenon was also observed in several Latin-American countries. In February 2016, the World Health Organization (WHO) on this basis, declared a Public Health Emergency of International Concern. From that moment on, several measures were adopted to achieve the epidemic control at both international and national levels. The WHO launched a strategic response plan based on case detection, infection control and treatment, as well as, the research and development of new vector control tools, diagnostic tests and vaccines. In Europe both surveillance and vector control systems were reinforced. The countries reporting most cases were France, Spain and the United Kingdom. In Spain, due to the high probability of case importation based on the close relationships with Latin-America, numerous measures were adopted to achieve a rapid response and an optimal control. Those included: the implementation of an active surveillance in collaboration with several experts, institutions and scientific societies; entomologic surveillance enhancement; the development of communication activities and recommendations for both healthcare workers and general population


Assuntos
Humanos , Zika virus/patogenicidade , Infecção por Zika virus/epidemiologia , Atenção à Saúde , Microcefalia/epidemiologia , Espanha/epidemiologia , Mosquitos Vetores/patogenicidade , Aedes/patogenicidade , Saúde do Viajante , Complicações na Gravidez , Síndrome de Guillain-Barré/epidemiologia
14.
Biomed Res Int ; 2017: 3196924, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28894749

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Selection of the artificial membrane feeding technique and blood meal source has been recognized as key considerations in mass rearing of vectors. METHODOLOGY: Artificial membrane feeding techniques, namely, glass plate, metal plate, and Hemotek membrane feeding method, and three blood sources (human, cattle, and chicken) were evaluated based on feeding rates, fecundity, and hatching rates of Aedes aegypti. Significance in the variations among blood feeding was investigated by one-way ANOVA, cluster analysis of variance (ANOSIM), and principal coordinates (PCO) analysis. RESULTS: Feeding rates of Ae. aegypti significantly differed among the membrane feeding techniques as suggested by one-way ANOVA (p < 0.05). The metal plate method was identified as the most efficient and cost-effective feeding technique. Blood feeding rate of Ae. aegypti was higher with human blood followed by cattle and chicken blood, respectively. However, no significant difference was observed from the mosquitoes fed with cattle and human blood, in terms of fecundity, oviposition rate, and fertility as suggested by one-way ANOVA (p > 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Metal plate method could be recommended as the most effective membrane feeding technique for mass rearing of Ae. aegypti, due to its high feeding rate and cost effectiveness. Cattle blood could be recommended for mass rearing Ae. aegypti.


Assuntos
Métodos de Alimentação , Infertilidade , Controle de Insetos/métodos , Aedes/patogenicidade , Aedes/fisiologia , Animais , Substitutos Sanguíneos/farmacologia , Bovinos , Galinhas/sangue , Humanos , Insetos Vetores/patogenicidade , Insetos Vetores/fisiologia , Membranas Artificiais , Oviposição/fisiologia , Sri Lanka
15.
Rev. cuba. plantas med ; 22(1): 1-11, ene.-mar. 2017. ilus, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-901506

RESUMO

Introducción: en la actualidad, nuevas tendencias tecnológicas e iniciativas se están presentando en el desarrollo de productos insecticidas derivados de productos naturales, y de nuevos agentes antimicrobianos, dado que poseen bioactivos que son selectivos, biodegradables y tienen menores efectos adversos. La especie Ambrosia peruviana Willd. es de gran interés en el estudio por su gran potencial biológico y etnobotánico. Objetivo: evaluar la actividad larvicida sobre Aedes aegypty L. y la actividad antibacteriana sobre bacterias Gram positivas y Gram negativas de extractos de A. peruviana. Métodos: a partir del material vegetal seco (hojas), se obtuvieron cinco extractos de diferente polaridad en hexano (H), diclorometano (D), acetato de etilo (A) y etanol (E) y aceites esenciales (AE), los cuales fueron evaluados mediante la inhibición del crecimiento de larvas por el método recomendado de la OMS y la inhibición de las bacterias por el método de difusión en agar de Kirby-Bauer. Resultados: la tasa de mortalidad encontrada a las 24 h a una concentración de 200 ppm para todos los extractos fue del 10 por ciento. Al evaluar el paso de los insectos de larvas a adultos a las 144 h se observó a esta misma concentración una mortalidad del 100 por ciento con todos los extractos. Por otra parte, los extractos de A. peruviana presentaron inhibición sobre Bacillus cereus Frankland & Frankland y Bacillus subtilis (Ehrenberg) Cohn con halos de inhibición del extracto de diclorometano (APExtD) de 10,5 y 15,0 mm de diámetro respectivamente, al contrario sobre las cepas Serratia marcescens Bizio, Proteus mirabilis Hauser, Enterobacter cloacae (Jordan) Hormaeche & Edwards y Staphylococcus aureus Rosenbach no se presentó actividad antibacteriana. Conclusiones: esta investigación es el primer reporte de actividad larvicida sobre A. aegypty y de actividad antibacteriana sobre B. cereus y B. subtilis de varios extractos de A. peruviana con promisorios resultados en estos modelos(AU)


Introduction: New technological trends and initiatives are currently being put forth concerning the development of insecticidal products and antimicrobial agents of natural origin, since their bioactive components are selective and biodegradable, and cause fewer adverse effects. The species Ambrosia peruviana Willd. was of great interest to the present study, due to its great biological and ethnobotanical potential. Objective: Evaluate the larvicidal activity of A. peruviana extracts against Aedes aegypti L., and its antibacterial activity against gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. Methods: Dry plant material (leaves) was processed to obtain five extracts of different polarity in hexane (H), dichloromethane (D), ethyl acetate (A), ethanol (E) and essential oils (AE), which were evaluated for larval growth inhibition with the method recommended by WHO, and for bacterial inhibition with the Kirby-Bauer agar diffusion method. Results: The mortality rate at 24 h and a concentration of 200 ppm was 10 percent for all extracts. Examination of the transition of larvae into adults at 144 h and the same concentration revealed a mortality of 100 percent with all extracts. On the other hand, the extracts of A. peruviana displayed inhibition capacity against Bacillus cereus Frankland & Frankland and Bacillus subtilis (Ehrenberg) Cohn with inhibition haloes for the dichloromethane extract (APExtD) of 10.5 and 15.0 mm in diameter, respectively, whereas no antibacterial activity was found against the strains Serratia marcescens Bizio, Proteus mirabilis Hauser, Enterobacter cloacae (Jordan) Hormaeche & Edwards and Staphylococcus aureus. Conclusions: This study is the first report of larvicidal activity againstA. aegypti and antibacterial activity against B. cereus and B. subtilis by several extracts of A. peruviana with promising results in these models(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Aedes/patogenicidade , Inseticidas/uso terapêutico , Controle Biológico de Vetores/métodos , Teucrium/efeitos dos fármacos , Teucrium/envenenamento , Controle de Vetores
16.
Pediatr. catalan ; 77(1): 20-26, ene.-mar. 2017. tab, ilus, mapas
Artigo em Catalão | IBECS | ID: ibc-164709

RESUMO

Fonament: la infecció pel virus Zika (ZIKV) ha esdevingut un tema de gran interès per a la comunitat científica en els darrers mesos. La necessitat de caracteritzar el virus i com-prendre els mecanismes de transmissió d'aquesta «nova» infecció emergent han fet que durant l'últim any el nombre de publicacions sobre el tema no hagi parat de créixer. És per això que creiem necessària una revisió de la bibliografia publicada fins al moment que ens permeti entendre una mica millor aquesta infecció. Objectiu: conèixer l'epidemiologia, les vies de transmissió, les manifestacions clíniques, les complicacions, el diagnòstic i les mesures de prevenció descrites fins ara en relació amb la infecció pel ZIKV. Mètode: revisió narrativa de la bibliografia publicada sobre el tema, tant a nivell nacional com internacional, fins al juny del 2016. Resultats: existeix una àmplia bibliografia que tracta sobre diferents aspectes en relació amb la infecció pel ZIKV. Continua sent un tema d'actualitat científica sobre el qual manquen molts aspectes per caracteritzar. Conclusions: la infecció pel ZIKV comparteix molts aspectes amb la infecció per altres arbovirus. No obstant això, presenta característiques que el diferencien d'altres infeccions per virus de la mateixa família (múltiples vies de transmissió potencial, teratogenicitat, complicacions postinfeccioses) i que fan que encara sigui necessària la recerca per poder caracteritzar la infecció per aquest virus emergent


Fundamento. La infección por el virus Zika (ZIKV) se ha convertido en un tema de gran interés para la comunidad científica en los últimos meses. La necesidad de caracterizar el virus y comprender los mecanismos de transmisión de esta «nueva» infección emergente han hecho que durante el último año el número de publicaciones al respecto no haya parado de crecer. Es por ello que creemos necesaria una revisión de la bibliografía publicada hasta el momento que nos permita entender un poco mejor la infección por ZIKV. Objetivo. Conocer la epidemiología, las vías de transmisión, las manifestaciones clínicas, las complicaciones, el diagnóstico y las medidas de prevención descritas hasta ahora en relación a la infección por ZIKV. Método. Revisión narrativa de la bibliografía publicada al respecto, tanto a nivel nacional como internacional, hasta junio de 2016. Resultados. Existe amplia bibliografía que trata sobre diferentes aspectos en relación a la infección por ZIKV. Sigue siendo un tema de actualidad científica sobre el que faltan muchos aspectos para caracterizar. Conclusiones. La infección por ZIKV comparte muchos aspectos con la infección por otros arbovirus. No obstante, presenta características que lo diferencian de otras infecciones por virus de la misma familia (múltiples vías de transmisión potencial, teratogenicidad, complicaciones postinfecciosas) y que hacen que aún sea necesaria la investigación para poder caracterizar la infección por este virus emergente (AU)


Background. Zika virus infection (ZIKVI) has recently become a topic of great interest for the scientific community. The need to characterize the virus and to understand the transmission mechanisms of this newly emerging infection has increased the number of publications related to this topic. For this reason, a review of the literature published to date is necessary to allow us a better understanding of ZIKVI. Objective. To identify the epidemiology, transmission routes, clinical manifestations, complications, diagnosis and prevention measures described so far in relation to ZIKVI. Method. Narrative review of national and international literature published about the topic until June 2016. Results. There is extensive literature that discusses different aspects related to ZIKVI. It still remains a subject of scientific discussion and there are missing aspects to characterize. Conclusions. ZIKVI shares many aspects with other Arbovirus infections. However, it has some characteristics that distinguish it from other infections by viruses from the same family (multiple potential routes of transmission, teratogenicity, infectious complications) and that make research necessary in order to better help characterize this emerging viral infection (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Zika virus/patogenicidade , Infecção por Zika virus/diagnóstico , Infecção por Zika virus/epidemiologia , Infecção por Zika virus/transmissão , Infecções por Arbovirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Arbovirus/prevenção & controle , Infecção por Zika virus/complicações , Infecção por Zika virus/prevenção & controle , Narração , Microcefalia/complicações , Microcefalia/prevenção & controle , Aedes/patogenicidade , Diagnóstico Diferencial
17.
Rev. cuba. plantas med ; 22(1)ene.-mar. 2017. ilus, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | CUMED | ID: cum-73021

RESUMO

Introducción: en la actualidad, nuevas tendencias tecnológicas e iniciativas se están presentando en el desarrollo de productos insecticidas derivados de productos naturales, y de nuevos agentes antimicrobianos, dado que poseen bioactivos que son selectivos, biodegradables y tienen menores efectos adversos. La especie Ambrosia peruviana Willd. es de gran interés en el estudio por su gran potencial biológico y etnobotánico. Objetivo: evaluar la actividad larvicida sobre Aedes aegypty L. y la actividad antibacteriana sobre bacterias Gram positivas y Gram negativas de extractos de A. peruviana. Métodos: a partir del material vegetal seco (hojas), se obtuvieron cinco extractos de diferente polaridad en hexano (H), diclorometano (D), acetato de etilo (A) y etanol (E) y aceites esenciales (AE), los cuales fueron evaluados mediante la inhibición del crecimiento de larvas por el método recomendado de la OMS y la inhibición de las bacterias por el método de difusión en agar de Kirby-Bauer. Resultados: la tasa de mortalidad encontrada a las 24 h a una concentración de 200 ppm para todos los extractos fue del 10 por ciento. Al evaluar el paso de los insectos de larvas a adultos a las 144 h se observó a esta misma concentración una mortalidad del 100 por ciento con todos los extractos. Por otra parte, los extractos de A. peruviana presentaron inhibición sobre Bacillus cereus Frankland & Frankland y Bacillus subtilis (Ehrenberg) Cohn con halos de inhibición del extracto de diclorometano (APExtD) de 10,5 y 15,0 mm de diámetro respectivamente, al contrario sobre las cepas Serratia marcescens Bizio, Proteus mirabilis Hauser, Enterobacter cloacae (Jordan) Hormaeche & Edwards y Staphylococcus aureus Rosenbach no se presentó actividad antibacteriana. Conclusiones: esta investigación es el primer reporte de actividad larvicida sobre A. aegypty y de actividad antibacteriana sobre B. cereus y B. subtilis de varios extractos de A. peruviana con promisorios resultados en estos modelos(AU)


Introduction: New technological trends and initiatives are currently being put forth concerning the development of insecticidal products and antimicrobial agents of natural origin, since their bioactive components are selective and biodegradable, and cause fewer adverse effects. The species Ambrosia peruviana Willd. was of great interest to the present study, due to its great biological and ethnobotanical potential. Objective: Evaluate the larvicidal activity of A. peruviana extracts against Aedes aegypti L., and its antibacterial activity against gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. Methods: Dry plant material (leaves) was processed to obtain five extracts of different polarity in hexane (H), dichloromethane (D), ethyl acetate (A), ethanol (E) and essential oils (AE), which were evaluated for larval growth inhibition with the method recommended by WHO, and for bacterial inhibition with the Kirby-Bauer agar diffusion method. Results: The mortality rate at 24 h and a concentration of 200 ppm was 10 percent for all extracts. Examination of the transition of larvae into adults at 144 h and the same concentration revealed a mortality of 100 percent with all extracts. On the other hand, the extracts of A. peruviana displayed inhibition capacity against Bacillus cereus Frankland & Frankland and Bacillus subtilis (Ehrenberg) Cohn with inhibition haloes for the dichloromethane extract (APExtD) of 10.5 and 15.0 mm in diameter, respectively, whereas no antibacterial activity was found against the strains Serratia marcescens Bizio, Proteus mirabilis Hauser, Enterobacter cloacae (Jordan) Hormaeche & Edwards and Staphylococcus aureus. Conclusions: This study is the first report of larvicidal activity againstA. aegypti and antibacterial activity against B. cereus and B. subtilis by several extracts of A. peruviana with promising results in these models(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Aedes/patogenicidade , Inseticidas/uso terapêutico , Controle Biológico de Vetores/métodos , Teucrium , Teucrium/envenenamento , Controle de Vetores
18.
Belo Horizonte; s.n; 2017. 147 p.
Tese em Português | LILACS, Coleciona SUS | ID: biblio-943203

RESUMO

As doenças transmitidas por mosquitos correspondem a uma das principais causas de morbidade e mortalidade humana em áreas tropicais e subtropicais do mundo. Dentre estas, Dengue vírus (DENV) é de longe o arbovírus mais importante, causando cerca de 100 milhões de casos sintomáticos a cada ano em 125 países ao redor do mundo. Entretanto, através da recente associação com casos de desordens congênitas e neurológicas, Zika virus (ZIKV) também emergiu como uma doença transmitida por vetor, de grande importância clínica, expandindo sua presença em mais de 70 países em apenas alguns anos. Analisando-se em conjunto, o impacto na saúde humana causado por apenas estes dois vírus enfatiza a necessidade de abordagens inovadoras para controlar as populações de mosquito, especialmente Aedes aegypti, o vetor primário de ambas doenças em áreas urbanas. Dada a habilidade de reduzir ou até mesmo bloquear a infecção de uma variedade de patógenos, Wolbachia é uma estratégia promissora a qual está sendo testada contra doenças transmitidas por mosquitos.


Neste trabalho, através da infecção oral das linhagens de Ae. aegypti contendo (wMel_Br) ou não (Br) Wolbachia, com dois distintos isolados de ZIKV atualmente circulantes no Brasil, nós demonstramos que a cepa wMel de Wolbachia é um forte inibidor da infecção por ZIKV, reduzindo a prevalência, intensidade, disseminação e transmissão deste vírus. Ademais, através da coinfecção destas mesmas linhagens de mosquito com dois sorotipos distintos de DENV e ZIKV (DENV-1 / ZIKV; DENV-3 / ZIKV), nós demonstramos que Wolbachia ainda interfere fortemente no desenvolvimento viral, apresentanto níveis similares de inibição ao observado na mono-infecção por ZIKV, e que está infecção por Wolbachia causa a ativação de genes específicos de imunidade do hospedeiro. Finalmente, nós mostramos a existência de competição assimétrica entre os vírus, com distintos níveis de dominância. De forma geral, nossos resultados salientam o uso promissor da cepa wMel de Wolbachia como uma ferramenta limitante da transmissão de arbovírus em campo


Assuntos
Masculino , Feminino , Humanos , Aedes/patogenicidade , Dengue/transmissão
19.
Braz. J. Vet. Res. Anim. Sci. (Online) ; 54(4): 416-419, 2017. ilus
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-912054

RESUMO

In Brazil dipters of the Lutzomyia genus are the main vectors of leishmaniasis for humans and animals. However, other hematophagous insects such as ticks, fleas, and horse flies may also be considered potential vectors of this protozoon. This paper, regarding an endemic area for visceral leishmaniasis, is the the first description of the Leishmania spp. presence in Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. Two A. aegypti mosquitoes were captured: one of them was feeding on a polysymptomatic dog with leishmaniasis, confirmed by parasitic demonstration and positive PCR for Leishmania spp., and the other was collected in the environment where the dog was isolated. The mosquito engorged with dog's blood was crushed between two microscopic slides and the other one was processed by the polymerase chain reaction assay (PCR) searching for the presence of Leishmania spp. DNA. Amastigote forms of Leishmania sp, were observed in the smear prepared from one mosquito by microscopic examination, as well as other protozoa's flagellated forms. In the other insect it was observed Leishmania DNA amplification. This observation reinforces the role of dogs as sources of infection of Leishmania spp. even to other potential vector species.(AU)


No Brasil, os dípteros do gênero Lutzomyia são os principais vetores da leishmaniose para humanos e animais. No entanto, tem sido constatado que outras espécies de invertebrados hematófagos, como carrapatos, pulgas e mutucas, também podem ser vetores desse protozoário. Este trabalho, realizado em uma área endêmica de leishmaniose visceral, é a primeira descrição da presença de Leishmania spp. em mosquitos da espécie A. aegypti. Dois mosquitos A. aegypti foram capturados no local onde estava isolado um cão polissintomático acometido por leishmaniose visceral, confirmada pela demonstração do parasita em biópsias de órgãos e por resultado positivo na prova de PCR para Leishmania spp. Um dos mosquitos estava sugando o sangue do cão e o outro estava livre no ambiente. O mosquito ingurgitado com o sangue do animal foi esmagado entre duas lâminas de microscopia e o outro foi processado por meio da reação em cadeia pela polimerase (PCR) aplicada à pesquisa do ADN de Leishmania spp. Ao exame microscópico do esfregaço preparado com o mosquito que estava parasitando o cão foram observadas formas amastigotas de Leishmania spp., bem como formas flageladas de outra espécie de protozoário. No outro inseto foi detectada amplificação de ADN do gênero Leishmania. Esta constatação reforça o papel dos cães como fontes de infecção de Leishmania spp. até mesmo para outras espécies de vetores potenciais.(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Cães , Aedes/patogenicidade , Leishmaniose/etiologia , Leishmaniose/veterinária , Leishmania/isolamento & purificação , Vetores de Doenças , Flagelos/parasitologia
20.
BMC Public Health ; 16(1): 1219, 2016 12 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27914465

RESUMO

In the alarming context of risk of Zika virus (ZIKV) transmission in the Euro-Mediterranean area, there is a need to examine whether capacities to detect, diagnose and notify ZIKV infections in the region are in place and whether ongoing capacity-building initiatives are filling existing gaps.The MediLabSecure network, created in 2014, comprises 55 laboratories of virology and medical entomology and 19 public health institutions in 19 countries in the Balkans, North-Africa, the Middle-East and the Black Sea regions. It aims to set up awareness, risk assessment, monitoring and control of emerging and re-emerging vector-borne viruses. We here examine the actions and strategies that MediLabSecure has been implementing and how they will contribute to the prevention and control of the ZIKV threat in the Euro-Mediterranean area.Capacity-building for arbovirus diagnostics is a major objective of the project and follows a methodological rather than disease-driven approach. This enables the implementation of laboratory trainings on techniques that are common to several arboviruses, including ZIKV, and putting into action appropriate diagnostic tools in the target region.Moreover, by its One Health approach and the interaction of its four sub-networks in human virology, animal virology, medical entomology and public health, MediLabSecure is fostering intersectoral collaboration, expertise and sharing of information. The resulting exchanges (methodological, communication and operational) across disciplines and across countries, dedicated research on intersectoral collaboration and increasing diagnostic capacities are providing new paths and tools to public health professionals to face emerging viral threats such as a ZIKV epidemic in the Euro-Mediterranean region.


Assuntos
Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/prevenção & controle , Insetos Vetores/virologia , Viagem/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecção por Zika virus/prevenção & controle , Zika virus/patogenicidade , Aedes/patogenicidade , África do Norte , Animais , Península Balcânica , Saúde Global , Educação em Saúde/métodos , Humanos , Região do Mediterrâneo , Oriente Médio , Infecção por Zika virus/transmissão
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